Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1938

Search results for: microwave synthesis

1938 Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from the Slurries of Magnesium Wastes by Microwave Energy

Authors: N. Tugrul, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin


In this research, it is aimed not only microwave synthesis of magnesium borates but also evaluation of magnesium wastes. Synthesis process can be described with the reaction of Mg wastes and boric acid using microwave energy. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to synthesized minerals. According to XRD results, magnesium borate hydrate mixtures were obtained as mcallisterite (pdf# = 01-070-1902, Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)) at higher crystallinity properties was achieved at the mole ratio raw material 1:1. Also, other kinds of magnesium borate hydrates were obtained at lower crystallinity such as admontite (pdf # = 01-076-0540, MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)), inderite (pdf # = 01-072-2308, 2MgO.3B2O3.15(H2O)) and magnesium borate hydrates (pdf # = 01-076-0539, MgO(B2O3)3.6(H2O)). FT-IR spectrums indicated that minor changes were seen at the band values of characteristic stretching in each experiment. At the end of experiments it is seen that using microwave energy may contribute positive effects to design of synthesis process such as reducing reaction time and products at higher crystallinity.

Keywords: magnesium wastes, boric acid, magnesium borate, microwave energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
1937 Synthesis and Characterization of CaZrTi2O7 from Tartrate Precursor Employing Microwave Heating Technique

Authors: B. M. Patil, S. R. Dharwadkar


Zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) is one of the three major phases in the synthetic ceramic 'SYNROC' which is used for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and also acts as photocatalytic and photophysical properties. In the present work the nanocrystalline CaZrTi2O7 was synthesized from Calcium Zirconyl Titanate tartrate precursor (CZTT) employing two different heating techniques such as Conventional heating (Muffle furnace) and Microwave heating (Microwave Oven). Thermal decomposition of the CZTT precursors in air yielded nanocrystalline CaZrTi2O7 powder as the end product. The products obtained by annealing the CZTT precursor using both heating method were characterized using simultaneous TG-DTA, FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, NTA and thermodilatometric study. The physical characteristics such as crystallinity, morphology and particle size of the product obtained by heating the CZTT precursor at the different temperatures in a Muffle furnace and Microwave oven were found to be significantly different. The microwave heating technique considerably lowered the synthesis temperature of CaZrTi2O7. The influence of microwave heating was more pronounced as compared to Muffle furnace heating. The details of the synthesis of CaZrTi2O7 from CZTT precursor are discussed.

Keywords: CZTT, CaZrTi2O7, microwave, SYNROC, zirconolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1936 Synthesis of Mg/B Containing Compound in a Modified Microwave Oven

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş


Magnesium containing boron compounds with hexagonal structure have been drawn much attention due to their superconductive nature. The main target of this work is new modified microwave oven by on our own has an ability about passing through a gas in the oven medium for attainment of oxygen-free compounds such as c-BN.  Mg containing boride was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere using amorphous boron and magnesium source in appropriate molar ratio. Microwave oven with oxygen free environment has been modified to aimed to obtain magnesium boride without oxygen. Characterizations were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Mg containing boride, generally named magnesium boride, with amorphous character without oxygen is obtained via designed microwave oven system.

Keywords: magnesium containing boron compounds, modified microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
1935 The Effect of the Reaction Time on the Microwave Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from MgCl2.6H2O, MgO and H3BO3

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, P. Gurses, M. Yildirim, A. S. Kipcak, T. Ibroska, S. Piskin


Due to their strong mechanical and thermal properties magnesium borates have a wide usage area such as ceramic industry, detergent production, friction reducing additive and grease production. In this study, microwave synthesis of magnesium borates from MgCl2.6H2O (Magnesium chloride hexahydrate), MgO (Magnesium oxide) and H3BO3 (Boric acid) for different reaction times is researched. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy are used to find out how the reaction time sways on the products. The superficial properties are investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). According to XRD analysis, the synthesized compounds are 00-041-1407 pdf coded Shabinite (Mg5(BO3)4Cl2(OH)5.4(H2O)) and 01-073-2158 pdf coded Karlite (Mg7(BO3)3(OH,Cl)5).

Keywords: magnesium borate, microwave synthesis, XRD, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
1934 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of a Class of Pyridine and Purine Thioglycoside Analogs

Authors: Mamdouh Abu-Zaied, K. Mohamed, Galal A. Nawwar


Microwave-assisted synthesis of a new class of pyridine or purine thioglycoside analogs from readily available starting materials has been described. The key step of this protocol is the formation of sodium pyridine 4-thiolate 4 and pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-7-thiolate 5 derivatives via condensation of 1 with cyanoacetanilide derivative 2 or 5-aminopyrazole derivative 3 respectively under microwave irradiation, followed by coupling with halo sugars to give the corresponding pyridine and purine thioglycoside analogs. The obtained compounds were evaluated in vitro against lung (A549), colon (HCT116), liver (HEPG2), and MCF-7(breast) cancer cell lines. Some of them recorded promising activities.

Keywords: antitumor, cyclic sugars, pyrazoles, pyridines, pyrimidines, purines, thioglycosides

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
1933 Pioneer Synthesis and Characterization of Boron Containing Hard Materials

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş


The first laboratory synthesis of hard materials such as diamond proceeded to attack of developing materials with high hardness to compete diamond. Boron rich solids are good candidates owing to their short interatomic bond lengths and strong covalent character. Boron containing hard material was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere by using a fuel (glycine or urea), amorphous boron and/or boric acid in appropriate molar ratio. Characterizations were done by x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric/differantial thermal analysis (TG/DTA).

Keywords: boron containing materials, hard materials, microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
1932 Comparison of Pbs/Zns Quantum Dots Synthesis Methods

Authors: Mahbobeh Bozhmehrani, Afshin Farah Bakhsh


Nanoparticles with PbS core of 12 nm and shell of approximately 3 nm were synthesized at PbS:ZnS ratios of 1.01:0.1 using Merca Ptopropionic Acid as stabilizing agent. PbS/ZnS nanoparticles present a dramatically increase of Photoluminescence intensity, confirming the confinement of the PbS core by increasing the Quantum Yield from 0.63 to 0.92 by the addition of the ZnS shell. In this case, the synthesis by microwave method allows obtaining nanoparticles with enhanced optical characteristics than those of nanoparticles synthesized by colloidal method.

Keywords: Pbs/Zns, quantum dots, colloidal method, microwave

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
1931 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of RuO2-TiO2 Electrodes with Improved Chlorine and Oxygen Evolutions

Authors: Tran Le Luu, Jeyong Yoon


RuO2-TiO2 electrode now becomes popular in the chlor-alkali industry because of high electrocatalytic and stability with chlorine and oxygen evolutions. Using alternative green method for preparation RuO2-TiO2 electrode is necessary to reduce the cost, time. In addition, it is needed to increase the electrocatalyst performance, stability, and environmental compatibility. In this study, the Ti/RuO2-TiO2 electrodes were synthesized using sol-gel method under microwave irradiation and investigated for the anodic chlorine and oxygen evolutions. This method produced small size and uniform distribution of RuO2-TiO2 nanoparticles with mean diameter of 8-10 nm on the big crack size surface which contributes for the increasing of the outer active surface area. The chlorine, oxygen evolution efficiency and stability comparisons show considerably higher for microwave-assisted coated electrodes than for those obtained by the conventional heating method. The microwave-assisted sol-gel route has been identified as a novel and powerful method for quick synthesis of RuO2–TiO2 electrodes with excellent chlorine and oxygen evolution performances.

Keywords: RuO2, electro-catalyst, sol-gel, microwave, chlorine, oxygen evolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
1930 Microwave Assisted Synthesis and Metal Complexes of Some Copolymers Based on Itaconic Acid

Authors: Mohamed H. El-Newehy, Sameh M. Osman, Moamen S. Refat, Salem S. Al-Deyab, Ayman El-Faham


The two copolymers itaconic acid-methyl methacrylate and itaconic acid-acrylamide have been prepared in different ratio by radical copolymerization in the presence of azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator and using 2-butanone as reaction medium using microwave irradiation. The microwave technique is safe, fast, and gives high yield of the products with high purity in an optimum time, comparing to the traditional conventional heating. All the prepared copolymers were characterized by FT-IR, thermal analysis and elemental microanalysis. The itaconic acid-based copolymers showed a good sensitivity in alkaline media for scavenging Cu (II) and Pb (II). The chelation behavior of both Cu (II) and Pb (II) complexes were checked using FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). The infrared data are in a good agreement with the coordination through carboxylate-to-metal, in which the copolymers acting as a bidentate ligand.

Keywords: microwave synthesis, itaconic acid, copolymerization, scavenging, thermal stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
1929 Environmentally Benign Synthesis of 2-Pyrazolines and Cyclohexenones Incorporating Naphthalene Moiety and Their Antimicrobial Evaluation

Authors: Al-Bogami Abdullah Saad


We reported the environmental benign synthesis of chalcones, 2-pyrazolines and cyclohexanones under microwave irradiation. Chalcones were obtained by the condensation of each of 2-hydroxyacetophenone derivatives with α-naphthaldehyde under microwave irradiation. The condensation reactions of each of synthesized chalcones with phenyl hydrazine under microwave irradiation in the presence of dry acetic acid as a cyclizing agent gave 2-pyrazolines. Also, the new cyclohexenone derivatives, valuable intermediates to synthesize fused heterocycles, have been prepared by the cyclocondensation of each of hydroxychalcones with ethyl acetoacetate. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by Infrared (IR) spectrometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Mass Spectrometry(MS) and elmental analysis. The results indicate that unlike classical heating, microwave irradiation results in higher yields with shorter and cleaner reactions. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida Albicans and Aspergillus niger. We clarified the effects of different substituents in the tested compounds on the obtaind antibacterial activities and antifungal activities.

Keywords: microwave irradiation, 2-Hydroxyacetophenone, α-Naphthaldehyde, pyrazoline, cyclohexenone, antimicrobial activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
1928 Controlled Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots via Microwave-Enhanced Process: A Green Approach for Mass Production

Authors: Delele Worku Ayele, Bing-Joe Hwang


A method that does not employ hot injection techniques has been developed for the size-tunable synthesis of high-quality CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with a zinc blende structure. In this environmentally benign synthetic route, which uses relatively less toxic precursors, solvents, and capping ligands, CdSe QDs that absorb visible light are obtained. The size of the as-prepared CdSe QDs and, thus, their optical properties can be manipulated by changing the microwave reaction conditions. The QDs are characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis, FTIR, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In this approach, the reaction is conducted in open air and at a much lower temperature than in hot injection techniques. The use of microwaves in this process allows for a highly reproducible and effective synthesis protocol that is fully adaptable for mass production and can be easily employed to synthesize a variety of semiconductor QDs with the desired properties. The possible application of the as-prepared CdSe QDs has been also assessed using deposition on TiO2 films.

Keywords: average life time, CdSe QDs, microwave (MW), mass production oleic acid, Na2SeSO3

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
1927 Microwave Plasma Dry Reforming of Methane at High CO2/CH4 Feed Ratio

Authors: Nabil Majd Alawi, Gia Hung Pham, Ahmed Barifcani


Dry reforming of methane that converts two greenhouses gases (CH4 and CO2) to synthesis gas (a mixture of H2 and CO) was studied in a commercial bench scale microwave (MW) plasma reactor system at atmospheric pressure. The CO2, CH4 and N2 conversions; H2, CO selectivities and yields, and syngas ratio (H2/CO) were investigated in a wide range of total feed flow rate (0.45 – 2.1 L/min), MW power (700 – 1200 watt) and CO2/CH4 molar ratio (2 – 5). At the feed flow rates of CH4, CO2 and N2 of 0.2, 0.4 and 1.5 L/min respectively, and the MWs input power of 700 W, the highest conversions of CH4 and CO2, selectivity and yield of H2, CO and H2/CO ratio of 79.35%, 44.82%, 50.12, 58.42, 39.77%, 32.89%, and 0.86, respectively, were achieved. The results of this work show that the product ratio increases slightly with the increasing total feed flow rate, but it decreases significantly with the increasing MW power and feeds CO2/CH4 ratio.

Keywords: dry reforming of methane, microwave discharge, plasma technology, synthesis gas production

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
1926 Rapid Microwave-Enhanced Process for Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots for Large Scale Production and Manipulation of Optical Properties

Authors: Delele Worku Ayele, Bing-Joe Hwang


A method that does not employ hot injection techniques has been developed for the size-tunable synthesis of high-quality CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with a zinc blende structure. In this environmentally benign synthetic route, which uses relatively less toxic precursors, solvents, and capping ligands, CdSe QDs that absorb visible light are obtained. The size of the as-prepared CdSe QDs and, thus, their optical properties can be manipulated by changing the microwave reaction conditions. The QDs are characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis, FTIR, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In this approach, the reaction is conducted in open air and at a much lower temperature than in hot injection techniques. The use of microwaves in this process allows for a highly reproducible and effective synthesis protocol that is fully adaptable for mass production and can be easily employed to synthesize a variety of semiconductor QDs with the desired properties. The possible application of the as-prepared CdSe QDs has been also assessed using deposition on TiO2 films.

Keywords: CdSe QDs, Na2SeSO3, microwave (MW), oleic acid, mass production, average life time

Procedia PDF Downloads 599
1925 Inventive Synthesis and Characterization of a Cesium Molybdate Compound: CsBi(MoO4)2

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş


Cesium molybdates with general formula CsMIII(MoO4)2, where MIII = Bi, Dy, Pr, Er, exhibit rich polymorphism, and crystallize in a layered structure. These properties cause intensive studies on cesium molybdates. CsBi(MoO4)2 was synthesized by microwave method by using cerium sulphate, bismuth oxide and molybdenum (VI) oxide in an appropriate molar ratio. Characterizations were done by x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric/differantial thermal analysis (TG/DTA).

Keywords: cesium bismuth dimolybdate, microwave synthesis, powder x-ray diffraction, rare earth dimolybdates

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
1924 Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Ag/ZnO Sub-Microparticles Deposited on Various Cellulose Surfaces

Authors: Lukas Munster, Pavel Bazant, Ivo Kuritka


Zinc oxide sub-micro particles and metallic silver nano particles (Ag/ZnO) were deposited on micro crystalline cellulose surface by a fast, simple and environmentally friendly one-pot microwave assisted solvo thermal synthesis in an open vessel system equipped with an external reflux cooler. In order to increase the interaction between the surface of cellulose and the precipitated Ag/ZnO particles, oxidized form of cellulose (cellulose dialdehyde, DAC) prepared by periodate oxidation of micro crystalline cellulose was added to the reaction mixture of Ag/ZnO particle precursors and untreated micro crystalline cellulose. The structure and morphology of prepared hybrid powder materials were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen absorption method (BET). Microscopic analysis of the prepared materials treated by ultra-sonication showed that Ag/ZnO particles deposited on the cellulose/DAC sample exhibit increased adhesion to the surface of the cellulose substrate which can be explained by the DAC adhesive effect in comparison with the material prepared without DAC addition.

Keywords: microcrystalline cellulose, microwave synthesis, silver nanoparticles, zinc oxide sub-microparticles, cellulose dialdehyde

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
1923 Mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 Nanocomposite Prepared by Microwave Method and Its Electrochemical Performance

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Jae-Jin Shim


Supercapacitors are energy storage devices capable of storing more energy than conventional capacitors and have higher power density than batteries. The advantages of this method include the non-use of reducing agents and acidic medium, and no further use of a post-heat treatment unlike the conventional processes, in which calcination is generally employed after obtaining the initial product. Furthermore, it also offers a shorter reaction time at low temperatures and low power requirements, which allows low fabrication and energy cost. In this study, microwave irradiation was used for the facile and rapid synthesis of mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 nanosheets as an electrode material. The as-prepared electrode exhibited a high capacitance of 953 F•g^−1 at 1 A•g^−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte solution. Moreover, the electrode exhibited a high energy density of 76.2 Wh•kg^−1 at a power density of 720 W•kg^−1, and a high power density of 7200 W•kg^−1 at an energy density of 38 Wh•kg^−1. The successful methodology was considered to be efficient and cost-effective, thereby providing an active electrode material with very promising electrochemical performance.

Keywords: cobalt-manganese oxide, electrochemical, graphene, microwave synthesis, supercapacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
1922 Microwave Synthesis, Optical Properties and Surface Area Studies of NiO Nanoparticles

Authors: Ayed S. Al-Shihri, Abul Kalam, Abdullah G. Al-Sehemi, Gaohui Du, Tokeer Ahmad, Ahmad Irfan


We report here the synthesis of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles by microwave-assisted method, using a common precipitating agent followed by calcination in air at 400°C. The effect of the microwave and pH on the crystallite size, morphology, structure, energy band gap and surface area of NiO have been investigated by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and BET surface area studies. X-ray diffraction studies showed the formation of monophasic and highly crystalline cubic NiO. TEM analysis led to decrease the average grain size of NiO nanoparticles from 16.5 nm to 14 nm on increasing the amount of NaOH. FTIR studies also confirm the formation of NiO nanoparticles. It was observed that on increasing the volume of NaOH, the optical band gap energy (2.85 eV to 2.95 eV) and specific surface area (33.1 to 39.8 m2/g) increases, however the average particles size decreases (16.5 nm to 14 nm). This method may be extended to large scale synthesis of other metal oxides nanoparticles and the present study could be used for the potential applications in water treatment and many other fields.

Keywords: BET surface area analysis, electron microscopy, optical properties, X-ray techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1921 Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nano Particles Using Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Extract and Its Application for Solar Cell

Authors: Prasanta Sutradhar, Mitali Saha


With an increasing awareness of green and clean energy, zinc oxide based solar cells were found to be suitable candidates for cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy conversion devices. In this work, we have reported the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) by thermal method and under microwave irradiation using the aqueous extract of tomatoes as non-toxic and ecofriendly reducing material. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterised by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), infra-red spectroscopy (IR), particle size analyser (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X- ray diffraction study (XRD). A series of ZnO nanocomposites with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) and graphene oxide (GO) were prepared for photovoltaic application. Structural and morphological studies of these nanocomposites were carried out using UV-vis, SEM, XRD, and AFM. The current-voltage measurements of the nanocomposites demonstrated enhanced power conversion efficiency of 6.18% in case of ZnO/GO/TiO2 nanocomposite.

Keywords: ZnO, green synthesis, microwave, nanocomposites, I-V characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
1920 High Electrochemical Performance of Electrode Material Based On Mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 Nanocomposites

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Deivasigamani Ranjith Kumar, Jae-Jin Shim


The quest for alternative sources of energy storage had led to the exploration on supercapacitors. Hybrid supercapacitors, a combination of carbon-based material and transition metals, had yielded long and improved cycle life as well as high energy and power densities. In this study, microwave irradiation was used for the facile and rapid synthesis of mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 nanosheets as an active electrode material. The advantages of this method include the non-use of reducing agents and acidic medium, and no further post-heat treatment. Additionally, it offers shorter reaction time at low temperature and low power requirement, which allows low fabrication and energy cost. The as-prepared electrode material demonstrated a high capacitance of 953 F•g−1 at 1 A•g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. Furthermore, the electrode exhibited a high energy density of 76.2 Wh•kg−1 (power density of 720 W•kg−1) and a high power density of 7200 W•kg−1 (energy density of 38 Wh•kg−1). The successful synthesis was considered to be efficient and cost-effective, with very promising electrochemical performance that can be used as an active material in supercapacitors.

Keywords: cobalt manganese oxide, electrochemical, graphene, microwave synthesis, supercapacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
1919 An Eco-Friendly Preparations of Izonicotinamide Quaternary Salts in Deep Eutectic Solvents

Authors: Dajana Gašo-Sokač, Valentina Bušić


Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are liquids composed of two or three safe, inexpensive components, often interconnected by noncovalent hydrogen bonds which produce eutectic mixture whose melting point is lower than that of each component. No data in literature have been found on the quaternization reaction in DES. The use of DES have several advantages: they are environmentally benign and biodegradable, easy for purification and simple for preparation. An environmentally sustainable method for preparing quaternary salts of izonicotinamide and substituted 2-bromoacetophenones was demonstrated here using choline chloride-based DES. The quaternization reaction was carried out by three synthetic approaches: conventional method, microwave and ultrasonic irradiation. We showed that the highest yields were obtained by the microwave method.

Keywords: deep eutectic solvents, izonicotinamide salts, microwave synthesis, ultrasonic irradiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
1918 Synthesis of Polyvinyl Alcohol Encapsulated Ag Nanoparticle Film by Microwave Irradiation for Reduction of P-Nitrophenol

Authors: Supriya, J. K. Basu, S. Sengupta


Silver nanoparticles have caught a lot of attention because of its unique physical and chemical properties. Silver nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/Ag) free-standing film have been prepared by microwave irradiation in few minutes. PVA performed as a reducing agent, stabilizing agents as well as support for silver nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectrometry, scanning transmission electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques affirmed the reduction of silver ion to silver nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Effect of irradiation time, the concentration of PVA and concentration of silver precursor on the synthesis of silver nanoparticle has been studied. Particles size of silver nanoparticles decreases with increase in irradiation time. Concentration of silver nanoparticles increases with increase in concentration of silver precursor. Good dispersion of silver nanoparticles in the film has been confirmed by TEM analysis. Particle size of silver nanoparticle has been found to be in the range of 2-10nm. Catalytic property of prepared silver nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst has been studied in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol (a water pollutant) with >98% conversion. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that PVA encapsulated Ag nanoparticles film as a catalyst shows better efficiency and reusability in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol.

Keywords: biopolymer, microwave irradiation, silver nanoparticles, water pollutant

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
1917 Characterization and Properties of Novel Flame Retardants Based on s-Triazine

Authors: Sameh M. Osman, El-Refaie Kenawy, Zeid A. Al-Othman, Mohamed H. El-Newehy, El-Saied A. Aly, Sherine N. Khattab, Ayman El-Faham


Recently, there has been a huge interest in using cyanuric chloride in a wide range of functional group transformations, as Cyanuric chloride has temperature-dependent differential reactivity for displacement of chlorides with various nucleophiles In the present work, some copolymers based on s-triazine Unit were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. For comparison study, the copolymers were synthesized by the conventional method. Synthesized Copolymers were characterized by MP, IR, TGA, DSC and GPC. The result indicated that copolymers are thermally stable and in good in composition and yield. Further studies that involve the test for selected removal of transition elements such as Cu (II), Zn (II) and Mn (II). Moreover, the effects of the polymeric triazine derivatives containing different functional groups which expected to have a good thermal stability and char formation ability on thermal degradation and flame retardancy.

Keywords: flame retardants, heavy metals, microwave-assisted synthesis, s-triazine

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
1916 Reflection Performance of Truncated Pyramidal and Truncated Wedge Microwave Absorber Using Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB)

Authors: Liyana Zahid, Mohd Fareq Abd Malek, Ee Meng Cheng, Wei Wen Liu, Yeng Seng Lee, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal, Fwen Hoon Wee


One of the parameters that affect the performance of microwave absorbers is the shape of the absorbers. This paper shows the performance (reflection loss) of truncated pyramidal and truncated wedge microwave absorbers in the range frequency between 8.2 to 12.4 GHz (X-Band) in simulation. The material used is sugarcane bagasse (SCB) which is one of the new materials that used to fabricate the microwave absorber. The complex permittivity was measured using Agilent dielectric probe technique. The designs were simulated using CST Microwave Studio Software. The reflection losses between these two shapes were compared.

Keywords: microwave absorber, reflection loss, sugarcane bagasse (SCB), X-Band

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
1915 Microwave Assisted Rapid Synthesis of Nano-Binder from Renewable Resource and Their Application in Textile Printing

Authors: K. Haggag, N. S. Elshemy


Due to limited fossil resource and an increased need for environmentally friendly, sustainable technologies, the importance of using renewable feed stocks in textile industry area will increase in the decades to come. This research highlights some of the perspectives in this area. Alkyd resins for high characterization and reactive properties, completely based on commercially available renewable resources (sunflower and/or soybean oil) were prepared and characterized. In this work, we present results on the synthesis of various alkyd resins according to the alcoholysis – polyesterification process under different preparation conditions using a microwave synthesis as energy source to determine suitable reaction conditions. Effects of polymerization parameters, such as catalyst ratio, reaction temperature and microwave power level have been studied. The prepared binder was characterized via FT-IR, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), in addition to acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), water absorbance, weight loss, and glass transition temperature. The prepared binder showed high performance physico-mechanical properties. TEM analysis showed that the polymer latex nanoparticle within range of 20–200 nm. The study involved the application of the prepared alkyd resins as binder for pigment printing process onto cotton fabric by using a flat screen technique and the prints were dried and thermal cured. The optimum curing conditions were determined, color strength and fastness properties of pigment printed areas to light, washing, perspiration and crocking were evaluated. The rheological properties and apparent viscosity of prepared binders were measured in addition roughness of the prints was also determined.

Keywords: nano-binder, microwave heating, renewable resource, alkyd resins, sunflower oil, soybean oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
1914 Synthesis and Electromagnetic Property of Li₀.₃₅Zn₀.₃Fe₂.₃₅O₄ Grafted with Polyaniline Fibers

Authors: Jintang Zhou, Zhengjun Yao, Tiantian Yao


Li₀.₃₅Zn₀.₃Fe₂.₃₅O₄(LZFO) grafted with polyaniline (PANI) fibers was synthesized by in situ polymerization. FTIR, XRD, SEM, and vector network analyzer were used to investigate chemical composition, micro-morphology, electromagnetic properties and microwave absorbing properties of the composite. The results show that PANI fibers were grafted on the surfaces of LZFO particles. The reflection loss exceeds 10 dB in the frequency range from 2.5 to 5 GHz and from 15 to 17GHz, and the maximum reflection loss reaches -33 dB at 15.9GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption properties of LZFO/PANI-fiber composites are mainly ascribed to the combined effect of both dielectric loss and magnetic loss and the improved impedance matching.

Keywords: Li₀.₃₅Zn₀.₃Fe₂.₃₅O₄, polyaniline, electromagnetic properties, microwave absorbing properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
1913 Microwave-Assisted Eradication of Wool

Authors: M. Salama, K. Haggag, H. El-Sayed


An environmentally and ecologically acceptable method for eradication of wool fabrics based on microwave irradiation (MWI) was described. The process would be a suitable alternative for mothproofing of wool using toxic degradative chemical or biological methods. The effect of microwave irradiation and exposure time on the extent of eradication of wool fabrics from moth larvae was monitored. The inherent properties of the MW-irradiated wool fabrics; viz. tensile properties, alkali solubility, and yellowing index, were not adversely altered.

Keywords: microwave, wool, fabric, moth, eradication, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
1912 The Microwave and Far Infrared Spectra of Acetaldehyde-d1 in vt=2

Authors: A. Larrousi, M. Elkeurti, K. Amara, M. Zemouli, L. H. Coudert, I. R. Medvedev, F. C. De Lucia, Atsuko Maeda, R. W. C. McKellar, D. Appadoo


Experimental and theoretical investigations of the microwave and far infrared spectra of CH3COD are reported. Two hundred twelve lines were identified in the far infrared spectrum recorded using the Canadian synchrotron radiation light source. Two thousand one hundred and sixty-eight lines in vt=0,1 and 216 in vt=2 have been measured in the microwave spectrum obtained using the fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique. A global analysis of the new data and of already available microwave lines has been carried out and yielded values for rotation–torsion parameters. The unitless weighted standard deviation of the fit is 1.6. 46 parameters and 216 lines were identified.

Keywords: CH3COD, torsion, the microwave spectra, far infrared spectra high resolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
1911 Microwave-Assisted Fabrication of Visible-Light Activated BiOBr-Nanoplate Photocatalyst

Authors: Meichen Lee, Michael K. H. Leung


In recent years, visible-light activated photocatalysis has become a major field of intense researches for the higher efficiency of solar energy utilizations. Many attempts have been made on the modification of wide band gap semiconductors, while more and more efforts emphasize on cost-effective synthesis of visible-light activated catalysts. In this work, BiOBr nanoplates with band gap of visible-light range are synthesized through a promising microwave solvothermal method. The treatment time period and temperature dependent BiOBr nanosheets of various particle sizes are investigated through SEM. BiOBr synthesized under the condition of 160°C for 60 mins shows the most uniform particle sizes around 311 nm and the highest surface-to-volume ratio on account of its smallest average particle sizes compared with others. It exhibits the best photocatalytic behavior among all samples in RhB degradation.

Keywords: microwave solvothermal process, nanoplates, solar energy, visible-light photocatalysis

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1910 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Dioscorea Deltoidea Callus Extract and Evaluation of Its Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Mujeeb Mohd, Aqil Mohd, A. K. Najmi, Akhtar MMohd, Vasim Mohd


Dioscorea deltoidea belongs to the Dioscoreaceae family, is usually found in the north-western Himalayas and some other parts of the world up to an altitude of 1000–3000 m. D. deltoidea commonly known as yam and is an extensively used medicinal plant in the indigenous system of medicine. It has been reported to contain dioscine a steroidal glycoside in higher concentration. In the present investigation, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized by a simple, efficient, environmentally benevolent and economic microwave-assisted method. Callus culture of D. deltoidea was developed and maintained on Murashige and skooge basal medium supplemented with different combination and concentration of plant growth regulators. Aqueous extract of callus culture was used as the reducing and stabilizing agent. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The presence of a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band at 430 nm in UV–Vis reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Whereas FTIR analysis was performed to probe the possible functional group involved in the synthesis of AgNPs. Further extract and AgNPs were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against different pathogenic microorganisms.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Dioscorea deltoidea, microwave, silver, nanoparticles

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1909 Graphene Transistors Based Microwave Amplifiers

Authors: Pejman Hosseinioun, Ali Safari, Hamed Sarbazi


Graphene is a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon with numerous impressive properties. It is a promising material for future high-speed nanoelectronics due to its intrinsic superior carrier mobility and very high saturation velocity. These exceptional carrier transport properties suggest that graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs) can potentially outperform other FET technologies. In this paper, detailed discussions are introduced for Graphene Transistors Based Microwave Amplifiers.

Keywords: graphene, microwave FETs, microwave amplifiers, transistors

Procedia PDF Downloads 397