Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2398

Search results for: association rules

2398 Semi-Automatic Method to Assist Expert for Association Rules Validation

Authors: Amdouni Hamida, Gammoudi Mohamed Mohsen


In order to help the expert to validate association rules extracted from data, some quality measures are proposed in the literature. We distinguish two categories: objective and subjective measures. The first one depends on a fixed threshold and on data quality from which the rules are extracted. The second one consists on providing to the expert some tools in the objective to explore and visualize rules during the evaluation step. However, the number of extracted rules to validate remains high. Thus, the manually mining rules task is very hard. To solve this problem, we propose, in this paper, a semi-automatic method to assist the expert during the association rule's validation. Our method uses rule-based classification as follow: (i) We transform association rules into classification rules (classifiers), (ii) We use the generated classifiers for data classification. (iii) We visualize association rules with their quality classification to give an idea to the expert and to assist him during validation process.

Keywords: association rules, rule-based classification, classification quality, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
2397 Association Rules Mining Task Using Metaheuristics: Review

Authors: Abir Derouiche, Abdesslem Layeb


Association Rule Mining (ARM) is one of the most popular data mining tasks and it is widely used in various areas. The search for association rules is an NP-complete problem that is why metaheuristics have been widely used to solve it. The present paper presents the ARM as an optimization problem and surveys the proposed approaches in the literature based on metaheuristics.

Keywords: Optimization, Metaheuristics, Data Mining, Association rules Mining

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2396 A Method for Reduction of Association Rules in Data Mining

Authors: Diego De Castro Rodrigues, Marcelo Lisboa Rocha, Daniela M. De Q. Trevisan, Marcos Dias Da Conceicao, Gabriel Rosa, Rommel M. Barbosa


The use of association rules algorithms within data mining is recognized as being of great value in the knowledge discovery in databases. Very often, the number of rules generated is high, sometimes even in databases with small volume, so the success in the analysis of results can be hampered by this quantity. The purpose of this research is to present a method for reducing the quantity of rules generated with association algorithms. Therefore, a computational algorithm was developed with the use of a Weka Application Programming Interface, which allows the execution of the method on different types of databases. After the development, tests were carried out on three types of databases: synthetic, model, and real. Efficient results were obtained in reducing the number of rules, where the worst case presented a gain of more than 50%, considering the concepts of support, confidence, and lift as measures. This study concluded that the proposed model is feasible and quite interesting, contributing to the analysis of the results of association rules generated from the use of algorithms.

Keywords: data mining, association rules, rules reduction, artificial intelligence

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2395 Association Rules Mining and NOSQL Oriented Document in Big Data

Authors: Sarra Senhadji, Imene Benzeguimi, Zohra Yagoub


Big Data represents the recent technology of manipulating voluminous and unstructured data sets over multiple sources. Therefore, NOSQL appears to handle the problem of unstructured data. Association rules mining is one of the popular techniques of data mining to extract hidden relationship from transactional databases. The algorithm for finding association dependencies is well-solved with Map Reduce. The goal of our work is to reduce the time of generating of frequent itemsets by using Map Reduce and NOSQL database oriented document. A comparative study is given to evaluate the performances of our algorithm with the classical algorithm Apriori.

Keywords: Apriori, Association rules mining, Big Data, Data Mining, Hadoop, MapReduce, MongoDB, NoSQL

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2394 The Parallelization of Algorithm Based on Partition Principle for Association Rules Discovery

Authors: Khadidja Belbachir, Hafida Belbachir


subsequently the expansion of the physical supports storage and the needs ceaseless to accumulate several data, the sequential algorithms of associations’ rules research proved to be ineffective. Thus the introduction of the new parallel versions is imperative. We propose in this paper, a parallel version of a sequential algorithm “Partition”. This last is fundamentally different from the other sequential algorithms, because it scans the data base only twice to generate the significant association rules. By consequence, the parallel approach does not require much communication between the sites. The proposed approach was implemented for an experimental study. The obtained results, shows a great reduction in execution time compared to the sequential version and Count Distributed algorithm.

Keywords: association rules, distributed data mining, partition, parallel algorithms

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
2393 Spatiotemporal Community Detection and Analysis of Associations among Overlapping Communities

Authors: JooYoung Lee, Rasheed Hussain


Understanding the relationships among communities of users is the key to blueprint the evolution of human society. Majority of people are equipped with GPS devices, such as smart phones and smart cars, which can trace their whereabouts. In this paper, we discover communities of device users based on real locations in a given time frame. We, then, study the associations of discovered communities, referred to as temporal communities, and generate temporal and probabilistic association rules. The rules describe how strong communities are associated. By studying the generated rules, we can automatically extract underlying hierarchies of communities and permanent communities such as work places.

Keywords: association rules, community detection, evolution of communities, spatiotemporal

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
2392 An Approach for Association Rules Ranking

Authors: Rihab Idoudi, Karim Saheb Ettabaa, Basel Solaiman, Kamel Hamrouni


Medical association rules induction is used to discover useful correlations between pertinent concepts from large medical databases. Nevertheless, ARs algorithms produce huge amount of delivered rules and do not guarantee the usefulness and interestingness of the generated knowledge. To overcome this drawback, we propose an ontology based interestingness measure for ARs ranking. According to domain expert, the goal of the use of ARs is to discover implicit relationships between items of different categories such as ‘clinical features and disorders’, ‘clinical features and radiological observations’, etc. That’s to say, the itemsets which are composed of ‘similar’ items are uninteresting. Therefore, the dissimilarity between the rule’s items can be used to judge the interestingness of association rules; the more different are the items, the more interesting the rule is. In this paper, we design a distinct approach for ranking semantically interesting association rules involving the use of an ontology knowledge mining approach. The basic idea is to organize the ontology’s concepts into a hierarchical structure of conceptual clusters of targeted subjects, where each cluster encapsulates ‘similar’ concepts suggesting a specific category of the domain knowledge. The interestingness of association rules is, then, defined as the dissimilarity between corresponding clusters. That is to say, the further are the clusters of the items in the AR, the more interesting the rule is. We apply the method in our domain of interest – mammographic domain- using an existing mammographic ontology called Mammo with the goal of deriving interesting rules from past experiences, to discover implicit relationships between concepts modeling the domain.

Keywords: association rule, conceptual clusters, interestingness measures, ontology knowledge mining, ranking

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
2391 An Optimized Association Rule Mining Algorithm

Authors: Archana Singh, Jyoti Agarwal, Ajay Rana


Data Mining is an efficient technology to discover patterns in large databases. Association Rule Mining techniques are used to find the correlation between the various item sets in a database, and this co-relation between various item sets are used in decision making and pattern analysis. In recent years, the problem of finding association rules from large datasets has been proposed by many researchers. Various research papers on association rule mining (ARM) are studied and analyzed first to understand the existing algorithms. Apriori algorithm is the basic ARM algorithm, but it requires so many database scans. In DIC algorithm, less amount of database scan is needed but complex data structure lattice is used. The main focus of this paper is to propose a new optimized algorithm (Friendly Algorithm) and compare its performance with the existing algorithms A data set is used to find out frequent itemsets and association rules with the help of existing and proposed (Friendly Algorithm) and it has been observed that the proposed algorithm also finds all the frequent itemsets and essential association rules from databases as compared to existing algorithms in less amount of database scan. In the proposed algorithm, an optimized data structure is used i.e. Graph and Adjacency Matrix.

Keywords: association rules, data mining, dynamic item set counting, FP-growth, friendly algorithm, graph

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2390 Analysis of Users’ Behavior on Book Loan Log Based on Association Rule Mining

Authors: Kanyarat Bussaban, Kunyanuth Kularbphettong


This research aims to create a model for analysis of student behavior using Library resources based on data mining technique in case of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The model was created under association rules, apriori algorithm. The results were found 14 rules and the rules were tested with testing data set and it showed that the ability of classify data was 79.24 percent and the MSE was 22.91. The results showed that the user’s behavior model by using association rule technique can use to manage the library resources.

Keywords: behavior, data mining technique, a priori algorithm, knowledge discovery

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2389 Spatio-Temporal Data Mining with Association Rules for Lake Van

Authors: Tolga Aydin, M. Fatih Alaeddinoğlu


People, throughout the history, have made estimates and inferences about the future by using their past experiences. Developing information technologies and the improvements in the database management systems make it possible to extract useful information from knowledge in hand for the strategic decisions. Therefore, different methods have been developed. Data mining by association rules learning is one of such methods. Apriori algorithm, one of the well-known association rules learning algorithms, is not commonly used in spatio-temporal data sets. However, it is possible to embed time and space features into the data sets and make Apriori algorithm a suitable data mining technique for learning spatio-temporal association rules. Lake Van, the largest lake of Turkey, is a closed basin. This feature causes the volume of the lake to increase or decrease as a result of change in water amount it holds. In this study, evaporation, humidity, lake altitude, amount of rainfall and temperature parameters recorded in Lake Van region throughout the years are used by the Apriori algorithm and a spatio-temporal data mining application is developed to identify overflows and newly-formed soil regions (underflows) occurring in the coastal parts of Lake Van. Identifying possible reasons of overflows and underflows may be used to alert the experts to take precautions and make the necessary investments.

Keywords: apriori algorithm, association rules, data mining, spatio-temporal data

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2388 Predicting Medical Check-Up Patient Re-Coming Using Sequential Pattern Mining and Association Rules

Authors: Rizka Aisha Rahmi Hariadi, Chao Ou-Yang, Han-Cheng Wang, Rajesri Govindaraju


As the increasing of medical check-up popularity, there are a huge number of medical check-up data stored in database and have not been useful. These data actually can be very useful for future strategic planning if we mine it correctly. In other side, a lot of patients come with unpredictable coming and also limited available facilities make medical check-up service offered by hospital not maximal. To solve that problem, this study used those medical check-up data to predict patient re-coming. Sequential pattern mining (SPM) and association rules method were chosen because these methods are suitable for predicting patient re-coming using sequential data. First, based on patient personal information the data was grouped into … groups then discriminant analysis was done to check significant of the grouping. Second, for each group some frequent patterns were generated using SPM method. Third, based on frequent patterns of each group, pairs of variable can be extracted using association rules to get general pattern of re-coming patient. Last, discussion and conclusion was done to give some implications of the results.

Keywords: patient re-coming, medical check-up, health examination, data mining, sequential pattern mining, association rules, discriminant analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 534
2387 An Efficient Data Mining Technique for Online Stores

Authors: Mohammed Al-Shalabi, Alaa Obeidat


In any food stores, some items will be expired or destroyed because the demand on these items is infrequent, so we need a system that can help the decision maker to make an offer on such items to improve the demand on the items by putting them with some other frequent item and decrease the price to avoid losses. The system generates hundreds or thousands of patterns (offers) for each low demand item, then it uses the association rules (support, confidence) to find the interesting patterns (the best offer to achieve the lowest losses). In this paper, we propose a data mining method for determining the best offer by merging the data mining techniques with the e-commerce strategy. The task is to build a model to predict the best offer. The goal is to maximize the profits of a store and avoid the loss of products. The idea in this paper is the using of the association rules in marketing with a combination with e-commerce.

Keywords: data mining, association rules, confidence, online stores

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2386 A Hybrid Recommendation System Based on Association Rules

Authors: Ahmed Mohammed Alsalama


Recommendation systems are widely used in e-commerce applications. The engine of a current recommendation system recommends items to a particular user based on user preferences and previous high ratings. Various recommendation schemes such as collaborative filtering and content-based approaches are used to build a recommendation system. Most of the current recommendation systems were developed to fit a certain domain such as books, articles, and movies. We propose a hybrid framework recommendation system to be applied on two-dimensional spaces (User x Item) with a large number of Users and a small number of Items. Moreover, our proposed framework makes use of both favorite and non-favorite items of a particular user. The proposed framework is built upon the integration of association rules mining and the content-based approach. The results of experiments show that our proposed framework can provide accurate recommendations to users.

Keywords: data mining, association rules, recommendation systems, hybrid systems

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2385 Clustering of Association Rules of ISIS & Al-Qaeda Based on Similarity Measures

Authors: Tamanna Goyal, Divya Bansal, Sanjeev Sofat


In world-threatening terrorist attacks, where early detection, distinction, and prediction are effective diagnosis techniques and for functionally accurate and precise analysis of terrorism data, there are so many data mining & statistical approaches to assure accuracy. The computational extraction of derived patterns is a non-trivial task which comprises specific domain discovery by means of sophisticated algorithm design and analysis. This paper proposes an approach for similarity extraction by obtaining the useful attributes from the available datasets of terrorist attacks and then applying feature selection technique based on the statistical impurity measures followed by clustering techniques on the basis of similarity measures. On the basis of degree of participation of attributes in the rules, the associative dependencies between the attacks are analyzed. Consequently, to compute the similarity among the discovered rules, we applied a weighted similarity measure. Finally, the rules are grouped by applying using hierarchical clustering. We have applied it to an open source dataset to determine the usability and efficiency of our technique, and a literature search is also accomplished to support the efficiency and accuracy of our results.

Keywords: association rules, clustering, similarity measure, statistical approaches

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2384 On an Approach for Rule Generation in Association Rule Mining

Authors: B. Chandra


In Association Rule Mining, much attention has been paid for developing algorithms for large (frequent/closed/maximal) itemsets but very little attention has been paid to improve the performance of rule generation algorithms. Rule generation is an important part of Association Rule Mining. In this paper, a novel approach named NARG (Association Rule using Antecedent Support) has been proposed for rule generation that uses memory resident data structure named FCET (Frequent Closed Enumeration Tree) to find frequent/closed itemsets. In addition, the computational speed of NARG is enhanced by giving importance to the rules that have lower antecedent support. Comparative performance evaluation of NARG with fast association rule mining algorithm for rule generation has been done on synthetic datasets and real life datasets (taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository). Performance analysis shows that NARG is computationally faster in comparison to the existing algorithms for rule generation.

Keywords: knowledge discovery, association rule mining, antecedent support, rule generation

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2383 Statistical Analysis to Select Evacuation Route

Authors: Zaky Musyarof, Dwi Yono Sutarto, Dwima Rindy Atika, R. B. Fajriya Hakim


Each country should be responsible for the safety of people, especially responsible for the safety of people living in disaster-prone areas. One of those services is provides evacuation route for them. But all this time, the selection of evacuation route is seem doesn’t well organized, it could be seen that when a disaster happen, there will be many accumulation of people on the steps of evacuation route. That condition is dangerous to people because hampers evacuation process. By some methods in Statistical analysis, author tries to give a suggestion how to prepare evacuation route which is organized and based on people habit. Those methods are association rules, sequential pattern mining, hierarchical cluster analysis and fuzzy logic.

Keywords: association rules, sequential pattern mining, cluster analysis, fuzzy logic, evacuation route

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2382 An Adaptive Distributed Incremental Association Rule Mining System

Authors: Adewale O. Ogunde, Olusegun Folorunso, Adesina S. Sodiya


Most existing Distributed Association Rule Mining (DARM) systems are still facing several challenges. One of such challenges that have not received the attention of many researchers is the inability of existing systems to adapt to constantly changing databases and mining environments. In this work, an Adaptive Incremental Mining Algorithm (AIMA) is therefore proposed to address these problems. AIMA employed multiple mobile agents for the entire mining process. AIMA was designed to adapt to changes in the distributed databases by mining only the incremental database updates and using this to update the existing rules in order to improve the overall response time of the DARM system. In AIMA, global association rules were integrated incrementally from one data site to another through Results Integration Coordinating Agents. The mining agents in AIMA were made adaptive by defining mining goals with reasoning and behavioral capabilities and protocols that enabled them to either maintain or change their goals. AIMA employed Java Agent Development Environment Extension for designing the internal agents’ architecture. Results from experiments conducted on real datasets showed that the adaptive system, AIMA performed better than the non-adaptive systems with lower communication costs and higher task completion rates.

Keywords: adaptivity, data mining, distributed association rule mining, incremental mining, mobile agents

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2381 Assessment on the Conduct of Arnis Competition in Pasuc National Olympics 2015: Basis for Improvement of Rules in Competition

Authors: Paulo O. Motita


The Philippine Association of State Colleges and University (PASUC) is an association of State owned and operated higher learning institutions in the Philippines, it is the association that spearhead the conduct of the Annual National Athletic competitions for State Colleges and Universities and Arnis is one of the regular sports. In 2009, Republic Act 9850 also known as declared Arnis as the National Sports and Martial arts of the Philippines. Arnis an ancient Filipino Martial Arts is the major sports in the Annual Palarong Pambansa and other school based sports events. The researcher as a Filipino Martial Arts master and a former athlete desired to determine the extent of acceptability of the arnis rules in competition which serves as the basis for the development of arnis rules. The study aimed to assess the conduct of Arnis competition in PASUC Olympics 2015 in Tugegarao City, Cagayan, Philippines.the rules and conduct itself as perceived by Officiating officials, Coaches and Athletes during the competition last February 7-15, 2015. The descriptive method of research was used, the survey questionnaire as the data gathering instrument was validated. The respondents were composed of 12 Officiating officials, 19 coaches and 138 athletes representing the different regions. Their responses were treated using the Mean, Percentage and One-way Analysis of Variance. The study revealed that the conduct of Arnis competition in PASUC Olympics 2015 was at the low extent to moderate extent as perceived by the three groups of respondents in terms of officiating, scoring and giving violations. Furthermore there is no significant difference in the assessment of the three groups of respondents in the assessment of Anyo and Labanan. Considering the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1). There is a need to identify the criteria for judging in Anyo and a tedious scrutiny on the rules of the game for labanan. 2) The three groups of respondents have similar views towards the assessment on the overall competitions for anyo that there were no clear technical guidelines for judging the performance of anyo event. 3). The three groups of respondents have similar views towards the assessment on the overall competitions for labanan that there were no clear technical guidelines for majority rule of giving scores in labanan. 4) The Anyo performance should be rated according to effectiveness of techniques and performance of weapon/s that are being used. 5) On other issues and concern towards the rules of competitions, labanan should be addressed in improving rules of competitions, focus on the applications of majority rules for scoring, players shall be given rest interval, a clear guidelines and set a standard qualifications for officiating officials.

Keywords: PASUC Olympics 2015, Arnis rules of competition, Anyo, Labanan, officiating

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2380 Application of Association Rule Using Apriori Algorithm for Analysis of Industrial Accidents in 2013-2014 in Indonesia

Authors: Triano Nurhikmat


Along with the progress of science and technology, the development of the industrialized world in Indonesia took place very rapidly. This leads to a process of industrialization of society Indonesia faster with the establishment of the company and the workplace are diverse. Development of the industry relates to the activity of the worker. Where in these work activities do not cover the possibility of an impending crash on either the workers or on a construction project. The cause of the occurrence of industrial accidents was the fault of electrical damage, work procedures, and error technique. The method of an association rule is one of the main techniques in data mining and is the most common form used in finding the patterns of data collection. In this research would like to know how relations of the association between the incidence of any industrial accidents. Therefore, by using methods of analysis association rule patterns associated with combination obtained two iterations item set (2 large item set) when every factor of industrial accidents with a West Jakarta so industrial accidents caused by the occurrence of an electrical value damage = 0.2 support and confidence value = 1, and the reverse pattern with value = 0.2 support and confidence = 0.75.

Keywords: association rule, data mining, industrial accidents, rules

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2379 The Increasing Importance of CFC Rules: An OECD+ Country Overview

Authors: Axel Prettl


This paper provides an overview of the different CFC rule settings in the OECD and 22 additional countries for the years 2004 to 2014 and compares them. In order to do so, it gives a summary of law amendments for every country, provides a comparison and afterwards all CFC rules are rated in their ”power of anti-avoidance” over time. For that rating of CFC rules, the largest common denominator of rule characteristics is used to keep it as abstract as necessary and possible. The paper points out that the CFC rules in the considered countries are very different in their specifications and they reach from very strict to very low binding. All in all these rules get more and more common and important; more countries implement a CFC legislation and the strictness of most of them rises over time.

Keywords: CFC rules, international taxation, corporate taxation, country comparison

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2378 Semantic Indexing Improvement for Textual Documents: Contribution of Classification by Fuzzy Association Rules

Authors: Mohsen Maraoui


In the aim of natural language processing applications improvement, such as information retrieval, machine translation, lexical disambiguation, we focus on statistical approach to semantic indexing for multilingual text documents based on conceptual network formalism. We propose to use this formalism as an indexing language to represent the descriptive concepts and their weighting. These concepts represent the content of the document. Our contribution is based on two steps. In the first step, we propose the extraction of index terms using the multilingual lexical resource Euro WordNet (EWN). In the second step, we pass from the representation of index terms to the representation of index concepts through conceptual network formalism. This network is generated using the EWN resource and pass by a classification step based on association rules model (in attempt to discover the non-taxonomic relations or contextual relations between the concepts of a document). These relations are latent relations buried in the text and carried by the semantic context of the co-occurrence of concepts in the document. Our proposed indexing approach can be applied to text documents in various languages because it is based on a linguistic method adapted to the language through a multilingual thesaurus. Next, we apply the same statistical process regardless of the language in order to extract the significant concepts and their associated weights. We prove that the proposed indexing approach provides encouraging results.

Keywords: concept extraction, conceptual network formalism, fuzzy association rules, multilingual thesaurus, semantic indexing

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2377 Towards Learning Query Expansion

Authors: Ahlem Bouziri, Chiraz Latiri, Eric Gaussier


The steady growth in the size of textual document collections is a key progress-driver for modern information retrieval techniques whose effectiveness and efficiency are constantly challenged. Given a user query, the number of retrieved documents can be overwhelmingly large, hampering their efficient exploitation by the user. In addition, retaining only relevant documents in a query answer is of paramount importance for an effective meeting of the user needs. In this situation, the query expansion technique offers an interesting solution for obtaining a complete answer while preserving the quality of retained documents. This mainly relies on an accurate choice of the added terms to an initial query. Interestingly enough, query expansion takes advantage of large text volumes by extracting statistical information about index terms co-occurrences and using it to make user queries better fit the real information needs. In this respect, a promising track consists in the application of data mining methods to extract dependencies between terms, namely a generic basis of association rules between terms. The key feature of our approach is a better trade off between the size of the mining result and the conveyed knowledge. Thus, face to the huge number of derived association rules and in order to select the optimal combination of query terms from the generic basis, we propose to model the problem as a classification problem and solve it using a supervised learning algorithm such as SVM or k-means. For this purpose, we first generate a training set using a genetic algorithm based approach that explores the association rules space in order to find an optimal set of expansion terms, improving the MAP of the search results. The experiments were performed on SDA 95 collection, a data collection for information retrieval. It was found that the results were better in both terms of MAP and NDCG. The main observation is that the hybridization of text mining techniques and query expansion in an intelligent way allows us to incorporate the good features of all of them. As this is a preliminary attempt in this direction, there is a large scope for enhancing the proposed method.

Keywords: supervised leaning, classification, query expansion, association rules

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2376 The Trade Flow of Small Association Agreements When Rules of Origin Are Relaxed

Authors: Esmat Kamel


This paper aims to shed light on the extent to which the Agadir Association agreement has fostered inter regional trade between the E.U_26 and the Agadir_4 countries; once that we control for the evolution of Agadir agreement’s exports to the rest of the world. The next valid question will be regarding any remarkable variation in the spatial/sectoral structure of exports, and to what extent has it been induced by the Agadir agreement itself and precisely after the adoption of rules of origin and the PANEURO diagonal cumulative scheme? The paper’s empirical dataset covering a timeframe from [2000 -2009] was designed to account for sector specific export and intermediate flows and the bilateral structured gravity model was custom tailored to capture sector and regime specific rules of origin and the Poisson Pseudo Maximum Likelihood Estimator was used to calculate the gravity equation. The methodological approach of this work is considered to be a threefold one which starts first by conducting a ‘Hierarchal Cluster Analysis’ to classify final export flows showing a certain degree of linkage between each other. The analysis resulted in three main sectoral clusters of exports between Agadir_4 and E.U_26: cluster 1 for Petrochemical related sectors, cluster 2 durable goods and finally cluster 3 for heavy duty machinery and spare parts sectors. Second step continues by taking export flows resulting from the 3 clusters to be subject to treatment with diagonal Rules of origin through ‘The Double Differences Approach’, versus an equally comparable untreated control group. Third step is to verify results through a robustness check applied by ‘Propensity Score Matching’ to validate that the same sectoral final export and intermediate flows increased when rules of origin were relaxed. Through all the previous analysis, a remarkable and partial significance of the interaction term combining both treatment effects and time for the coefficients of 13 out of the 17 covered sectors turned out to be partially significant and it further asserted that treatment with diagonal rules of origin contributed in increasing Agadir’s_4 final and intermediate exports to the E.U._26 on average by 335% and in changing Agadir_4 exports structure and composition to the E.U._26 countries.

Keywords: agadir association agreement, structured gravity model, hierarchal cluster analysis, double differences estimation, propensity score matching, diagonal and relaxed rules of origin

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2375 Affects Associations Analysis in Emergency Situations

Authors: Joanna Grzybowska, Magdalena Igras, Mariusz Ziółko


Association rule learning is an approach for discovering interesting relationships in large databases. The analysis of relations, invisible at first glance, is a source of new knowledge which can be subsequently used for prediction. We used this data mining technique (which is an automatic and objective method) to learn about interesting affects associations in a corpus of emergency phone calls. We also made an attempt to match revealed rules with their possible situational context. The corpus was collected and subjectively annotated by two researchers. Each of 3306 recordings contains information on emotion: (1) type (sadness, weariness, anxiety, surprise, stress, anger, frustration, calm, relief, compassion, contentment, amusement, joy) (2) valence (negative, neutral, or positive) (3) intensity (low, typical, alternating, high). Also, additional information, that is a clue to speaker’s emotional state, was annotated: speech rate (slow, normal, fast), characteristic vocabulary (filled pauses, repeated words) and conversation style (normal, chaotic). Exponentially many rules can be extracted from a set of items (an item is a previously annotated single information). To generate the rules in the form of an implication X → Y (where X and Y are frequent k-itemsets) the Apriori algorithm was used - it avoids performing needless computations. Then, two basic measures (Support and Confidence) and several additional symmetric and asymmetric objective measures (e.g. Laplace, Conviction, Interest Factor, Cosine, correlation coefficient) were calculated for each rule. Each applied interestingness measure revealed different rules - we selected some top rules for each measure. Owing to the specificity of the corpus (emergency situations), most of the strong rules contain only negative emotions. There are though strong rules including neutral or even positive emotions. Three examples of the strongest rules are: {sadness} → {anxiety}; {sadness, weariness, stress, frustration} → {anger}; {compassion} → {sadness}. Association rule learning revealed the strongest configurations of affects (as well as configurations of affects with affect-related information) in our emergency phone calls corpus. The acquired knowledge can be used for prediction to fulfill the emotional profile of a new caller. Furthermore, a rule-related possible context analysis may be a clue to the situation a caller is in.

Keywords: data mining, emergency phone calls, emotional profiles, rules

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2374 A Theoretical Model for Pattern Extraction in Large Datasets

Authors: Muhammad Usman


Pattern extraction has been done in past to extract hidden and interesting patterns from large datasets. Recently, advancements are being made in these techniques by providing the ability of multi-level mining, effective dimension reduction, advanced evaluation and visualization support. This paper focuses on reviewing the current techniques in literature on the basis of these parameters. Literature review suggests that most of the techniques which provide multi-level mining and dimension reduction, do not handle mixed-type data during the process. Patterns are not extracted using advanced algorithms for large datasets. Moreover, the evaluation of patterns is not done using advanced measures which are suited for high-dimensional data. Techniques which provide visualization support are unable to handle a large number of rules in a small space. We present a theoretical model to handle these issues. The implementation of the model is beyond the scope of this paper.

Keywords: association rule mining, data mining, data warehouses, visualization of association rules

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2373 Forecasting Unusual Infection of Patient Used by Irregular Weighted Point Set

Authors: Seema Vaidya


Mining association rule is a key issue in data mining. In any case, the standard models ignore the distinction among the exchanges, and the weighted association rule mining does not transform on databases with just binary attributes. This paper proposes a novel continuous example and executes a tree (FP-tree) structure, which is an increased prefix-tree structure for securing compacted, discriminating data about examples, and makes a fit FP-tree-based mining system, FP enhanced capacity algorithm is used, for mining the complete game plan of examples by illustration incessant development. Here, this paper handles the motivation behind making remarkable and weighted item sets, i.e. rare weighted item set mining issue. The two novel brightness measures are proposed for figuring the infrequent weighted item set mining issue. Also, the algorithm are handled which perform IWI which is more insignificant IWI mining. Moreover we utilized the rare item set for choice based structure. The general issue of the start of reliable definite rules is troublesome for the grounds that hypothetically no inciting technique with no other person can promise the rightness of influenced theories. In this way, this framework expects the disorder with the uncommon signs. Usage study demonstrates that proposed algorithm upgrades the structure which is successful and versatile for mining both long and short diagnostics rules. Structure upgrades aftereffects of foreseeing rare diseases of patient.

Keywords: association rule, data mining, IWI mining, infrequent item set, frequent pattern growth

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2372 Analysis of the Simulation Merger and Economic Benefit of Local Farmers' Associations in Taiwan

Authors: Lu Yung-Hsiang, Chang Kuming, Dai Yi-Fang, Liao Ching-Yi


According to Taiwan’s administrative division of future land planning may lead farmer association and service areas facing recombination or merger. Thus, merger combination and the economic benefit of the farmer association are worth to be discussed. The farmer association in the merger, which may cause some then will not be consolidated, or consolidate two, or ever more to one association. However, under what condition to merge is greatest, as one of observation of this study. In addition, research without using simulation methods and only on the credit department rather whole farmer association. Therefore, this paper will use the simulation approach, and examine both the merge of farmer association and the condition under which the benefits are the greatest. The data of this study set include 266 farmer associations in Taiwan period 2012 to 2013. Empirical results showed that the number of the farmer association optimal simulation combination is 108.After the merger from the first stage can be reduced by 60% of the farmers’ association. The cost saving effects of the post-merger is not different. The cost efficiency of the farmers’ association improved it. The economies of scale and scope would decrease by the merger. The research paper hopes the finding will benefit the future merger of the farmers’ association.

Keywords: simulation merger, farmer association, assurance region, data envelopment analysis

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2371 Assessing Supply Chain Performance through Data Mining Techniques: A Case of Automotive Industry

Authors: Emin Gundogar, Burak Erkayman, Nusret Sazak


Providing effective management performance through the whole supply chain is critical issue and hard to applicate. The proper evaluation of integrated data may conclude with accurate information. Analysing the supply chain data through OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) technologies may provide multi-angle view of the work and consolidation. In this study, association rules and classification techniques are applied to measure the supply chain performance metrics of an automotive manufacturer in Turkey. Main criteria and important rules are determined. The comparison of the results of the algorithms is presented.

Keywords: supply chain performance, performance measurement, data mining, automotive

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2370 Study and Acquisition of the Duality of the Arabic Language

Authors: Oleg Redkin, Olga Bernikova


It is commonly accepted that every language is both pure linguistic phenomenon as well as socially significant communicative system, which exists on the basis of certain society - its collective 'native speaker'. Therefore the language evolution and features besides its own linguistic rules and regulations are also defined by the influence of a number of extra-linguistic factors. The above mentioned statement may be illustrated by the example of the Arabic language which may be characterized by the following peculiarities: - the inner logic of the Arabic language - the 'algebraicity' of its morphological paradigms and grammar rules; - association of the Arabic language with the sacred texts of Islam, its close ties with the pre-Islamic and Islamic cultural heritage - the pre-Islamic poetry and Islamic literature and science; - territorial distribution, which in recent years went far beyond the boundaries of its traditional realm due to the development of new technologies and the spread of mass media, and what is more important, migration processes; - association of the Arabic language with the so called 'Renaissance of Islam'. These peculiarities should be remembered while considering the status of the Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) language or the Classical Arabic (CA) language as well as the Modern Arabic (MA) dialects in synchrony or from the diachronic point of view. Continuity of any system in diachrony on the one hand depends on the level of its ability to adapt itself to changing environment and by its internal ties on the other. Structural durability of language is characterized by its inner logic, hierarchy of paradigms and its grammar rules, as well as continuity of their implementation in acts of everyday communication. Since the Arabic language is both linguistic and social phenomenon the process of the Arabic language acquisition and study should not be focused only on the knowledge about linguistic features or development of communicative skills alone, but must be supplied with the information related to culture, history and religion of peoples of certain region that will expand and enrich competences of the target audience.

Keywords: Arabic, culture, Islam, language

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2369 Recommender Systems Using Ensemble Techniques

Authors: Yeonjeong Lee, Kyoung-jae Kim, Youngtae Kim


This study proposes a novel recommender system that uses data mining and multi-model ensemble techniques to enhance the recommendation performance through reflecting the precise user’s preference. The proposed model consists of two steps. In the first step, this study uses logistic regression, decision trees, and artificial neural networks to predict customers who have high likelihood to purchase products in each product group. Then, this study combines the results of each predictor using the multi-model ensemble techniques such as bagging and bumping. In the second step, this study uses the market basket analysis to extract association rules for co-purchased products. Finally, the system selects customers who have high likelihood to purchase products in each product group and recommends proper products from same or different product groups to them through above two steps. We test the usability of the proposed system by using prototype and real-world transaction and profile data. In addition, we survey about user satisfaction for the recommended product list from the proposed system and the randomly selected product lists. The results also show that the proposed system may be useful in real-world online shopping store.

Keywords: product recommender system, ensemble technique, association rules, decision tree, artificial neural networks

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