Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11931

Search results for: blood glucose level

11931 Blood Glucose Level Measurement from Breath Analysis

Authors: Tayyab Hassan, Talha Rehman, Qasim Abdul Aziz, Ahmad Salman

Abstract:

The constant monitoring of blood glucose level is necessary for maintaining health of patients and to alert medical specialists to take preemptive measures before the onset of any complication as a result of diabetes. The current clinical monitoring of blood glucose uses invasive methods repeatedly which are uncomfortable and may result in infections in diabetic patients. Several attempts have been made to develop non-invasive techniques for blood glucose measurement. In this regard, the existing methods are not reliable and are less accurate. Other approaches claiming high accuracy have not been tested on extended dataset, and thus, results are not statistically significant. It is a well-known fact that acetone concentration in breath has a direct relation with blood glucose level. In this paper, we have developed the first of its kind, reliable and high accuracy breath analyzer for non-invasive blood glucose measurement. The acetone concentration in breath was measured using MQ 138 sensor in the samples collected from local hospitals in Pakistan involving one hundred patients. The blood glucose levels of these patients are determined using conventional invasive clinical method. We propose a linear regression classifier that is trained to map breath acetone level to the collected blood glucose level achieving high accuracy.

Keywords: blood glucose level, breath acetone concentration, diabetes, linear regression

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11930 Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Risk Factors among Nurses in Mongolia

Authors: V. Davaakhuu, D. Tserendagva, D. Amarsaikhan, T. Altanstetseg

Abstract:

In this study we aimed to detect main risk factors for diabetes in Mongolia and obtain data we used survey modified questionnaire. Survey data were obtained from 634 valid nurses (day work nurses-317, shift work nurses-317). Participants who were pregnant, less than 20 years old and no check for fasting glucose level were excluded from the survey in order to determine the risk factors of diabetes. Our study result shows the main risk factors of diabetes were physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, alcohol and tobacco use and lack of vegetable and fruit consumption. Peripheral blood glucose level was normal in subjects with BMI 26.28 ± 0.56, but 20 % of the subjects with normal blood glucose level were obese. Blood glucose level was higher in subjects with BMI 28.63 ± 2.32 and 36 % of them were obese. According to our study results, 3.62% of the surveyed population were identified having no diabetes risk factors, 52.3% were at risk, 28.8% were in higher risk for diabetes by the WHO criteria. In general, the prevalence of blood glucose were especially higher in shift work nurses.

Keywords: day work nurses, shift work nurses, BMI, WHR

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
11929 Linear Prediction System in Measuring Glucose Level in Blood

Authors: Intan Maisarah Abd Rahim, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Rashidah Ghazali

Abstract:

Diabetes is a medical condition that can lead to various diseases such as stroke, heart disease, blindness and obesity. In clinical practice, the concern of the diabetic patients towards the blood glucose examination is rather alarming as some of the individual describing it as something painful with pinprick and pinch. As for some patient with high level of glucose level, pricking the fingers multiple times a day with the conventional glucose meter for close monitoring can be tiresome, time consuming and painful. With these concerns, several non-invasive techniques were used by researchers in measuring the glucose level in blood, including ultrasonic sensor implementation, multisensory systems, absorbance of transmittance, bio-impedance, voltage intensity, and thermography. This paper is discussing the application of the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a non-invasive method in measuring the glucose level and the implementation of the linear system identification model in predicting the output data for the NIR measurement. In this study, the wavelengths considered are at the 1450 nm and 1950 nm. Both of these wavelengths showed the most reliable information on the glucose presence in blood. Then, the linear Autoregressive Moving Average Exogenous model (ARMAX) model with both un-regularized and regularized methods was implemented in predicting the output result for the NIR measurement in order to investigate the practicality of the linear system in this study. However, the result showed only 50.11% accuracy obtained from the system which is far from the satisfying results that should be obtained.

Keywords: diabetes, glucose level, linear, near-infrared, non-invasive, prediction system

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11928 An Algorithm of Regulation of Glucose-Insulin Concentration in the Blood

Authors: B. Selma, S. Chouraqui

Abstract:

The pancreas is an elongated organ that extends across the abdomen, below the stomach. In addition, it secretes certain enzymes that aid in food digestion. The pancreas also manufactures hormones responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. In the present paper, we propose a mathematical model to study the homeostasis of glucose and insulin in healthy human, and a simulation of this model, which depicts the physiological events after a meal, will be represented in ordinary humans. The aim of this paper is to design an algorithm which regulates the level of glucose in the blood. The algorithm applied the concept of expert system for performing an algorithm control in the form of an "active" used to prescribe the rate of insulin infusion. By decomposing the system into subsystems, we have developed parametric models of each subsystem by using a forcing function strategy. The results showed a performance of the control system.

Keywords: modeling, algorithm, regulation, glucose-insulin, blood, control system

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11927 Antihyperglycemic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Foeniculum vulgare Miller in Diabetic Mice

Authors: Singh Baljinder, Sharma Navneet

Abstract:

Foeniculum vulgare Miller is a biennial medicinal and aromatic plant belonging to the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferaceae). It is a hardy, perennial–umbelliferous herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. The aim is to study the control of blood glucose in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Method used for extraction was continuous hot percolation method in which Soxhlet apparatus was used.95%ethanol was used as solvent. Male albino mice weighing about 20-25 g obtained from Guru Angad Dev University of Veterinary Science, Ludhiana were used for the study. Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of 125 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate in sterile saline (11). After 48 h, animals with serum glucose level above 200 mg/dl (diabetic) were selected for the study. Blood samples from mice were collected by retro-orbital puncture (ROP) technique. Serum glucose levels were determined by glucose oxidase and peroxidase method. Single administration (single dose) of aqueous extract of fennel (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in diabetic Swiss albino mice, showed reduction in serum glucose level after 45 min. Maximum reduction in serum glucose level was seen at doses of 100 mg/kg. Aqueous extract of fennel in all doses except 25 mg/kg did not cause any significant decrease in blood glucose. It may be said that the aqueous extract of fennel decreased the serum glucose level and improved glucose tolerance owing to the presence of aldehyde moiety. The aqueous extract of fennel has antihyperglycemic activity as it lowers serum glucose level in diabetic mice.

Keywords: Foeniculum vulgare Miller, antihyperglycemic, diabetic mice, Umbelliferaceae

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11926 Correlation of Stress and Blood Glucose Level in Working Women from Tribal Region of Navapur, Dist-Nandurbar

Authors: Surekha B. Bansode, Shakeela K. Shareef

Abstract:

Working women have to face complex issues of family life and professional life. Stress is the condition that results from person’s response to physical, emotional or environmental factors. The stress response can cause problems when it overreacts or fails to turn off and reset itself properly. In the present investigation correlation between stress and blood glucose level in working women group and non working women group was studied. Working women when compared with non working women, experienced more physical and psychological stress. An additional increase in fasting blood glucose levels could be attributed to stress and anxiety they undergo at the workplace. This may lead to increase their susceptibility to develop type II Diabetes Mellitus in coming future.

Keywords: blood sugar, nutrition, stress, working women

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11925 Study of the Anti-Diabetic Activity of the Common Fig in the Region of the El Amra (Ain Defla), Algeria

Authors: Meliani Samiha, Hassaine Sarah

Abstract:

Figs are so much consumed in the Mediterranean region; they present a high nutritional value and also multiple therapeutic virtues. Our work contributes to the study of the antidiabetic activity of the common fig of the region of El Amra (AinDefla) Algeria. To do this, 20 Wistar rats female, divided into 4 lots, were used: Lot 1: 5 normal controls; Lot 2: 5 normal controls treated with dry fig juice at 20%; Lot 3: 5 diabetic controls; Lot 4: 5 diabetic controls treated with dry fig juice at 20%. The rats are rendered diabetic by intra-peritoneal injection of a streptozotocin solution. The blood glucose is measured after 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours and after 4 hours of the administration of the fig juice; it’s measured also on the 5th day, 8th day and 9th day of the beginning of the experiment. The determination of cholesterol and triglycerides blood is carried out at the beginning and the end of the study. On the 9th day, we recorded a very significant decrease of the blood sugar level of diabetic rats treated with dry fig juice. This blood glucose level normalized for 3 rats/5rats, we also recorded a decrease, but not significant, of cholesterol and triglycerides blood levels. In the short term (for 4 hours), an increase of blood sugar level, one hour after administration, for normal and diabetic rats. This increase is probably due to the high level of sugar content in the preparation. The blood glucose level is then corrected, four hours later. This may be the result of anti hyperglycemic effect of the active ingredients contained in the figs.

Keywords: antidiabetic, figs, hypoglycemia, streptozotocin

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11924 The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Glycemic Control in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Chun-Chin Huang

Abstract:

Individuals with prediabetes increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Exercise is a potent stimulator of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and thus good for maintaining glucose homeostasis. That could be a conducive method to improve blood glucose regulation and prevent type 2 diabetes without medication intake. The aim of this study was to summarize mechanisms of insulin resistance and investigate the beneficial effects of acute and chronic aerobic exercise on glycemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Aerobic exercise regulates glucose homeostasis and reduces blood glucose, insulin concentrations. Therefore, the type of aerobic exercise brings positive effects to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: insulin resistance, glucose sensitivity, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance

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11923 Effects of Concomitant Use of Metformin and Powdered Moringa Oleifera Leaves on Glucose Tolerance in Sprague-Dawley Rats

Authors: Emielex M. Aguilar, Kristen Angela G. Cruz, Czarina Joie L. Rivera, Francis Dave C. Tan, Gavino Ivan N. Tanodra, Dianne Katrina G. Usana, Mary Grace T. Valentin, Nico Albert S. Vasquez, Edwin Monico C. Wee

Abstract:

The risk of diabetes mellitus is increasing in the Philippines, with Metformin and Insulin as drugs commonly used for its management. The use of herbal medicines has grown increasingly, especially among the elderly population. Moringa oleifera or malunggay is one of the most common plants in the country, and several studies have shown the plant to exhibit a hypoglycemic property with its flavonoid content. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of concomitant use of Metformin and powdered M. oleifera leaves (PMOL) on blood glucose levels. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally distributed into four groups. Fasting blood glucose levels of the rats were measured prior to experimentation. The following treatments were administered to the four groups, respectively: glucose only 2 g/kg; glucose 2 g/kg + Metformin 100 mg/kg; glucose 2 g/kg + PMOL 200 mg/kg; and glucose 2 g/kg + PMOL 200 mg/kg and Metformin 100 mg/kg. Blood glucose levels were determined on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th hour post-treatment and compared between groups. Statistical analysis showed that the type of intervention did not show significance in the reduction of blood glucose levels when compared with the other groups (p=0.378), while the effect of time exhibited significance (p=0.000). The interaction between the type of intervention and time of blood glucose measurement was shown to be significant (p=0.024). Within each group, the control and PMOL-treated groups showed significant reduction in blood glucose levels over time with p-values of 0.000 and 0.000, respectively, while the Metformin-treated and the combination groups had p-values of 0.062 and 0.093, respectively, which are not significant. The descriptive data also showed that the mean total reduction of blood glucose levels of the Metformin and PMOL combination treatment group was lower than the PMOL-treated group alone, while the mean total reduction of blood glucose levels of the combination group was higher than the Metformin-treated group alone. Based on the results obtained, the combination of Metformin and PMOL did not significantly lower the blood glucose levels of the rats as compared to the other groups. However, the concomitant use of Metformin and PMOL may affect each other’s blood glucose lowering activity. Additionally, prolonged time of exposure and delay in the first blood glucose measurement after treatment could exhibit a significant effect in the blood glucose levels. Further studies are recommended regarding the effects of the concomitant use of the two agents on blood glucose levels.

Keywords: blood glucose levels, concomitant use, metformin, Moringa oleifera

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11922 Synergistic and Antagonistic Interactions between Garlic Extracts and Metformin in Diabetes Treatment

Authors: Ikram Elsiddig, Yacouba Djamila, Amna Hamad

Abstract:

Abstract—The worldwide increasing of using herbs in form of medicine with or without prescription medications potentiates the interactions between herbal products and conventional medicines; due to more research for herb-drug interactions are needed. for a long time hyperglycemia had been treated with several medicinal plants. A. sativum, belonging to the Liliaceae family is well known for its medicinal uses in African traditional medicine, it used for treating of many human diseases mainly diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to determine the interaction effect between A. sativum bulb extracts and metformin drug used in diabetes treatment. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation were conducted by glucose reuptake using isolated rats hemidiaphgrams tissue and by estimate glucose tolerance in glucose-loaded wistar albino rats. The results showed that, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were found to have activity of glucose uptake in isolated rats hemidiaphgrams of 24.11 mg/g, 19.07 mg/g and 15.66 mg/g compared to metformin drug of 17 mg/g. These activity were reducded to 17.8 mg/g, 13.59 mg/g and 14.46 mg/g after combination with metformin, metformin itself reduced to 13.59 mg/g, 14.46 mg/g and 12.71 mg/g in comination with chloroform and ethyl acetate. These decrease in activity could be due to herbal–drug interaction between the extracts of A. sativum bulb and metformin drug. The interaction between A. sativum extract and metformin was also shown by in vivo study on the induced hyperglycemic rats. The glucose level after administered of 200 mg/kg was found to be increase with 47.2 % and 17.7% at first and second hour compared to the increase of blood glucose in the control group of 82.6% and76.7%.. At fourth hour the glucose level was became less than normal with 3.4% compared to control which continue to increase with 68.2%. Dose of 400 mg/kg at first hour showed increase in blood glucose of 31.5 %, at second and fourth hours the glucose level was became less than normal with decrease of 3.2 % and 30.4%. After combination the activity was found to be less than that of extract at both high and low dose, whereas, at first and second hour, the glucose level was found to be increase with 50.4% and 21.2%, at fourth hour the glucose level was became less than normal with 14%. Therefore A. sativum could be a potential source for anti-diabetic when it used alone, and it is significant important to use the garlic extract alone instead of combined with Metformin drug in diabetes- treatment.

Keywords: Antagonistic, Garlic, Metformin, Synergistic

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11921 Antidiabetic Evaluation of Pig (Sus scrofa) Bile on Alloxan-Induced BALB/c Mice

Authors: John Lyndon C. Lunnay

Abstract:

This study discerns to evaluate the antidiabetic efficacy of pig bile on alloxan-induced BALB/c mice. The experimental animals were divided and selected using RCBD into 5 groups (n= 4): T1 (negative control), T2 (1ml/kg), T3 (2ml/kg), T4 (3ml/kg) and T5 (Glibenclamide). Hyperglycemia was induced by injecting 1% alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally. A glucose tolerance test was performed using a 2g/kg glucose solution, and blood glucose levels were measured at different time intervals. 14 days of monitoring was also done to ensure effectivity and efficacy of the different treatments. Bodyweight was also determined. Results show that administration of treatments on test animals significantly reverted the blood glucose levels of mice in 60 minutes and 120 minutes using an oral glucose tolerance test. After 14 days of monitoring, normal blood glucose levels were seen significantly on T2 (1ml/kg), T3 (2ml/kg), T4 (3ml/kg), and T5 (Glibenclamide), which only suggests the efficacy of pig bile on lowering glucose levels on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Bodyweight analysis shows no significant difference. Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) shows comparable efficacy and effectivity between T4 (3ml/kg) and T5 (Glibenclamide) on lowering BGL at different day and time intervals.

Keywords: pig bile, BALB/c mice, blood glucose, Gllibenclamide

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11920 A Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System Using near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Remote Data Logging

Authors: Bodhayan Nandi, Shubhajit Roy Chowdhury

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a portable blood glucose monitoring device based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. The system supports Internet connectivity through WiFi and uploads the time series data of glucose concentration of patients to a server. In addition, the server is given sufficient intelligence to predict the future pathophysiological state of a patient given the current and past pathophysiological data. This will enable to prognosticate the approaching critical condition of the patient much before the critical condition actually occurs.The server hosts web applications to allow authorized users to monitor the data remotely.

Keywords: non invasive, blood glucose concentration, microcontroller, IoT, application server, database server

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
11919 Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Acupoints in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Blood Glucose Analysis

Authors: Asif Arsalan

Abstract:

The mortality rate of type 2 diabetes increasing day by day at an alarming rate. Changing lifestyle and environment have contributory effect in increase rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study introduces a new method in physiotherapy field of treating a disease like diabetes, and gives the new way to control the diabetes without medicines.50 patients were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria and were assigned to receive either TENS (group A) on the bilateral ST36 acupoints at a frequency of 25 Hz with intensity of 9 mA or placebo (group B) treatment for 5 minutes for 7 days. The blood glucose level was measured at both pre and post stimulation. Stimulation was given after 3 hours of food on every day regularly on stipulated time.There was significant improvement (P<0.05) in random blood sugar level of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been found TENS on bilateral ST36 acupoints have an effect to control plasma glucose level for type 2 diabetic mellitus patients and can be used without having any side effect. This study gives new idea to treat the type 2 diabetes conservatively with the TENS. As there are some study that TENS had been used to treat nausea, spasticity etc. condition by stimulating the acupoint but it is the very first time that TENS has been used to treat diabetes like disease. This study help the physiotherapy community to spread the physiotherapy treatment in other branches of the medical field and this gives a new identity for the physiotherapy. This also gives the benefit to patients to take a safe and cost effective treatment for the diabetes, and make the new use of TENS to treat other condition rather than pain.

Keywords: acupoint, plasma glucose level, type 2 diabetic mellitus, TENS

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11918 A Preliminary Outcome of the Effect of an Accumulating 10,000 Daily Steps on Blood Pressure and Diabetes in Overweight Thai Participants

Authors: Kornanong Yuenyongchaiwat, Duangnate Pepatsitipong, Panthip Sangprasert

Abstract:

High blood pressure and diabetes have been suggested as being non-communicable disease (NCDs), and there is one of the components of the definition of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 12-week pedometer based community walking intervention on change in resting blood pressure and blood glucose in participants with overweight in the community setting. Method: Participants were recruited both males and females who had a sedentary lifestyle aged 35-59 years (mean aged 49.67 years). A longitudinal quasi-experimental study was designed with 35 overweight participants who had body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. These volunteers were assigned to the 12-week pedometer-based walking program (an accumulated at least 10,000 steps a day). Blood pressure and blood glucose were measured initially before and after 12-week intervention. Results: Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in 30 individuals who had accumulated 10,000 steps d-1 in the intervention group at 12 week follow-up (-13.74 mmHg and 5.3 bpm, respectively). In addition, reduction in blood glucose (-14.89 mmol) in the intervention participants was statistically significant (p < .001). A regression analysis indicated that reductions in systolic blood pressure were significantly related to the increase in steps per day. Conclusion: The accumulation of least 10,000 steps d-1 resulted in decreased resting systolic blood pressure and blood glucose in overweight participants. This has also shown that an increase in physical activity in overweight participants with sedentary lifestyle by accumulating at least 10,000 steps a day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (e.g., hypertension and diabetes).

Keywords: blood glucose, blood pressure, diabetes, hypertension, physical activity, walking

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11917 Improved Blood Glucose-Insulin Monitoring with Dual-Layer Predictive Control Design

Authors: Vahid Nademi

Abstract:

In response to widely used wearable medical devices equipped with a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and insulin pump, the advanced control methods are still demanding to get the full benefit of these devices. Unlike costly clinical trials, implementing effective insulin-glucose control strategies can provide significant contributions to the patients suffering from chronic diseases such as diabetes. This study deals with a key role of two-layer insulin-glucose regulator based on model-predictive-control (MPC) scheme so that the patient’s predicted glucose profile is in compliance with the insulin level injected through insulin pump automatically. It is achieved by iterative optimization algorithm which is called an integrated perturbation analysis and sequential quadratic programming (IPA-SQP) solver for handling uncertainties due to unexpected variations in glucose-insulin values and body’s characteristics. The feasibility evaluation of the discussed control approach is also studied by means of numerical simulations of two case scenarios via measured data. The obtained results are presented to verify the superior and reliable performance of the proposed control scheme with no negative impact on patient safety.

Keywords: blood glucose monitoring, insulin pump, predictive control, optimization

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11916 Effect of Nutrition Education on the Control and Function of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Patients

Authors: Rahil Sahragard, Mahmoud Hatami, Rostam Bahadori Khalili

Abstract:

Diabetes is one of the most important health problems in the world and a chronic disease requiring continuous care and therefore, it is necessary for patients to undergo self-care and nutrition education. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nutrition education on the metabolic control of diabetic patients in Tehran in 2015. An experimental study was conducted on 100 patients who had previously been approved by a specialist physician for diabetes and at least one year after their onset. At first, patients without any knowledge of the educational program were selected as sample and from them a checklist containing demographic and specific information about diabetes was filled and were taken three fasting blood glucose and three times fasting blood glucose (5 p.m.) Then, the patients received face-to-face training in the same conditions for 2 weeks in a Mehregan hospital of Tehran, and received 3 months of training, while they were fully monitored and during this time, samples that had a cold or blood pressure-related disease or were admitted to the hospital were excluded from the study. After the end of the study, the checklist was filled again and 3 fasting blood glucose and 3 fasting blood glucose samples were taken, the results were statistically analyzed by MC Nemar's statistical test. The research findings were performed on 100 patients 41.7% male and 58.3% women, the range of age was between 22 and 60 years old, with a duration of diabetes ranging from 1 to 15 years. Abnormal fasting blood glucose from 95% to 48.3% (P <0.0001) and non-fasting blood glucose decreased from 91.6% to 71.2% (P <0.001). Research has shown that training on blood glucose control has been successful, therefore, it is recommended that more research is done in the field of education to help patients with diabetes more comfortable.

Keywords: nutrition education, diabetes, function, insulin, chronic, metabolic control

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11915 Blood Glucose Measurement and Analysis: Methodology

Authors: I. M. Abd Rahim, H. Abdul Rahim, R. Ghazali

Abstract:

There is numerous non-invasive blood glucose measurement technique developed by researchers, and near infrared (NIR) is the potential technique nowadays. However, there are some disagreements on the optimal wavelength range that is suitable to be used as the reference of the glucose substance in the blood. This paper focuses on the experimental data collection technique and also the analysis method used to analyze the data gained from the experiment. The selection of suitable linear and non-linear model structure is essential in prediction system, as the system developed need to be conceivably accurate.

Keywords: linear, near-infrared (NIR), non-invasive, non-linear, prediction system

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11914 Effect of Intraperitoneal Administration of Ghrelin on Serum Glucose and Insulin Levels in Turkey

Authors: Habib Aghdam Shahryar

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The aim of the present study was investigation on the effect of intraperipheral (IP) injection of ghrelin on serum insulin and glucose levels in native turkey. Seventy-two 28 day (d)-old native turkey were assigned into three treatments and four replicate for 40 days experimental rearing period: group 1, intact without any injection, group 2, injected 50 ng ghrelin/kg body weight (BW), and group 3, injected 100 ng ghrelin/kg BW. Intraperitoneal injection of rat ghrelin was conducted on d 28 and before the onset of the experimental rearing period. Blood samples were taken 12 hr after injection and 40 days after injection. The result showed glucose concentrations have been affected by administered ghrelin and significant between groups (P<0.01). Injection of ghrelin at G 100 increased glucose level of serum in 12 hr after injection and 40 days after injection (276.6 and 260.0 mg/dl, respectively). Also, by increasing the dose of injected ghrelin, insulin levels than the control group showed an increase (P < 0.001). This study suggests roles of ghrelin in serum biochemical regulation may show a different effect of ghrelin on blood parameters in avian species.

Keywords: ghrelin injection, insulin, glucose, turkey

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11913 Comparison of the Effects of Fresh Leaf, Septum and Peel Extracts of Walnut on Blood Glucose and Pancreatic Structure

Authors: Tahmineh Hasanzadeh, Afshin Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intraperitoneally.In Iranian traditional medicine, septum of walnut shell (SWS) was recommended to reduce blood glucose. For this purpose, 41 male bulb/C mice 25-30 gm were divided into five groups. All the animals received IP injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (220 mg/kg). Two weeks later, the diabetic animals were received daily oral treatment of normal saline and aqueous extract of SWS (200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg) respectively for four weeks. Blood samples were taken from retro orbital sinus before the start of the experiment and repeated each two weeks. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and the pancreatic tissues were fixed, prepared and stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin for light microscope studies. The results showed that in each group, the SWS extract reduced blood glucose in a long time (p < 0.05). metabolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by the hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract. However, this effect should be determined with scientific researches. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract of SWS on blood glucose and histopathological structure of pancreas.

Keywords: septum of walnut, blood glucose, pancreas, diabetes, walnut leaf, walnut peel, insulin

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11912 The Short-Term Stress Indicators in Home and Experimental Dogs

Authors: Madara Nikolajenko, Jevgenija Kondratjeva

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Stress is a response of the body to physical or psychological environmental stressors. Cortisol level in blood serum is determined as the main indicator of stress, but the blood collection, the animal preparation and other activities can cause unpleasant conditions and induce increase of these hormones. Therefore, less invasive methods are searched to determine stress hormone levels, for example, by measuring the cortisol level saliva. The aim of the study is to find out the changes of stress hormones in blood and saliva in home and experimental dogs in simulated short-term stress conditions. The study included clinically healthy experimental beagle dogs (n=6) and clinically healthy home American Staffordshire terriers (n=6). The animals were let into a fenced area to adapt. Loud drum sounds (in cooperation with 'Andžeja Grauda drum school') were used as a stressor. Blood serum samples were taken for sodium, potassium, glucose and cortisol level determination and saliva samples for cortisol determination only. Control parameters were taken immediately before the start of the stressor, and next samples were taken immediately after the stress. The last measurements were taken two hours after the stress. Electrolyte levels in blood serum were determined using direction selective electrode method (ILab Aries analyzer) and cortisol in blood serum and saliva using electrochemical luminescence method (Roche Diagnostics). Blood glucose level was measured with glucometer (ACCU-CHECK Active test strips). Cortisol level in the blood increased immediately after the stress in all home dogs (P < 0,05), but only in 33% (P < 0,05) of the experimental dogs. After two hours the measurement decreased in 83% (P < 0,05) of home dogs (in 50% returning to the control point) and in 83% (P < 0,05) of the experimental dogs. Cortisol in saliva immediately after the stress increased in 50% (P > 0,05) of home dogs and in 33% (P > 0,05) of the experimental dogs. After two hours in 83% (P > 0,05) of the home animals, the measurements decreased, only in 17% of the experimental dogs it decreased as well, while in 49% measurement was undetectable due to the lack of material. Blood sodium, potassium, and glucose measurements did not show any significant changes. The combination of short-term stress indicators, when, after the stressor, all indicators should immediately increase and decrease after two hours, confirmed in none of the animals. Therefore the authors can conclude that each animal responds to a stressful situation with different physiological mechanisms and hormonal activity. Cortisol level in saliva and blood is released with the different speed and is not an objective indicator of acute stress.

Keywords: animal behaivor, cortisol, short-term stress, stress indicators

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11911 Glucose Monitoring System Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Sangeeta Palekar, Neeraj Rangwani, Akash Poddar, Jayu Kalambe

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The bio-medical analysis is an indispensable procedure for identifying health-related diseases like diabetes. Monitoring the glucose level in our body regularly helps us identify hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, which can cause severe medical problems like nerve damage or kidney diseases. This paper presents a method for predicting the glucose concentration in blood samples using image processing and machine learning algorithms. The glucose solution is prepared by the glucose oxidase (GOD) and peroxidase (POD) method. An experimental database is generated based on the colorimetric technique. The image of the glucose solution is captured by the raspberry pi camera and analyzed using image processing by extracting the RGB, HSV, LUX color space values. Regression algorithms like multiple linear regression, decision tree, RandomForest, and XGBoost were used to predict the unknown glucose concentration. The multiple linear regression algorithm predicts the results with 97% accuracy. The image processing and machine learning-based approach reduce the hardware complexities of existing platforms.

Keywords: artificial intelligence glucose detection, glucose oxidase, peroxidase, image processing, machine learning

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11910 Mathematical Modelling of the Effect of Glucose on Pancreatic Alpha-Cell Activity

Authors: Karen K. Perez-Ramirez, Genevieve Dupont, Virginia Gonzalez-Velez

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Pancreatic alpha-cells participate on glucose regulation together with beta cells. They release glucagon hormone when glucose level is low to stimulate gluconeogenesis from the liver. As other excitable cells, alpha cells generate Ca2+ and metabolic oscillations when they are stimulated. It is known that the glucose level can trigger or silence this activity although it is not clear how this occurs in normal and diabetic people. In this work, we propose an electric-metabolic mathematical model implemented in Matlab to study the effect of different glucose levels on the electrical response and Ca2+ oscillations of an alpha cell. Our results show that Ca2+ oscillations appear in opposite phase with metabolic oscillations in a window of glucose values. The model also predicts a direct relationship between the level of glucose and the intracellular adenine nucleotides showing a self-regulating pathway for the alpha cell.

Keywords: Ca2+ oscillations, mathematical model, metabolic oscillations, pancreatic alpha cell

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11909 Spatio-Temporal Properties of p53 States Raised by Glucose

Authors: Md. Jahoor Alam

Abstract:

Recent studies suggest that Glucose controls several lifesaving pathways. Glucose molecule is reported to be responsible for the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species). In the present work, a p53-MDM2-Glucose model is developed in order to study spatiotemporal properties of the p53 pathway. The systematic model is mathematically described. The model is numerically simulated using high computational facility. It is observed that the variation in glucose concentration level triggers the system at different states, namely, oscillation death (stabilized), sustain and damped oscillations which correspond to various cellular states. The transition of these states induced by glucose is phase transition-like behaviour. Further, the amplitude of p53 dynamics with the variation of glucose concentration level follows power law behaviour, As(k) ~ kϒ, where, ϒ is a constant. Further Stochastic approach is needed for understanding of realistic behaviour of the model. The present model predicts the variation of p53 states under the influence of glucose molecule which is also supported by experimental facts reported by various research articles.

Keywords: oscillation, temporal behavior, p53, glucose

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11908 Mathematical Modeling for Diabetes Prediction: A Neuro-Fuzzy Approach

Authors: Vijay Kr. Yadav, Nilam Rathi

Abstract:

Accurate prediction of glucose level for diabetes mellitus is required to avoid affecting the functioning of major organs of human body. This study describes the fundamental assumptions and two different methodologies of the Blood glucose prediction. First is based on the back-propagation algorithm of Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and second is based on the Neuro-Fuzzy technique, called Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). Errors between proposed methods further discussed through various statistical methods such as mean square error (MSE), normalised mean absolute error (NMAE). The main objective of present study is to develop mathematical model for blood glucose prediction before 12 hours advanced using data set of three patients for 60 days. The comparative studies of the accuracy with other existing models are also made with same data set.

Keywords: back-propagation, diabetes mellitus, fuzzy inference system, neuro-fuzzy

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11907 The Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Prevention of Micro and Macrovascular Complications in Type Diabetic Patients in Low and Middle-Income Countries

Authors: Ebere Ellison Obisike, Justina N. Adalikwu-Obisike

Abstract:

Artificial intelligence (AI) is progressively transforming health and social care. With the rapid invention of various electronic devices, machine learning, and computing systems, the use of AI istraversing many health and social care practices. In this systematic review of journal and grey literature, this study explores how the applications of AI might promote the prevention of micro and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetic patients. This review focuses on the use of a digitized blood glucose meter and the application of insulin pumps for the effective management of type 1 diabetes in low and middle-income countries. It is projected that the applications of AI may assist individuals with type 1 diabetes to monitor and control their blood glucose level and prevent the early onset of micro and macrovascular complications.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, blood glucose meter, insulin pump, low and middle-income countries, micro and macrovascular complications, type 1 diabetes

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11906 Beneficial Effect of Chromium Supplementation on Glucose, HbA1C and Lipid Variables in Individuals with Newly Onset Type-2 Diabetes

Authors: Baljinder Singh, Navneet Sharma

Abstract:

Chromium is an essential nutrient involved in normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It influences glucose metabolism by potentiating the action as taking part in insulin signal amplification mechanism. A placebo-controlled single blind, prospective study was carried out to investigate the effect of chromium supplementation on blood glucose, HbA1C and lipid profile in newly onset patients with type-2 diabetes. Total 40 newly onset type-2 diabetics were selected and after one month stabilization further randomly divided into two groups viz. study group and placebo group. The study group received 9 gm brewer’s yeast (42 μ Cr) daily and the other placebo group received yeast devoid of chromium for 3 months. Subjects were instructed not to change their normal eating and living habits. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C and lipid profile were analyzed at beginning and completion of the study. Results revealed that fasting blood glucose level significantly reduced in the subjects consuming yeast supplemented with chromium (197.65±6.68 to 103.68±6.64 mg/dl; p<0.001). HbA1C values improved significantly from 9.51±0.26% to 6.86±0.28%; p<0.001 indicating better glycaemic control. In experimental group total cholesterol, TG and LDL levels were also significantly reduced from 199.66±3.11 to 189.26±3.01 mg/dl; p<0.02, 144.94±8.31 to 126.01±8.26; p<0.05 and 119.19±1.71 to 99.58±1.10; p<0.001 respectively. These data demonstrate beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid variables in subjects with newly onset type-2 diabetes.

Keywords: type-2 diabetes, chromium, glucose, HbA1C

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11905 Effect of Post Circuit Resistance Exercise Glucose Feeding on Energy and Hormonal Indexes in Plasma and Lymphocyte in Free-Style Wrestlers

Authors: Miesam Golzadeh Gangraj, Younes Parvasi, Mohammad Ghasemi, Ahmad Abdi, Saeid Fazelifar

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of glucose feeding on energy and hormonal indexes in plasma and lymphocyte immediately after wrestling – base techniques circuit exercise (WBTCE) in young male freestyle wrestlers. Sixteen wrestlers (weight = 75/45 ± 12/92 kg, age = 22/29 ± 0/90 years, BMI = 26/23 ± 2/64 kg/m²) were randomly divided into two groups: control (water), glucose (2 gr per kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained before, immediately, and 90 minutes of the post-exercise recovery period. Glucose (2 g/kg of body weight, 1W/5V) and water (equal volumes) solutions were given immediately after the second blood sampling. Data were analyzed by using an ANOVA (a repeated measure) and a suitable post hoc test (LSD). A significant decrease was observed in lymphocytes glycogen immediately after exercise (P < 0.001). In the experimental group, increase Lymphocyte glycogen concentration (P < 0.028) than in the control group in 90 min post-exercise. Plasma glucose concentrations increased in all groups immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin concentrations in both groups decreased immediately after exercise, but at 90 min after exercise, its level was significantly increased only in glucose group (P < 0.001). Our results suggested that WBTCE protocol could be affected cellular energy sources and hormonal response. Furthermore, Glucose consumption can increase the lymphocyte glycogen and better energy within the cell.

Keywords: glucose feeding, lymphocyte, Wrestling – base techniques circuit , exercise

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
11904 Nutritional Composition of Crackers Produced from Blend of Sprouted Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan), Unripe Plantain (Musa parasidiaca), and Brewers’ Spent Grain Flour and Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Rats Fed the Biscuit

Authors: Nneka N. Uchegbu, Charles N. Ishiwu

Abstract:

The nutritional composition and hypoglycaemic effect of crackers produced from a blend of sprouted pigeon pea, unripe plantain, and brewers’ spent grain and fed to Alloxan induced diabetic rat was investigated. Crackers were produced from different blends of sprouted pigeon pea, unripe plantain and brewers’ spent grain. The crackers were evaluated for proximate composition, amino acid profile and antinutritional factors. Blood glucose levels of normal and diabetic rats fed with the control sample and different formulations of cracker were measured. The protein content of the samples were significantly different (p < 0.05) from each other with sample A having the lowest value and sample B with the highest value. The values obtained showed that the samples contained most of the amino acids that are found in plant proteins. The levels of antinutritional factor determined were generally low. Administration of the formulated cracker meals led to a significant reduction in the fasting blood glucose level in the diabetic rats. The present study concluded that consumption of crackers produced from this composite flour can be recommended for the diabetics and those who are sceptical about the disease.

Keywords: crackers, diabetics rat, sprouted pigeon pea, unripe plantain and brewers’ spent grain

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11903 Low Intake of Aspartame Induced Weight Gain and Damage of Brain and Liver Cells in Weanling Syrian Hamsters

Authors: Magda I. Hassan

Abstract:

This paper aims to investigate the health effects of aspartame on weanling male hamsters. 20 Golden Syrian hamsters drank only water (control) or water with 6, 11, and 18 mg aspartame/kg of body weight per day for 42 days. Food intake, weight gain, glucose blood level, and lipid profile were determined at the end of the experiment. The animals were sacrificed and histopathological examination of organs (liver, brain and heart) was done. Results revealed that animals in Asp.groups consumed significantly larger amount of food than the control (13.4±5.9, 8.6±2.5 and 8.8±3.0 vs 4.2±2.5 g/day, in succession). Hamsters in the control group showed higher total cholesterol and HDL levels than hamsters in aspartame 6, 11, 18 groups (160±19 vs 101±13, 130±22, 141±15 mg/dl & 144±9 vs 120±12, 118±13, 99±17 respectively (P<0•05)). The control group showed a glucose concentration below those of aspartame groups, indicating no effect of aspartame on glucose blood level. While, there were no significant differences in the triglycerides and LDL levels between control group and Asp.groups. Histopathological changes were observed, especially in brain and liver cells. Aspartame increases appetite and weight gain of young hamsters. Therefore, FDA should reconsider the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of aspartame for children.

Keywords: aspartame, brain, food intake, hamsters

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
11902 Using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Controller for Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Nafiseh Mollaei, Reihaneh Kardehi Moghaddam

Abstract:

In case of Diabetes Mellitus the controlling of insulin is very difficult. This illness is an incurable disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Glucose is a sugar which provides energy to the cells. Insulin is a hormone which supports the absorption of glucose. Fuzzy control strategy is attractive for glucose control because it mimics the first and second phase responses that the pancreas beta cells use to control glucose. We propose two control algorithms a type-1 fuzzy controller and an interval type-2 fuzzy method for the insulin infusion. The closed loop system has been simulated for different patients with different parameters, in present of the food intake disturbance and it has been shown that the blood glucose concentrations at a normoglycemic level of 110 mg/dl in the reasonable amount of time. This paper deals with type 1 diabetes as a nonlinear model, which has been simulated in MATLAB-SIMULINK environment. The novel model, termed the Augmented Minimal Model is used in the simulations. There are some uncertainties in this model due to factors such as blood glucose, daily meals or sudden stress. In addition to eliminate the effects of uncertainty, different control methods may be utilized. In this article, fuzzy controller performance were assessed in terms of its ability to track a normoglycemic set point (110 mg/dl) in response to a [0-10] g meal disturbance. Finally, the development reported in this paper is supposed to simplify the insulin delivery, so increasing the quality of life of the patient.

Keywords: interval type-2, fuzzy controller, minimal augmented model, uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 362