Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 234

Search results for: dairy cow

234 Analyzing of Good Dairy Practices in Dairy Farm Management in Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta: The Effect of Good Management in Milk Production

Authors: Dandi Riswanto, Mahendra Wahyu Eka Pradana, Hutomo Abdurrohman

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The dairy farm has strategic roles in meeting the demand of foods. Sleman Regency is a central dairy production in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Sleman district has a population of 3954 heads dairy cattle with an environmental temperature of 22 to 35 degrees Celsius and humidity 74 to 87% which makes a good location for a dairy cattle farm. The dairy cattle that are kept by the majority of the Friesian Holstein Crossbreed are predominantly reared by conventional management. Sleman Regency accounts for 7.3% of national milk production. Factors influencing include genetic, environmental, and management. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of Good Dairy Farming Practices (GDFP) application on milk production in Sleman Regency. The data collection was conducted in January 2017 until May 2017 using survey and interviews methods at 5 locations of dairy farms selected randomly. Data were analyzed with the chi-square test. The result of this research showed that GDFP point was management 1,47 points (less good). The result showed that Good Dairy Farming Practices (GDFP) has a positive effect on milk production.

Keywords: dairy cattle, GDFP, milk production, Sleman regency

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
233 Bifidobacterial Postbiotics as Health-Promoting Agents in Dairy Products

Authors: Saba Kamalledin Moghadam, Amir M. Mortazavian, Aziz Homayouni-Rad

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In the recent decade, bioactive-enriched foods, as well as natural health products, have caught the intention of the general and health-conscious population. In this regard, naturally occurring beneficial microorganisms have been successfully added to various dairy products during fermentation. Bifidobacteria, known as probiotics with a broad range of bioactivities, are commonly used in the dairy industry to naturally enrich dairy products. These bioactive metabolites are industrially and commercially important due to health-promoting activities on the consumers (e.g., anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative, immune-modulatory, anti-cholesterolemic, or microbiome modulation, etcetera). This review aims to discuss the potential of bifidobacteria for the elaboration of dairy foods with functional properties and added value.

Keywords: dairy, probiotic, postbiotic, bifidobacteria, bifidobacterial postbiotic

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
232 Influence of Environmental Temperature on Dairy Herd Performance and Behaviour

Authors: L. Krpalkova, N. O' Mahony, A. Carvalho, S. Campbell, S. Harapanahalli, J. Walsh

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The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environmental stressors on the performance of lactating dairy cows and discuss some future trends. There exists a relationship between the meteorological data and milk yield prediction accuracy in pasture-based dairy systems. New precision technologies are available and are being developed to improve the sustainability of the dairy industry. Some of these technologies focus on welfare of individual animals on dairy farms. These technologies allow the automatic identification of animal behaviour and health events, greatly increasing overall herd health and yield while reducing animal health inspection demands and long-term animal healthcare costs. The data set consisted of records from 489 dairy cows at two dairy farms and temperature measured from the nearest meteorological weather station in 2018. The effects of temperature on milk production and behaviour of animals were analyzed. The statistical results indicate different effects of temperature on milk yield and behaviour. The “comfort zone” for animals is in the range 10 °C to 20 °C. Dairy cows out of this zone had to decrease or increase their metabolic heat production, and it affected their milk production and behaviour.

Keywords: behavior, milk yield, temperature, precision technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
231 The Effects of Production, Transportation and Storage Conditions on Mold Growth in Compound Feeds

Authors: N. Cetinkaya

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The objective of the present study is to determine the critical control points during the production, transportation and storage conditions of compound feeds to be used in the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) feed safety management system. A total of 40 feed samples were taken after 20 and 40 days of storage periods from the 10 dairy and 10 beef cattle farms following the transportation of the compound feeds from the factory. In addition, before transporting the feeds from factory immediately after production of dairy and beef cattle compound feeds, 10 from each total 20 samples were taken as 0 day. In all feed samples, chemical composition and total aflatoxin levels were determined. The aflatoxin levels in all feed samples with the exception of 2 dairy cattle feeds were below the maximum acceptable level. With the increase in storage period in dairy feeds, the aflatoxin levels were increased to 4.96 ppb only in a BS8 dairy farm. This value is below the maximum permissible level (10 ppb) in beef cattle feed. The aflatoxin levels of dairy feed samples taken after production varied between 0.44 and 2.01 ppb. Aflatoxin levels were found to be between 0.89 and 3.01 ppb in dairy cattle feeds taken on the 20th day of storage at 10 dairy cattle farm. On the 40th day, feed aflatoxin levels in the same dairy cattle farm were found between 1.12 and 7.83 ppb. The aflatoxin levels were increased to 7.83 and 6.31 ppb in 2 dairy farms, after a storage period of 40 days. These obtained aflatoxin values are above the maximum permissible level in dairy cattle feeds. The 40 days storage in pellet form in the HACCP feed safety management system can be considered as a critical control point.

Keywords: aflatoxin, beef cattle feed, compound feed, dairy cattle feed, HACCP

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
230 Credit Risk Evaluation of Dairy Farming Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: R. H. Fattepur, Sameer R. Fattepur, D. K. Sreekantha

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Dairy Farming is one of the key industries in India. India is the leading producer and also the consumer of milk, milk-based products in the world. In this paper, we have attempted to the replace the human expert system and to develop an artificial expert system prototype to increase the speed and accuracy of decision making dairy farming credit risk evaluation. Fuzzy logic is used for dealing with uncertainty, vague and acquired knowledge, fuzzy rule base method is used for representing this knowledge for building an effective expert system.

Keywords: expert system, fuzzy logic, knowledge base, dairy farming, credit risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
229 Isolation and Characterization of Ant-Salmonella Lactic Acid Bacteria from Dairy Products

Authors: Najie Hassanzade, Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani

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Dairy products have been regarded as the natural source of lactic acid bacteria with potential characteristics of probiotics; therefore, a lot of research and practical works have been carried out about the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from dairy products, especially traditional yogurt and related products. Interest in traditional dairy products continues in the area of isolation of new LAB that can complement or replace currently used starters and/or that can be candidates as beneficial microorganisms for prevention or treatment purposes. In this perspective, such products are potentially good candidates for isolating new strains of probiotics. On the other hand, some infectious diseases such as salmonellosis have expressed resistance against many antibiotics; therefore, many attempts have been performed to use an alternative approach to overcome antibiotic resistance. The current research focuses on the isolation of LAB from dairy products, especially traditional dairy products and screening of them for anti-Salmonella activities. Twenty-five samples, including 15 sheep milk samples, one camel milk sample and seven cow milk samples from different areas of Iran and 2 yogurt samples from Herat, Afghanistan are collected. 20 bacteria are isolated by culturing the samples on MRS agar specific medium; among them 4 Lactobacillus strains, including 3L. plantarum strains and one L.gasseri strain, are identified by analyzing the biochemical tests and PCR tests in which 27F and 1492R primers are used. Then, their effects against Salmonella typhimurium using the well-diffusion method are evaluated.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, dairy products Salmonella

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
228 The Economic Value of Mastitis Resistance in Dairy Cattle in Kenya

Authors: Caleb B. Sagwa, Tobias O. Okeno, Alexander K. Kahi

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Dairy cattle production plays an important role in the Kenyan economy. However, high incidences of mastitis is a major setback to the productivity in this industry. The current dairy cattle breeding objective in Kenya does not include mastitis resistance, mainly because the economic value of mastitis resistance has not been determined. Therefore this study aimed at estimating the economic value of mastitis resistance in dairy cattle in Kenya. Initial input parameters were obtained from literature on dairy cattle production systems in the tropics. Selection index methodology was used to derive the economic value of mastitis resistance. Somatic cell count (SCC) was used an indicator trait for mastitis resistance. The economic value was estimated relative to milk yield (MY). Economic values were assigned to SCC in a selection index such that the overall gain in the breeding goal trait was maximized. The option of estimating the economic value for SCC by equating the response in the trait of interest to its index response was considered. The economic value of mastitis resistance was US $23.64 while maximum response to selection for MY was US $66.01. The findings of this study provide vital information that is a pre-requisite for the inclusion of mastitis resistance in the current dairy cattle breeding goal in Kenya.

Keywords: somatic cell count, milk quality, payment system, breeding goal

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
227 Incidence and Etiology of Neonatal Calf Diarrhea in the Region of Blida, Algeria

Authors: A. Dadda, D. Khelef, K. Ait-Oudia, R. Kaidi

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Neonatal calf diarrhea is the most important disease of neonatal calves and results in the greatest economic losses due to disease in this age group in both dairy and beef calves. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the morbidity and the mortality of neonatal diarrhea in dairy calves also to determine aetiology and risk factors were caused diarrhea in dairy veal under 60 days old. A total of 324 claves, housed in 30 dairy breeding were followed during two velage season from January to Juan 2013. The total mortality was 5,9% and was significantly higher in calves had less than 15 days of age. The incidence rate of diarrhea was 31,5% and peaked in the first two weeks after velage. The main causes were breeding controls, defect of passive immunity, old of calf, production season, and nutrient of pregnant cattle, veal’s housing and infectious agents. ELISA test on 22 fecal samples revealed that the 31, 82% of dairy breeding were infected, by cryptosporidium parvum in 13, 6% of study population, E.Coli F5 in 9% and Rotavirus with rate of 4, 5%.

Keywords: diarrhoea, neonatal, mortality, aetiology, risk factors, incidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 557
226 Rheology and Structural Arrest of Dense Dairy Suspensions: A Soft Matter Approach

Authors: Marjan Javanmard

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The rheological properties of dairy products critically depend on the underlying organisation of proteins at multiple length scales. When heated and acidified, milk proteins form particle gel that is viscoelastic, solvent rich, ‘soft’ material. In this work recent developments on the rheology of soft particles suspensions were used to interpret and potentially define the properties of dairy gel structures. It is discovered that at volume fractions below random close packing (RCP), the Maron-Pierce-Quemada (MPQ) model accurately predicts the viscosity of the dairy gel suspensions without fitting parameters; the MPQ model has been shown previously to provide reasonable predictions of the viscosity of hard sphere suspensions from the volume fraction, solvent viscosity and RCP. This surprising finding demonstrates that up to RCP, the dairy gel system behaves as a hard sphere suspension and that the structural aggregates behave as discrete particulates akin to what is observed for microgel suspensions. At effective phase volumes well above RCP, the system is a soft solid. In this region, it is discovered that the storage modulus of the sheared AMG scales with the storage modulus of the set gel. The storage modulus in this regime is reasonably well described as a function of effective phase volume by the Evans and Lips model. Findings of this work has potential to aid in rational design and control of dairy food structure-properties.

Keywords: dairy suspensions, rheology-structure, Maron-Pierce-Quemada Model, Evans and Lips Model

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
225 Decision-Making Strategies on Smart Dairy Farms: A Review

Authors: L. Krpalkova, N. O' Mahony, A. Carvalho, S. Campbell, G. Corkery, E. Broderick, J. Walsh

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Farm management and operations will drastically change due to access to real-time data, real-time forecasting, and tracking of physical items in combination with Internet of Things developments to further automate farm operations. Dairy farms have embraced technological innovations and procured vast amounts of permanent data streams during the past decade; however, the integration of this information to improve the whole farm-based management and decision-making does not exist. It is now imperative to develop a system that can collect, integrate, manage, and analyse on-farm and off-farm data in real-time for practical and relevant environmental and economic actions. The developed systems, based on machine learning and artificial intelligence, need to be connected for useful output, a better understanding of the whole farming issue, and environmental impact. Evolutionary computing can be very effective in finding the optimal combination of sets of some objects and, finally, in strategy determination. The system of the future should be able to manage the dairy farm as well as an experienced dairy farm manager with a team of the best agricultural advisors. All these changes should bring resilience and sustainability to dairy farming as well as improving and maintaining good animal welfare and the quality of dairy products. This review aims to provide an insight into the state-of-the-art of big data applications and evolutionary computing in relation to smart dairy farming and identify the most important research and development challenges to be addressed in the future. Smart dairy farming influences every area of management, and its uptake has become a continuing trend.

Keywords: big data, evolutionary computing, cloud, precision technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
224 Virulence Genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis Isolated from Milk and Dairy Products

Authors: E. Rahimi, S. Shaigannia

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Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis are important infectious agents causing food poisoning and food-borne gastrointestinal diseases. This study was carried out in order to investigate the distribution of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance properties of S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis isolated from ruminant milk and dairy products in Iran. Overall 360 raw and pasteurized milk and traditional and commercial dairy products were purchased from random selected supermarkets and retail stories of Isfahan province, Iran. Samples were cultured immediately and those found positive for Salmonella were analyzed for the presence of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis and several putative genes using PCR. Totally, 13 (3.61%), 8 (2.22%), 1 (0.27%) and 4 (1.11%) samples were found to be contaminated with Salmonella spp., S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis and other species of Salmonella, respectively. PCR results showed that invA, rfbJ, fliC and spv were the detected virulence genes in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis positive samples. To the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first prevalence report of virulence genes of S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis isolated from ruminant milk and traditional and commercial dairy products in Iran.

Keywords: Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, virulence genes, ruminant milk, dairy products

Procedia PDF Downloads 531
223 The Prevalence of Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia Coli O157 (VTEC) in Dairy Cattle in Tripoli Area, Libya

Authors: Imad Buishi, Almabrouk Fares, Hallowma Helmi

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Infection with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in humans can lead to mild or bloody diarrhea with the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) as a possible complication. Cattle appear to be important reservoirs for VTEC O157. Epidemiologic studies on the prevalence of VTEC O157 in dairy cattle in Libya have never been conducted. To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors associated with VTEC O157 on dairy farms in Tripoli region, fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy cows were collected once from 15 randomly selected dairy farms in the period July 2010 through September 2010. All fecal samples were examined for the prevalence of VTEC O157 by conventional plating using Sorbitol-MacConkey agar (SMAC). Isolated of E. coli were subjected to slide agglutination test using E. coli O157 antiserum. The results pointed out that the prevalence within-herd and among herds were 9% and 60% respectively. The prevalence of VTEC O157 in fecal samples of dairy cattle was significantly associated with husbandry practices on farm-level such as signs of diarrhoea (p=0.02, OR=3.2) and sharing water trough (p= 0.03, OR=3.0). It was concluded that dairy cattle in Tripoli area are important reservoirs of VTEC O157 strains that are potentially pathogenic for humans. When aiming at reducing risks for human by intervention at farm-level, it is of importance to reduce the number of positive animals and farms. For this, more research is needed to devise mitigation strategies that will reduce the on-farm contamination of VTEC O157.

Keywords: VTEC O157, prevalence, dairy cattle, tripoli

Procedia PDF Downloads 599
222 Indicator-Based Approach for Assessing Socio Economic Vulnerability of Dairy Farmers to Impacts of Climate Variability and Change in India

Authors: Aparna Radhakrishnan, Jancy Gupta, R. Dileepkumar

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This paper aims at assessing the Socio Economic Vulnerability (SEV) of dairy farmers to Climate Variability and Change (CVC) in 3 states of Western Ghat region in India. For this purpose, a composite SEV index has been developed on the basis of functional relationships amongst sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity using 30 indicators related to dairy farming underlying the principles of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Fussel framework for nomenclature of vulnerable situation. Household level data were collected through Participatory Rural Appraisal and personal interviews of 540 dairy farmers of nine taluks, three each from a district selected from Kerala, Karnataka and Maharashtra, complemented by thirty years of gridded weather data. The data were normalized and then combined into three indices for sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity, which were then averaged with weights given using principal component analysis, to obtain the overall SEV index. Results indicated that the taluks of Western Ghats are vulnerable to CVC. The dairy farmers of Pulpally taluka were most vulnerable having the SEV score +1.24 and 42.66% farmers under high-level vulnerability category. Even though the taluks are geographically closer, there is wide variation in SEV components. Policies for incentivizing the ‘climate risk adaptation’ costs for small and marginal farmers and livelihood infrastructure for mitigating risks and promoting grass root level innovations are necessary to sustain dairy farming of the region.

Keywords: climate change, dairy, vulnerability, livelihoods, adaptation strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
221 Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Terminalia arjuna Encapsulated Dairy Drink

Authors: Sawale Pravin Digambar, G. R. Patil, Shaik Abdul Hussain

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Terminalia arjuna (TA), an important medicinal plant in Indian System of Medicine, is specifically recognized for its recuperative effect on heart ailments. Alcoholic extract of TA (both free and encapsulated) was incorporated into milk to obtain functional dairy beverages. The respective beverages were appropriately flavored and optimized using response surface methodology to improve the sensory appeal. The beverages were evaluated for their compositional, anti-oxidative and various other physico-chemical aspects. Addition of herb (0.3%) extract to flavoured dairy drink (Drink 1) resulted in significantly lowered (p>0.05) HMF content and increased antioxidant activity, total phenol content as compared with control (Control 1). Subsequently, a significant (p>0.05) increase in acidity and sedimentation was also observed. Encapsulated herb (1.8%) incorporated drink (Drink 2) had significantly (P>0.05) enhanced HMF value and decreased antioxidant activity, phenol content as compared to herb added vanilla chocolate dairy drink (Drink 1). It can be concluded that addition of encapsulated TA extract and non-encapsulated TA extract to chocolate dairy drink at 0.3% concentration altered the functional properties vanilla chocolate dairy drink which could be related to the interaction of herb components such as polyphenol with milk protein or maltodextrin/ gum Arabic matrix.

Keywords: Terminalia arjuna, encapsulate, antioxidant activity, physicochemical study

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
220 Analysis of Constraints and Opportunities in Dairy Production in Botswana

Authors: Som Pal Baliyan

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Dairy enterprise has been a major source of employment and income generation in most of the economies worldwide. Botswana government has also identified dairy as one of the agricultural sectors towards diversification of the mineral dependent economy of the country. The huge gap between local demand and supply of milk and milk products indicated that there are not only constraints but also; opportunities exist in this sub sector of agriculture. Therefore, this study was an attempt to identify constraints and opportunities in dairy production industry in Botswana. The possible ways to mitigate the constraints were also identified. The findings should assist the stakeholders especially, policy makers in the formulation of effective policies for the growth of dairy sector in the country. This quantitative study adopted a survey research design. A final survey followed by a pilot survey was conducted for data collection. The purpose of the pilot survey was to collect basic information on the nature and extent of the constraints, opportunities and ways to mitigate the constraints in dairy production. Based on the information from pilot survey, a four point Likert’s scale type questionnaire was constructed, validated and tested for its reliability. The data for the final survey were collected from purposively selected twenty five dairy farms. The descriptive statistical tools were employed to analyze data. Among the twelve constraints identified; high feed costs, feed shortage and availability, lack of technical support, lack of skilled manpower, high prevalence of pests and diseases and, lack of dairy related technologies were the six major constraints in dairy production. Grain feed production, roughage feed production, manufacturing of dairy feed, establishment of milk processing industry and, development of transportation systems were the five major opportunities among the eight opportunities identified. Increasing production of animal feed locally, increasing roughage feed production locally, provision of subsidy on animal feed, easy access to sufficient financial support, training of the farmers and, effective control of pests and diseases were identified as the six major ways to mitigate the constraints. It was recommended that the identified constraints and opportunities as well as the ways to mitigate the constraints need to be carefully considered by the stakeholders especially, policy makers during the formulation and implementation of the policies for the development of dairy sector in Botswana.

Keywords: dairy enterprise, milk production, opportunities, production constraints

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
219 Cost Diminution in Supply Chain of a Dairy Industry

Authors: Naveed Ahmed Khan

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The ever increasing importance of food industry cannot be denied and especially in the wake of escalating population and prices both in developing and developed nations. Thus, this issue demands the attention of researchers especially in the area of supply chain to identify cost diminution waste eliminating supply chain practices in the said industry. For such purpose the 'Dairy Division' of Engro Foods Limited, one of the biggest food companies in Pakistan was taken into consideration in a case study manner. Based on the literature review and interviews following variables were obtained: energy, losses, maintenance, taxes, and logistics. Having studied the said variables, it was concluded that management of relevant industries operating in a comparable environment need to efficiently manage two major areas: energy and taxes. On the other hand, similar kind of other organizations could be benefited by adopting the proficient supply chain practices being observed at dairy division of Engro foods limited.

Keywords: cost diminution, supply chain, dairy industry, Engro Foods Limited

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
218 Effect of Parenteral Administration of Vitamin A in Pregnant Dry Cows, on Vitamin A Status of Neonatal Calves

Authors: Samad Lotfollahzadeh

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To evaluate the effect of intramuscular administration of vitamin A during dry period in pregnant dairy cows, which already received it in their daily ration, on vitamin A status of neonatal calves, a total of 30 cows were randomly selected and divided to two main groups; treatment and control group. Animals in the treatment group were subdivided into two groups. Single intramuscular injection of 2000000 IU vitamin A; was carried in 10 dairy cows at 7 months of pregnancy (group 1). In the second group of treated animals (10 cows) the injection was performed in 8 months of pregnancy (group 2). Ten pregnant dairy cows were received saline injection as placebo and selected as the control group. Blood samples were collected from experimental dairy cows at 7 and 8 months of pregnancy as well as their newborn calves’ pre and after colostrum intake. There was no significant difference between vitamin A and β- carotene concentration of dairy cows of three groups in two last months of pregnancy (P > 0.05). Vitamin A concentration of calves of two treatment groups before and after receiving of colostrum were significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between serum concentrations of vitamin A in calves of two treated groups (P > 0.05). β- Carotene concentration of serum samples of dairy cows and neonatal calves of three groups were not significantly different as compared with together. From results of the present study it can be concluded that daily supplementation of vitamin A in late pregnancy in dairy cows may not compensate the calves need for vitamin A and single injection of this vitamin A during dry either in 7 or 8 months of pregnancy can significantly increase level of vitamin A in their colostrum and neonatal calves.

Keywords: dry cow, beta carotene, newborn calves, vitamin A, dry cows

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
217 Fecal Prevalence, Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella in Dairy Cattle in Central Ethiopia

Authors: Tadesse Eguale, Ephrem Engdawork, Wondwossen Gebreyes, Dainel Asrat, Hile Alemayehu, John Gunn

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Salmonella is one of the major zoonotic pathogens affecting wide range of vertebrates and humans worldwide. Consumption of contaminated dairy products and contact with dairy cattle represent the common sources of non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in humans. Fecal samples were collected from 132 dairy herds in central Ethiopia and cultured for Salmonella to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility. Salmonella was recovered from the feces of at least one cattle in 10(7.6%) of the dairy farms. Out of 1193 fecal samples 30(2.5%) were positive for Salmonella. Large farm size, detection of diarrhea in one or more animals during sampling and keeping animals completely indoor compared to occasional grazing outside were associated with Salmonella positivity of the farms. Farm level prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher in young animals below 6 months of age compared to other age groups(X2=10.24; p=0.04). Nine different serotypes were isolated. The four most frequently recovered serotypes were S. Typhimurium (23.3%),S. Saintpaul (20%) and S. Kentucky and S. Virchow (16.7%) each. All isolates were resistant or intermediately resistant to at least one of the 18 drugs tested. Twenty-six (86.7%), 20(66.7%), 18(60%), 16(53.3%) of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline respectively. Resistance to 2 drugs was detected in 93.3% of the isolates. Resistance to 3 or more drugs were detected in 21(70%) of the total isolates while multi-drug resistance (MDR) to 7 or more drugs were detected in 12 (40%) of the isolates. The rate of occurrence of MDR in Salmonella strains isolated from dairy farms in Addis Ababa was significantly higher than those isolated from farms outside of Addis Ababa((p= 0.009). The detection of high MDR in Salmonella isolates originating from dairy farms warrants the need for strict pathogen reduction strategy in dairy cattle and spread of these MDR strains to human population.

Keywords: salmonella, antimicrobial resistance, fecal prevalence

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
216 Understanding Indonesian Smallholder Dairy Farmers’ Decision to Adopt Multiple Farm: Level Innovations

Authors: Rida Akzar, Risti Permani, Wahida , Wendy Umberger

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Adoption of farm innovations may increase farm productivity, and therefore improve market access and farm incomes. However, most studies that look at the level and drivers of innovation adoption only focus on a specific type of innovation. Farmers may consider multiple innovation options, and constraints such as budget, environment, scarcity of labour supply, and the cost of learning. There have been some studies proposing different methods to combine a broad variety of innovations into a single measurable index. However, little has been done to compare these methods and assess whether they provide similar information about farmer segmentation by their ‘innovativeness’. Using data from a recent survey of 220 dairy farm households in West Java, Indonesia, this study compares and considers different methods of deriving an innovation index, including expert-weighted innovation index; an index derived from the total number of adopted technologies; and an index of the extent of adoption of innovation taking into account both adoption and disadoption of multiple innovations. Second, it examines the distribution of different farming systems taking into account their innovativeness and farm characteristics. Results from this study will inform policy makers and stakeholders in the dairy industry on how to better design, target and deliver programs to improve and encourage farm innovation, and therefore improve farm productivity and the performance of the dairy industry in Indonesia.

Keywords: adoption, dairy, household survey, innovation index, Indonesia, multiple innovations dairy, West Java

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
215 Efficiency and Limits of Physicochemical Treatment of Dairy Wastewater: A Case Study of Dairy Industry in Western Algeria

Authors: Khedidja Benouis

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Environmental issues in the food industry are related to the water because it consumes water and release large volumes of wastewater. The treatment of such discharges techniques can be adapted to different situations encountered. For dairy effluents, it is necessary and very effective to use a treatment that eliminates much of the pollutant load,thus, to drastically reduce the organic loading rate. This study aims to evaluate the Efficiency and limitations of physicochemical treatment by coagulation - flocculation of liquid effluent from this type of food industry in Algeria, to give an example of the type and the degree of pollution generated by this sector and in order to reduce pollution and minimize its environmental issues. Coagulation - flocculation-sedimentation was carried out using lime without addition of additive (flocculant), the processing efficiency is indicated by the concentration of pollutants in treated water. The results show that treatment is not sufficient to remove organic pollution, but it has significantly reduced the Total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate (NO3-N) and phosphate (PO4-P).

Keywords: Algeria, coagulation-flocculation, dairy effluent, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
214 Diagnostics of Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows

Authors: G. Tanbayeva, Z. Myrzabekov, O. Tagayev, B. Barakhov, M. Tokayeva

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Mastitis is widely spread among dairy cows bringing large economic damage resulting in decreased milk yield, deterioration of the milk quality, gastrointestinal tract disorders among young animals, culling of breeding stock, and expenses for sick animal treatment. Up-to-date and accurate diagnostics of subclinical (latent) mastitis in dairy cows has huge practical and economical significance. The aim of the research was to develop a new optimal alternative rapid method for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cows. The study was performed in the laboratory of the Hygiene and Sanitation of Kazakh National Agrarian University. The first stage was to evaluate the different percentages of “Promastit” preparation. It showed that the best diagnostics capacity had 10% dilution. The second stage was to compare “Promastit” with some of the domestic and foreign analogues “Somatic-Test” (Denmark), “MastTest” (Russia), “Mastidin” (Ukraine), “Diagmast” (Kazakhstan). The observation was carried out on 520 dairy cows with subclinical mastitis on farms of Almaty region of Kazakhstan. The effectiveness was checked by milk sedimentation test. Our research tends to show that the diagnostic test "Promastitis" revealed subclinical mastitis in 193 out of 520 lactating cows (37.1% of those examined). At the same time, in the case of using other diagnostic tests, the given index was as follows: 35.5% (mastidin), 34.4% (masttest-AF), 33.8% (somatic-test Ecotest), 30.7% (diagmast).

Keywords: dairy cows, diagnostics, subclinical mastitis, test Promastit

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
213 Effects of Specific Essential Oil Compounds on, Feed Intake, Milk Production, and Ruminal Environment in Dairy Cows during Heat Exposure

Authors: Kamran Reza-Yazdi, Mohammad Fallah, Mahdi Khodaparast, Farshad Kateb, Morteza Hosseini-Ghaffari

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The objective of this study was to determine effect of dietary essential oil (EO) compounds, which contained cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, peppermint, coriander, cumin, lemongrass, and an organic carrier on feed intake, milk composition, and rumen fermentation of dairy cows during heat exposure. Thirty-two Holstein cows (days in milk= 60 ± 5) were assigned to one of two treatment groups: a Control and EO fed. The experiment lasted 28 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) was measured daily while and milk production was measured weekly. Our result showed that DMI and milk yield was decreased (P < 0.01) in control cows relative to EO cows. Furthermore, supplementation with EO was associated with a decrease in the molar proportion of propionate (P < 0.05) and increase (P < 0.05) in acetate to propionate ratio. In conclusion, EO supplementations in diets can be useful nutritional modification to alleviate for the decrease DMI and milk production during heat exposure in lactating dairy cows.

Keywords: dairy cow, feed additive, plant extract, eugenol

Procedia PDF Downloads 566
212 Dairy Wastewater Treatment by Electrochemical and Catalytic Method

Authors: Basanti Ekka, Talis Juhna

Abstract:

Dairy industrial effluents originated by the typical processing activities are composed of various organic and inorganic constituents, and these include proteins, fats, inorganic salts, antibiotics, detergents, sanitizers, pathogenic viruses, bacteria, etc. These contaminants are harmful to not only human beings but also aquatic flora and fauna. Because consisting of large classes of contaminants, the specific targeted removal methods available in the literature are not viable solutions on the industrial scale. Therefore, in this on-going research, a series of coagulation, electrochemical, and catalytic methods will be employed. The bulk coagulation and electrochemical methods can wash off most of the contaminants, but some of the harmful chemicals may slip in; therefore, specific catalysts designed and synthesized will be employed for the removal of targeted chemicals. In the context of Latvian dairy industries, presently, work is under progress on the characterization of dairy effluents by total organic carbon (TOC), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)/ Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and Mass Spectrometry. After careful evaluation of the dairy effluents, a cost-effective natural coagulant will be employed prior to advanced electrochemical technology such as electrocoagulation and electro-oxidation as a secondary treatment process. Finally, graphene oxide (GO) based hybrid materials will be used for post-treatment of dairy wastewater as graphene oxide has been widely applied in various fields such as environmental remediation and energy production due to the presence of various oxygen-containing groups. Modified GO will be used as a catalyst for the removal of remaining contaminants after the electrochemical process.

Keywords: catalysis, dairy wastewater, electrochemical method, graphene oxide

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211 Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Raw Milk Samples Obtained from Organic and Conventional Dairy Farming in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia

Authors: Lidija Jevrić, Denis Kučević, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Kovačević, Milica Karadžić

Abstract:

In the present study, the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) was applied in order to determine the differences between the milk samples originating from a conventional dairy farm (CF) and an organic dairy farm (OF) in AP Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. The clustering was based on the basis of the average values of saturated fatty acids (SFA) content and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) content obtained for every season. Therefore, the HCA included the annual SFA and UFA content values. The clustering procedure was carried out on the basis of Euclidean distances and Single linkage algorithm. The obtained dendrograms indicated that the clustering of UFA in OF was much more uniform compared to clustering of UFA in CF. In OF, spring stands out from the other months of the year. The same case can be noticed for CF, where winter is separated from the other months. The results could be expected because the composition of fatty acids content is greatly influenced by the season and nutrition of dairy cows during the year.

Keywords: chemometrics, clustering, food engineering, milk quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
210 The microbial evaluation of cow raw milk used in private dairy factories in of Zawia city, Libya

Authors: Obied A. Alwan, Elgerbi, M. Ali

Abstract:

This study was conducted on the cow milk which is used in the local milk factories of Zawia. This was completely random sampling the unscheduled samples. The microbiologic result have approved that the count of bacteria and the count of E.Coli are very high and all the manufacturing places which were included in the study have lacked the health conditions.

Keywords: raw milk, dairy factories, Libya, microbiologic

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
209 Silage for Dairy Production: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Noor-ul-Ain, Muhammad Thair Khan, Adeela Ajmal, Hamid Mustafa

Abstract:

Pakistan is an agricultural country and livestock only share 11.8 percent to national GDP during 2015-16. Pakistan is a 3rd largest milk producing country having 41.2, 35.6, 29.4, 68.4 and 1.0 million head cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and camel, respectively. Modern urbanization and shortage of feed resources for livestock species in a country is an alarming threat. The introduction of new technology and advanced techniques solve this issue. This includes drought feeding, increase production, aid to crop management, balance nutrition and easily storaged of wet feed products. It is therefore clear that silage has important role in animal feed and feeding. Financial model of this study clear the effectiveness of silage. Therefore, it is revealed from this study that silage is a cost-effective option for a profitable dairy farming in Pakistan.

Keywords: feed, silage, dairy, production, Pakistan

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208 The Possibility of Increase UFA in Milk by Adding of Canola Seed in Holstein Dairy Cow Diets

Authors: H. Mansoori Yarahmadi, A. Aghazadeh, K. Nazeradl

Abstract:

This study was done to evaluate the effects of feeding canola seed for enrichment of UFA and milk performance of early lactation dairy cows. Twelve multi parous Holstein cows (635.3±18 kg BW and 36±9 DIM) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1- Control (CON) without canola seed, 2- 7.5% raw canola seed (CUT), and 3- 7.5% Heat-treated canola seed (CHT) of the total ration. Diets contained same crude protein, but varied in net energy. Diets were composed by basis of corn silage and alfalfa. Cows were milked twice daily for 4 wk. The inclusion of canola seed did not alter DM intake, weight gain, or body condition score of cows. Milk fat from CHT cows had greater proportions of UFA and MUFA (P < 0.05). Feeding CUT increased PUFA without significant difference. Milk fat from CHT had a greater proportion of C18 UFA and tended to have a higher proportion of other UFA. FCM milk yields, milk fat and protein percentages and total yield of these components were similar between treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was lower in cows fed CON and CHT. Feeding canola seed to lactating dairy cows resulted in milk fat with higher proportions of healthful fatty acids without adverse affecting milk yield or milk composition.

Keywords: canola seed, fatty acid, dairy cow, milk

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207 Development of Milky Products Leavend by Kefir Grains with Reduced Lactose and Flavored with Tropical Fruit

Authors: A. L. Balieiro, D. S. Silveira, R. A. Santos, L. S. Freitas, O. L. S. De Alsina, A. S. Lima, C. M. F. Soares

Abstract:

The state of Sergipe has been emerging in milk production, mainly in the dairy basin located in the northeast of the state of the Brazil. However, this area concentrates the production of dairy, developing diverse products with higher aggregated value and scent and regional flavours. With this goal the present wok allows the development of dairy drinks with reduced lactose index, using kefir grains flavored with mangaba pulp. Initially, the removal of milk lactose was evaluated in adsorption columns completed with silica particles obtained by molecular impression technique, using sol ? gel method with the presence and absence of lactose biomolecule, molecular imprinted polymer (PIM) or pure matrix (MP), respectively. Then kefir grains were used for the development of dairy drinks flavored with regional fruits (mangaba). The products were analyzed sensorially, evaluated the probiotic potential and the removal of the lactose. Among the products obtained, the one that present best result in the sensorially was to the drink with removal PIM flavored of mangaba, for which around 60% of the testers indicated that would buy the new product.

Keywords: molecular imprinted polymer, milk, lactose, kefir

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
206 Sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Subclinical Bovine Mastitis to Ciprofloxacin in Dairy Herd in Tabriz during 2013

Authors: Alireza Jafarzadeh, Samad Mosaferi, Mansour Khakpour

Abstract:

Mastitis is an inflammation of the parenchyma of mammary gland regardless of the causes. Mastitis is characterized by a range of physical and chemical changes in the glandular tissue. The most important change in milk includes discoloration, the presence of clots and large number of leucocytes. There is swelling, heat, pain and edema in mammary gland in many clinical cases. Positive coagulase S. aureus is a major pathogen of the bovine mammary gland and a common cause of contagious mastitis in cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outbreaks of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. This study is conducted in ten dairy herds about one thousand cows. After doing CMT and identifying infected cows, the milk samples obtained from infected teats and transported to microbiological laboratories. After microbial culture of milk samples and isolating S. aureus, antimicrobial, sensitivity test was performed with disk diffusion method by ciprofloxacin, co-amoxiclav, erythromycin, penicillin, oxytetracyclin, sulfonamides, lincomycin and cefquinome. The study defined that the outbreak of subclinical positive coagulase Staphylococcus mastitis in dairy herd was 13.11% (5.6% S. aureus and 7.51% S. intermedicus). The antimicrobial sensitivity test shown that 87.23% of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in dairy herd was susceptible to ciprofloxacin, 93.9% to cefquinome, 4.67% to co-amoxiclav, 12.16% to erythromycin 86.11% to sulfonamides (co-trimoxazole), 3.35% lincomycin, 12.7% to oxytetracyclin and 5.98% to penicillin. Results of present defined that ciprofloxacin has a great effect on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical bovine mastitis dairy herd. It seems that cefquinome sulfonamides has a great effect on isolated Staphylococcus aureus in vivo.

Keywords: ciprofloxacin, mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus, dairy herd

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205 Across-Breed Genetic Evaluation of New Zealand Dairy Goats

Authors: Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos, Dorian J. Garrick, Hugh T. Blair

Abstract:

Many dairy goat farmers of New Zealand milk herds of mixed breed does. Simultaneous evaluation of sires and does across breed is required to select the best animals for breeding on a common basis. Across-breed estimated breeding values (EBV) and estimated producing values for 208-day lactation yields of milk (MY), fat (FY), protein (PY) and somatic cell score (SCS; LOG2(SCC) of Saanen, Nubian, Alpine, Toggenburg and crossbred dairy goats from 75 herds were estimated using a test day model. Evaluations were based on 248,734 herd-test records representing 125,374 lactations from 65,514 does sired by 930 sires over 9 generations. Averages of MY, FY and PY were 642 kg, 21.6 kg and 19.8 kg, respectively. Average SCC and SCS were 936,518 cells/ml milk and 9.12. Pure-bred Saanen does out-produced other breeds in MY, FY and PY. Average EBV for MY, FY and PY compared to a Saanen base were Nubian -98 kg, 0.1 kg and -1.2 kg; Alpine -64 kg, -1.0 kg and -1.7 kg; and Toggenburg -42 kg, -1.0 kg and -0.5 kg. First-cross heterosis estimates were 29 kg MY, 1.1 kg FY and 1.2 kg PY. Average EBV for SCS compared to a Saanen base were Nubian 0.041, Alpine -0.083 and Toggenburg 0.094. Heterosis for SCS was 0.03. Breeding values are combined with respective economic values to calculate an economic index used for ranking sires and does to reflect farm profit.

Keywords: breed effects, dairy goats, milk traits, test-day model

Procedia PDF Downloads 245