Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 329

Search results for: magnesium borate

329 Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from the Slurries of Magnesium Wastes by Microwave Energy

Authors: N. Tugrul, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

In this research, it is aimed not only microwave synthesis of magnesium borates but also evaluation of magnesium wastes. Synthesis process can be described with the reaction of Mg wastes and boric acid using microwave energy. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to synthesized minerals. According to XRD results, magnesium borate hydrate mixtures were obtained as mcallisterite (pdf# = 01-070-1902, Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)) at higher crystallinity properties was achieved at the mole ratio raw material 1:1. Also, other kinds of magnesium borate hydrates were obtained at lower crystallinity such as admontite (pdf # = 01-076-0540, MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)), inderite (pdf # = 01-072-2308, 2MgO.3B2O3.15(H2O)) and magnesium borate hydrates (pdf # = 01-076-0539, MgO(B2O3)3.6(H2O)). FT-IR spectrums indicated that minor changes were seen at the band values of characteristic stretching in each experiment. At the end of experiments it is seen that using microwave energy may contribute positive effects to design of synthesis process such as reducing reaction time and products at higher crystallinity.

Keywords: magnesium wastes, boric acid, magnesium borate, microwave energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
328 The Effect of Solution Density on the Synthesis of Magnesium Borate from Boron-Gypsum

Authors: N. Tugrul, E. Sariburun, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Boron-gypsum is a waste which occurs in the boric acid production process. In this study, the boron content of this waste is evaluated for the use in synthesis of magnesium borates and such evaluation of this kind of waste is useful more than storage or disposal. Magnesium borates, which are a sub-class of boron minerals, are useful additive materials for the industries due to their remarkable thermal and mechanical properties. Magnesium borates were obtained hydrothermally at different temperatures. Novelty of this study is the search of the solution density effects to magnesium borate synthesis process for the increasing the possibility of boron-gypsum usage as a raw material. After the synthesis process, products are subjected to XRD and FT-IR to identify and characterize their crystal structure, respectively.

Keywords: boron-gypsum, hydrothermal synthesis, magnesium borate, solution density

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
327 The Effect of the Reaction Time on the Microwave Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from MgCl2.6H2O, MgO and H3BO3

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, P. Gurses, M. Yildirim, A. S. Kipcak, T. Ibroska, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Due to their strong mechanical and thermal properties magnesium borates have a wide usage area such as ceramic industry, detergent production, friction reducing additive and grease production. In this study, microwave synthesis of magnesium borates from MgCl2.6H2O (Magnesium chloride hexahydrate), MgO (Magnesium oxide) and H3BO3 (Boric acid) for different reaction times is researched. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy are used to find out how the reaction time sways on the products. The superficial properties are investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). According to XRD analysis, the synthesized compounds are 00-041-1407 pdf coded Shabinite (Mg5(BO3)4Cl2(OH)5.4(H2O)) and 01-073-2158 pdf coded Karlite (Mg7(BO3)3(OH,Cl)5).

Keywords: magnesium borate, microwave synthesis, XRD, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
326 Zinc Borate Synthesis Using Hydrozincite and Boric Acid with Ultrasonic Method

Authors: D. S. Vardar, A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Zinc borate is an important inorganic hydrate borate material, which can be use as a flame retardant agent and corrosion resistance material. This compound can loss its structural water content at higher than 290°C. Due to thermal stability; Zinc Borate can be used as flame reterdant at high temperature process of plastic and gum. In this study, the ultrasonic reaction of zinc borates were studied using hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6) and boric acid (H3BO3) raw materials. Before the synthesis raw materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Ultrasonic method is a new application on the zinc borate synthesis. The synthesis parameters were set to 90°C reaction temperature and 55 minutes of reaction time, with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 molar ratio of starting materials (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6 : H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the products analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, optimum molar ratio of 1:5 (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6:H3BO3) is determined for the synthesis of zinc borates with ultrasonic method.

Keywords: borate, ultrasonic method, zinc borate, zinc borate synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
325 Use of Magnesium as a Renewable Energy Source

Authors: Rafayel K. Kostanyan

Abstract:

The opportunities of use of metallic magnesium as a generator of hydrogen gas, as well as thermal and electric energy is presented in the paper. Various schemes of magnesium application are discussed and power characteristics of corresponding devices are presented. Economic estimation of hydrogen price obtained by different methods is made, including the use of magnesium as a source of hydrogen for transportation in comparison with gasoline. Details and prospects of our new inexpensive technology of magnesium production from magnesium hydroxide and magnesium bearing rocks (which are available worldwide and in Armenia) are analyzed. It is estimated the threshold cost of Mg production at which application of this metal in power engineering is economically justified.

Keywords: energy, electrodialysis, magnesium, new technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
324 Borate Crosslinked Fracturing Fluids: Laboratory Determination of Rheology

Authors: Lalnuntluanga Hmar, Hardik Vyas

Abstract:

Hydraulic fracturing has become an essential procedure to break apart the rock and release the oil or gas which are trapped tightly in the rock by pumping fracturing fluids at high pressure down into the well. To open the fracture and to transport propping agent along the fracture, proper selection of fracturing fluids is the most crucial components in fracturing operations. Rheology properties of the fluids are usually considered the most important. Among various fracturing fluids, Borate crosslinked fluids have proved to be highly effective. Borate in the form of Boric Acid, borate ion is the most commonly use to crosslink the hydrated polymers and to produce very viscous gels that can stable at high temperature. Guar and HPG (Hydroxypropyl Guar) polymers are the most often used in these fluids. Borate gel rheology is known to be a function of polymer concentration, borate ion concentration, pH, and temperature. The crosslinking using Borate is a function of pH which means it can be formed or reversed simply by altering the pH of the fluid system. The fluid system was prepared by mixing base polymer with water at pH ranging between 8 to 11 and the optimum borate crosslinker efficiency was found to be pH of about 10. The rheology of laboratory prepared Borate crosslinked fracturing fluid was determined using Anton Paar Rheometer and Fann Viscometer. The viscosity was measured at high temperature ranging from 200ᵒF to 250ᵒF and pressures in order to partially stimulate the downhole condition. Rheological measurements reported that the crosslinking increases the viscosity, elasticity and thus fluid capability to transport propping agent.

Keywords: borate, crosslinker, Guar, Hydroxypropyl Guar (HPG), rheology

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
323 The Determination of the Zinc Sulfate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio on the Production of Zinc Borates

Authors: N. Tugrul, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Zinc borate is an important boron compound that can be used as multi-functional flame retardant additive due to its high dehydration temperature property. In this study, the raw materials of ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH and H3BO3 were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The synthesis parameters were set to 100°C reaction temperature and 120 minutes of reaction time, with different molar ratio of starting materials (ZnSO4.7H2O:NaOH:H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the identifications of the products were conducted by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized at the molar ratios of 1:1:3, 1:1:4, 1:2:5 and 1:2:6. Among these ratios 1:2:6 had the best results.

Keywords: Zinc borate, ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH, H3BO3, XRD, FT-IR

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
322 Relationship between Extrusion Ratio and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloy

Authors: C. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, G. A. Lee

Abstract:

Reducing resource consumption and carbon dioxide emission are recognized as urgent issues. One way of resolving these issues is to reduce product weight. Magnesium alloys are considered promising candidates because of their lightness. Various studies have been conducted on using magnesium alloy instead of conventional iron or aluminum in mechanical parts, due to the light weight and superior specific strength of magnesium alloy. However, even stronger magnesium alloys are needed for mechanical parts. One common way to enhance the strength of magnesium alloy is by extruding the ingot. In order to enhance the mechanical properties, magnesium alloy ingot were extruded at various extrusion ratios. Relationship between extrusion ratio and mechanical properties was examined on extruded material of magnesium alloy. And Textures and microstructures of the extruded materials were investigated.

Keywords: extrusion, extrusion ratio, magnesium, mechanical property, lightweight material

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
321 Dietary Magnesium, Lipids, and Hypertension: New Insights and Unsolved Mysteries

Authors: Elena Pello, Martin Bobak, Yuri Nikitin

Abstract:

In current issue we evaluated integration of magnesium with lipids; the attractive findings were obtained in men and women; the crucial ties of magnesium with total cholesterol in hypertensive men, with total cholesterol in concordance with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypertensive women were disclosed; unanswered questions were trapped, difficulties were surmounted, and magnesium deficiency perseverance in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development was expressed; nutrients as well as risk factors may contribute to cardiovascular complications.

Keywords: dietary, magnesium, hypertension, lipids

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
320 Lithium Oxide Effect on the Thermal and Physical Properties of the Ternary System Glasses (Li2O3-B2O3-Al2O3)

Authors: D. Aboutaleb, B. Safi

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The borate glasses are known by their structural characterized by existence of unit’s structural composed by triangles and tetrahedrons boron in different configurations depending on the percentage of B2O3 in the glass chemical composition. In this paper, effect of lithium oxide addition on the thermal and physical properties of an alumina borate glass, was investigated. It was found that the boron abnormality has a significant effect in the change of glass properties according to the addition rate of lithium oxide.

Keywords: borate glasses, triangles and tetrahedrons boron, lithium oxide, boron anomaly, thermal properties, physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
319 Influence of Coenzyme as a Corrosion Barrier for Biodegradable Magnesium

Authors: Minjung Park, Jimin Park, Youngwoon Kim, Hyungseop Han, Myoungryul Ok, Hojeong Jeon, Hyunkwang Seok, Yuchan Kim

Abstract:

Magnesium is an essential element in human body and has unique characteristics such as bioabsorbable and biodegradable properties. Therefore, there has been much attention on studies on the implants based on magnesium to avoid subsequent surgery. However, high amount of hydrogen gas is generated by relatively severe corrosion of magnesium especially in aqueous condition with chloride ions. And it contributes to the causes of swelling of skin and causes consequent inflammation of soft tissue where is directly in contact with implants. Therefore, there is still concern about the safety of the using biodegradable magnesium alloys, which is limited to various applications. In this study, we analyzed the influence of coenzyme on corrosion behavior of magnesium. The analysis of corrosion rate was held by using Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS) as a body stimulated fluid and in condition of 37°C. Thus, with deferring the concentration of the coenzyme used in this study, corrosion rates from 0.0654ml/ cm² to 0.0438ml/cm² were observed in immersion tests. Also, comparable results were obtained in electrochemical tests. Results showed that hydrogen gas produced from corrosion of magnesium can be controlled.

Keywords: biodegradable magnesium, biomaterials, coenzyme, corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
318 Iron Doped Biomaterial Calcium Borate: Synthesis and Characterization

Authors: G. Çelik Gül, F. Kurtuluş

Abstract:

Colemanite is the most common borate mineral, and the main source of the boron required by plants, human, and earth. Transition metals exhibit optical and physical properties such as; non-linear optical character, structural diversity, thermal stability, long cycle life and luminescent radiation. The doping of colemanite with a transition metal, bring it very interesting and attractive properties which make them applicable in industry. Iron doped calcium borate was synthesized by conventional solid state method at 1200 °C for 12 h with a systematic pathway. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS) were used to characterize structural and morphological properties. Also, thermal properties were recorded by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). 

Keywords: colemanite, conventional synthesis, powder x-ray diffraction, borates

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
317 Review on Wear Behavior of Magnesium Matrix Composites

Authors: Amandeep Singh, Niraj Bala

Abstract:

In the last decades, light-weight materials such as magnesium matrix composites have become hot topic for material research due to their excellent mechanical and physical properties. However, relatively very less work has been done related to the wear behavior of these composites. Magnesium matrix composites have wide applications in automobile and aerospace sector. In this review, attempt has been done to collect the literature related to wear behavior of magnesium matrix composites fabricated through various processing techniques such as stir casting, powder metallurgy, friction stir processing etc. Effect of different reinforcements, reinforcement content, reinforcement size, wear load, sliding speed and time have been studied by different researchers in detail. Wear mechanism under different experimental condition has been reviewed in detail. The wear resistance of magnesium and its alloys can be enhanced with the addition of different reinforcements. Wear resistance can further be enhanced by increasing the percentage of added reinforcements. Increase in applied load during wear test leads to increase in wear rate of magnesium composites.

Keywords: hardness, magnesium matrix composites, reinforcement, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
316 Wear Behaviors of B4C and SiC Particle Reinforced AZ91 Magnesium Matrix Metal Composites

Authors: M. E. Turan, H. Zengin, E. Cevik, Y. Sun, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of B4C and SiC particle reinforcements on wear properties of magnesium matrix metal composites produced by pressure infiltration method were investigated. AZ91 (9%Al-1%Zn) magnesium alloy was used as a matrix. AZ91 magnesium alloy was melted under an argon atmosphere. The melt was infiltrated to the particles with an appropriate pressure. Wear tests, hardness tests were performed respectively. Microstructure characterizations were examined by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that uniform particle distributions were achieved in both B4C and SiC reinforced composites. Wear behaviors of magnesium matrix metal composites changed as a function of type of particles. SiC reinforced composite has better wear performance and higher hardness than B4C reinforced composite.

Keywords: magnesium matrix composite, pressure infiltration, SEM, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
315 Analysis of Magnesium Alloy Wheel Forming Technologies for Light Vehicles

Authors: Anna Dziubinska

Abstract:

The applications of magnesium alloys in transport include all kinds of vehicle wheels for cars, motorcycles, bicycles, trolleys, etc. Modern technologies of manufacturing products from these materials have been noticeably improved recently, creating new possibilities for their application. Continuously developed technologies for forming Mg alloys must not be overlooked, which make it possible to manufacture products with better properties compared to those obtained by casting only. The article reviews the specialized literature on magnesium wheel forming and presents a concept of technology for forging magnesium wheels for light vehicles from cast preforms. The research leading to these results has received funding from the Norway Grants 2014-2021 via the National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: forming, forging, magnesium alloy, wheels, vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
314 Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Studies of Magnesium-Iron Galvanic Couple

Authors: Akram Alfantazi, Tirdad Nickchi

Abstract:

Magnesium galvanic corrosion plays an important role in the commercialization of Mg alloys in the automobile industry. This study aims at visualizing the electrochemical activity of the magnesium surface being coupled with pure iron in sulfate-chloride solutions. Scanning electrochemical microscopy was used to monitor the chemical activity of the surface and the data was compared with the conventional corrosion results such as potentiodynamic polarization, linear polarization, and immersion tests. The SECM results showed that the chemical reactivity of Mg is higher than phosphate-permanganate-coated Mg. Regions in the vicinity of the galvanic couple boundary are very active in the magnesium phase and fully protected in the iron phase. Scanning electrochemical microscopy results showed that the conversion coating provided good corrosion resistance for magnesium in the short-term but fails at long-term testing.

Keywords: corrosion, galvanic corrosion, magnesium, scanning electrochemical microscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
313 Synthesis of Mg/B Containing Compound in a Modified Microwave Oven

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş

Abstract:

Magnesium containing boron compounds with hexagonal structure have been drawn much attention due to their superconductive nature. The main target of this work is new modified microwave oven by on our own has an ability about passing through a gas in the oven medium for attainment of oxygen-free compounds such as c-BN.  Mg containing boride was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere using amorphous boron and magnesium source in appropriate molar ratio. Microwave oven with oxygen free environment has been modified to aimed to obtain magnesium boride without oxygen. Characterizations were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Mg containing boride, generally named magnesium boride, with amorphous character without oxygen is obtained via designed microwave oven system.

Keywords: magnesium containing boron compounds, modified microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
312 Ni-B Coating Production on Magnesium Alloy by Electroless Deposition

Authors: Ferhat Bülbül

Abstract:

The use of magnesium alloys is limited due to their susceptibility to corrosion although they have many attractive physical and mechanical properties. To increase mechanical and corrosion properties of these alloys, many deposition method and coating types are used. Electroless Ni–B coatings have received considerable interest recently due to its unique properties such as cost-effectiveness, thickness uniformity, good wear resistance, lubricity, good ductility and corrosion resistance, excellent solderability and electrical properties and antibacterial property. In this study, electroless Ni-B coating could been deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy. The obtained coating exhibited an amorphous and rougher structure.

Keywords: magnesium, electroless Ni–B, X-ray diffraction, amorphous

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
311 A Review of Magnesium Air Battery Systems: From Design Aspects to Performance Characteristics

Authors: R. Sharma, J. K. Bhatnagar, Poonam, R. C. Sharma

Abstract:

Metal–air batteries have been designed and developed as an essential source of electric power to propel automobiles, make electronic equipment functional, and use them as the source of power in remote areas and space. High energy and power density, lightweight, easy recharge capabilities, and low cost are essential features of these batteries. Both primary and rechargeable magnesium air batteries are highly promising. Our focus will be on the basics of electrode reaction kinetics of Mg–air cell in this paper. Design and development of Mg or Mg alloys as anode materials, design and composition of air cathode, and promising electrolytes for Mg–air batteries have been reviewed. A brief note on the possible and proposed improvements in design and functionality is also incorporated. This article may serve as the primary and premier document in the critical research area of Mg-air battery systems.

Keywords: air cathode, battery design, magnesium air battery, magnesium anode, rechargeable magnesium air battery

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
310 The Determination of the Potassium Nitrate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio in the Synthesis of Potassium Borates via Hydrothermal Method

Authors: M. Yildirim, A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, M. O. Asensio, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Potassium borates, which are widely used in welding and metal refining industry, as a lubricating oil additive, cement additive, fiberglass additive and insulation compound, are one of the important groups of borate minerals. In this study the production of a potassium borate mineral via hydrothermal method is aimed. The potassium source of potassium nitrate (KNO3) was used along with a sodium source of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and boron source of boric acid (H3BO3). The constant parameters of reaction temperature and reaction time were determined as 80°C and 1 h, respectively. The molar ratios of 1:1:3 (as KNO3:NaOH:H3BO3), 1:1:4, 1:1:5, 1:1:6 and 1:1:7 were used. Following the synthesis the identifications of the produced products were conducted by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results of the experiments and analysis showed in the ratio of 1:1:6, the Santite mineral with powder diffraction file number (pdf no.) of 01-072-1688, which is known as potassium pentaborate (KB5O8•4H2O) was synthesized as best.

Keywords: hydrothermal synthesis, potassium borate, potassium nitrate, santite

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
309 Synthesis of Magnesium Oxide in Spinning Disk Reactor and Its Applications in Cycloaddition of Carbon Dioxide to Epoxides

Authors: Tzu-Wen Liu, Yi-Feng Lin, Yu-Shao Chen

Abstract:

CO_2 is believed to be partly responsible for changes to the global climates. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the past. Recently, how to convert the captured CO_2 into fine chemicals gets lots of attention owing to reducing carbon dioxide emissions and providing greener feedstock for the chemicals industry. A variety of products can be manufactured from carbon dioxide and the most attractive products are cyclic carbonates. Therefore, the kind of catalyst plays an important role in cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxides. Magnesium oxide can be an efficiency heterogeneous catalyst for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxides because magnesium oxide has both acid and base active sites and can provide the adsorption of carbon dioxide, promoting ring-opening reaction. Spinning disk reactor (SDR) is one of the device of high-gravity technique and has successfully used for synthesis of nanoparticles by precipitation methods because of the high mass transfer rate. Synthesis of nanoparticles in SDR has advantages of low energy consumption and easy to scale up. The aim of this research is to synthesize magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles in SDR as precursors for magnesium oxide. Experimental results showed that the calcination temperature of magnesium hydroxide to magnesium oxide, and the pressure and temperature of cycloaddition reaction had significantly effect on the conversion and selectivity of the reaction.

Keywords: magnesium oxide, catalyst, cycloaddition, spinning disk reactor, carbon dioxide

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308 Change of Internal Friction on Magnesium Alloy with 5.48% Al Dependence on the Temperature

Authors: Milan Uhríčik, Andrea Soviarová, Zuzana Dresslerová, Peter Palček, Alan Vaško

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The article is focused on the analysis changes dependence on the temperature on the magnesium alloy with 5,48% Al, 0,813% Zn and 0,398% Mn by internal friction. Internal friction is a property of the material is measured on the ultrasonic resonant aparature at a frequency about f = 20470 Hz. The measured temperature range was from 30 °C up to 420 °C. Precisely measurement of the internal friction can be monitored ongoing structural changes and various mechanisms that prevent these changes.

Keywords: internal friction, magnesium alloy, temperature, resonant frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 543
307 A Review on the Studies on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys Welded by Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Sukhdeep Singh Gill, Gurbhinder Singh Brar

Abstract:

In recent years, friction stir welding (FSW) has attracted the main attention of the concerned researcher especially in case of joining of nonferrous alloys like aluminum and magnesium due to its unmatchable properties with respect to other welding techniques. Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process which is most suitable for the welding of nonferrous alloys, especially aluminum and magnesium alloys. Aluminum and magnesium alloys are widely used for structural applications of all types of automobiles due to their superior mechanical properties with their low density. This paper deals with the critical review of the different properties (like tensile strength, microhardness, impact strength, corrosion resistance, and metallurgical investigation on SEM) obtained by the FSW of aluminum and magnesium alloys. After a critical review of the existing published literature on concerned topics, all the properties of welding joins are compared in the tabulated manner to optimize the selection of materials and FSW parameters according to mechanical and tribological properties. Different tool designs used for the FSW process are also thoroughly studied, and the influence of the design of the tool used in FSW on the different properties has also been incorporated in this paper. It has been observed from the existing published literature that FSW is the most effective and practical technique for joining the non ferrous alloys especially aluminum and magnesium alloys, and among the different FSW tools, left hand threaded tri-flute (LHTTF) tool is best for the welding of non ferrous alloys like aluminum and magnesium alloys which gives the superior mechanical properties to welding joint.

Keywords: aluminum, friction stir welding, magnesium, structural applications, tool design

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
306 Comprehensive Microstructural and Thermal Analysis of Nano Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating for Structural Applications

Authors: Hammad Aziz

Abstract:

Intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC) is applied on the surface of material requiring fire protection. In this research work, IFRC’s were developed using ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine, boric acid, zinc borate, mica, magnesium oxide, and bisphenol A BE-188 with polyamide polyamine H-4014 as curing agent. Formulations were prepared using nano size MgO and compared with control formulation i.e. without nano size MgO. Small scale hydrocarbon fire test was conducted to scrutinize the thermal performance of the coating. Char and coating were further characterized by using FESEM, FTIR, EDS, TGA and DTGA. Thus, Intumescent coatings reinforced with 2 wt. % of nano-MgO (rod shaped particles) provide superior thermal performance and uniform microstructure of char due to well dispersion of nano particles.

Keywords: intumescent coating, char, SEM, TGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
305 Effects of Alkaline Pretreatment Parameters on the Corrosion Resistance and ‎Wettability of Magnesium Implant

Authors: Mahtab Assadian, Mohd Hasbullah Idris, Mostafa Rezazadeh Shirdar, Mohammad Mahdi Taheri, ‎S. Izman

Abstract:

Corrosion behaviour and surface roughness of magnesium substrate were investigated after NaOH pretreatment in different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 molar) and duration of (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h). Creation of Mg(OH)2 barrier layer after pretreatment enhanced corrostion resistance as well as wettability of substrate surface. Characterization including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was conducted to detect the existence of this barrier layer. Surface roughness and wettability of substrate was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurement respectively. It is found that magnesium treated by 1M NaOH for 30 min reveals higher corrosion resistance and lower water contact angle of substrate surface. In addition, this investigation indicates that pH value of SBF solution is strongly influenced by different time and concentration of alkaline pretreatment.

Keywords: magnesium, NaOH pretreatment, corrosion resistance, wettability

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
304 Selective Solvent Extraction of Calcium and Magnesium from Concentrate Nickel Solutions Using Mixtures of Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA

Authors: Alexandre S. Guimarães, Marcelo B. Mansur

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The performance of organophosphorus extractants Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA on the purification of concentrate nickel sulfate solutions was evaluated. Batch scale tests were carried out at pH range of 2 to 7 using a laboratory solution simulating concentrate nickel liquors as those typically obtained when sulfate intermediates from nickel laterite are re-leached and treated for the selective removal of cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper with Cyanex 272 ([Ca] = 0.57 g/L, [Mg] = 3.2 g/L, and [Ni] = 88 g/L). The increase on the concentration of D2EHPA favored the calcium extraction. The extraction of magnesium is dependent on the pH and of ratio of extractants D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 in the organic phase. The composition of the investigated organic phase did not affect nickel extraction. The number of stages is dependent on the magnesium extraction. The most favorable operating condition to selectively remove calcium and magnesium was determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, organophosphorus extractants, alkaline earth metals, nickel

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
303 Sleep Disturbance in Indonesian School-Aged Children and Its Relationship to Nutritional Aspect

Authors: William Cheng, Rini Sekartini

Abstract:

Background: Sleep is essential for children because it provides enhancement for the neural system activities that give physiologic effects for the body to support growth and development. One of the modifiable factors that relates with sleep is nutrition, which includes nutritional status, iron intake, and magnesium intake. Nutritional status represents the balance between nutritional intake and expenditure, while iron and magnesium are micronutrients that are related to sleep regulation. The aim of this study is to identify prevalence of sleep disturbance among Indonesian children and to evaluate its relation with aspect to nutrition. Methods : A cross-sectional study involving children aged 5 to 7-years-old in an urban primary health care between 2012 and 2013 was carried out. Related data includes anthropometric status, iron intake, and magnesium intake. Iron and magnesium intake was obtained by 24-hours food recall procedure. Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) was used as the diagnostic tool for sleep disturbance, with score under 39 indicating presence of problem. Results: Out of 128 school-aged children included in this study, 28 (23,1%) of them were found to have sleep disturbance. The majority of children had good nutritional status, with only 15,7% that were severely underweight or underweight, and 12,4% that were identified as stunted. On the contrary, 99 children (81,8%) were identified to have inadequate magnesium intake and 56 children (46,3%) with inadequate iron intake. Our analysis showed there was no significant relation between all of the nutritional status indicators and sleep disturbance (p>0,05%). Moreover, inadequate iron and magnesium intake also failed to prove significant relation with sleep disturbance in this population. Conclusion: Almost fourth of school-aged children in Indonesia were found to have sleep disturbance and further study are needed to overcome this problem. According to our finding, there is no correlation between nutritional status, iron intake, magnesium intake, and sleep disturbance.

Keywords: iron intake, magnesium intake, nutritional status, school-aged children, sleep disturbance

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
302 The Optimization of Copper Sulfate and Tincalconite Molar Ratios on the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Copper Borates

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, S. Piskin

Abstract:

In this research, copper borates are synthesized by the reaction of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) and tincalconite (Na2O4B7.10H2O). The experimental parameters are selected as 80°C reaction temperature and 60 of reaction time. The effect of mole ratio of CuSO4.5H2O to Na2O4B7.5H2O is studied. For the identification analyses X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques are used. At the end of the experiments, synthesized copper borate is matched with the powder diffraction file of “00-001-0472” [Cu(BO2)2] and characteristic vibrations between B and O atoms are seen. The proper crystals are obtained at the mole ratio of 3:1. This study showed that simplified synthesis process is suitable for the production of copper borate minerals.

Keywords: hydrothermal synthesis, copper borates, copper sulfate, tincalconite

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
301 Drying Shrinkage of Magnesium Silicate Hydrate Gel Cements

Authors: T. Zhang, X. Liang, M. Lorin, C. Cheeseman, L. J. Vandeperre

Abstract:

Cracks were observed when the magnesium silicate hydrate gel cement (prepared by 40% MgO/ 60% silica fume) was dried. This drying cracking is believed to be caused when unbound water evaporates from the binder. The shrinkage upon forced drying to 200 °C of mortars made up from a reactive magnesium oxide, silica fume and sand was measured using dilatometry. The magnitude of the drying shrinkage was found to decrease when more sand or less water was added to the mortars and can be as low as 0.16% for a mortar containing 60 wt% sand and a water to cement ratio of 0.5, which is of a similar order of magnitude as observed in Portland cement based mortars and concretes. A simple geometrical interpretation based on packing of the particles in the mortar can explain the observed drying shrinkages and based on this analysis the drying shrinkage of the hydration products at zero added solid is estimated to be 7.3% after 7 days of curing.

Keywords: magnesium silicate hydrate, shrinkage, dilatometry, gel cements

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
300 Investigation on the Thermal Properties of Magnesium Oxychloride Cement Prepared with Glass Powder

Authors: Rim Zgueb, Noureddine Yacoubi

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the thermal property of magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC) using glass powder as a substitute. Glass powder by proportion 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of cement’s weight was added to specimens. At the end of a drying time of 28 days, thermal properties, compressive strength and bulk density of samples were determined. Thermal property is measured by Photothermal Deflection Technique by comparing the experimental of normalized amplitude and the phase curves of the photothermal signal to the corresponding theoretical ones. The findings indicate that incorporation of glass powder decreases the thermal properties of MOC.

Keywords: magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC), phototharmal deflection technique, thermal properties, Ddensity

Procedia PDF Downloads 228