Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Sovit Pujari

5 Economic Benefits in Community Based Forest Management from Users Perspective in Community Forestry, Nepal

Authors: Sovit Pujari


In the developing countries like Nepal, the community-based forest management approach has often been glorified as one of the best forest management alternatives to maximize the forest benefits. Though the approach has succeeded to construct a local level institution and conserve the forest biodiversity, how the local communities perceived about the forest benefits, the question always remains silent among the researchers and policy makers. The paper aims to explore the understanding of forest benefits from the perspective of local communities who used the forests in terms of institutional stability, equity and livelihood opportunity, and ecological stability. The paper revealed that the local communities have mixed understanding over the forest benefits. The institutional and ecological activities carried out by the local communities indicated that they have a better understanding over the forest benefits. However, inequality while sharing the forest benefits, low pricing strategy and its negative consequences in the valuation of forest products and limited livelihood opportunities indicating the poor understanding.

Keywords: community based forest management, low pricing strategy, forest benefits, livelihood opportunities, Nepal

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4 Dealing with Neighbors: River Water Sharing between India, Pakistan and Bangladesh

Authors: Ashutosh Pujari


The sharing of natural resources is one of the most important aspects of relations between two neighboring countries, especially when it is a resource that has a presence in both the countries in question. River water is an important resource that is shared between India and its neighbors, namely Pakistan and Bangladesh. India shares Indus, Chenab, and Jhelum rivers with Pakistan, while with Bangladesh, it shares Ganges and Brahmaputra. However, it is interesting to note how does India deals with her sharing of water with these two countries. Although water sharing with both the countries has been dotted by irritants over the years, relations with Bangladesh is undoubtedly better in this respect. Given the common history of the region, this paper analyses the reasons behind this difference in the relationship between India and her neighbors and its implications for the present times. Through critical analysis of literature and the official policy of all the governments involved and the narratives present, this paper tries to present understand how India’s relations with its neighbors are a function of geopolitics, culture, and perceptions on both sides.

Keywords: geopolitics, river water sharing, India-Pakistan relations, India-Bangladesh relations

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3 Control System Design for a Simulated Microbial Electrolysis Cell

Authors: Pujari Muruga, T. K. Radhakrishnan, N. Samsudeen


Hydrogen is considered as the most important energy carrier and fuel of the future because of its high energy density and zero emission properties. Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) is a new and promising approach for hydrogen production from organic matter, including wastewater and other renewable resources. By utilizing anode microorganism activity, MEC can produce hydrogen gas with smaller voltages (as low as 0.2 V) than those required for electrolytic hydrogen production ( ≥ 1.23 V). The hydrogen production processes of the MEC reactor are very nonlinear and highly complex because of the presence of microbial interactions and highly complex phenomena in the system. Increasing the hydrogen production rate and lowering the energy input are two important challenges of MEC technology. The mathematical model of the MEC is based on material balance with the integration of bioelectrochemical reactions. The main objective of the research is to produce biohydrogen by selecting the optimum current and controlling applied voltage to the MEC. Precise control is required for the MEC reactor, so that the amount of current required to produce hydrogen gas can be controlled according to the composition of the substrate in the reactor. Various simulation tests involving multiple set-point changes disturbance and noise rejection were performed to evaluate the performance using PID controller tuned with Ziegler Nichols settings. Simulation results shows that other good controller can provide better control effect on the MEC system, so that higher hydrogen production can be obtained.

Keywords: microbial electrolysis cell, hydrogen production, applied voltage, PID controller

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2 Challenges of Skill Training among Women with Intellectual Disability: Stakeholders' Perspective

Authors: Jayanti Pujari


The present study attempts to find out the barriers faced by adult women with an Intellectual disability during their training at vocational training centres offered by rehabilitation institutes. As economic independence is the ultimate aim of rehabilitation, this study tries to focus on the barriers which restrict the adult women with intellectual disability in equipping themselves in required skill which can really empower them and help them in independent living. The objectives of the study are (1) To find out the barriers perceived by job coaches during training given to women with intellectual disability (2) To find out the barriers perceived by the parents of women with intellectual disability who are undergoing vocational training and (3) To find out the barriers perceived by the women with intellectual disabilities during the vocational training. The barriers have been operationalised in the present study from three perspectives such as behavioural barriers, competency related barriers and accessibility barriers. For the present study three groups of participants(N=60) have been selected through purposive nonprobability sampling procedure to generate the data. They are( 20) job coaches who are working at vocational centres, (20) parents of women with intellectual disabilities, (20) adult women with intellectual disabilities. The study followed a descriptive research design and data are generated through self developed questionnaire. Three sets of self-developed and face validated questionnaires were used as the tool to gather the data from the three categories of sample. The questionnaire has 30 close ended questions and the respondents have to answer on a three point scale (yes, no, need help). Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis. The major findings of the study depict that the 87% of the women with intellectual disability perceived highest barriers related to competency whereas barriers related to behaviour and accessibility are perceived lowest. 92% of job coaches perceived barriers related to competencies and accessibility are highest which hinder the effectiveness of skill development of women with intellectual disability and 74% of the parents of adult women with intellectual disability also opines that the barriers related to competencies and accessibility are highest. In conclusion, it is stressed that there is need to create awareness among the stakeholders about the training and management strategies of skill training and positive behaviour support which will surely enable the adult women with intellectual disability to utilise their residual skill and acquire training to become economically independent.

Keywords: economic independence, intellectual disability, skill development, training barrier

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1 Enhanced Bioproduction of Moscatilin in Dendrobium ovatum through Hairy Root Culture

Authors: Ipsita Pujari, Abitha Thomas, Vidhu S. Babu, K. Satyamoorthy


Orchids are esteemed as celebrities in cut flower industry globally, due to their long-lasting fragrance and freshness. Apart from splendor, the unique metabolites endowed with pharmaceutical potency have made them one of the most hunted in plant kingdom. This had led to their trafficking, resulting in habitat loss, subsequently making them occupiers of IUCN red list as RET species. Many of the orchids especially wild varieties still remain undiscovered. In view to protect and conserve the wild germplasm, researchers have been inventing novel micropropagation protocols; thereby conserving Orchids. India is overflowing with exclusive wild cultivars of Orchids, whose pharmaceutical properties remain untapped and are not marketed owing to relatively small flowers. However, their germplasm is quite pertinent to be preserved for making unusual hybrids. Dendrobium genus is the second largest among Orchids exists in India and has highest demand attributable to enduring cut flowers and significant therapeutic uses in traditional medicinal system. Though the genus is quite endemic in Western Ghat regions of the country, many species are still anonymous with their unknown curative properties. A standard breeding cycle in Orchids usually takes five to seven years (Dendrobium hybrids taking a long juvenile phase of two to five years reaching maturity and flowering stage) and this extensive life cycle has always hindered the development of Dendrobium breeding. Dendrobium is reported with essential therapeutic plant bio-chemicals and ‘Moscatilin’ is one, found exclusive to this famous Dendrobium genus. Moscatilin is reported to have anti-mutagenic and anti-cancer properties, whose positive action has very recently been demonstrated against a range of cancers. Our preliminary study here established a simple and economic small-scale propagation protocol of Dendrobium ovatum describing in vitro production of Moscatilin. Subsequently for enhancing the content of Moscatilin, an efficient experimental related to the organization of transgenic (hairy) D. ovatum root cultures through infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes 2364 strain on MS basal medium is being reported in the present study. Hairy roots generated on almost half of the explants used (spherules, in vitro plantlets and calli) maintained through suspension cultures, after 8 weeks of co-cultivation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. GFP assay performed with isolated hairy roots has confirmed the integrative transformation which was further positively confirmed by PCR using rolB gene specific primers. Reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques were used for quantification and accurate identification of Moscatilin respectively from transgenic systems. A noticeable ~3 fold increase in contents were observed in transformed D. ovatum root cultures as compared to the simple in vitro culture, callus culture and callus regeneration plantlets. Role of elicitors e.g., Methyl jasmonate, Salicylic acid, Yeast extract and Chitosan were tested for elevating the Moscatilin content to obtain a comprehensive optimized protocol facilitating the in vitro production of valuable Moscatilin with larger yield. This study would provide evidence towards the in vitro assembly of Moscatilin within a short time-period through not a so-expensive technology for the first time. It also serves as an appropriate basis for bioreactor scale-up resulting in commercial bioproduction of Moscatilin.

Keywords: bioproduction, Dendrobium ovatum, hairy root culture, moscatilin

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