Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: policing

54 Sovereign Characters of Police in Turkey: Discretionary Use of Force on Criminalized Political Opponents

Authors: Emrah Denizhan

Abstract:

Policing studies have drawn attention to the changing role of law enforcement in favour of harsh policing strategies throughout the world. Turkey has become part of this global transition process by restructuring its policing through a series of allegedly democratic amendments to Turkish law. Nevertheless, severe violations of human rights continue to be widely experienced phenomena. This paper suggests problematizing the changing judicial framework of policing together with the persistent aggressive policing in Turkey, by considering Agamben's concept of police as a sovereign entity – sovereign police. In so doing, the paper analytically dissects sovereign police into three premises: the criminalization of the (perceived) enemy, the militarization of the police, and finally, the discretionary use of force. This examination of the state’s early ethno-racial policies and the history of the Turkish police force, and of the changing judicial framework of police-related laws in the 2000s, demonstrates that certain ‘internal enemies’ have been criminalized by increasingly militarized police using escalating discretionary use of force.

Keywords: criminalization, discretionary use of force, policing, sovereignty

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
53 The Nigeria Police Force: Human Resources Management Issues and the Community Policing Policy Transfer

Authors: Aminu Musa Audu

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This paper examines the human resources management issues of the Nigeria Police and how it is impacting the community policing policy transfer. Nigeria Police Force is the organisation in the country with the constitutional responsibility of maintaining law and order. The high level of crime and other forms of insecurity called for the introduction of ‘police-community partnership’ strategy in 2003. The trend of events has suggested that the effort is not yielding result, partly because the police in Nigeria are facing human resources management challenges. For instance, the prospective candidates for the police jobs are usually not vetted a situation which provides the possibility of recruiting persons of low academic background and questionable character, or even criminal records. Moreover, the existing training, development infrastructure and other logistics for the job of policing are not in good condition. Consequently, the implementation of the ‘community policing’ policy for crime prevention and control in Nigeria stands to suffer setbacks. Adopting qualitative methods and with focus groups discussions and individual in-depth interviews for data collections, the findings from the views and perspectives of the participants were suggestive of poor handlings of human resources management of the Nigeria police organisation and with negative effect on the implementation of community policing policy. The paper therefore recommends that a total overhaul of the human resources component of the police organisation is necessary in the community policing policy transfer process for crime prevention and control in Nigeria.

Keywords: Nigeria Police Force, community policing policy transfer, human resources management, police-community partnership

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
52 Mending Broken Fences Policing: Developing the Intelligence-Led/Community-Based Policing Model(IP-CP) and Quality/Quantity/Crime(QQC) Model

Authors: Anil Anand

Abstract:

Despite enormous strides made during the past decade, particularly with the adoption and expansion of community policing, there remains much that police leaders can do to improve police-public relations. The urgency is particularly evident in cities across the United States and Europe where an increasing number of police interactions over the past few years have ignited large, sometimes even national, protests against police policy and strategy, highlighting a gap between what police leaders feel they have archived in terms of public satisfaction, support, and legitimacy and the perception of bias among many marginalized communities. The decision on which one policing strategy is chosen over another, how many resources are allocated, and how strenuously the policy is applied resides primarily with the police and the units and subunits tasked with its enforcement. The scope and opportunity for police officers in impacting social attitudes and social policy are important elements that cannot be overstated. How do police leaders, for instance, decide when to apply one strategy—say community-based policing—over another, like intelligence-led policing? How do police leaders measure performance and success? Should these measures be based on quantitative preferences over qualitative, or should the preference be based on some other criteria? And how do police leaders define, allow, and control discretionary decision-making? Mending Broken Fences Policing provides police and security services leaders with a model based on social cohesion, that incorporates intelligence-led and community policing (IP-CP), supplemented by a quality/quantity/crime (QQC) framework to provide a four-step process for the articulable application of police intervention, performance measurement, and application of discretion.

Keywords: social cohesion, quantitative performance measurement, qualitative performance measurement, sustainable leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
51 Convectory Policing-Reconciling Historic and Contemporary Models of Police Service Delivery

Authors: Mark Jackson

Abstract:

Description: This paper is based on an theoretical analysis of the efficacy of the dominant model of policing in western jurisdictions. Those results are then compared with a similar analysis of a traditional reactive model. It is found that neither model provides for optimal delivery of services. Instead optimal service can be achieved by a synchronous hybrid model, termed the Convectory Policing approach. Methodology and Findings: For over three decades problem oriented policing (PO) has been the dominant model for western police agencies. Initially based on the work of Goldstein during the 1970s the problem oriented framework has spawned endless variants and approaches, most of which embrace a problem solving rather than a reactive approach to policing. This has included the Area Policing Concept (APC) applied in many smaller jurisdictions in the USA, the Scaled Response Policing Model (SRPM) currently under trial in Western Australia and the Proactive Pre-Response Approach (PPRA) which has also seen some success. All of these, in some way or another, are largely based on a model that eschews a traditional reactive model of policing. Convectory Policing (CP) is an alternative model which challenges the underpinning assumptions which have seen proliferation of the PO approach in the last three decades and commences by questioning the economics on which PO is based. It is argued that in essence, the PO relies on an unstated, and often unrecognised assumption that resources will be available to meet demand for policing services, while at the same time maintaining the capacity to deploy staff to develop solutions to the problems which were ultimately manifested in those same calls for service. The CP model relies on the observations from a numerous western jurisdictions to challenge the validity of that underpinning assumption, particularly in fiscally tight environment. In deploying staff to pursue and develop solutions to underpinning problems, there is clearly an opportunity cost. Those same staff cannot be allocated to alternative duties while engaged in a problem solution role. At the same time, resources in use responding to calls for service are unavailable, while committed to that role, to pursue solutions to the problems giving rise to those same calls for service. The two approaches, reactive and PO are therefore dichotomous. One cannot be optimised while the other is being pursued. Convectory Policing is a pragmatic response to the schism between the competing traditional and contemporary models. If it is not possible to serve either model with any real rigour, it becomes necessary to taper an approach to deliver specific outcomes against which success or otherwise might be measured. CP proposes that a structured roster-driven approach to calls for service, combined with the application of what is termed a resource-effect response capacity has the potential to resolve the inherent conflict between traditional and models of policing and the expectations of the community in terms of community policing based problem solving models.

Keywords: policing, reactive, proactive, models, efficacy

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50 On the Path of Radicalization: Policing of Muslim Americans Post 9/11

Authors: Hagar Elsayed

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This case study examines the framing of the diverse populations of Arab, Muslim and South Asian immigrants and their descendants in local communities by both federal and local law enforcement agencies. It explores how urban spaces and policing are constructed as necessary components of national security in the context of the war on terror by focusing on practices employed in local spaces such as Dearborn, Michigan and training methods adopted on a national level. The proliferation of American Arabs as ‘terrorist’ works to legitimize not only increasing state surveillance, but also military strategies which infringe on ‘inside’ spaces. Sustaining these progressively militarized civil policing operations, which demand intense mobilization of state power, requires that whole neighborhoods and districts are reimagined to portray these geographies in a certain light. This case study is central in understanding how Arab, South Asian, and Muslim civilians’ transformation into a “national security” issue have created militarized police enforcement agencies that employ military tactics to map the terrain of Otherness. This study looks at how race factors into key recent incidents, and asks whether this militarization builds from past forms of racist policing, and whether these specific incidents are reflective of larger patterns or whether they are just isolated incidents.

Keywords: American-Muslims, Arabs, militarization, policing

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
49 Understanding Human Rights Violations in the Fight against Boko Haram: A Historical Perspective

Authors: Anthony Mpiani

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Recent media and NGO reports suggest that human rights violations have been a salient characteristic of the government Joint Task Force (JTF) in the war on Boko Haram. However, there has been relatively scant scholarly engagement with the forms of abuses committed by the JTF against civilians and why such human rights violations occur. The focus of this paper is to analyse the various human rights violations committed by JTF in the war against Boko Haram. Employing a historical approach, it argues that the JTF's human rights violations is shaped by the philosophy of colonial policing in Nigeria. Consequently, the failure of successive post-colonial governments to ideologically transform policing is accountable for the human rights abuses being witnessed in Nigeria today. A philosophical transformation in Nigeria's security forces especially the police and military is a prerequisite for ending human rights abuses in the fight against Boko Haram.

Keywords: colonialism, policing, joint task force, counterinsurgency, Boko Haram, human rights violations

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
48 Big Data-Driven Smart Policing: Big Data-Based Patrol Car Dispatching in Abu Dhabi, UAE

Authors: Oualid Walid Ben Ali

Abstract:

Big Data has become one of the buzzwords today. The recent explosion of digital data has led the organization, either private or public, to a new era towards a more efficient decision making. At some point, business decided to use that concept in order to learn what make their clients tick with phrases like ‘sales funnel’ analysis, ‘actionable insights’, and ‘positive business impact’. So, it stands to reason that Big Data was viewed through green (read: money) colored lenses. Somewhere along the line, however someone realized that collecting and processing data doesn’t have to be for business purpose only, but also could be used for other purposes to assist law enforcement or to improve policing or in road safety. This paper presents briefly, how Big Data have been used in the fields of policing order to improve the decision making process in the daily operation of the police. As example, we present a big-data driven system which is sued to accurately dispatch the patrol cars in a geographic environment. The system is also used to allocate, in real-time, the nearest patrol car to the location of an incident. This system has been implemented and applied in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in the UAE.

Keywords: big data, big data analytics, patrol car allocation, dispatching, GIS, intelligent, Abu Dhabi, police, UAE

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
47 Community Policing: Exploring the Police and Community Participation for Crime Control in Bia West of Ghana

Authors: Bertha Korang Gyimah, Obed Asamoah, Kenross, T. Asamoah

Abstract:

In every human community, crimes or offenses cannot be eliminated, but as crimes are expected, there should be bodies that will control and prevent the crimes. There has been an increasing rate of crime, such as armed robbery, kidnapping, murder, and other forms of violence in the country. Community participation in crime control cannot be left out in Ghana. Several works have been conducted to deal with the importance of community participation in policing, but the causes of communities not fully participating in community policing have been left out. The main aim of the research was to assess the impact of community policing and why the communities are reluctant to partake in community policing to help control crime in Bia West. There have been perceptions about Police that, they expose informant after they give the police tip-off which put the whistleblower life in danger. This has made the community not to get involved in security issues in the community they live in. This situation has posed a serious threat to the Ghana Police Service and its ability to position itself strategically in order to carry out a perfect investigation to bring the perpetrators into custody and to protect their lives and property, as well as the maintenance of law and order. Due to less data on community participation in the Ghana Police Service, the research adopted an interpretative framework to assess the meaning connoted to community policing from the perspectives of the stakeholders themselves. The qualitative research method was used. There was an engagement of the police and community where focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews were organized in the randomly selected communities in the district. Key informant interviews were used to solicit views of the people why they are reluctant to give information to the police to help them take the perpetrators to book. In the data collected, it was observed that most of the people have been under threats of offenders after they come back from the prisons, it was also observed that some of the unprofessional police personnel’s expose the whistleblowers who put their lives in danger. The data obtained were analyzed using simple Analytical tool SPSS and Excel. Based on the analysis, it was observed that a high number of people in the communities contacted had not made their mind to participate in any security issues. Based on the views of the community, there should be a high level of professionalism in the recruitment system of the Ghana police service to come out with professional police officers who can abide by the rules and regulations governing the profession.

Keywords: community, bia west, Ghana, participation, police

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46 Enhancing Police Accountability through the Malawi Independent Police Complaints Commission: Prospects and Challenges That Lie Ahead

Authors: Esther Gumboh

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The police play a critical role in society and are an integral aspect of the rule of law. Equally, respect for human rights is an integral part of professional policing. In view of the vast powers that the police enjoy and the attendant risk of abuse and resulting human rights violations, the need for police accountability and civilian police oversight is internationally and regionally recognised. Policing oversight springs from the duty to investigate human rights violations. Those implicated in perpetrating or covering up violations must be disciplined or prosecuted to ensure effective accountability. Police accountability is particularly important in Malawi given the dark history of policing in the country during the 30-year dictatorial era under President Kamuzu Banda. Described as one of the most repressive regimes in Africa, the Banda administration was characterised by gross state-sponsored violence, repressive policing and human rights violations. Indeed, the police were involved in various forms of human rights abuse including arbitrary arrests and unlawful detentions, torture, and excessive use of force in conducting arrests and public order policing. This situation flourished within a culture of police impunity bolstered in part by the absence of clear oversight mechanisms for police accountability. In turn, there was immense public mistrust of the police. Unsurprisingly, the criminal justice system was one of the priority areas for reform when Malawi adopted its first democratic Constitution in 1994. Section 153 of the Constitution envisions a police service that is, for all intents and purposes, there to provide for the protection of public safety and the rights of persons in Malawi according to the prescriptions of the Constitution and any other law. This position reflects the view that the duty to protect and promote human rights is not incompatible with effective policing. Despite this, the police continue to engage in questionable behaviour in public order policing, excessive use of force, deaths in police custody, ill-treatment, torture and other forms of abuse including sexual abuse. Perpetrators of abuses are occasionally punished, but investigations are often delayed, abandoned, or remain inconclusive. Police accountability remains largely elusive. Commendably, the law does subject the police to significant oversight both internally and externally. However, until 2010, Malawi lacked a wholly independent civilian oversight mechanism specifically mandated to monitor the activities of the Malawi Police Service and held it accountable. This void has since been filled by the Independent Complaints Commission established under the Police Act. This is a positive development that reiterates Malawi’s commitment to the investigation of human rights violations by the police and to ending police impunity. This contribution examines the legal framework for this Commission to project the effectiveness of the Commission. While the framework looks promising on various fronts, there are potential challenges that lie ahead. Malawi must pre-emptively deal with these challenges carefully if the Commission is to have any practical significance in transforming police accountability in the country. Drawing on lessons from other jurisdictions like South Africa, the paper makes recommendations for legislative reform to strengthen the Commission’s framework.

Keywords: civilian policing oversight, Malawi, police, police accountability, policing, policing oversight

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
45 19th Century Exam, 21st Century Policing: An Examination of the New York State Civil Service and Police Officer Recruitment Efforts

Authors: A. Edwards

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The civil service was created to reform the hiring process for public officials, changing the patronage system to a merit-based system. Though exam reforms continued throughout the 20th century, there have been few during the 21st century, particularly in New York state. In the case of police departments, the civil service exam has acted as a hindrance to its ‘21st Century Policing’ goals and new exam reform efforts have left out officers voices and concerns. Through in-depth interviews of current and retired police officers and local and state civil service administrators in Albany County in New York, this study seeks to understand police influence and insight regarding the civil service exam, placing some of the voice and input for civil service reform on police departments, instead of local and state bureaucrats. The study also looks at the relationship between civil service administrators and police departments. Using practice theory, the study seeks to understand the ways in which the civil service exam was defined in the 20th century and how it is out of step with current thinking while examining possible changes to the civil service exam that would lead to a more equitable hiring process and successful police departments.

Keywords: civil service, hiring, merit, policing

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44 Greening of the Hotel Industry in Malawi: An Examination of the Governance and Policing Tools

Authors: Lameck Zetu Khonje, Mulala Danny Simatele

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Malawi’s economy is agriculture based. Recently the government earmarked the tourism sector as an important economic sector which could support the agriculture sector to bring about sustainable economic development and help socioeconomic wellbeing of the local people. Greening of the hotel industry is one of the proven ideal ways of creating a sustainable tourism industry which brings about sustainable economic development in a country like Malawi. This study uses qualitative methodology to examine the efficacy of the governance and policing tools that Malawi uses to guide the development and general practices of the hotel sector to ascertain whether these tools are for greening or not. Grounded Theory method is used whereby semi-structured interviews and field visits were conducted to collect data for the study. The results of the study show that there are loopholes in the governance system in Malawi. The results also reveal gaps within the policing tools such that the hotel industry is not properly guided on green issues. Furthermore, the results show that there is a lack of collaboration for the enforcement of the green practices in the hotel industry. It is also revealed that there is a lack of knowledge of green issues within the governance structures. Awareness campaigns and capacity building would improve greening of the hotel industry in Malawi.

Keywords: governance, greening, Grounded Theory, Malawi

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43 Police Mothers at Home: Police Work and Danger-Protection Parenting Practices

Authors: Tricia Agocs, Debra Langan, Carrie B. Sanders

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Studies of the challenges faced by women in policing have paid little attention to the specific experiences of Policewomen who are mothers. Guided by critical theorizing on the gendered nature of the police culture and domestic labor, 16 police officer mothers in Ontario, Canada, were interviewed. Our qualitative analyses explore their experiences of the “lion’s share” of domestic labor; the organizational, cultural, and operational features of policing; and the challenges of child care, and examine how these combine to foster particular stresses. In contrast to intensive mothering approaches that rely on the advice of external experts, our participants work to protect children by carefully constructing stories and asking questions that are based on their own on-the-job experiences with dangerous and/or abhorrent situations. As such, they engage in danger-protection parenting practices to prevent their children from becoming victims or offenders. Our research extends the theorizing on intensive/extensive mothering practices, builds on the scholarship on policing, and adds to the literature on women in nonstandard occupations. This sociological analysis of police mothers’ experiences and practices underscores the importance of understanding and working to change the social contexts, at work and at home, that compromise the well-being of police mothers and other emergency-response workers.

Keywords: policewomen, mothers, parenting, danger, qualitative research

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42 The Political Economy of Police Corruption in Nigeria

Authors: Tosin Osasona

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The Nigeria Police Force bears the constitutional mandate as the primary policing agency for the protection of life and property within Nigeria; however, the police have an historical ill-reputation for corruption, ineptitude and impunity. Using the institutional theory of police as the framework of analysis, the paper argues that the performance of the police in Nigeria mirrors the dominant political, social and economic institutions and the structural environment of the Nigerian state. The article puts in perspective the deliberate political decision to underfund the police, leaving officers of the force the extra task of foraging for funds to undertake the duty that the Nigeria state primarily exists for; the article further explores the nexus between corruption in the police in Nigeria and the issue of funding. The article finds that the Nigerian state, by deliberately under-funding the police, while expecting the agency to perform its duties, has indirectly sanctioned the corruption of the force and approved the cooption of the institution of police and policing for private use in Nigeria.

Keywords: Police Corruption, Funding , Informal Taxation, POlice Checkpoint

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
41 Enhancing Cooperation Between LEAs and Citizens: The INSPEC2T Approach

Authors: George Leventakis, George Kokkinis, Nikos Moustakidis, George Papalexandratos, Ioanna Vasiliadou

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Enhancing the feeling of public safety and crime prevention are tasks customarily assigned to the Police. Police departments have, however, recognized that traditional ways of policing methods are becoming obsolete; Community Policing (CP) philosophy; however, when applied appropriately, leads to seamless collaboration between various stakeholders like the Police, NGOs and the general public and provides the opportunity to identify risks, assist in solving problems of crime, disorder, safety and crucially contribute to improving the quality of life for everyone in a community. Social Media, on the other hand, due to its high level of infiltration in modern life, constitutes a powerful mechanism which offers additional and direct communication channels to reach individuals or communities. These channels can be utilized to improve the citizens’ perception of the Police and to capture individual and community needs, when their feedback is taken into account by Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) in a structured and coordinated manner. This paper presents research conducted under INSPEC2T (Inspiring CitizeNS Participation for Enhanced Community PoliCing AcTions), a project funded by the European Commission’s research agenda to bridge the gap between CP as a philosophy and as an organizational strategy, capitalizing on the use of Social Media. The project aims to increase transparency, trust, police accountability, and the role of civil society. It aspires to build strong, trusting relationships between LEAs and the public, supporting two-way, contemporary communication while at the same time respecting anonymity of all affected parties. Results presented herein summarize the outcomes of four online multilingual surveys, focus group interviews, desktop research and interviews with experts in the field of CP practices. The above research activities were conducted in various EU countries aiming to capture requirements of end users from diverse backgrounds (social, cultural, legal and ethical) and determine public expectations regarding CP, community safety and crime prevention.

Keywords: community partnerships, next generation community policing, social media, public safety

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40 Community Policing Interventions in the Tribal Hamlets as a Positive Criminal Justice and Social Justice Strategy: A Study Based on the Community Policing Project of the Government of Kerala

Authors: Bharathadas Sandhya

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Janamaithri Suraksha Project is the community policing project of Kerala police, fully sponsored by the Government of Kerala and in vogue in Kerala for the last ten years. The socio-economically weaker areas in the hilly terrains consisting of tribal hamlets are given special importance under the project. These hamlets are visited by the beat police officers, and they intervene in various issues in the hamlets. This study is based on data collected from 350 respondents living in the tribal hamlets of the Nilambur area in the District of Malappuram. The respondents were personally interviewed by the research team using a questionnaire consisting of 183 questions, seeking the details regarding their interaction with beat police officers, their ability to prevent or detect crimes, the menace of Maoists (extremist) presence, their interventions in other socio-economic problems like alcoholism, school dropout issues, lack of facilities for preparation for competitive examinations for educated youth, etc. The perception of the tribal population regarding the effectiveness of police intervention in their criminal justice complaints, the attitude of the police officers towards the tribal population when they approach the police station with a criminal complaint, are also studied. The general socio-economic problems of the tribal population as perceived by them are also brought out. Being the visible agency of the government, the police person coming on beat duty to the hamlet is generally seen by the tribal population as a representative to whom they can communicate the issues, even if it’s solution rests with another department like the forest or agriculture. The analysis of the primary data is carried out using computer applications. The amount of social justice benefits the tribal hamlets received through various government schemes, and their deficiencies are brought out in the study. From the conclusions of the study, certain suggestions for positive criminal justice and social justice intervention strategies are made out. The need for various government departments to work in tandem with each other so as to bring out more effectiveness in the socio-economic projects is evident from the study. Whether it is the need to obtain a transport to go to school or problem of drinking water or even opening a bank account, at least occasionally, the visiting beat police officer is of help to the tribal population. Mostly the tribal population feels free to approach the police with a criminal complaint without any inhibitions.

Keywords: community policing, beat police officer, criminal justice, social justice

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
39 Civilian and Military Responses to Domestic Security Threats: A Cross-Case Analysis of Belgium, France, and the United Kingdom

Authors: John Hardy

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The domestic security environment in Europe has changed dramatically in recent years. Since January 2015, a significant number of domestic security threats that emerged in Europe were located in Belgium, France and the United Kingdom. While some threats were detected in the planning phase, many also resulted in terrorist attacks. Authorities in all three countries instituted special or emergency measures to provide additional security to their populations. Each country combined an additional policing presence with a specific military operation to contribute to a comprehensive security response to domestic threats. This study presents a cross-case analysis of three countries’ civilian and military responses to domestic security threats in Europe. Each case study features a unique approach to combining civilian and military capabilities in similar domestic security operations during the same time period and threat environment. The research design focuses on five variables relevant to the relationship between civilian and military roles in each security response. These are the distinction between policing and military roles, the legal framework for the domestic deployment of military forces, prior experience in civil-military coordination, the institutional framework for threat assessments, and the level of public support for the domestic use of military forces. These variables examine the influence of domestic social, political, and legal factors on the design of combined civil-military operations in response to domestic security threats. Each case study focuses on a specific operation: Operation Vigilant Guard in Belgium, Operation Sentinel in France, and Operation Temperer in the United Kingdom. The results demonstrate that the level of distinction between policing and military roles and the existence of a clear and robust legal framework for the domestic use force by military personnel significantly influence the design and implementation of civilian and military roles in domestic security operations. The findings of this study indicate that Belgium, France and the United Kingdom experienced different design and implementation challenges for their domestic security operations. Belgium and France initially had less-developed legal frameworks for deploying the military in domestic security operations than the United Kingdom. This was offset by public support for enacting emergency measures and the strength of existing civil-military coordination mechanisms. The United Kingdom had a well-developed legal framework for integrating civilian and military capabilities in domestic security operations. However, its experiences in Ireland also made the government more sensitive to public perceptions regarding the domestic deployment of military forces.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, democracy, homeland security, intelligence, militarization, policing

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38 Modern Scotland Yard: Improving Surveillance Policies Using Adversarial Agent-Based Modelling and Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Olaf Visker, Arnout De Vries, Lambert Schomaker

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Predictive policing refers to the usage of analytical techniques to identify potential criminal activity. It has been widely implemented by various police departments. Being a relatively new area of research, there are, to the author’s knowledge, no absolute tried, and true methods and they still exhibit a variety of potential problems. One of those problems is closely related to the lack of understanding of how acting on these prediction influence crime itself. The goal of law enforcement is ultimately crime reduction. As such, a policy needs to be established that best facilitates this goal. This research aims to find such a policy by using adversarial agent-based modeling in combination with modern reinforcement learning techniques. It is presented here that a baseline model for both law enforcement and criminal agents and compare their performance to their respective reinforcement models. The experiments show that our smart law enforcement model is capable of reducing crime by making more deliberate choices regarding the locations of potential criminal activity. Furthermore, it is shown that the smart criminal model presents behavior consistent with popular crime theories and outperforms the baseline model in terms of crimes committed and time to capture. It does, however, still suffer from the difficulties of capturing long term rewards and learning how to handle multiple opposing goals.

Keywords: adversarial, agent based modelling, predictive policing, reinforcement learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
37 Good Governance in Perspective: An Example of Transition from Corruption towards Integrity within a Developing Country (Pakistan)

Authors: Saifullah Khalid

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Governance and good governance are among the main topics in international discussions about the success factors for social and economic development. The image of developing countries as for example Pakistan in this respect is bad (in TI Corruption Index nr. among countries). Additionally, the police are among the sectors and organizations which are seen as most corrupt in many countries. However, in case of Pakistan there seem to be exceptions to the rule, and improvement can be brought in specific police departments. This paper represents the findings of Islamabad traffic police (ITP). In Pakistan, the police, in general, have been stigmatized for being the most corrupt department in the country. However, the few recent examples of Motorway police and its replicated model of Islamabad traffic police changed the perception about police and policing. These police forces have shown that Policing in Pakistan can be changed for better. In this paper, the research question that is addressed is: How corrupt are (traffic) police forces in Pakistan and what factors influence corruption within that police force? And What lessons can be learned from that to improve police integrity? Both qualitative and quantitative tools are utilized for data collection. The overall picture of the factors is not so easy to interpret and summarise. Nevertheless paying a better salary does not seem to limit integrity violations, neither does recruitment and selection and leadership, while supervision and control, training and stimulating the positive and limiting the negative elements of culture appear to be important in curbing (sometimes specific) integrity violations in the context of Pakistani police forces. The study also leads to a number of suggestions for curbing corruption and other integrity violations in the Pakistan police.

Keywords: corruption control, governance, integrity violations, Islamabad traffic police, Pakistan

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36 Graffiti as Intelligence: an Analysis of Encoded Messages in Gang Graffiti Renderings

Authors: Timothy Kephart

Abstract:

Many law enforcement officials believe that gangs communicate messages to both the community and to rival gangs through graffiti. Some social scientists have documented this as well, however no recent research has examined gang graffiti for its underlying meaning. Empirical research on gang graffiti and gang communication through graffiti is limited. This research can be described as an exploratory effort to better understand how, and perhaps why, gangs employ this medium for communication. Furthermore this research showcases how law enforcement agencies can utilize this hidden form of communication to better direct resources and impact gang violence.

Keywords: gangs, graffiti, juvenile justice, policing

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35 Office Workspace Design for Policewomen in Assam, India: Applications for Developing Countries

Authors: Shilpi Bora, Abhirup Chatterjee, Debkumar Chakrabarti

Abstract:

Organizations of all the sectors around the world are increasingly revisiting their workplace strategies with due concern for women working therein. Limited office space and rigid work arrangements contribute to lesser job satisfaction and greater work impoundments for any organization. Flexible workspace strategies are indispensable to accommodate the progressive rise of modular workstations and involvement of women. Today’s generation of employees deserves malleable office environments with employee-friendly job conditions and strategies. The workplace nowadays stands on rapid organizational changes in progressive and flexible work culture. Occupational well-being practices need to keep pace with the rapid changes in office-based work. Working at the office (workspace) with awkward postures or for long periods can cause pain, discomfort, and injury. The world is stirring towards the era of globalization and progress. The 4000 women police personnel constitute less than one per cent of the total police strength of India. Lots of innovative fields are growing fast, and it is important that we should accommodate women in those arenas. The timeworn trends should be set apart to set out for fresh opportunities and possibilities of development and success through more involvement of women in the workplace. The notion of women policing is gaining position throughout the world, and various countries are putting solemn efforts to mainstream women in policing. As the role of women policing in a society is budding, and thus it is also notable that the accessibility of women at general police stations should be considered. Accordingly, the impact of workspace at police station on the employee productivity has been widely deliberated as a crucial contributor to employee satisfaction leading to better functional motivation. Thus the present research aimed to look into the office workstation design of police station with reference to womanhood specific issues to uplift occupational wellbeing of the policewomen. Personal interview and individual responses collected through administering to a subjective assessment questionnaire on thirty women police as well as to have their views on these issues by purposive non-probability sampling of women police personnel of different ranks posted in Guwahati, Assam, India. Scrutiny of the collected data revealed that office design has a substantial impact on the policewomen job satisfaction in the police station. In this study, the workspace was designed in such a way that the set of factors would impact on the individual to ensure increased productivity. Office design such as furniture, noise, temperature, lighting and spatial arrangement were considered. The primary feature which affected the productivity of policewomen was the furniture used in the workspace, which was found to disturb the everyday and overall productivity of policewomen. Therefore, it was recommended to have proper and adequate ergonomics design intervention to improve the office design for better performance. This type of study is today’s need-of-the-hour to empower women and facilitate their inner talent to come up in service of the nation. The office workspace design also finds critical importance at several other occupations also – where office workstation needs further improvement.

Keywords: office workspace design, policewomen, womanhood concerns at workspace, occupational wellbeing

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
34 Psychological Contract Violation and Occupational Stressors amongst UK Police Officers

Authors: Fazeelat Duran, Darren Bishopp, Jessica Woodhams

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Psychological contract refers to the perceptions of an employee and their employer regarding their mutual obligations towards each other. The rationale for applying the psychological contract theory in UK policing was to investigate its impact on their wellbeing because the psychological contract is a useful tool in identifying factors having a negative effect on the wellbeing of employees. The paper will report on a study, which examined how occupational stressors and psychological contract violation may influence the wellbeing (e.g. Physical Stress and General Health) of a sample of police officers (N=127). The design of the study was cross-sectional and based on data collected through a self-report survey. The results of hierarchical regression analyses and structural equation model, suggest that occupational stressors and psychological contract violation play a critical role in both physical and psychological health. The implications of these findings and the utility of considering the psychological contract will be discussed.

Keywords: police officers, psychological contract, occupational stressors, wellbeing

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33 Using Emerging Hot Spot Analysis to Analyze Overall Effectiveness of Policing Policy and Strategy in Chicago

Authors: Tyler Gill, Sophia Daniels

Abstract:

The paper examines how accessing the spatial-temporal constrains of data will help inform policymakers and law enforcement officials. The authors utilize Chicago crime data from 2006-2016 to demonstrate how the Emerging Hot Spot Tool is an ideal hot spot clustering approach to analyze crime data. Traditional approaches include density maps or creating a spatial weights matrix to include the spatial-temporal constrains. This new approach utilizes a space-time implementation of the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic to visualize the data more quickly to make better decisions. The research will help complement socio-cultural research to find key patterns to help frame future policies and evaluate the implementation of prior strategies. Through this analysis, homicide trends and patterns are found more effectively and recommendations for use by non-traditional users of GIS are offered for real life implementation.

Keywords: crime mapping, emerging hot spot analysis, Getis-Ord Gi*, spatial-temporal analysis

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32 Changes in Student Definition of De-Escalation in Professional Peace Officer Education

Authors: Pat Nelson

Abstract:

Since the release of the 21st century policing report in the United States, the techniques of de-escalation have received a lot of attention and focus in political systems, policy changes, and the media. The challenge in professional peace officer education is that there is a vast range of defining de-escalation and understanding the various techniques involved, many of which are based on popular media. This research surveyed professional peace officer education university students on their definition of de-escalation and the techniques associated with de-escalation before specific communications coursework was completed. The students were then surveyed after the communication coursework was completed to determine the changes in defining and understanding de-escalation techniques. This research has found that clearly defining de-escalation and emphasizing the broad range of techniques available enhances the students’ understanding and application of proper de-escalation. This research demonstrates the need for professional peace officer education to move students from media concepts of law enforcement to theoretical concepts.

Keywords: criminal justice education, communication theory, de-escalation, peace officer communication

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31 IIROC's Enforcement Performance: Funnel in, Funnel out, and Funnel away

Authors: Mark Lokanan

Abstract:

The paper analyzes the processing of complaints against investment brokers and dealer members through the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada (IIROC) from 2008 to 2017. IIROC is the self-regulatory organization (SRO) that is responsible for policing investment dealers and brokerage firms that trade in Canada’s securities market. Data from the study came from IIROC's enforcement annual reports for the years examined. The case processing is evaluated base on the misconduct funnel that was originally designed for street crime and applies to the enforcement of investment fraud. The misconduct funnel is used as a framework to examine IIROC’s claim that it brought in more complaints (funnel in) than government regulators and shows how these complaints are funneled out and funneled away as they are processed through IIROC’s enforcement system. The results indicate that IIROC is ineffective in disciplining its members and is unable to handle the more serious quasi-criminal and improper sales practices offenses. It is hard not to see the results of the paper being used by the legislator in Ottawa to show the importance of a federal securities regulatory agency such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the United States.

Keywords: investment fraud, securities regulation, compliance, enforcement

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30 Unfolding the Social Clash between Online and Non-Online Transportation Providers in Bandung

Authors: Latifah Putti Tiananda, Sasti Khoirunnisa, Taniadiana Yapwito, Jessica Noviena

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Innovations are often met with two responses, acceptance or rejection. In the past few years, Indonesia is experiencing a revolution of transportation service, which utilizes online platform for its operation. Such improvement is welcomed by consumers and challenged by conventional or ‘non-online’ transportation providers simultaneously. Conflicts arise as the existence of this online transportation mode results in declining income of non-online transportation workers. Physical confrontations and demonstrations demand policing from central authority. However, the obscurity of legal measures from the government persists the social instability. Bandung, a city in West Java with the highest rate of online transportation usage, has recently issued a recommendation withholding the operation of online transportation services to maintain peace and order. Thus, this paper seeks to elaborate the social unrest between the two contesting transportation actors in Bandung and explore community-based approaches to solve this problem. Using qualitative research method, this paper will also feature in-depth interviews with directly involved sources from Bandung.

Keywords: Bandung, market competition, online transportation services, social unrest

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29 Not Suitable for Repatriation nor Refugee Status: How Undocumented Immigrant Women Survives Street Policing

Authors: Angel Mabudusha

Abstract:

The impression created by the high volume of foreign nationals being deported by the South African Home Affairs and the police departments is that all undocumented foreign nationals insist on staying in South Africa and voluntary repatriation is open for every person. However, those foreign nationals whose request for deportation has been rejected are often not reported on especially their everyday survival as undocumented immigrant women and their encounter with the police on the street. As a result, this paper aims at exploring the everyday experiences of these women on the street and on why the number of undocumented immigrant women in this country will remain a challenge to the police department. The research was conducted in two cities in South Africa, namely: Johannesburg and Pretoria where the police, the undocumented immigrant women, the human rights lawyers and NGO officials were interviewed on this matter. Based on the idea that voluntary repatriation is open for every immigrant, this study has found that some women’ request for voluntary repatriation remain a dream that never came true. Furthermore, this article proposes more humanitarian ways of dealing with undocumented immigrant women.

Keywords: repatriation, refugee status, undocumented foreign nationals, humanitarian

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28 Empowering and Educating Young People Against Cybercrime by Playing: The Rayuela Method

Authors: Jose L. Diego, Antonio Berlanga, Gregorio López, Diana López

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The Rayuela method is a success story, as it is part of a project selected by the European Commission to face the challenge launched by itself for achieving a better understanding of human factors, as well as social and organisational aspects that are able to solve issues in fighting against crime. Rayuela's method specifically focuses on the drivers of cyber criminality, including approaches to prevent, investigate, and mitigate cybercriminal behavior. As the internet has become an integral part of young people’s lives, they are the key target of the Rayuela method because they (as a victim or as a perpetrator) are the most vulnerable link of the chain. Considering the increased time spent online and the control of their internet usage and the low level of awareness of cyber threats and their potential impact, it is understandable the proliferation of incidents due to human mistakes. 51% of Europeans feel not well informed about cyber threats, and 86% believe that the risk of becoming a victim of cybercrime is rapidly increasing. On the other hand, Law enforcement has noted that more and more young people are increasingly committing cybercrimes. This is an international problem that has considerable cost implications; it is estimated that crimes in cyberspace will cost the global economy $445B annually. Understanding all these phenomena drives to the necessity of a shift in focus from sanctions to deterrence and prevention. As a research project, Rayuela aims to bring together law enforcement agencies (LEAs), sociologists, psychologists, anthropologists, legal experts, computer scientists, and engineers, to develop novel methodologies that allow better understanding the factors affecting online behavior related to new ways of cyber criminality, as well as promoting the potential of these young talents for cybersecurity and technologies. Rayuela’s main goal is to better understand the drivers and human factors affecting certain relevant ways of cyber criminality, as well as empower and educate young people in the benefits, risks, and threats intrinsically linked to the use of the Internet by playing, thus preventing and mitigating cybercriminal behavior. In order to reach that goal it´s necessary an interdisciplinary consortium (formed by 17 international partners) carries out researches and actions like Profiling and case studies of cybercriminals and victims, risk assessments, studies on Internet of Things and its vulnerabilities, development of a serious gaming environment, training activities, data analysis and interpretation using Artificial intelligence, testing and piloting, etc. For facilitating the real implementation of the Rayuela method, as a community policing strategy, is crucial to count on a Police Force with a solid background in trust-building and community policing in order to do the piloting, specifically with young people. In this sense, Valencia Local Police is a pioneer Police Force working with young people in conflict solving, through providing police mediation and peer mediation services and advice. As an example, it is an official mediation institution, so agreements signed by their police mediators have once signed by the parties, the value of a judicial decision.

Keywords: fight against crime and insecurity, avert and prepare young people against aggression, ICT, serious gaming and artificial intelligence against cybercrime, conflict solving and mediation with young people

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27 Real Time Traffic Performance Study over MPLS VPNs with DiffServ

Authors: Naveed Ghani

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With the arrival of higher speed communication links and mature application running over the internet, the requirement for reliable, efficient and robust network designs rising day by day. Multi-Protocol Label Switching technology (MPLS) Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) have committed to provide optimal network services. They are gaining popularity in industry day by day. Enterprise customers are moving to service providers that offer MPLS VPNs. The main reason for this shifting is the capability of MPLS VPN to provide built in security features and any-to-any connectivity. MPLS VPNs improved the network performance due to fast label switching as compare to traditional IP Forwarding but traffic classification and policing was still required on per hop basis to enhance the performance of real time traffic which is delay sensitive (particularly voice and video). QoS (Quality of service) is the most important factor to prioritize enterprise networks’ real time traffic such as voice and video. This thesis is focused on the study of QoS parameters (e.g. delay, jitter and MOS (Mean Opinion Score)) for the real time traffic over MPLS VPNs. DiffServ (Differentiated Services) QoS model will be used over MPLS VPN network to get end-to-end service quality.

Keywords: network, MPLS, VPN, DiffServ, MPLS VPN, DiffServ QoS, QoS Model, GNS2

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26 Saving Lives: Alternative Approaches to Reducing Gun Violence

Authors: Angie M. Wolf, DeVone Boggan

Abstract:

This paper highlights an innovative and nontraditional violence prevention program that is making a noticeable impact in what was once one of the country’s most violent communities. With unique and tailored strategies, the Operation Peacemaker Fellowship, established in Richmond, California, combines components of evidence-based practices with a community-oriented focus on relationships and mentoring to fill a gap in services and increase community safety. In an effort to highlight these unique strategies and provide a blueprint for other communities with violent crime problems, the authors of this paper hope to clearly delineate how one community is moving forward with vanguard approaches to invest in the lives of young men who once were labeled the communities’ most violent, even the most deadly, youth. The impact of this program is evidenced through the fellows’ own voices as they illuminate the experience of being in the Fellowship. In interviews, fellows’ describe how participating in this program has transformed their lives, and the lives of those they love. The authors of this article spent more than two years researching this Fellowship program in order to conduct an evaluation of it and, ultimately, to demonstrate how this program is a testament to the power of relationship and love combined with evidence-based practices, consequently enriching the lives of youth and the community that embraces them.

Keywords: gun violence prevention, high risk youth, law, policing justice

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25 University Coordinating Council Office: Perceived and Expected Roles and Performances

Authors: Pitsanu Poonpetpun

Abstract:

This research paper consisted of three objectives: 1) to investigate actual perception of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University’s members towards roles and performances of the Coordinating Council Office under the University Council; 2) to investigate expectation of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University’s members towards roles and performances of the Coordinating Council Office under the University Council; and 3) to compare actual perception and expectation of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University’s members towards roles and performances of the Coordinating Council Office under the University Council. A total of 316 samples from the population of the members of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University were selected by use of the simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and Dependent T- Test for paired samples were used, where the Dependent T- Test was for an analysis of a comparison of actual perception and expectation of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University’s members towards roles and performances of the Coordinating Council Office under the University Council. The findings unveiled significantly high levels for the following roles: [i] appropriately circulating agendas and meeting files before time; [ii] preparing appropriate amount and quality of audio- visual equipment for meetings; [iii] compiling and keeping up-to-date documents; [iv] coordinating and working on linking all useful information to serve for the university uses for strategic policing; and [v] preparing appropriate meeting venues.

Keywords: coordinating council office of the university council, expected role, perceived role, performances of duties

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