Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2942

Search results for: rural communities

2942 Effect of Rural Entrepreneurship in Rural Development in Nigeria: A Study of Selected Entrepreneurs in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria

Authors: Ifeanyi Charles Otuokere, Victoria Nneoma Nnochiri

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship generally and specifically within the rural communities in Nigeria is a fast means of bringing development within the communities. This is made possible by utmost maximization and management of available local resources to develop rural areas through good management of these local resources. This study anchors on the rural development paradigm and the integrated rural development theories to understudy the knowledge of rural entrepreneurs on rural economic development. The research study made use of surveys and descriptive analysis. The assessable population for the study, which was randomly selected, is 100 rural entrepreneurs from ten rural communities within the Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The study made use of both primary and secondary as a source of data collection with much emphasis on a primary source, although secondary data such as journals, textbooks electronic sources were also utilised. A carefully structured questionnaire drafted to extract raw data was administered to selected entrepreneurs. The findings of the study showed that developments within rural communities can only be achieved through rural entrepreneurship. This is evidenced in increased output, job creation, and most importantly, reduction of rural to urban migration, among other things. Recommendations were also made based on these findings; the researchers recommended that infrastructural developments should be made available in the rural communities and government policies should create enabling environments along with other assistance to help these rural entrepreneurs achieve their sole aim.

Keywords: economic developments, rural communities, rural development, rural entrepreneurship

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2941 Energy Trends in Rural South Africa: A Case Study of the Mnweni Rural Community in the Province of Kwazulu-Natal

Authors: Noel Chellan

Abstract:

Energy is the life-blood of development. All human societies have been and still are dependent on energy – some societies more than others. With regard to energy in South Africa, previous policies of the apartheid regime neglected the energy needs of poor black communities in general – and rural communities in particular. Since South Africa’s first democratic elections in 1994 – whilst millions of South African households have received electricity from the national electricity grid, there are still many rural communities that are still experiencing challenges in relation to both electricity deprivation as well as provision. This paper looks at the energy-mix of the Mnweni rural community in South Africa and argues that understanding energy is key to understanding the nature and forms of development of any community or country, for that matter. The paper engages with the energy trends in the rural community of Mnweni from the days of apartheid until 2021. It also looks at agricultural practises from an energy perspective. Such an energy perspective will enable one to assess the pace and scale of development in rural Mnweni.

Keywords: rural, energy, development, apartheid

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2940 Exploring the Factors Affecting the Presence of Farmers’ Markets in Rural British Columbia

Authors: Amirmohsen Behjat, Aleck Ostry, Christina Miewald, Bernie Pauly

Abstract:

Farmers’ Markets have become one of the important healthy food suppliers in both rural communities and urban settings. Farmers’ markets are evolving and their number has rapidly increased in the past decade. Despite this drastic increase, the distribution of the farmers’ markets is not even across different areas. The main goal of this study is to explore the socioeconomic, geographic, and demographic variables which affect the establishment of farmers’ market in rural communities in British Columbia (BC). Thus, the data on available farmers’ markets in rural areas were collected from BC Association of Farmers’ Markets and spatially joined to BC map at Dissemination Area (DA) level using ArcGIS software to link the farmers’ market to the respective communities that they serve. Then, in order to investigate this issue and understand which rural communities farmer’ markets tend to operate, a binary logistic regression analysis was performed with the availability of farmer’ markets at DA-level as dependent variable and Deprivation Index (DI), Metro Influence Zone (MIZ) and population as independent variables. The results indicated that DI and MIZ variables are not statistically significant whereas the population is the only which had a significant contribution in predicting the availability of farmers’ markets in rural BC. Moreover, this study found that farmers’ markets usually do not operate in rural food deserts where other healthy food providers such as supermarkets and grocery stores are non-existent. In conclusion, the presence of farmers markets is not associated with socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of rural communities in BC, but farmers’ markets tend to operate in more populated rural communities in BC.

Keywords: farmers’ markets, socioeconomic and demographic variables, metro influence zone, logistic regression, ArcGIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
2939 Community Participation in Health Planning in Australia

Authors: Amanda Kenny, Virginia Dickson-Swift, Jane Farmer, Sarah Larkins, Karen Carlisle, Helen Hickson

Abstract:

Rural ECOH (Engaging Communities in Oral Health) is a collaborative project that connects policy makers, service providers and community members. The aim of the project is to empower community members to determine what is important for their community and to design the services that they need. This three-year project is currently underway in six rural communities across Australia. This study is specifically focused on Remote Services Futures (RSF), an evidence-based method of community participation that was developed in Scotland. The findings highlight the complexities of community participation in health service planning. We assumed that people living in rural communities would welcome participation in oral health planning and engage with their community to discuss these issues. We found that to understand the relationships between community members and health service providers, it was essential to identify the formal and informal community leaders and to engage stakeholders from the various community governance structures. Our study highlights the sometimes ‘messiness’ of decision making in rural communities as well as ways to ensure that community members have the training and practical skills necessary to participate in community decision making.

Keywords: community participation, health planning, rural ECOH, Remote Services Futures

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2938 Social Enterprises in Rural Canada

Authors: Prescott C. Ensign

Abstract:

Social enterprises play a vital role in Canada’s rural and northern communities. Most operate as non-profit organizations, use market approaches, and generate revenue from services or goods to support goals that address social, cultural, and environmental issues. As provincial and federal governments make reductions to programs providing social services to local communities, rural and northern residents who already have fewer resources from which to draw will be especially affected. Social enterprises will be called on to take up the slack. The aim of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive picture of the social enterprise as an organization and to understand the impact that context/ecosystem has on a social enterprise as it develops.

Keywords: social enterprises, structuration, embeddedness, ecosystem

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2937 Sustainable Community Participation in Australia

Authors: Virginia Dickson-Swift, Amanda Kenny, Jane Farmer, Sarah Larkins, Karen Carlisle, Helen Hickson

Abstract:

In this presentation, we will focus on the methods of Remote Services Futures (RSF), an evidence-based method of community participation that was developed in Scotland. Using oral health as the focus, we will discuss the ways that RSF can be used to achieve sustainable engagement with stakeholders from various parts of the community. We will describe our findings of using RSF methods to engage with rural communities, including the steps involved and what happened when we asked people about the oral health services that they thought were needed in their community. We found that most community members started by thinking that a public dental clinic was required in every community, which is not a sustainable health service delivery option. Through a series of facilitated workshops, communities were able to discuss and prioritise their needs and develop a costed plan for their community which will ensure sustainable service delivery into the future. Our study highlights the complexities of decision making in rural communities. It is important to ensure that when communities participate in health care planning that the outcomes are practical, feasible and sustainable.

Keywords: community participation, sustainable health planning, Remote Services Futures, rural communities

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2936 Local Development and Community Participation in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Tolu Lawal

Abstract:

The genuine development of the grassroots particularly in the developing societies depends largely on the participation of the rural populace in policy conception and implementation, especially in the area of development policies, fundamentally, the rural people play a vital and significance role in economic and political development of the nation. This is because the bulk of the economic produce as well as votes come from these areas. However, the much needed development has continued to elude the rural communities inspire of the various development policies carried out by successive governments in the state. The exclusion of rural communities from planning and implementation of facilities meant to benefit them, and the international debate on sustainable rural development led Ondo State government to re-think its rural development policy with a view to establishing more effective strategies for rural development. The 31s initiatives introduced in 2009 emphasizes the important role of communities in their own development. The paper therefore critically assessed the 31s initiative of the present government in Ondo State with a view to knowing its impact on rural people. The study adopted both primary and secondary data to source its information. Interviews were conducted with the key informants, and field survey (visit) was also part of method of collecting data. Documents, reports and records on 31s initiatives in the selected villages and from outside were also consulted. The paper submitted that 31s initiative has not impacted positively on the lives of rural dwellers in Ondo-State, most especially in the areas of infrastructure and integrated development. The findings also suggested that 31s initiatives is not hopeless, but needs a different kind of investment, for example introducing measures of accountability, addressing the politicization of the initiative and exploiting key principles of development and service delivery.

Keywords: development, infrastructure, rural development, participation

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2935 Rural School Superintendent Perceptions of Rural Development in Three U.S. States: A Collective Case Study

Authors: Jerry D. Johnson, Jason A. LaFrance, Matthew A. Ohlson, Shane C. Shope

Abstract:

The public school system is the largest employer and most impactful factor in the local economy for many rural communities in the United States. The relationship between the school system and the community is symbiotic—they thrive together or decline together. Understanding the perceptions of rural school superintendents (the titular head of the local school district) with regard to rural development is foundational to understanding how the school and community interact and collaborate in key areas like economic development, community development, and workforce development. To investigate those perceptions as they manifest among superintendents in thriving rural communities, a collective case study was designed and conducted to disclose and characterize superintendent perceptions about rural development in three diverse rural settings in the U.S.: Florida, Kansas, and Ohio. Appreciative Inquiry (AI) served as the conceptual framework and supported a focus on identifying and describing assets and strategies/activities that helped explain the positive results in the communities of interest. Implementation of a criterion-based purposive sampling process (using extant data and a nomination process to identify rural superintendents in communities with vibrant economies and recognized the contribution by the schools in rural development) resulted in two superintendents from each of these state settings who participated in semi-structured interviews. Interview transcripts and relevant extant documents were coded and analyzed to produce individual cases with representative themes, after which a cross-case analysis was conducted to generate overarching themes. The overarching themes were then scrutinized and tested through the application of appropriate credibility techniques to promote the trustworthiness of the results. Findings include the importance of building and maintaining relationships that extend beyond the immediate collaboration activity, the importance of collaboration skills, intentionality of practice, and organizational systems/structures as facilitators/affordances. The results offer potential guidance for leveraging the potential for public schools to contribute to their rural development in the communities they serve.

Keywords: collaboration, leadership, rural development, rural schools

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2934 Family Homicide: A Comparison of Rural and Urban Communities in California

Authors: Bohsiu Wu

Abstract:

This study compares the differences in social dynamics between rural and urban areas in California to explain homicides involving family members. It is hypothesized that rural homicides are better explained by social isolation and lack of intervention resources, whereas urban homicides are attributed to social disadvantage factors. Several critical social dynamics including social isolation, social disadvantages, acculturation, and intervention resources were entered in a hierarchical linear model (HLM) to examine whether county-level factors affect how each specific dynamic performs at the ZIP code level, a proxy measure for communities. Homicide data are from the Supplementary Homicide Report for all 58 counties in California from 1997 to 1999. Predictors at both the county and ZIP code levels are derived from the 2000 US census. Preliminary results from a HLM analysis show that social isolation is a significant but moderate predictor to explain rural family homicide and various social disadvantage factors are significant factors accounting for urban family homicide. Acculturation has little impact. Rurality and urbanity appear to interact with various social dynamics in explaining family homicide. The implications for prevention at both the county and community level as well as directions for future study on the differences between rural and urban locales are explored in the paper.

Keywords: communities, family, HLM, homicide, rural, urban

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
2933 The Green Propaganda: Paradoxes of Costa Rica as the Poster Child for Sustainable Tourism

Authors: Maria Jose Ramos Villagra

Abstract:

Since the boom of tourism in the late 80s and 90s, Costa Rica is considered as one of the leading countries for tourism. The size and geography of its territory, its low population density, and its image of being one of the most stable Latin American democracies make Costa Rica an attractive and safe target for foreign investors. Land ownership by foreign investors has increased as the natural resources in rural communities have been exhausted. When nature becomes an instrument to increase profit, it loses its communal value contributing to local communities losing their sovereignty and access to basic resources. The rural regions in proximity to the most tourist areas are often the most marginalized. The purpose of this research is to use the case of the rural community Sardinal and its struggle to protect its aquifer to investigate the economic and cultural consequences of the tourism boom in Costa Rican rural communities. The process of reclaiming the access to and the preservation of the aquifer enabled individuals to redefine their political views and their political power. The case of Sardinal broke the stereotypes about rural individuals and their ability to politically educate themselves and organize. Sardinal´s conflict brought to light the necessity of questioning the role of modern tourism as part of Costa Rica’s national identity, and as a tool for development

Keywords: Costa Rica, tourism, rural development, economy, ecotourism, environment, water, Sardinal

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
2932 Demographic Component Role in Rural Development in the Region of Bucovina

Authors: Morar (Bumbu) Nicoleta Ileana

Abstract:

Located in the northeastern part of Romania in a cross-border area, Bucovina region, due to historical events that took place here, is characterized by the cohabitation in the same area of a significant number of ethnic communities, represented in 54% by rural population. In addition to providing the natural, economic history and decision makers, the demographic component is responsible for the region's development trajectory to which it belongs. The influence that people exert on rural development is shown by the values of the different demographic indicator. This study will analyze the demographic indicators obtained against a strong database, emphasizing the indicators that favor the rural development of the region and those that prevent it. The study is useful in defining the rightful directions that rural economic development can focus on, also representing an important tool in developing strategies for the development of rural settlements of Bucovina region.

Keywords: Bucovina, development directions, demographic indicators, rural development

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2931 Negotiating Story Telling: Rhetoric and Reality of Rural Marginalization in the Era of Visual Culture

Authors: Vishnu Satya

Abstract:

Rural communities form the backbone of our society. These communities are self-contained, for the most part, in how they can sustain themselves. Except for the essentials, they are primarily dependent on the state for their development and prosperity. The state claims to provide these through policies and agencies which are designed to guide their livelihood and future. It is assumed that the state-run policies are effective and are reaching the intended audience. Though in reality, there is an ever-widening gap between the two. The interviews conducted with farmers suggests that the support provided by the state to this marginalized community falls far short of their expectations, leaving them helpless. This paper discusses the methods used in bringing the status quo of the marginalized farmers to the forefront by comparing-and-contrasting the existing rhetoric and reality of the rural diaspora. It is seen from the hands-on oral accounts of farmers that they are left hanging between the state and their farms. Unrepresented, this community's progress and future stand severely affected. The paper presents how the visual medium acts as a catalyst for social advocacy by bridging the gap between administrative services and the marginalized rural communities. The finding was that there exists a disconnect between policymakers and the farming community, which has hindered the progress of the farmers. These two communities live exclusively from each other. In conclusion, it is seen that when the gaps between administrators and farmers are plugged through grass-root efforts utilizing visual medium, the farmer's economic situation got better, and the community prospered.

Keywords: farmers, social advocacy, marginalized, story telling

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2930 Barriers to Innovation Based on Environmentally Friendly Technology Adoption in Developing Countries: The Case of Production in Rural Areas in Cauca-Colombia

Authors: Deycy Janeth Sanchez Preciado, Bjorn Claes, Paola Andrade

Abstract:

The development of appropriate environmentally friendly technologies has aided communities in rural areas in emerging economies to better use their natural resources, increase productivity while reducing pollution. Moreover, it has improved their innovation capabilities and ability to develop products for new markets. However, despite the advances, the adoption of these technologies is not generalized and does not always show the expected benefits for the communities and other actors involved in the co-creation process. In this paper, we study the barriers that inhibit the adoption of technologies to reach innovation levels and study comparative cases in rural areas of Cauca in Colombia. We develop and test a theory grounded framework, and we compile an overview of the most important of barriers.

Keywords: technology adoption, environmentally friendly technology, developing countries, rural production, innovation, appropriate technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
2929 Clinicomycological Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among Primary School Children in Communities in Enugu, Nigeria

Authors: Nkeiruka Elsie Ezomike, Chinwe L. Onyekonwu, Anthony N. Ikefuna, Bede C. Ibe

Abstract:

Superficial fungal infections (SFIs) are one of the common cutaneous infections that affect children worldwide. They may lead to school absenteeism or school drop-out and hence setback in the education of the child. Community-based studies in any locality are good reflections of the health conditions within that area. There is a dearth of information in the literature about SFI among primary school children in Enugu. This study aimed to determine the clinicomycological pattern of SFIs among primary school children in rural and urban communities in Enugu. This was a comparative descriptive cross-sectional study among primary school children in Awgu (rural) and Enugu North (urban) Local Government Areas (LGAs). Subjects' selection was made over 6 months using a multi-stage sampling method. Information such as age, sex, parental education, and occupation were collected using questionnaires. Socioeconomic classes of the children were determined using the classification proposed by Oyedeji et al. The samples were collected from subjects with SFIs. Potassium hydroxide tests were done on the samples. The samples that tested positive were cultured for SFI by inoculating onto Sabouraud's dextrose chloramphenicol actidione agar. The characteristics of the isolates were identified according to their morphological features using Mycology Online, Atlas 2000, and Mycology Review 2003. Equal numbers of children were recruited from the two LGAs. A total of 1662 pupils were studied. The mean ages of the study subjects were 9.03 ± 2.10years in rural and 10.46 ± 2.33years in urban communities. The male to female ratio was 1.6:1 in rural and 1:1.1 in urban communities. The personal hygiene of the children was significantly related to the presence of SFIs. The overall prevalence of SFIs among the study participants was 45%. In the rural, the prevalence was 29.6%, and in the urban prevalence was 60.4%. The types of SFIs were tinea capitis (the commonest), tinea corporis, pityriasis Versicolor, tinea unguium, and tinea manuum with prevalence rates lower in rural than urban communities. The clinical patterns were gray patch and black dot type of non-inflammatory tinea capitis, kerion, tinea corporis with trunk and limb distributions, and pityriasis Versicolor with face, trunk and limb distributions. Gray patch was the most frequent pattern of SFI seen in rural and urban communities. Black dot type was more frequent in rural than urban communities. SFIs were frequent among children aged 5 to 8years in rural and 9 to 12 years in urban communities. SFIs were commoner in males in the rural, whereas female dominance was observed in the urban. SFIs were more in children from low social class and those with poor hygiene. Trichophyton tonsurans and Trichophyton soudanese were the common mycological isolates in rural and urban communities, respectively. In conclusion, SFIs were less prevalent in rural than in urban communities. Trichophyton species were the most common fungal isolates in the communities. Health education of mothers and their children on SFI and good personal hygiene will reduce the incidence of SFIs.

Keywords: clinicomycological pattern, communities, primary school children, superficial fungal infections

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2928 Analysis of the Dietary Intake of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Rural Communities of Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Uzoamaka Nwugo Akwiwu

Abstract:

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among rural dwellers depletes quality of agricultural labour, and reduces quality of life. Use of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has not significantly reduced consequences of infection, as the effort is being compromised by inadequate dietary intake. This study analysed the dietary intake of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in rural communities of Imo State, Nigeria. Data was collected from 114 PLWHA randomly selected from members of two rural support groups with high prevalence of HIV in Imo State using interview schedule. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation, and t-test at α0.05. Level of involvement in agriculture was (mean 12.7) and reduced to 7.0 after infection. Extent of involvement in agriculture significantly reduced after infection in Imo (t=8.1). Health status of 42.1% of PLWHA was perceived as poor. Diet diversity score (4.3±1.6) was low among majority (62.3%) of the PLWHA, with diet of 76.3% being inadequate. However, perceived health status had no significant correlation with dietary intake (r=0.09). The study concluded that diet of PLWHA in Imo State was inadequate, thus there is need for agricultural extension agents to collaborate with the health sector to develop nutritional guideline for PLWHA in rural communities.

Keywords: dietary intake, diet diversity, people living With HIV/AIDS, perceived health status

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2927 Alternative Systems of Drinking Water Supply Using Rainwater Harvesting for Small Rural Communities with Zero Greenhouse Emissions

Authors: Martin Mundo-Molina

Abstract:

In Mexico, there are many small rural communities with serious water supply deficiencies. In Chiapas, Mexico, there are 19,972 poor rural communities, 15,712 of which have fewer than 100 inhabitants. The lack of a constant water supply is most severe in the highlands of Chiapas where the population is made up mainly of indigenous groups. The communities are on mountainous terrain with a widely dispersed population. These characteristics combine to make the provision of public utilities, such as water, electricity and sewerage, difficult with conventional means. The introduction of alternative, low-cost technologies represents means of supplying water such as through fog and rain catchment with zero greenhouse emissions. In this paper is presented the rainwater harvesting system (RWS) constructed in Yalentay, Chiapas Mexico. The RWS is able to store 1.2 M liters of water to provide drinking water to small rural indigenous communities of 500 people in the drought stage. Inside the system of rainwater harvesting there isn't photosynthesis in order to conserve water for long periods. The natural filters of the system of rainwater harvesting guarantee the drinking water for using to the community. The combination of potability and low cost makes rain collection a viable alternative for rural areas, weather permitting. The Mexican Institute of Water Technology and Chiapas University constructed a rainwater harvesting system in Yalentay Chiapas, it consists of four parts: 1. Roof of aluminum, for collecting rainwater, 2. Underground-cistern, divided in two tanks, 3. Filters, to improve the water quality and 4. The system of rainwater harvesting dignified the lives of people in Yalentay, saves energy, prevents the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, conserves natural resources such as water and air.

Keywords: appropriate technologies, climate change, greenhouse gases, rainwater harvesting

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2926 Socio-Economic Setting and Implications to Climate Change Impacts in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Kenneth Nhundu, Leocadia Zhou, Farhad Aghdasi, Voster Muchenje

Abstract:

Climate change poses increased risks to rural communities that rely on natural resources, such as forests, cropland and rangeland, waterways, and open spaces Because of their connection to the land and the potential for climate change to impact natural resources and disrupt ecosystems and seasons, rural livelihoods and well-being are disproportionately vulnerable to climate change. Climate change has the potential to affect the environment in a number of ways that place increased stress on everyone, but disproportionately on the most vulnerable populations, including the young, the old, those with chronic illness, and the poor. The communities in the study area are predominantly rural, resource-based and are generally surrounded by public or private lands that are dominated by natural resources, including forests, rangelands, and agriculture. The livelihoods of these communities are tied to natural resources. Therefore, targeted strategies to cope will be required. This paper assessed the household socio-economic characteristics and their implications to household vulnerability to climate change impacts in the rural Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The results indicate that the rural communities are climate-vulnerable populations as they have a large proportion of people who are less economically or physically capable of adapting to climate change. The study therefore recommends that at each level, the needs, knowledge, and voices of vulnerable populations, including indigenous peoples and resource-based communities, deserve consideration and incorporation so that climate change policy (1) ensures that all people are supported and able to act, (2) provides as robust a strategy as possible to address a rapidly changing environment, and (3) enhances equity and justice.

Keywords: climate change, vulnerable, socio-economic, livelihoods

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2925 Knowledge, Perception and Practice of Deworming among Mothers of Under-Five Children in Rural Communities of Lafia Local Government Area, North Central Nigeria

Authors: Bahago I. N., Oyewole O. E.

Abstract:

Nigeria has the second highest prevalence of intestinal worms globally, which has not declined since the 1970s, especially in rural communities. Identifying the gaps in self-care practice will pave a way for a suitable intervention. This study investigated the knowledge, perception, and practice of deworming among mothers of under-five children in rural communities of Lafia Local Government Area, Nasarawa State. This study was descriptive cross-sectional and involved 419 mothers selected by systematic sampling technique. Information was obtained using a valid interviewer-questionnaire. Knowledge, perception, and practice was measured using a 10-point scale for each variable, respectively. Scores of 0-4, >4-6, and >6 were categorised as poor, average/fair, and good, respectively, at p<0.05 level of significance. Respondents’ age was 30.3±9.2 years; 46.5% were into trading, 26.7% were unemployed, 9.3% were skilled labour, and 7.4% were farmers. On literacy, secondary school (25.5%) while 9.1% above secondary school. Many (51.1%) had 2-3 children, while 42.2% had 5 or more children. Most of the respondents (96.2%) had good knowledge of deworming, and 3.8% had fair knowledge. Using multivariate model, Mothers between the ages of 25-34 years were 20 times likely to be more knowledgeable, given they have access to health information (O.R 2.39 -164.31). Most (62.3%) had good perception scores, 33.2% had fair scores, while 4.5% had poor perception scores. Majority (66.4%) had a good deworming practice of deworming, 66.4% had good, 28.4% had fair, and 5.3% had poor practice. The test of association between Parent's literacy level, religion, and age were significantly associated with the level of knowledge of deworming. Knowledge of deworming was above average; perception and practice was good. Women of ages 25-34 years could be trained as community volunteers to propagate the right information about deworming in rural communities, especially among young women of ages 13-19 years. Preferred channels to obtaining health information identified in the study should be explored.

Keywords: deworming, mothers of under-five, intestinal worms, rural communities

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2924 Assessment of Age-Friendliness in Rural Areas: An Investigation of Content Validity

Authors: Barbara Erjauz, Juliane Eichhorn

Abstract:

Background and Purpose: The world´s population is rapidly aging, wherefore the World Health Organization (WHO) is dealing with concepts of Age-Friendly-Communities and criteria to define them. Also in Germany, we can find an aging population and a large amount of seniors is living in rural areas. Those regions are defined by unique social and environmental characteristics, which can enhance or decrease age-friendliness. To identify and work with these characteristics, we are in need of appropriate assessment instruments. To the author’s best knowledge until now, no instrument could be identified as suitable and scientifically proven for the German speaking area. The aim of the study was to identify an assessment instrument to measure the age-friendliness of rural communities and its psychometric testing regarding the content validity. Methods: A literature search was carried out to identify instruments related to concepts of Age-Friendly-Communities. According to the German situation, an instrument was chosen and modified based on a Delphi-study. In this context, the content validity was investigated by calculating the Content Validity Index (CVI). Results: An instrument consisting of 86 items based on WHO indicators and the German situation in rural areas was created. 43 items (50%) had a Content Validity Index for Items (I-CVI) of 1,00, 37 items (43%) had an I-CVI of >0,78 and > 1.00, and 6 items had an I-CVI of >0,78. The value of the Content Validity Index for Scales, averaging calculation method (S-CVI/Ave) for the entire scale was 0,91. Conclusions: The results indicate a good content validity and it can be concluded that the created instrument represents the phenomenon of age-friendliness in rural areas. Nevertheless, further psychometric testing related to reliability, validity and responsiveness is recommended.

Keywords: assessment, age-friendly, rural, psychometric testing

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2923 The Role of Human Capital in Rural Development: A Critical Look at Ethiopian Education Policy

Authors: Blen Telayneh Melese

Abstract:

Rural development, the unending quest of a developing country, cannot be succeeded in deprived of human capital development. Human capital, the economic pillars of a country's development, appeals a policy-based supports while fulfilling what is expected. Ethiopia, one of the rural countries with untouched and forgotten land and human force, owes historical experiences of educational policy intending for mobilization of its citizen for the advancement of the overall economy. Rural Ethiopia as well has been the focus of those educational policies, considering the economic resources entrenched with in. In this literature review paper, Ethiopian educational policy and its contribution to human capital development, as well as its role in generating quality human labor force, is assessed concisely. The author argues that the foundation of rural development such as technology, knowledge, infrastructure, market chain, communication and etc., can only be achieved through enhanced education policy that conciliates the existing reality of rural communities. Ethiopia still needs an education policy that enables it to generate a human capital that is oriented with the rural areas economic opportunities and challenges.

Keywords: Ethiopia, rural development, human capital development, education policy

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2922 Mass Media Products Consumption Patterns in Rural South-South, Nigeria Communities

Authors: Inemesit Akpan Umoren, Aniekan James Akpan

Abstract:

Media practitioners and information managers have often erroneously operated on the premise that media messages are received as disseminated to the extent that audiences of whatever background assimilate the content uniformly. This does not subsist since media audiences are often segmented in terms of educational level, social category, place of residence, gender, among others. While those who are highly educated, live in urban areas and are of highest standing are more likely to have direct access to the media, those in the rural areas and of low education and standing, may not have direct or easy access. These, therefore, informed the study to establish the consumption patterns of mass media products by residents of rural communities in south-south, Nigeria. The study, which was anchored on the multi-step flow and social categories theories, adopted a survey research design and a sample of 383 using Mayer’s 1979 guide drawn from nine rural communities in the south-south, Nigeria states of Akwa Ibom, Rivers and Edo. Findings among others showed that while a negligible percentage is highly exposed to media messages of all types, a greater member depend on opinion leaders, social groups, drinking joints, among other such for filtered content. It was concluded that since rural or community media organizations are very vital in ensuring media content get to all audience without necessarily being passing through intermediaries. Among the recommendations was that information managers and media organizations should always have in mind the ruralites while packaging their contents even in the mainstream media.

Keywords: consumption, media, media product, pattern

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2921 Public Health Informatics: Potential and Challenges for Better Life in Rural Communities

Authors: Shishir Kumar, Chhaya Gangwal, Seema Raj

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Public health informatics (PHI) which has seen successful implementation in the developed world, become the buzzword in the developing countries in providing improved healthcare with enhanced access. In rural areas especially, where a huge gap exists between demand and supply of healthcare facilities, PHI is being seen as a major solution. There are factors such as growing network infrastructure and the technological adoption by the health fraternity which provide support to these claims. Public health informatics has opportunities in healthcare by providing opportunities to diagnose patients, provide intra-operative assistance and consultation from a remote site. It also has certain barriers in the awareness, adaptation, network infrastructure, funding and policy related areas. There are certain medico-legal aspects involving all the stakeholders which need to be standardized to enable a working system. This paper aims to analyze the potential and challenges of public health informatics services in rural communities.

Keywords: PHI, e-health, public health, health informatics

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2920 Influence of Nutritional and Health Education of Families and Communities on the School-Age Children for the Attainment of Universal Basic Education Goals in the Rural Riverine Areas of Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Folasade R. Sulaiman

Abstract:

Pupils’ health and nutrition are basically important to their schooling. The preponderance of avoidable deaths among children in Africa (WHO, 2000) may not be unconnected with the nutritional and health education status of families and communities that have their children as school clients. This study adopted a descriptive survey design focusing on the assessment of the level of nutritional and health education of families and community members in the rural riverine areas of Ogun State. Two research questions were raised. The Nutritional and Health Education of Families and Communities Inventory (NHEFCI) was used to collect data from 250 rural child-bearing aged women, and 0.73 test-retest reliability coefficient was established to determine the strength of the instrument. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentages and mean in accordance with research questions raised in the study. The findings revealed amongst others: that 65% of the respondents had low level of nutritional and health education among the families and community members; while 72% had low level of awareness of the possible influence of nutritional and health education on the learning outcomes of the children. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that government should intensify efforts on sensitization, mass literacy campaign etc.; also improve upon the already existing School Feeding Programme in Nigerian primary schools to provide at least one balanced diet for children while in school; community health workers, social workers, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) should collaborate with international Organizations like UNICEF, UNESCO, WHO etc. to organize sensitization programmes for members of the rural riverine communities on the importance of meeting the health and nutritional needs of their children in order to attain their educational potentials.

Keywords: nutritional and health education, learning capacities, school-age children, universal basic education, rural riverine areas

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2919 The Use of the Steel Aggregate and Procedures for Application on Rural Roads to Improve Traffic

Authors: Luís Felipe da Cunha Mendonça

Abstract:

Normally, rural roads do not have any type of coating, and when they have any coating, they have a high maintenance cost due to the characteristics of natural materials. The Steel Aggregate has specific technical characteristics, which considerably reduce the maintenance costs of rural roads with the execution of the Primary Coating. For use as a primary coating, it must be mixed with clay due to the physical-chemical properties of the material. The application is mainly in the Primary Coating of rural roads due to the cementitious property in the presence of water, offering greater resistance to wear caused by traffic and consequently a longer useful life of the coating. The Steel Aggregate executed on rural roads has reduced particulate emissions and offers normal traffic in any weather condition, as well as creating sustainability. Contribute to the quality of life of communities through improvements in the conditions of rural and urban unpaved roads. Leading to substantial savings in maintenance. Because the durability, if applied correctly, is about 3 years, but if annual monitoring is carried out, it can be extended for more than 5 years.

Keywords: steel slag, co-product, primary coating, steel aggregate

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2918 Analysis of the Social Impact of Agro-Allied Industries on the Rural Dwellers in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: Ali Ocholi

Abstract:

The study was conducted to analyze the impact of agro-allied industries on rural dwellers in Benue state, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the respondents for the study. Primary data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires administered on 366 respondents from the selected communities; the data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of Mann-Whitney (U) statistics showed that water availability (14350) and good road network (15082.00) were the only social impact derived from the industries by the rural dwellers. The study recommended that right and proper policies and programmes should be put in place by the government to mandate all private and public agro-allied industries to embark on projects that would be in favour of the rural dwellers where the agro-allied industries are situated.

Keywords: agriculture, agro-allied industry, rural dwellers, Benue state

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
2917 Spatiotemporal Community Detection and Analysis of Associations among Overlapping Communities

Authors: JooYoung Lee, Rasheed Hussain

Abstract:

Understanding the relationships among communities of users is the key to blueprint the evolution of human society. Majority of people are equipped with GPS devices, such as smart phones and smart cars, which can trace their whereabouts. In this paper, we discover communities of device users based on real locations in a given time frame. We, then, study the associations of discovered communities, referred to as temporal communities, and generate temporal and probabilistic association rules. The rules describe how strong communities are associated. By studying the generated rules, we can automatically extract underlying hierarchies of communities and permanent communities such as work places.

Keywords: association rules, community detection, evolution of communities, spatiotemporal

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
2916 Micro Waqf Banks as an Alternative Financing Micro Business in Indonesia

Authors: Achmad Muchaddam Fahham, Sony Hendra Permana

Abstract:

For rural communities and micro-entrepreneurs, access to formal financial institutions is very difficult. So, borrowing to moneylenders is the most possible way to fulfill their needs. But actually it does not solve their problems, precisely their problems are increasing because they have to pay at very high-interest rates. For this reason, microfinance institution is very important as a solution for rural communities and micro-entrepreneurs who need loans to fulfill their needs. This paper aims to describe the role of micro waqf banks in Indonesia as an alternative funding for rural communities and micro-entrepreneurs. This research is descriptive using a qualitative approach. The interview technique was also carried out with key informants who understood sharia microfinance institutions. The results of the study revealed that the micro waqf bank is Islamic microfinance institutions which targeted the micro business sector by channeling small financing with a maximum financing of Rp1 million. The funding of this micro waqf bank comes from donors who donate funds through the Amil Zakat institution. The margins imposed on borrowers are as high as 3 percent per year, with payment schemes in installments every week, so it is made easier for borrower. In addition, financing is followed by training and mentoring so that borrower is able to utilize the loan for productive business activities. In the end, it is hoped that this micro waqf bank can become an incubator for micro businesses in Indonesia.

Keywords: micro business, micro waqf banks, micro-entrepreneurs, Amil Zakat institution

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
2915 Assessment of Rural Youth Adoption of Cassava Production Technologies in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: J. O. Ayinde, S. O. Olatunji

Abstract:

This study assessed rural youth adoption of cassava production technologies in Southwestern, Nigeria. Specifically, it examine the level of awareness and adoption of cassava production technologies by rural youth, determined the extent of usage of cassava production technologies available to the rural youth, examined constrains to the adoption of cassava production technologies by youth and suggested possible solutions. Multistage sampling procedure was adopted for the study. In the first stage, two states were purposively selected in southwest, Nigeria which are Osun and Oyo states due to high level of cassava production and access to cassava production technology in the areas. In the second stage, purposive sampling technique was used to select two local governments each from the states selected which are Ibarapa central (Igbo-Ora) and Ibarapa East (Eruwa) Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Oyo state; and Ife North (Ipetumodu) and Ede South (Oke Ireesi) LGAs in Osun State. In the third stage, proportionate sampling technique was used to randomly select five, four, six and four communities from the selected LGAs respectively representing 20 percent of the rural communities in them, in all 19 communities were selected. In the fourth stage, Snow ball sampling technique was used to select about 7 rural youths in each community selected to make a total of 133 respondents. Validated structured interview schedule was used to elicit information from the respondents. The data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics to summarize and test the hypotheses of the study. The results show that the average age of rural youths participating in cassava production in the study area is 29 ± 2.6 years and 60 percent aged between 30 and 35 years. Also, more male (67.4 %) were involved in cassava production than females (32.6 %). The result also reveals that the average size of farm land of the respondents is 2.5 ± 0.3 hectares. Also, more male (67.4 %) were involved in cassava production than females (32.6 %). Also, extent of usage of the technologies (r = 0.363, p ≤ 0.01) shows significant relationship with level of adoption of the technologies. Household size (b = 0.183; P ≤ 0.01) and membership of social organizations were significant at 0.01 (b = 0.331; P ≤ 0.01) while age was significant at 0.10 (b = 0.097; P ≤ 0.05). On the other hand 0.01, years of residence (b = - 0.063; P ≤ 0.01) and income (b = - 0.204; P ≤ 0.01) had negative values and implies that a unit increase in each of these variables would decrease extent of usage of the Cassava production technologies. It was concluded that the extent of usage of the technologies in the communities will affect the rate of adoption positively and this will change the negative perception of youths on cassava production thereby ensure food security in the study area.

Keywords: assessment, rural youths’, Cassava production technologies, agricultural production, food security

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2914 Rural Water Management Strategies and Irrigation Techniques for Sustainability. Nigeria Case Study; Kwara State

Authors: Faith Eweluegim Enahoro-Ofagbe

Abstract:

Water is essential for sustaining life. As a limited resource, effective water management is vital. Water scarcity has become more common due to the effects of climate change, land degradation, deforestation, and population growth, especially in rural communities, which are more susceptible to water-related issues such as water shortage, water-borne disease, et c., due to the unsuccessful implementation of water policies and projects in Nigeria. Since rural communities generate the majority of agricultural products, they significantly impact on water management for sustainability. The development of methods to advance this goal for residential and agricultural usage in the present and the future is a challenge for rural residents. This study evaluated rural water supply systems and irrigation management techniques to conserve water in Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria. Suggesting some measures to conserve water resources for sustainability, off-season farming, and socioeconomic security that will remedy water degradation, unemployment which is one of the causes of insecurity in the country, by considering the use of fabricated or locally made irrigation equipment, which are affordable by rural farmers, among other recommendations. Questionnaires were distributed to respondents in the study area for quantitative evaluation of irrigation methods practices. For physicochemical investigation, samples were also gathered from their available water sources. According to the study's findings, 30 percent of farmers adopted intelligent irrigation management techniques to conserve water resources, saving 45% of the water previously used for irrigation. 70 % of farmers practice seasonal farming. Irrigation water is drawn from river channels, streams, and unlined and unprotected wells. 60% of these rural residents rely on private boreholes for their water needs, while 40% rely on government-supplied rural water. Therefore, the government must develop additional water projects, raise awareness, and offer irrigation techniques that are simple to adapt for water management, increasing socio-economic productivity, security, and water sustainability.

Keywords: water resource management, sustainability, irrigation, rural water management, irrigation management technique

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2913 Application of IF Rough Data on Knowledge Towards Malaria of Rural Tribal Communities in Tripura

Authors: Chhaya Gangwal, R. N. Bhaumik, Shishir Kumar

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Handling uncertainty and impreciseness of knowledge appears to be a challenging task in Information Systems. Intuitionistic fuzzy (IF) and rough set theory enhances databases by allowing it for the management of uncertainty and impreciseness. This paper presents a new efficient query optimization technique for the multi-valued or imprecise IF rough database. The usefulness of this technique was illustrated on malaria knowledge from the rural tribal communities of Tripura where most of the information is multi-valued and imprecise. Then, the querying about knowledge on malaria is executed into SQL server to make the implementation of IF rough data querying simpler.

Keywords: intuitionistic fuzzy set, rough set, relational database, IF rough relational database

Procedia PDF Downloads 356