Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1315

Search results for: antioxidant enzymes

1315 Effects of Irrigation Intervals on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Black Carrot Leaves (Daucus carota L.)

Authors: Hakan Arslan, Deniz Ekinci, Alper Gungor, Gurkan Bilir, Omer Tas, Mehmet Altun

Abstract:

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting the agricultural production worldwide. In this study, Leaf samples were taken from the carrot plants grown under drought stress conditions during the harvesting period. The plants were irrigated in three irrigation interval (4, 6 and 8 days) and Irrigation water regime was set up in pots. The changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione s-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in leaves of black carrot were investigated. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, SOD) were varied significantly with irrigation intervals. The highest value of GR, GST and SOD were determined in the irrigation interval of 6 days. All antioxidant activity values were decreased in 8 days of irrigation interval. As a result of the study, it has been suggested that optimum irrigation intervals for plants can be used in antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: antioxidant enzyme, carrot, drought, irrigation interval

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1314 Antioxidant Enzymes and Crude Mitochondria ATPases in the Radicle of Germinating Bean (Vigna unguiculata) Exposed to Different Concentrations of Crude Oil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu

Abstract:

The study examined the effect of Bonny Light whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) on the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle of germinating bean (Vigna unguiculata). The percentage germination, level of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme, and mitochondria Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase activities were measured in the radicle of bean after 7, 14, and 21 days post germination. Viable bean seeds were planted in soils contaminated with 10ml, 25ml, and 50ml of whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) to obtain 2, 5, and 10% v/w crude oil contamination. There was dose dependent reduction of the number of bean seeds that germinated in the contaminated soils compared with control (p<0.001). The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, as well as, adenosine triphosphatase enzymes, were also significantly (p<0.001) altered in the radicle of the plants grown in contaminated soil compared with the control. Generally, the level of lipid peroxidation was highest after 21 days post germination when compared with control. Stress to germinating bean caused by Bonny Light crude oil or its water soluble fraction resulted in adaptive changes in crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, bonny light crude oil, radicle, mitochondria ATPases

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1313 Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidant Activity, Phenolic, Alkaloids Contents and Inhibited Properties against α-Amylase and Invertase Enzymes of Stem Bark Extracts Coula edulis B

Authors: Eric Beyegue, Boris Azantza, Judith Laure Ngondi, Julius E. Oben

Abstract:

Background: It is clearly that phytochemical constituents of plants in relation exhibit free radical scavenging, antioxidant and glycosylation properties. This study investigated the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging, inhibited activities against α-amylase and invertase enzymes of stem bark extracts C. edulis (Olacaceae). Methods: Four extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and aqueous) from the barks of C. edulis were used in this study. Colorimetric in vitro methods were using for evaluate free radical scavenging activity DPPH, ABTS, NO, OH, antioxidant capacity, glycosylation activity, inhibition of α-amylase and invertase activities, phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid contents. Results: C. edulis extracts (CEE) had a higher scavenging potential on the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), nitrite oxide (NO), 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals and glucose scavenging with the IC50 varied between 41.95 and 36694.43 µg/ml depending on the solvent of extraction. The ethanol extract of C. edulis stem bark (CE EtOH) showed the highest polyphenolic (289.10 + 30.32), flavonoid (1.12 + 0.09) and alkaloids (18.47 + 0.16) content. All the tested extracts demonstrated a relative high inhibition potential against α-amylase and invertase digestive enzymes activities. Conclusion: This study suggests that CEE exhibited higher antioxidant potential and significant inhibition potential against digestive enzymes.

Keywords: Coula edulis, antioxidant, scavenging activity, amylase, invertase

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1312 Effect of Oral Administration of "Gadagi" Tea on Activities of Some Antioxidant Enzymes in Rats

Authors: A. M. Gadanya, M. S. Sule

Abstract:

Effect of oral administration of Gadagi tea on some antioxidant enzymes was assessed in healthy male albino rats. The rats were grouped and administered with standard doses of the 3 types of Gadagi tea i.e. Sak, Sada and Magani for a period of four weeks. Animals that were not administered with the tea constituted the control group. At the end of fourth week, the animals were sacrificed and their serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined. The activities of the enzymes were also determined in the brain, liver, kidney and intestine homogenates of the rats. Mean SOD activity in brain of rats orally administered with “sada” was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the control group. Mean CAT activity in the intestine of rats orally administered with “magani” was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the control group and the experimental groups of Sak and Sada at standard dose level. Thus, all the “Gadagi” tea preparations studied at standard dose level could stimulate antioxidant enzymes, especially SOD in brain and CAT in intestine (by Sada) and CAT in intestine (by Magani).

Keywords: “Gadagi” tea, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase

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1311 Elucidation of Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of an Endemic Halophyte Centaurea Tuzgoluensis under Salt Stress

Authors: Mustafa Kucukoduk, Evren Yildiztugay, A. Hediye Sekmen, Ismail Turkan, Yavuz Bagci

Abstract:

In this study, physiological and biochemical responses of Centaurea tuzgoluensis, a Turkish endemic halophyte, to salinity were studied. Therefore, the changes in shoot growth, leaf relative water content (RWC), ion concentrations, lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl (OH.) radical scavenging activity, proline (Pro) content, and antioxidant system [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR)] were investigated. The 60 days (d) old C. tuzgoluensis seedlings were subjected to 0, 150 and 300 mM NaCl for 7 d and 14 d. The relative shoot growth was generally did not change in the 150 mM NaCl, but reduced with 300 mM NaCl stress at 7 d and 14 d. RWC was higher in 150 mM NaCl-treated leaves than that of 300 mM NaCl. Salinity decreased K+/Na+ ratio, but increased Na+, Cl, Ca+2 and Na+/Cl ratio in the leaves. On the other hand, it did not change or increase the K+ content at 150 and 300 mM NaCl, respectively. MDA content in the 150 and 300 mM NaCl-treated leaves remained close to control at 7 d. This was related to enhanced activities of SOD, CAT, APX and GR enzymes, and their isoenzymes especially Fe-SOD in the leaves. On the other hand, the higher sensitivity to 300 mM NaCl at 14 d was associated with inadequate increase in antioxidant enzymes and the decreased OH radical scavenging activity. All these results suggest that C. tuzgoluensis has different antioxidant metabolisms between short- (7 d) and long-term (14 d) salt treatments and salinity tolerance of C. tuzgoluensis might be closely related to increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accumulation of osmoprotectant proline under salinity conditions.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, endemic halophyte, ion exchange, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, enzymes, endemic halophyte, ion exchange, lipid peroxidation, proline, Centaurea tuzgoluensis

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1310 Screening of Nickel-Tolerant Genotype of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) Based on Photosynthesis and Antioxidant System

Authors: Mohammad Yusuf, Qazi Fariduddin

Abstract:

The main aim of this study was to explore the different cultivars of Vigna radiata on basis of photosynthesis, antioxidants and proline to assess Ni-sensitive and Ni-tolerant cultivar. Seeds of five different cultivars were sown in soil amended with different levels of Ni (0, 50, 100, or 150 mg kg 1). At 30 d stage, plants were harvested to assess the various parameters. The Ni treatment diminished growth, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content and net photosynthesis along with nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities in the concentration dependent manner whereas, it enhanced proline content and various antioxidant enzymes. The varieties T-44 found least affected, whereas PDM-139 experienced maximum damage at 150 mg kg-1 of Ni. Moreover, T-44 possessed maximum activity of antioxidant enzymes and proline content at all the levels of metal whereas PDM-139 possessed minimum values. Therefore, T-44 and PDM-139 were established as the most resistant and sensitive varieties, respectively.

Keywords: Vigna radiata, antioxidants, nickel, photosynthesis, proline

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1309 Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Modulates Antioxidant Capacity of in vitro Propagated Hyssop, Hyssopus officinalis L.

Authors: Maria P. Geneva, Ira V. Stancheva, Marieta G. Hristozkova, Roumiana D. Vasilevska-Ivanova, Mariana T. Sichanova, Janet R. Mincheva

Abstract:

Hyssopus officinalis L., Lamiaceae, commonly called hyssop, is an aromatic, semi-evergreen, woody-based, shrubby perennial plant. Hyssop is a good expectorant and antiviral herb commonly used to treat respiratory conditions such as influenza, sinus infections, colds, and bronchitis. Most of its medicinal properties are attributed to the essential oil of hyssop. The study was conducted to evaluate the influence of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of in vitro propagated hyssop plants on the: activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase; accumulation of non-enzymatic antioxidants total phenols and flavonoid, water-soluble soluble antioxidant metabolites expressed as ascorbic acid; the antioxidant potential of hyssop methanol extracts assessed by two common methods: free radical scavenging activity using free stable radical (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH• and ferric reducing antioxidant power FRAP in flowers and leaves. The successfully adapted to field conditions in vitro plants (survival rate 95%) were inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Claroideoglomus claroideum, ref. EEZ 54). It was established that the activities of enzymes with antioxidant capacity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase) were significantly higher in leaves than in flowers in both control and mycorrhized plants. In flowers and leaves of inoculated plants, the antioxidant enzymes activity were lower than in non-inoculated plants, only in SOD activity, there was no difference. The content of low molecular metabolites with antioxidant capacity as total phenols, total flavonoids, and water soluble antioxidants was higher in inoculated plants. There were no significant differences between control and inoculated plants both for FRAP and DPPH antioxidant activity. According to plant essential oil content, there was no difference between non-inoculated and inoculated plants. Based on our results we could suggest that antioxidant capacity of in vitro propagated hyssop plant under conditions of cultivation is determined by the phenolic compounds-total phenols and flavonoids as well as by the levels of water-soluble metabolites with antioxidant potential. Acknowledgments: This study was conducted with financial support from National Science Fund at the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, Project DN06/7 17.12.16.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant metabolites, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Hyssopus officinalis L.

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1308 Response of Barley Quality Traits, Yield and Antioxidant Enzymes to Water-Stress and Chemical Inducers

Authors: Emad Hafez, Mahmoud Seleiman

Abstract:

Two field experiments were carried out in order to investigate the effect of chemical inducers [benzothiadiazole 0.9 mM L-1, oxalic acid 1.0 mM L-1, salicylic acid 0.2 mM L-1] on physiological and technological traits as well as on yields and antioxidant enzyme activities of barley grown under abiotic stress (i.e. water surplus and deficit conditions). Results showed that relative water content, leaf area, chlorophyll and yield as well as technological properties of barley were improved with chemical inducers application under water surplus and water-stress conditions. Antioxidant enzymes activity (i.e. catalase and peroxidase) were significantly increased in barley grown under water-stress and treated with chemical inducers. Yield and related parameters of barley presented also significant decrease under water-stress treatment, while chemical inducers application enhanced the yield-related traits. Starch and protein contents were higher in plants treated with salicylic acid than in untreated plants when water-stress was applied. In conclusion, results show that chemical inducers application have a positive interaction and synergetic influence and should be suggested to improve plant growth, yield and technological properties of water stressed barley. Salicylic acid application was better than oxalic acid and benzothiadiazole in terms of plant growth and yield improvement.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, drought stress, Hordeum vulgare L., quality, yield

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1307 Effects of Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (CS) or Lemon Grass Ethanol Extract on Antioxidant and Vascular Disorders Parameters in Rat

Authors: Suphaket Saenthaweesuk, Nutiya Somparn, Atcharaporn Thewmore

Abstract:

The present study aims to investigate the effects of Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (CS) or lemon grass ethanol extract on antioxidant and vascular disorders parameters in rat. The CS ethanol extract was screened for its phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity in vitro. Moreover, the extract was studied in rats to evaluate its effects in vivo. Rats were orally administered with CS at 1,000 mg/kg/day for 30 days. Phytochemical screening of CS extract indicated the presence of tannins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. The extract contained phenolic compounds 1,400.10 ± 0.47 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram CS extract. The free radical scavenging activity assessed by DPPH assay gave IC50 of 168.77 ± 3.32µg/mL, which is relatively lower than that of BHT with IC50 of 12.34 ± 1.14 µg/mL. In the animals, the protein expression of antioxidant enzymes, γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (γ-GCL) in liver was significantly increased. This was consistent with elevation of serum catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. However, Protein expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in heart and aorta were not differenced from normal control. Taken together, the present study provides evidence that CCS water extract exhibits direct antioxidant properties and can induce cytoprotective enzymes in vivo.

Keywords: antioxidant, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf, VCAM-1, γ-glutamylcysteine ligase

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1306 Adaptive Responses of Carum copticum to in vitro Salt Stress

Authors: R. Razavizadeh, F. Adabavazeh, M. Rezaee Chermahini

Abstract:

Salinity is one of the most widespread agricultural problems in arid and semi-arid areas that limits the plant growth and crop productivity. In this study, the salt stress effects on protein, reducing sugar, proline contents and antioxidant enzymes activities of Carum copticum L. under in vitro conditions were studied. Seeds of C. copticum were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl and calli were cultured in MS medium containing 1 μM 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 4 μM benzyl amino purine and different levels of NaCl (0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM). After NaCl treatment for 28 days, the proline and reducing sugar contents of shoots, roots and calli increased significantly in relation to the severity of the salt stress. The highest amount of proline and carbohydrate were observed at 150 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively. The reducing sugar accumulation in shoots was the highest as compared to roots, whereas, proline contents did not show any significant difference in roots and shoots under salt stress. The results showed significant reduction of protein contents in seedlings and calli. Based on these results, proteins extracted from the shoots, roots and calli of C. copticum treated with 150 mM NaCl showed the lowest contents. The positive relationships were observed between activity of antioxidant enzymes and the increase in stress levels. Catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity increased significantly under salt concentrations in comparison to the control. These results suggest that the accumulation of proline and sugars, and activation of antioxidant enzymes play adaptive roles in the adaptation of seedlings and callus of C. copticum to saline conditions.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, Carum copticum, organic solutes, salt stress

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1305 Antioxidant Extraction from Indonesian Crude Palm Oil and Its Antioxidation Activity

Authors: Supriyono, Sumardiyono, Puti Pertiwi

Abstract:

Crude palm oil (CPO) is a vegetable oil that came from a palm tree bunch. Palm oil tree was known as highest vegetable oil yield. It was grown across Equatorial County, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. The greenish red color on CPO was came from carotenoid antioxidant, which could be extracted and use separately as functional food and other purposes as antioxidant source. Another antioxidant that also found in CPO is tocopherol. The aim of the research work is to find antioxidant activity on CPO comparing to the synthetic antioxidant that available in a market. On this research work, antioxidant was extracted by using a mixture of acetone and n. hexane, while activity of the antioxidant extract was determine by DPPH method. The extracted matter was shown that their antioxidant activity was about 45% compare to pure tocopherol and beta carotene.

Keywords: antioxidant, , beta carotene, , crude palm oil, , DPPH, , tocopherol

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1304 Serum Anti-Oxidation Enzymes Response to L-Carnitine Supplementation

Authors: Farah Nameni, Hamidreza Poursadra, Maasumeh Nurani Pilehrud

Abstract:

Exercise training induced Inflammation and stress. Antioxidant, for example L- Carnitine has beneficial effects in immune system and increased antioxidant enzymes activity. L- Carnitine protects the tissue against the oxidative side effect and helps the body to protect against stress during and after acute exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of L-Carnitine on the blood enzymes: GPX SOD, CAT and GR response. In this study, 20 basketball players girls participated. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups; placebo and supplementation. Antioxidadision enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Reductase, Glutathione Peroxidase) evaluated. L-Carnitine supplement group orally daily received 3000 mg powder for 14 dys. Then all participates trained basketball exercise acute. Blood samples were drawn vein before and immediately after exercise. Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Reductase, Glutathione Peroxidase were measured, and data was analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA, Bonferroni and t-test. Our results showed: SOD, GPX and GPX (P < 0.05) have a significant increase. These results suggest L-Carnitine supplementation may increase GPX SOD, CAT, and basal anti oxidative capacity. L-Carnitine can modulate the alterations of exercise oxidative damage in girl basketball players.

Keywords: l-carnitine, GPX, SOD, CAT, exercise, GR, anti-oxidant

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1303 Beneficial Effect of Lupeol in Diabetes Induced Oxidative Damage

Authors: Rajnish Gupta, R. S. Gupta

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Present research was aimed to investigate antidiabetic and antioxidant status of Lupeol in streptozotocin induced diabetes. Rats were divided into following groups mainly: control, diabetic, normal group as well as diabetic treated with Lupeol at 25 and 35 mg/kg b.wt./day for 21 days, diabetic group treated with glibenclamide. Tissue (pancreas, kidney and liver) as well as serum biochemical parameters were analysed for any abnormal behavior. Lupeol administration reduced diabetes onset with significant improvement in serum insulin level also strengthened by increase in β-Cell counts. A significant decrease was observed in serum glucose level. Furthermore, Lupeol treatment increased the antioxidant enzymes, glycolytic enzymes and also protein levels with a decrease in the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive oxygen species and gluconeogenic enzymes. Present study proves that Lupeol administration significantly reinstated serum and tissue biochemical parameters and thus strengthening its antidiabetic potential.

Keywords: oxidative stress, pterostilbene, thiobarbituric acid, reactive oxygen species

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1302 Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cooked Porcine Blood to Obtain Hydrolysates with Potential Biological Activities

Authors: Miguel Pereira, Lígia Pimentel, Manuela Pintado

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Animal blood is a major by-product of slaughterhouses and still represents a cost and environmental problem in some countries. To be eliminated, blood should be stabilised by cooking and afterwards the slaughterhouses must have to pay for its incineration. In order to reduce the elimination costs and valorise the high protein content the aim of this study was the optimization of hydrolysis conditions, in terms of enzyme ratio and time, in order to obtain hydrolysates with biological activity. Two enzymes were tested in this assay: pepsin and proteases from Cynara cardunculus (cardosins). The latter has the advantage to be largely used in the Portuguese Dairy Industry and has a low price. The screening assays were carried out in a range of time between 0 and 10 h and using a ratio of enzyme/reaction volume between 0 and 5%. The assays were performed at the optimal conditions of pH and temperature for each enzyme: 55 °C at pH 5.2 for cardosins and 37 °C at pH 2.0 for pepsin. After reaction, the hydrolysates were evaluated by FPLC (Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography) and tested for their antioxidant activity by ABTS method. FPLC chromatograms showed different profiles when comparing the enzymatic reactions with the control (no enzyme added). The chromatogram exhibited new peaks with lower MW that were not present in control samples, demonstrating the hydrolysis by both enzymes. Regarding to the antioxidant activity, the best results for both enzymes were obtained using a ratio enzyme/reactional volume of 5% during 5 h of hydrolysis. However, the extension of reaction did not affect significantly the antioxidant activity. This has an industrial relevant aspect in what concerns to the process cost. In conclusion, the enzymatic blood hydrolysis can be a better alternative to the current elimination process allowing to the industry the reuse of an ingredient with biological properties and economic value.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, blood, by-products, enzymatic hydrolysis

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1301 Effects of Nitrogen and Arsenic on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Photosynthetic Pigments in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Mostafa Heidari

Abstract:

Nitrogen fertilization has played a significant role in increasing crop yield, and solving problems of hunger and malnutrition worldwide. However, excessive of heavy metals such as arsenic can interfere on growth and reduced grain yield. In order to investigate the effects of different concentrations of arsenic and nitrogen fertilizer on photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant enzyme activities in safflower (cv. Goldasht), a factorial plot experiment as randomized complete block design with three replication was conducted in university of Zabol. Arsenic treatment included: A1= control or 0, A2=30, A3=60 and A4=90 mg. kg-1 soil from the Na2HASO4 source and three nitrogen levels including W1=75, W2=150 and W3=225 kg.ha-1 from urea source. Results showed that, arsenic had a significant effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. By increasing arsenic levels from A1 to A4, the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and gayacol peroxidase (GPX) increased and catalase (CAT) was decreased. In this study, arsenic had no significant on chlorophyll a, b and cartoneid content. Nitrogen and interaction between arsenic and nitrogen treatment, except APX, had significant effect on CAT and GPX. The highest GPX activity was obtained at A4N3 treatment. Nitrogen increased the content of chlorophyll a, b and cartoneid.

Keywords: arsenic, physiological parameters, oxidative enzymes, nitrogen

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1300 Antioxidant Defence Systems, Lipid Peroxidation, and Photosynthetic Variables in Salt-Sensitive and Salt-Tolerant Soybean Genotypes in Response to Salt Stress

Authors: Faheema Khan

Abstract:

We have investigated the effects of salt stress on the stability of plant growth, water relations, photosynthetic variables, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in salt-tolerant (PK-327) and salt-sensitive (PK-471) soybean genotypes. Ten-day-old salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive soybean plants were subjected to 0-150 mM NaCl for 15 days. While the growth of genotype PK-327 was not affected significantly up to 75 mM NaCl treatment, the growth of the PK-471 was reduced significantly beyond 25 mM NaCl treatments. Salt stress caused severe impairments in photosynthetic variables like photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content, being more pronounced in salt-sensitive genotype than in salt-tolerant.The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were higher in PK-327 than in PK-471 at various levels of salt treatments.It is concluded that tolerance capacity of PK-327 against salinity can be associated with the ability of this genotype in keeping an active photosynthetic system and strong antioxidant defence system.

Keywords: salt stress, soybean, antioxidant, photosynthesis

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1299 Antioxidant Activity of the Algerian Traditional Kefir Supernatant

Authors: H. Amellal-Chibane, N. Dehdouh, S. Ait-Kaki, F. Halladj

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Kefir is fermented milk that is produced by adding Kefir grains, consisting of bacteria and yeasts, to milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the kefir supernatant and the raw milk. The Antioxidant activity assays of kefir supernatant and raw milk were evaluated by assessing the DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Kefir supernatant demonstrated high antioxidant activity (87.75%) compared to the raw milk (70.59 %). These results suggest that the Algerian kefir has interesting antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, kefir, kefir supernatant, raw milk

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1298 Therapeutic Role of Polygonum bistorta and Zingiber roseum by in vivo and in vitro Study

Authors: Deepak Kumar Mittal, Alok Kumar Jena, Deepmala Joshi

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The present study was carried out to observe the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of the roots of Polygonum bistorta (PB) (200 mg/kg) and Zingiber roseum (ZR) (250 mg/kg) in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (0.15 ml/kg, i.p.). Extract of PB and ZR at the tested doses restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes, significantly. The activities of MTT assay significantly recovered the damage and supported the biochemical observations. This study suggests that Zingiber roseum has a higher protective effect on liver, compared to Polygonum bistorta, against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and possesses antioxidant activities. Also, extracts exhibited moderate anticancer activity towards cell viability at higher concentration.

Keywords: Polygonum bistorta, Zingiber roseum, hepatoprotective effect, carbon tetrachloride, anti-cancerous

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1297 Relation between Low Thermal Stress and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in a Sweetening Plant: Stevia Rebaudiana Bert

Authors: T. Bettaieb, S. Soufi, S. Arbaoui

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Stevia rebaudiana Bert. is a natural sweet plant. The leaves contain diterpene glycosides stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, steviolbioside and dulcoside, which are responsible for its sweet taste and have commercial value all over the world as sugar substitute in foods and medicines. Stevia rebaudiana Bert. is sensitive temperature lower than 9°C. The possibility of its outdoor culture in Tunisian conditions demand genotypes tolerant to low temperatures. In order to evaluate the low temperature tolerance of eight genotypes of Stevia rebaudiana, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalases (CAT) were measured. Before carrying out the analyses, three genotypes of Stevia were exposed for 1 month at a temperature regime of 18°C during the day and 7°C at night similar to winter conditions in Tunisia. In response to the stress generated by low temperature, antioxidant enzymes activity revealed on native gel and quantified by spectrophotometry showed variable levels according to their degree of tolerance to low temperatures.

Keywords: chilling tolerance, enzymatic activity, stevia rebaudiana bert, low thermal stress

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1296 Crude Palm Oil Antioxidant Extraction and the Antioxidation Activity

Authors: Supriyono Supriyono, Sumardiyono Sumardiyono, Peni Pujiastuti, Dian Indriana Hapsari

Abstract:

Crude palm oil (CPO) is a vegetable oil that came from a palm tree bunch. The productivity of the oil is 12 ton/hectare/year. Thus palm oil tree was known as highest vegetable oil yield. It was grown across Equatorial County, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. The greenish-red color on CPO was come from carotenoid. Carotenoid is one of the antioxidants that could be extracted. Carotenoid could be used as functional food and other purposes. Another antioxidant that also found in CPO is tocopherol. The aim of the research work is to find antioxidant activity on CPO comparing to the synthetic antioxidant that available in a market. In this research work, antioxidant was extracted by a mixture of acetone and n.hexane, while the activity of the antioxidant extract was determined by DPPH method. Antioxidant activity of the extracted compound about 46% compared to pure tocopherol. While the solvent mixture compose by 90% acetone and 10% n. hexane meet the best on the antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant, beta carotene, crude palm oil, DPPH, tocopherol

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1295 Combined Effect of Zinc Supplementation and Ascaridia galli Infection on Oxidative Status in Broiler Chicks

Authors: Veselin Nanev, Margarita Gabrashanska, Neli Tsocheva-Gaytandzieva

Abstract:

Ascaridiasis in chicks is one of the major causes for the reduction in body weights, higher mortality, and reduction in egg production, worse meat quantity, pathological lesions, blood losses, and secondary infections. It is responsible for economic losses to the poultry. Despite being economically important parasite, little work has been carried out on the role of antioxidants in the pathogenesis of ascaridiasis. Zinc is a trace elements with multiple functions and one of them is its antioxidant ability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of organic zinc compound (2Gly.ZnCl22H20) and Ascaridia galli infection on the antioxidant status of broiler chicks. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, the level of lipid peroxidation, expressed by malonyl dialdexyde and plasma zinc in chicks experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli was investigated. Parasite burden was studied as well. The study was performed on 80 broiler chicks, Cobb 500 hybrids. They were divided into four groups – 1st group – control (non-treated and non-infected, 2nd group – infected with embryonated eggs of A. galli and without treatment, 3rd group- only treated with 2Gly.ZnCl22H20 compound and gr. 4 - infected and supplemented with Zn-compound. The chicks in gr. 2 and 4 were infected orally with 450 embryonated eggs of A.galli on day 14 post infection. The chicks from gr. 3 and 4 received 40 mg Zn compound /kg of feed after the 1st week of age during 10 days. All chicks were similarly fed, managed and killed at 60 day p.i. Helminthological, biochemical and statistical methods were applied. Reduced plasma Zn content was observed in the infected chicks compared to controls. Zinc supplementation did not restored the lower Zn content. Cu, Zn-SOD was decreased significantly in the infected chicks compared to controls. The GPx – activity was significantly increased in the infected chicks than the controls. Increased GPx activity together with decreased Cu/ZnSOD activity revealed unbalanced antioxidant defense capacity. The increased MDA level in chicks and changes in the activity of the enzymes showed a development of oxidative stress during the infection with A.galli. Zn compound supplementation has been shown to influence the activity of both antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx) and reduced MDA in the infected chicks. Organic zinc supplementation improved the antioxidant defense and protect hosts from oxidant destruction, but without any effect on the parasite burden. The number of helminths was similar in both groups. Zn supplementation did not changed the number of parasites. Administration of oral 2Gly.ZnCl22H20 compound has been shown to be useful in chicks infected with A. galli by its improvement of their antioxidant potential.

Keywords: Ascaridia galli, antioxidants, broiler chicks, zinc supplementation

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1294 Hepatoprotective Evaluation of Potent Antioxidant Fraction from Urtica dioica L.: In vitro and In vivo Studies

Authors: Bhuwan C. Joshi, Atish Prakash, Ajudhia N. Kalia

Abstract:

Ethnopharmacological relevance: The plant Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) is used in various diseases including hepatic ailments. Traditionally, the leaves and roots of the plant are used in jaundice. Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate hepatoprotective potential of potent antioxidant from Urtica dioica L. against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro and in-vivo model. Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract and its fractions petroleum ether fraction (PEF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), n-butanol fraction (NBF) and aqueous fraction (AF) were determined by DPPH radicals scavenging assay. Fractions were subjected to in-vitro cell line study. Further, the most potent fraction (EAF) was subjected to in-vivo study. The in-vivo hepatoprotective active fraction was chromatographed on silica column to isolate the bioactive constituent(s). Structure elucidation was done by using various spectrophotometric techniques like UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS spectroscopy. Results and conclusion: The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Urtica. dioica L. possessed the potent antioxidant activity viz. DPPH (IC50 78.99 ± 0.17 µg/ml). The in-vitro cell line study showed EAF prevented the cell damage. The EAF significantly attenuated the increased liver enzymes activities in serum and tissue. Column chromatography of most potent antioxidant fraction (EAF) leads to the isolation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid which is responsible for its hepatoprotective potential. Hence, the present study suggests that EAF has significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro and in-vivo.

Keywords: Urtica dioica L., antioxidant, HepG2 cell line, hepatoprotective

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1293 Effect of Ocimum americanum Water Extract on Antioxidant System in Rat

Authors: Pornrut Rabintossaporn, Suphaket Saenthaweesuk, Amornnat Thuppia, Nuntiya Somparn

Abstract:

Several dietary and herbal plants have been shown to possess cytoprotective and antioxidant effects with various mechanisms of action. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant effects and its mechanism of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum americanum (OA), commonly known as American basil or 'hoary basil', in rat. The extract was screened for its phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity in vitro. Moreover, the extract was studied in rats to evaluate its effects in vivo. Rats were orally administered with the extract at the dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 28 days. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloid, cardiac glycosides, tannin and steroid compounds. The extract contained phenolic compounds 36.91 ± 0.66 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram OA extract. The free radical scavenging activity assessed by DPPH assay gave IC50 of 41.27 ± 1.86 µg/mL, which is relatively lower than that of BHT with IC50 of 12.34 ± 1.14µg/mL. In the animals, the extract was well tolerated by the animals throughout the 28 days of study as shown by normal serum levels AST, ALP, ALT, BUN and Cr as well as normal histology of liver and pancreatic and kidney tissue. The protein expression of antioxidant enzymes, γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (γ-GCL) in liver was significantly increased compared with normal control. Consistent with the induction of γ-GCL protein expression significantly reduction of serum oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) was found in rat treated with OA extract compared with control. Taken together, this study provides evidence that Ocimum americanum exhibits direct antioxidant properties and can induce cytoprotective enzyme in vivo.

Keywords: antioxidant, γ-glutamylcysteine ligase, MDA, Ocimum americanum

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1292 The Effect of Bisphenol A and Its Selected Analogues on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Human Erythrocytes

Authors: Aneta Maćczak, Bożena Bukowska, Jaromir Michałowicz

Abstract:

Bisphenols are one of the most widely used chemical compounds worldwide. They are used in the manufacturing of polycarbonates, epoxy resins and thermal paper which are applied in plastic containers, bottles, cans, newspapers, receipt and other products. Among these compounds, bisphenol A (BPA) is produced in the highest amounts. There are concerns about endocrine impact of BPA and its other toxic effects including hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity on human organism. Moreover, BPA is supposed to increase the incidence the obesity, diabetes and heart disease. For this reason the use of BPA in the production of plastic infant feeding bottles and some other consumers products has been restricted in the European Union and the United States. Nowadays, BPA analogues like bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) have been developed as alternative compounds. The replacement of BPA with other bisphenols contributed to the increase of the exposure of human population to these substances. Toxicological studies have mainly focused on BPA. In opposite, a small number of studies concerning toxic effects of BPA analogues have been realized, which makes impossible to state whether those substituents are safe for human health. Up to now, the mechanism of bisphenols action on the erythrocytes has not been elucidated. That is why, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of BPA and its selected analogues such as BPF and BPS on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e. catalase (EC 1.11.1.6.), glutathione peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.9) and superoxide dismutase (EC.1.15.1.1) in human erythrocytes. Red blood cells in respect to their function (transport of oxygen) and very well developed enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative system, are useful cellular model to assess changes in redox balance. Erythrocytes were incubated with BPA, BPF and BPS in the concentration ranging from 0.5 to 100 µg/ml for 24 h. The activity of catalase was determined by the method of Aebi (1984). The activity of glutathione peroxidase was measured according to the method described by Rice-Evans et al. (1991), while the activity of superoxide dismutase (EC.1.15.1.1) was determined by the method of Misra and Fridovich (1972). The results showed that BPA and BPF caused changes in the antioxidative enzymes activities. BPA decreased the activity of examined enzymes in the concentration of 100 µg/ml. We also noted that BPF decreased the activity of catalase (5-100 µg/ml), glutathione peroxidase (50-100 µg/ml) and superoxide dismutase (25-100 µg/ml), while BPS did not cause statistically significant changes in investigated parameters. The obtained results suggest that BPA and BPF disrupt redox balance in human erythrocytes but the observed changes may occur in human organism only during occupational or subacute exposure to these substances.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, bisphenol A, bisphenol a analogues, human erythrocytes

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1291 The Antioxidant Gel Mask Supplies Of Bitter Melon's Extract ( Momordica charantia Linn.)

Authors: N. S. Risqina, G. Edijanti, P. S. Nurita, L. Endang, R. A. Siti, R. Tri

Abstract:

Skin is an important and vital organs and also as a mirror of health and life. Facial skin care is one of the main emphasis to get the beautiful, healthy, and fresh skin. Potentially antioxidant phenolic compounds shows, antimutagen, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds that have the nature of free radicals, inhibiting the oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes as well as anti-inflammatory. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) is a plant that contains flavonoids, and phenolic antioxidant activity. Bitter melon has strong antioxidant activity that can counteract the free radicals.These compounds can prevent free radicals that cause premature aging. Gel masks including depth cleansing is the cosmetics which work in depth and could raise the dead skin cells. Measurement of antioxidant activity of the extract and gel mask is done by using the immersion method of DPPH. IC50 value of ethanol extract of bitter melon fruit of 287.932 ppm. The preparation of gel mask bitter melon fruit extract, necessary to test the effectiveness of antioxidants using DPPH method is done by measuring the inhibition of DPPH and using UV spectrophotometer at the wavelength of maximum DPPH solution. Tests conducted at the beginning and end of the evaluation (day 0 and day 28). The purpose of this study is to determine the antioxidant activity of the bitter melon's extract and to determine the antioxidant activity of ethanol extract gel mask pare in varying concentrations, ie 1xIC100 (0.295%), 2xIC100 (0.590%) and 4xIC100 (1.180%). Evaluation of physical properties of the preparation on (Day-0,7,14,21, and 28) and evaluation of antioxidant activity (day 0 and 28). Data were analyzed using One Way ANOVA to determine differences in the physical properties of each formula. The statistical results showed that differences in the formula and storage time affects the adhesion, dispersive power, dry time and pH it is shown on a significant value of p <0.05, but longer storage does not affect the pH because the significance value p> 0,05. The antioxidant test showed that there are differences in antioxidant activity in all formulas. Measurement of antioxidant activity of bitter melon fruit extract gel mask on day 0 with a concentration of 0.295%, 0.590%, and 1.180%, respectively, are 124,209.277 ppm, ppm 83819.223 and 47323.592 ppm, whereas day 28 consecutive 130 411, 495 ppm, and 53239.806 95561.645 ppm ppm. The Conclusions drawn that there are antioxidant activity in preparation gel mask of bitter melon fruit extract. The antioxidant activity of bitter melon fruit extract gel mask on the day 0 with a concentration of 0.295%, 0.590%, and 1.180%, respectively, are 124,209.277 ppm, ppm 83819.223 and 47323.592 ppm, whereas on day 28 of antioxidant activity gel mask bitter melon fruit extract with a concentration of 0.295%, 0.590%, and 1.180% in succession, namely: 130,411.495 ppm, ppm 95561.645 and 53239.806 ppm.

Keywords: antioxdant, bitter melon, gel mask, IC50

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1290 Effect of Aerobic Training with Coriandrum sativum Extract on Selection of Oxidative Stress Markers in Diabetic Rats

Authors: M. Golzade Gangraj, A. Abdi, N. ganji

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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Effect of aerobic training with Coriandrum sativum extract on selection of oxidative stress markers in diabetic rats. Methods: The population of male Wistar rats is the Pasteur Institute. Forty rats were randomly selected as subjects. After moving the mouse in vitro and stay for a week in a cage for sustainability, were diabetic. Diabetes induced by injection STZ (55 mg per kg of body weight of mice) was performed. According blood glucose was randomly divided into four experimental groups (control, training, extract and training-extract). Extract group consumed 150 mg per kg of body weight per day coriander juice. Training group performed aerobic training (50-55% VO2max). Result: The results showed that aerobic exercise training and coriander seed extract caused a significant increase in total antioxidant; superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly decreased malondialdehyde. Conclusion: the research findings can be stated that the exercise with coriander seed extract has the ability to inhibit free radicals and can have beneficial effects on the body's antioxidant defense system and reduce oxidative stress in diabetic rats with STZ. Because it improves the body's antioxidant defense by increasing serum levels of antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: aerobic training, coriandrum sativum, antioxidant, diabetes

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1289 EDTA Assisted Phytoremediation of Cadmium by Enhancing Growth and Antioxidant Defense System in Brassica napus L.

Authors: Mujahid Farid, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Bilal Shakoor

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Heavy metals pollution of soil is a prevalent global problem and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) are considered useful for the restoration of metal contaminated soils. Phytoextraction is an in-situ environment-friendly technique for the clean-up of contaminated soils. Response to cadmium (Cd) toxicity in combination with a chelator, Ethylenediamminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was studied in oilseed rape grown hydroponically in greenhouse conditions under three levels of Cd (0, 10, and 50 µM) and two levels of EDTA (0 and 2.5 mM). Cd decreased plant growth, biomass and chlorophyll concentrations while the application of EDTA enhanced plant growth by reducing Cd-induced effects in Cd-stressed plants. Significant decrease in photosynthetic parameters was found by the Cd alone. Addition of EDTA improved the net photosynthetic and gas exchange capacity of plants under Cd stress. Cd at 10 and 50 μM significantly increased electrolyte leakage, the production of hydrogen peroxidase (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant reduction was observed in the activities of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxide dismutase under Cd stress plants. Application of EDTA at the rate of 2.5 mM alone and with combination of Cd increased the antioxidant enzymes activities and reduced the electrolyte leakage and production of H2O2 and MDA. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) actively accumulated Cd in roots, stems and leaves and the addition of EDTA boosted the uptake and accumulation of Cd in oil seed rape by dissociating Cd in culture media. The present results suggest that under 8 weeks Cd-induced stress, application of EDTA significantly improve plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic, gas exchange capacity, improving enzymes activities and increased the metal uptake in roots, stems and leaves of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) respectively.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, cadmium, chelator, EDTA, growth, oilseed rape

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
1288 Effects of Enzymatic Liquefaction on the Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Zn-Amaranth (Amaranthus viridis) Puree

Authors: M. A. Siti Faridah, K. Muhammad, H. M. Ghazali, Y. A. Yusof

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of three variables namely types of cell wall degrading enzymes (Viscozyme L, Pectinex Ultra SP-L, Rapidase PAC, Rohament CL and Rohapect PTE) at varying concentrations (0.25-3% v/w) and times (30 min-24 h) on the zinc (Zn-) amaranth purees. Liquefaction treatment of the Zn-amaranth purees with Viscozyme (1% v/w at pH 5 and 45ºC for 3 h) was found to be the best procedure, which produced Zn-amaranth puree with low viscosity (8.60 mPas). Zn-amaranth purees were also found to have the highest metallo-chlorophyll derivative contents (0.16 mg/g), free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) values (12.49 mM (TE)/g fresh weight) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values (4.57 mM (TE)/g fresh weight) within 3 h of liquefaction. Other physicochemical properties of the enzyme-liquefied Zn-amaranth purees indicated that lightness (L*) (12.54), greenness a*/b* (-0.30), reducing sugar (103.88 mg/mL) and soluble dietary fibre (5.94%) of the purees were higher compared to that of nonenzyme-liquefied amaranth purees.

Keywords: amaranth, antioxidant, chlorophyll derivative, enzymatic liquefaction

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1287 Laccase Catalysed Conjugation of Tea Polyphenols for Enhanced Antioxidant Properties

Authors: Parikshit Gogo, N. N. Dutta

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The oxidative enzymes specially laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase, E.C.1.10.3.2) from bacteria, fungi and plants have been playing an important role in green technologies due to their specific advantageous properties. Laccase from different sources and in different forms was used as a biocatalyst in many oxidation and conjugation reactions starting from phenol to hydrocarbons. Tea polyphenols and its derivatives attract the scientific community because of their potential use as antioxidants in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Conjugate of polyphenols emerged as a novel materials which shows better stability and antioxidant properties in applied fields. The conjugation reaction of catechin with poly (allylamine) has been studied using free, immobilized and cross-linked enzyme crystals (CLEC) of laccase from Trametes versicolor with particular emphasis on the effect of pertinent variables and kinetic aspects of the reaction. The stability and antioxidant property of the conjugated product was improved as compared to the unconjugated tea polyphenols. The reaction was studied in 11 different solvents in order to deduce the solvent effect through an attempt to correlate the initial reaction rate with solvent properties such as hydrophobicity (logP), water solubility (logSw), electron pair acceptance (ETN) and donation abilities (DNN), polarisibility and dielectric constant which exhibit reasonable correlations. The study revealed, in general that polar solvents favour the initial reaction rate. The kinetics of the conjugation reaction conformed to the so-called Ping-Pong-Bi-Bi mechanism with catechin inhibition. The stability as well as activity of the CLEC was better than the free enzymes and immobilized laccase for practical application. In case of immobilized laccase system marginal diffusional limitation could be inferred from the experimental data. The kinetic parameters estimated by non-linear regression analysis were found to be KmPAA(mM) = 0.75, 1.8967 and Kmcat (mM) = 11.769, 15.1816 for free and immobilized laccase respectively. An attempt has been made to assess the activity of the laccase for the conjugation reaction in relation to other reactions such as dimerisation of ferulic acids and develop a protocol to enhance polyphenol antioxidant activity.

Keywords: laccase, catechin, conjugation reaction, antioxidant properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
1286 Antioxidant Characteristics of Serbian Conifers

Authors: Dubravka Štajner, Boris M. Popović, Saša Orlović, Ružica Ždero, Milan Popović, Aleksandra Popović

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Many plants possess antioxidant ingredients that provides efficacy by additive or synergistic activities. Present article highlights an antioxidant capacity of Serbian conifer plants. Antioxidant activities of the crude extracts were assessed using different assays. In this study, quantities of phenolic compounds (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and proanthocyanidins), contents of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids), soluble proteins and proline were examined. MDA quantities and ability of extracts to remove reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) were also investigated. Furthermore, antioxidant activities of extracts against DPPH∙, ferric reducing antioxidant power, permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity were also determined. According to almost all used assays, antioxidant and scavenging capacities of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were superior compared to spruce. Presented results implicated that leaves of Douglas fir and silver fir possessed outstanding antioxidant characteristics that could diminish damage caused by oxygen radicals which are responsible for many of the bodily changes and susceptibility to different diseases.

Keywords: conifers, antioxidant activity, reducing power, lipid peroxidation

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