Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Durga Barik

23 Formulation and Anticancer Evaluation of Beta-Sitosterol in Henna Methanolic Extract Embedded in Controlled Release Nanocomposite

Authors: Sanjukta Badhai, Durga Barik, Bairagi C. Mallick


In the present study, Beta-Sitosterol in Lawsonia methanolic leaf extract embedded in controlled release nanocomposite was prepared and evaluated for in vivo anticancer efficacy in dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer. In the present study, colon cancer was induced by s.c injection of DMH (20 mg/kg b.wt) for 15 weeks. The animals were divided into five groups as follows control, DMH alone, DMH and Beta Sitosterol nanocomposite (50mg/kg), DMH and Beta Sitosterol nanocomposite (100 mg/kg) and DMH and Standard Silymarin (100mg/kg) and the treatment was carried out for 15 weeks. At the end of the study period, the blood was withdrawn, and serum was separated for haematological, biochemical analysis and tumor markers. Further, the colonic tissue was removed for the estimation of antioxidants and histopathological analysis. The results of the study displays that DMH intoxication elicits altered haematological parameters (RBC,WBC, and Hb), elevated lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidants level (SOD, CAT, GPX, GST and GSH), elevated lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglycerides), tumor markers (CEA and AFP) and altered colonic tissue histology. Meanwhile, treatment with Beta Sitosterol nanocomposites significantly restored the altered biochemicals parameters in DMH induced colon cancer mediated by its anticancer efficacy. Further, Beta Sitosterol nanocomposite (100 mg/kg) showed marked efficacy.

Keywords: nanocomposites, herbal formulation, henna, beta sitosterol, colon cancer, dimethyl hydrazine, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation

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22 A Study on Unix Process Crash Based on Efficient Process Management Method

Authors: Guo Haonan, Chen Peiyu, Zhao Hanyu, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar


Unix and Unix-like operating systems are widely used due to their high stability but are limited by the parent-child process structure, and the child process depends on the parent process, so the crash of a single process may cause the entire process group or even the entire system to fail. Another possibility of unexpected process termination is that the system administrator inadvertently closed the terminal or pseudo-terminal where the application was launched, causing the application process to terminate unexpectedly. This paper mainly analyzes the reasons for the problems and proposes two solutions.

Keywords: process management, daemon, login-bash and non-login bash, process group

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21 Together - A Decentralized Application Connects Ideas and Investors

Authors: Chandragiri Nagadeep, M. V. V. S. Durga, Sadu Mahikshith


Future generation is depended on new ideas and innovations that develops the country economical growth and technology standards so, Startups plays an important role in satisfying above goals. Startups includes support which is given by investing into it by investors but, single digit investors can’t keep supporting one startup and lot of security problems occurs while transferring large funds to startup’s bank account. Targeting security and most supportive funding, TogEther solves these issues by providing a platform where “Crowd Funding” is available in a decentralized way such that funding is done with digital currency called cryptocurrency where transactions are done in a secured way using “Block Chain Technology”. Not only Funding but also Ideas along with their documents can be presented and hosted with help of IPFS (Inter Planetary File System).

Keywords: blockchain, ethereum, web3, reactjs, interplanetary file system, funding

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20 Hydration of Protein-RNA Recognition Sites

Authors: Amita Barik, Ranjit Prasad Bahadur


We investigate the role of water molecules in 89 protein-RNA complexes taken from the Protein Data Bank. Those with tRNA and single-stranded RNA are less hydrated than with duplex or ribosomal proteins. Protein-RNA interfaces are hydrated less than protein-DNA interfaces, but more than protein-protein interfaces. Majority of the waters at protein-RNA interfaces makes multiple H-bonds; however, a fraction does not make any. Those making Hbonds have preferences for the polar groups of RNA than its partner protein. The spatial distribution of waters makes interfaces with ribosomal proteins and single-stranded RNA relatively ‘dry’ than interfaces with tRNA and duplex RNA. In contrast to protein-DNA interfaces, mainly due to the presence of the 2’OH, the ribose in protein-RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the phosphate or the bases. The minor groove in protein-RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the major groove, while in protein-DNA interfaces it is reverse. The strands make the highest number of water-mediated H-bonds per unit interface area followed by the helices and the non-regular structures. The preserved waters at protein-RNA interfaces make higher number of H-bonds than the other waters. Preserved waters contribute toward the affinity in protein-RNA recognition and should be carefully treated while engineering protein-RNA interfaces.

Keywords: h-bonds, minor-major grooves, preserved water, protein-RNA interfaces

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19 Excitonic Refractive Index Change in High Purity GaAs Modulator at Room Temperature for Optical Fiber Communication Network

Authors: Durga Prasad Sapkota, Madhu Sudan Kayastha, Koichi Wakita


In this paper, we have compared and analyzed the electron absorption properties between with and without excitonic effect bulk in high purity GaAs spatial light modulator for an optical fiber communication network. The electroabsorption properties such as absorption spectra, change in absorption spectra, change in refractive index and extinction ratio have been calculated. We have also compared the result of absorption spectra and change in absorption spectra with the experimental results and found close agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: exciton, refractive index change, extinction ratio, GaAs

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18 Code Refactoring Using Slice-Based Cohesion Metrics and AOP

Authors: Jagannath Singh, Durga Prasad Mohapatra


Software refactoring is very essential for maintaining the software quality. It is an usual practice that we first design the software and then go for coding. But after coding is completed, if the requirement changes slightly or our expected output is not achieved, then we change the codes. For each small code change, we cannot change the design. In course of time, due to these small changes made to the code, the software design decays. Software refactoring is used to restructure the code in order to improve the design and quality of the software. In this paper, we propose an approach for performing code refactoring. We use slice-based cohesion metrics to identify the target methods which requires refactoring. After identifying the target methods, we use program slicing to divide the target method into two parts. Finally, we have used the concepts of Aspects to adjust the code structure so that the external behaviour of the original module does not change.

Keywords: software refactoring, program slicing, AOP, cohesion metrics, code restructure, AspectJ

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17 Distributed Multi-Agent Based Approach on Intelligent Transportation Network

Authors: Xiao Yihong, Yu Kexin, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar


With the accelerating process of urbanization, the problem of urban road congestion is becoming more and more serious. Intelligent transportation system combining distributed and artificial intelligence has become a research hotspot. As the core development direction of the intelligent transportation system, Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS) integrates advanced information technology and communication methods and realizes the integration of humans, vehicle, roadside infrastructure, and other elements through the multi-agent distributed system. By analyzing the system architecture and technical characteristics of C-ITS, the report proposes a distributed multi-agent C-ITS. The system consists of Roadside Sub-system, Vehicle Sub-system, and Personal Sub-system. At the same time, we explore the scalability of the C-ITS and put forward incorporating local rewards in the centralized training decentralized execution paradigm, hoping to add a scalable value decomposition method. In addition, we also suggest introducing blockchain to improve the safety of the traffic information transmission process. The system is expected to improve vehicle capacity and traffic safety.

Keywords: distributed system, artificial intelligence, multi-agent, cooperative intelligent transportation system

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16 Multi-Criteria GIS Analysis of the Costs and Environmental Impacts of Improved Overland Tourist Access to Kaieteur National Park, Guyana

Authors: Mark R. Leipnik, Dahlia Durga, Linda Johnson-Bhola


Kaieteur is the most iconic National Park in the rainforest-clad nation of Guyana in South America. However, the magnificent 226-meter-high waterfall at its center is virtually inaccessible by surface transportation, and the occasional charter flights to the small airstrip in the park are prohibitively expensive for most tourists and residents. Thus, the largest waterfall in all of Amazonia, where the Potaro River plunges over a single free drop higher than Victoria Falls, remains preserved in splendid isolation inside the 67,000-hectare National Park established by the British in 1929 in the deepest recesses of a remote jungle canyon. Kaieteur Falls are largely unseen firsthand, but the image of the falls can be viewed on the Guyanese twenty dollar note, in every Guyanese tourist promotion, and in thousands of items in the national capital of Georgetown. Georgetown is only 223-241 kilometers away from the falls. The lack of a single mileage figure demonstrates there is no single overland route. Any journey, except by air, involves several ferry rides and a lengthy boat ride up a jungle river, and it also entails hiking or traveling on the back of a horse or donkey for days. Surface access from Georgetown or any city is thus a 5-10 day-long adventure, with many discomforts and potential dangers, and that is in the dry season, not during the two wet seasons when travel is a particularly sticky proposition. This journey was made overland by the paper's co-author Dahlia Durga, and the paper includes images and details of that journey. This paper focuses on potential ways to improve access to the National Park from Georgetown, the nation's sole air hub and population center. This is primarily a GIS-based analysis, using multiple criteria to determine the least cost means of creating all-weather road access to the area near the base of the falls while minimizing distance and elevation changes. Critically it also involves minimizing the number of new bridges required to be built and only utilizing a limited number of existing ferry crossings of major rivers. Cost estimates are based on data from road and bridge construction engineers operating currently in the interior of Guyana. The paper contains original maps generated with ArcGIS of the potential routes for such an overland connection, including the one deemed optimal. Other factors such as the impact on endangered species' habitats and indigenous populations are considered. This proposed infrastructure development is taking place at a time that Guyana is undergoing the largest boom in its history due to revenues from offshore oil and gas development. Thus, better access to the most important tourist attraction in the country is likely to happen soon in some manner. But the questions of the most environmentally sustainable and least costly alternatives for such access remain. This paper addresses those questions and many others related to access to this magnificent natural treasure and National Park and the tradeoff such access will have on the preservation of the currently pristine natural environment of Kaieteur Falls.

Keywords: nature tourism, GIS, Amazonia, national parks

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15 A Hybrid Data Mining Algorithm Based System for Intelligent Defence Mission Readiness and Maintenance Scheduling

Authors: Shivam Dwivedi, Sumit Prakash Gupta, Durga Toshniwal


It is a challenging task in today’s date to keep defence forces in the highest state of combat readiness with budgetary constraints. A huge amount of time and money is squandered in the unnecessary and expensive traditional maintenance activities. To overcome this limitation Defence Intelligent Mission Readiness and Maintenance Scheduling System has been proposed, which ameliorates the maintenance system by diagnosing the condition and predicting the maintenance requirements. Based on new data mining algorithms, this system intelligently optimises mission readiness for imminent operations and maintenance scheduling in repair echelons. With modified data mining algorithms such as Weighted Feature Ranking Genetic Algorithm and SVM-Random Forest Linear ensemble, it improves the reliability, availability and safety, alongside reducing maintenance cost and Equipment Out of Action (EOA) time. The results clearly conclude that the introduced algorithms have an edge over the conventional data mining algorithms. The system utilizing the intelligent condition-based maintenance approach improves the operational and maintenance decision strategy of the defence force.

Keywords: condition based maintenance, data mining, defence maintenance, ensemble, genetic algorithms, maintenance scheduling, mission capability

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14 Studies on Distribution of the Doped Pr3+ Ions in the LaF3 Based Transparent Oxyfluoride Glass-Ceramic

Authors: Biswajit Pal, Amit Mallik, Anil K. Barik


Current years have witnessed a phenomenal growth in the research on the rare earth-doped transparent host materials, the essential components in optoelectronics that meet up the increasing demand for fabrication of high quality optical devices especially in telecommunication system. The combination of low phonon energy (because of fluoride environment) and high chemical durability with superior mechanical stability (due to oxide environment) makes the oxyfluoride glass–ceramics the promising and useful materials in optoelectronics. The present work reports on the undoped and doped (1 mol% Pr2O3) glass ceramics of composition 16.52 Al2O3•1.5AlF3• 12.65LaF3•4.33Na2O•64.85 SiO2 (mol%), prepared by melting technique initially that follows annealation at 450 ºC for 1 h. The glass samples so obtained were heat treated at constant 600 ºC with a variation in heat treatment schedule (10- 80 h). TEM techniques were employed to structurally characterize the glass samples. Pr2O3 affects the phase separation in the glass and delays the onset of crystallization in the glass ceramic. The modified crystallization mechanism is established from the analysis of advanced STEM/EDXS results. The phase separated droplets after annealing turn into 10-20 nm of LaF3 nano crystals those upon scrutiny are found to be dotted with the doped Pr3+ ions within the crystals themselves. The EDXS results also suggest that the inner LaF3 crystal core is swallowed by an Al enriched layer that follows a Si enriched surrounding shell as the outer core. This greatly increases the viscosity in the periphery of the crystals that restricts further crystal growth to account for the formation of nano sized crystals.

Keywords: advanced STEM/EDXS, crystallization mechanism, nano crystals, pr3+ ion doped glass and glass ceramic, structural characterization

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13 Impact of Brassinosteroid with GA3, CPPU on Yield and Quality of Newly Introduced Grape cv. Italia

Authors: Senthilkumar S, Vijayakumar R M , Soorianathasundaram K, Durga Devi D


A study was conducted to assess the influence of brassinosteroid and other bioregulators as pre-harvest sprays on yield and quality of newly introduced Californian grape cv. Italia. The vines were exposed to standardized pruning level of pruning 50% of the canes to 5-6 bud level for fruiting and 50% of the canes to two bud level for vegetative growth. The influence of brassinosteroid was assessed using BR (1 ppm) alone and in combination with GA3 and CPPU, sprayed at three different stages over the control (water spray) were given as treatments. The results revealed that the bunches treated with Brassinosteroid (1 ppm) + GA3 (10 ppm) at pea stage i.e., 7-8 mm berry size, recorded the maximum values on yield characters like bunch weight (719.94 g), yield per vine (12.70 kg/vine) and yield per hectare (15.88 t). The berry characters and quality traits were also significantly influenced by the application of bioregulators. The maximum value for all those characters was registered under bunch sprays of Brassinosteroid (1 ppm) + GA3 (10 ppm) at pea stage. The economic feasibility indicated that the treatment combination Brassinosteroid (1 ppm) + GA3 (10 ppm) at pea stage (7-8 mm berry size) had registered the maximum benefit cost ratio of 3.13, as compared to 1.89 in control (water spray). Overall, it was observed that a combined bunch spray of Brassinosteroid (1 ppm) + GA3 (10 ppm) at pea stage (7-8 mm berry size) was adjudged as the best treatment for promoting the crop for better the bunch quality and yield.

Keywords: bioregulators, brassinosteroid, CPPU, GA3, Italia grape cultivar

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12 Resource Sharing Issues of Distributed Systems Influences on Healthcare Sector Concurrent Environment

Authors: Soo Hong Da, Ng Zheng Yao, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar


The Healthcare sector is a business that consists of providing medical services, manufacturing medical equipment and drugs as well as providing medical insurance to the public. Most of the time, the data stored in the healthcare database is to be related to patient’s information which is required to be accurate when it is accessed by authorized stakeholders. In distributed systems, one important issue is concurrency in the system as it ensures the shared resources to be synchronized and remains consistent through multiple read and write operations by multiple clients. The problems of concurrency in the healthcare sector are who gets the access and how the shared data is synchronized and remains consistent when there are two or more stakeholders attempting to the shared data simultaneously. In this paper, a framework that is beneficial to distributed healthcare sector concurrent environment is proposed. In the proposed framework, four different level nodes of the database, which are national center, regional center, referral center, and local center are explained. Moreover, the frame synchronization is not symmetrical. There are two synchronization techniques, which are complete and partial synchronization operation are explained. Furthermore, when there are multiple clients accessed at the same time, synchronization types are also discussed with cases at different levels and priorities to ensure data is synchronized throughout the processes.

Keywords: resources, healthcare, concurrency, synchronization, stakeholders, database

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11 Potentiostatic Growth of Hazenite Mineral Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in 0.1 M K₂HPO₄/0.1 M Na₂HPO₄ Solution

Authors: Liping Wu, Durga Bhakta Pokharel, Junhua Dong, Changgang Wang, Lin Zhao, Wei Ke, Nan Chen


Hazenite conversion coating was deposited on AZ31 Mg alloy in a deaerated phosphate solution containing 0.1 M K₂HPO₄ and 0.1 M Na₂HPO₄ (Na₀.₁K0₀.₁) with pH 9 at −0.8 V. The coating mechanism of hazenite was elucidated by in situ potentiostatic current decay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The volume of H₂ evolved during potentiostatic polarization was measured by a gas collection apparatus. The degradation resistance of the hazenite coating was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37℃ by using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP). The results showed that amorphous Mg(OH)₂ was deposited first, followed by the transformation of Mg(OH)₂ to amorphous MgHPO₄, subsequently the conversion of MgHPO₄ to crystallized K-struvite (KMgPO₄·6H₂O), finally the crystallization of crystallized hazenite (NaKMg₂(PO₄)₂·14H₂O). The deposited coating was composed of four layers where the inner layer is comprised of Mg(OH)₂, the middle layer of Mg(OH)₂ and MgHPO₄, the top layer of Mg(OH)₂, MgHPO₄ and K-struvite, the topmost layer of Mg(OH)₂, MgHPO₄, K-struvite and hazenite (NaKMg₂(PO₄)₂·14H₂O). The PD results showed that the hazenite coating decreased the corrosion rate by two orders of magnitude.

Keywords: magnesium alloy, potentiostatic technique, hazenite, mineral conversion coating

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10 Spectacles of the City: An Analysis of the Effects of Festivals in the Formation of New Urban Identities

Authors: Anusmita Das


In the post-industrial scenario, cities in India have become critical sites of negotiation and are expected to become some of the largest urban agglomeration of the twenty-first century. This has created a pluralist identity resulting in a new multifarious urbanism pervading throughout the entire urban landscape. There is an ambiguity regarding the character of present day Indian cities with new meanings emerging and no methodical study to understand them. More than an abstract diagram, the present day cities can be looked at as an ensemble of meanings. One of the ways in which the meaning is reflected is through events. Festivals such as Diwali, Dussera, Durga Puja, Ganesh Chaturthi, etc have transpired as the phenomenon of the city, and their presence in the everyday landscape weaves itself through the urban fabric dominating the popular visual culture of Indian cities. Festivals influence people’s idea of a city. Ritual, festival, celebrations are important in shaping of the urban environment and in their influence on the intangible aspect of the urban setting. These festivals pertaining to the city in motion have emerged as the symbolic image of the emerging urban Indian condition giving birth to new urban identities. The study undertaken to understand the present context of temporality of Indian cities is important in analyzing the process of its formation and transformation. This study aims to review the evolution of new dimensions of urbanism in India as well as its implication on the identity of cities.

Keywords: urban identities, urban design, festivals, rituals, celebrations, inter-disciplinary study

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9 Consortium Blockchain-based Model for Data Management Applications in the Healthcare Sector

Authors: Teo Hao Jing, Shane Ho Ken Wae, Lee Jin Yu, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar


Current distributed healthcare systems face the challenge of interoperability of health data. Storing electronic health records (EHR) in local databases causes them to be fragmented. This problem is aggravated as patients visit multiple healthcare providers in their lifetime. Existing solutions are unable to solve this issue and have caused burdens to healthcare specialists and patients alike. Blockchain technology was found to be able to increase the interoperability of health data by implementing digital access rules, enabling uniformed patient identity, and providing data aggregation. Consortium blockchain was found to have high read throughputs, is more trustworthy, more secure against external disruptions and accommodates transactions without fees. Therefore, this paper proposes a blockchain-based model for data management applications. In this model, a consortium blockchain is implemented by using a delegated proof of stake (DPoS) as its consensus mechanism. This blockchain allows collaboration between users from different organizations such as hospitals and medical bureaus. Patients serve as the owner of their information, where users from other parties require authorization from the patient to view their information. Hospitals upload the hash value of patients’ generated data to the blockchain, whereas the encrypted information is stored in a distributed cloud storage.

Keywords: blockchain technology, data management applications, healthcare, interoperability, delegated proof of stake

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8 An AI-Based Dynamical Resource Allocation Calculation Algorithm for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Zhou Luchen, Wu Yubing, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar


As the scale of the network becomes larger and more complex than before, the density of user devices is also increasing. The development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) networks is able to collect and transform data in an efficient way by using software-defined networks (SDN) technology. This paper proposed a three-layer distributed and dynamic cluster architecture to manage UAVs by using an AI-based resource allocation calculation algorithm to address the overloading network problem. Through separating services of each UAV, the UAV hierarchical cluster system performs the main function of reducing the network load and transferring user requests, with three sub-tasks including data collection, communication channel organization, and data relaying. In this cluster, a head node and a vice head node UAV are selected considering the Central Processing Unit (CPU), operational (RAM), and permanent (ROM) memory of devices, battery charge, and capacity. The vice head node acts as a backup that stores all the data in the head node. The k-means clustering algorithm is used in order to detect high load regions and form the UAV layered clusters. The whole process of detecting high load areas, forming and selecting UAV clusters, and moving the selected UAV cluster to that area is proposed as offloading traffic algorithm.

Keywords: k-means, resource allocation, SDN, UAV network, unmanned aerial vehicles

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7 Design of an Improved Distributed Framework for Intrusion Detection System Based on Artificial Immune System and Neural Network

Authors: Yulin Rao, Zhixuan Li, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar


Intrusion detection refers to monitoring the actions of internal and external intruders on the system and detecting the behaviours that violate security policies in real-time. In intrusion detection, there has been much discussion about the application of neural network technology and artificial immune system (AIS). However, many solutions use static methods (signature-based and stateful protocol analysis) or centralized intrusion detection systems (CIDS), which are unsuitable for real-time intrusion detection systems that need to process large amounts of data and detect unknown intrusions. This article proposes a framework for a distributed intrusion detection system (DIDS) with multi-agents based on the concept of AIS and neural network technology to detect anomalies and intrusions. In this framework, multiple agents are assigned to each host and work together, improving the system's detection efficiency and robustness. The trainer agent in the central server of the framework uses the artificial neural network (ANN) rather than the negative selection algorithm of AIS to generate mature detectors. Mature detectors can distinguish between self-files and non-self-files after learning. Our analyzer agents use genetic algorithms to generate memory cell detectors. This kind of detector will effectively reduce false positive and false negative errors and act quickly on known intrusions.

Keywords: artificial immune system, distributed artificial intelligence, multi-agent, intrusion detection system, neural network

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6 Distributed System Computing Resource Scheduling Algorithm Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Yitao Lei, Xingxiang Zhai, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar


As the quantity and complexity of computing in large-scale software systems increase, distributed system computing becomes increasingly important. The distributed system realizes high-performance computing by collaboration between different computing resources. If there are no efficient resource scheduling resources, the abuse of distributed computing may cause resource waste and high costs. However, resource scheduling is usually an NP-hard problem, so we cannot find a general solution. However, some optimization algorithms exist like genetic algorithm, ant colony optimization, etc. The large scale of distributed systems makes this traditional optimization algorithm challenging to work with. Heuristic and machine learning algorithms are usually applied in this situation to ease the computing load. As a result, we do a review of traditional resource scheduling optimization algorithms and try to introduce a deep reinforcement learning method that utilizes the perceptual ability of neural networks and the decision-making ability of reinforcement learning. Using the machine learning method, we try to find important factors that influence the performance of distributed system computing and help the distributed system do an efficient computing resource scheduling. This paper surveys the application of deep reinforcement learning on distributed system computing resource scheduling proposes a deep reinforcement learning method that uses a recurrent neural network to optimize the resource scheduling, and proposes the challenges and improvement directions for DRL-based resource scheduling algorithms.

Keywords: resource scheduling, deep reinforcement learning, distributed system, artificial intelligence

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5 A Proposal to Tackle Security Challenges of Distributed Systems in the Healthcare Sector

Authors: Ang Chia Hong, Julian Khoo Xubin, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar


Distributed systems offer many benefits to the healthcare industry. From big data analysis to business intelligence, the increased computational power and efficiency from distributed systems serve as an invaluable resource in the healthcare sector to utilize. However, as the usage of these distributed systems increases, many issues arise. The main focus of this paper will be on security issues. Many security issues stem from distributed systems in the healthcare industry, particularly information security. The data of people is especially sensitive in the healthcare industry. If important information gets leaked (Eg. IC, credit card number, address, etc.), a person’s identity, financial status, and safety might get compromised. This results in the responsible organization losing a lot of money in compensating these people and even more resources expended trying to fix the fault. Therefore, a framework for a blockchain-based healthcare data management system for healthcare was proposed. In this framework, the usage of a blockchain network is explored to store the encryption key of the patient’s data. As for the actual data, it is encrypted and its encrypted data, called ciphertext, is stored in a cloud storage platform. Furthermore, there are some issues that have to be emphasized and tackled for future improvements, such as a multi-user scheme that could be proposed, authentication issues that have to be tackled or migrating the backend processes into the blockchain network. Due to the nature of blockchain technology, the data will be tamper-proof, and its read-only function can only be accessed by authorized users such as doctors and nurses. This guarantees the confidentiality and immutability of the patient’s data.

Keywords: distributed, healthcare, efficiency, security, blockchain, confidentiality and immutability

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4 Cost Benefit Analysis of Adoption of Climate Change Adaptation Options among Rural Rice Farmers in Nepal

Authors: Niranjan Devkota , Ram Kumar Phuya, Durga Lal Shreshta


This paper estimates cost and benefit of adoption of climate change adaptation options available to the rural rice farmers of Nepal. Adoption of adaptation strategies, intensity of use of adaptation options, identification of labor and non-labor cost and finally per unit cost and benefit analysis of climate change adaptation were made. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to source respondents for the study and used structured questionnaire techniques to collect data from 773 households from seven districts; 3 from Terai and 4 from Hilly region of Nepal. The result revealed that there are 13 major adaptation options rice farmers practice in order to protect themselves from climatic risk. Among the given adaptation options, the first three popular adaptation options practiced by rice farmers are (i) increasing use of chemical fertilizer (60.93%) (ii) use of climate smart verities (49.29%) and (iii) change in nursery date (32.08%). Adaptation cost is obvious, based on that, the first three costly adaptation options are the alternative irrigation practice which incurred average cost of US $69.95 (US$ 1 = 102.84 Nepalese Rupees) followed by a denser plantation of local seeds ($ 20.69) and using climate smart varieties ($ 18.06). 88% farmers practiced more than one adaptation strategies on the same farm with the aim of reducing the effect of extreme climatic conditions. Total cost and revenue revealed that per unit total cost ranges from $28.34 to $32.79 whereas per unit total revenue ranges $33.4 to $49.02. Surprisingly, it is observed that farmers who do not adopt any adaptation options are able to receive highest income from per unit production. As Net Present Value (NPV) is positive and Benefit Cost Ration (BCR) is greater than one for every adaptation options that indicates the available adaptation options are profitable to the rice farmers.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation options, cost benefit analysis, rural rice farmers, Nepal

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3 Influence of Titanium Oxide on Crystallization, Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Barium Fluormica Glass-Ceramics

Authors: Amit Mallik, Anil K. Barik, Biswajit Pal


The galloping advancement of research work on glass-ceramics stems from their wide applications in electronic industry and also to some extent in application oriented medical dentistry. TiO2, even in low concentration has been found to strongly influence the physical and mechanical properties of the glasses. Glass-ceramics is a polycrystalline ceramic material produced through controlled crystallization of glasses. Crystallization is accomplished by subjecting the suitable parent glasses to a regulated heat treatment involving the nucleation and growth of crystal phases in the glass. Mica glass-ceramics is a new kind of glass-ceramics based on the system SiO2•MgO•K2O•F. The predominant crystalline phase is synthetic fluormica, named fluorophlogopite. Mica containing glass-ceramics flaunt an exceptional feature of machinability apart from their unique thermal and chemical properties. Machinability arises from the randomly oriented mica crystals with a 'house of cards' microstructures allowing cracks to propagate readily along the mica plane but hindering crack propagation across the layers. In the present study, we have systematically investigated the crystallization, microstructure and mechanical behavior of barium fluorophlogopite mica-containing glass-ceramics of composition BaO•4MgO•Al2O3•6SiO2•2MgF2 nucleated by addition of 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt% TiO2. The glass samples were prepared by the melting technique. After annealing, different batches of glass samples for nucleation were fired at 730°C (2wt% TiO2), 720°C (4 wt% TiO2), 710°C (6 wt% TiO2) and 700°C (8 wt% TiO2) batches respectively for 2 h and ultimately heated to corresponding crystallization temperatures. The glass batches were analyzed by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro hardness indenter. From the DTA study, it is found that the fluorophlogopite mica crystallization exotherm appeared in the temperature range 886–903°C. Glass transition temperature (Tg) and crystallization peak temperature (Tp) increased with increasing TiO2 content up to 4 wt% beyond this weight% the glass transition temperature (Tg) and crystallization peak temperature (Tp) start to decrease with increasing TiO2 content up to 8 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy confirms the development of an interconnected ‘house of cards’ microstructure promoted by TiO2 as a nucleating agent. The increase in TiO2 content decreases the vicker’s hardness values in glass-ceramics.

Keywords: crystallization, fluormica glass, ‘house of cards’ microstructure, hardness

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2 Improving Search Engine Performance by Removing Indexes to Malicious URLs

Authors: Durga Toshniwal, Lokesh Agrawal


As the web continues to play an increasing role in information exchange, and conducting daily activities, computer users have become the target of miscreants which infects hosts with malware or adware for financial gains. Unfortunately, even a single visit to compromised web site enables the attacker to detect vulnerabilities in the user’s applications and force the downloading of multitude of malware binaries. We provide an approach to effectively scan the so-called drive-by downloads on the Internet. Drive-by downloads are result of URLs that attempt to exploit their visitors and cause malware to be installed and run automatically. To scan the web for malicious pages, the first step is to use a crawler to collect URLs that live on the Internet, and then to apply fast prefiltering techniques to reduce the amount of pages that are needed to be examined by precise, but slower, analysis tools (such as honey clients or antivirus programs). Although the technique is effective, it requires a substantial amount of resources. A main reason is that the crawler encounters many pages on the web that are legitimate and needs to be filtered. In this paper, to characterize the nature of this rising threat, we present implementation of a web crawler on Python, an approach to search the web more efficiently for pages that are likely to be malicious, filtering benign pages and passing remaining pages to antivirus program for detection of malwares. Our approaches starts from an initial seed of known, malicious web pages. Using these seeds, our system generates search engines queries to identify other malicious pages that are similar to the ones in the initial seed. By doing so, it leverages the crawling infrastructure of search engines to retrieve URLs that are much more likely to be malicious than a random page on the web. The results shows that this guided approach is able to identify malicious web pages more efficiently when compared to random crawling-based approaches.

Keywords: web crawler, malwares, seeds, drive-by-downloads, security

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1 Charcoal Production from Invasive Species: Suggested Shift for Increased Household Income and Forest Plant Diversity in Nepal

Authors: Kishor Prasad Bhatta, Suman Ghimire, Durga Prasad Joshi


Invasive Alien Species (IAS) are considered waste forest resources in Nepal. The rapid expansion of IAS is one of the nine main drivers of forest degradation, though the extent and distribution of this species are not well known. Further, the knowledge of the impact of IAS removal on forest plant diversity is hardly known, and the possibilities of income generation from them at the grass-root communities are rarely documented. Systematic sampling of 1% with nested circular plots of 500 square meters was performed in IAS removed and non-removed area, each of 30 hectares in Udayapur Community Forest User Group (CFUG), Chitwan, central Nepal to observe whether the removal of IAS contributed to an increase in plant diversity. In addition, ten entrepreneurs of Udaypur CFUG, involved in the charcoal production, briquette making and marketing were interviewed and interacted as well as their record keeping booklets were reviewed to understand if the charcoal production contributed to their income and employment. The average annual precipitation and temperature of the study area is 2100 mm and 34 degree Celsius respectively with Shorea robusta as main tree species and Eupatorium odoratum as dominant IAS. All the interviewed households were from the ̔below-poverty-line’ category as per Community Forestry Guidelines. A higher Shannon-Weiner plant diversity index at regeneration level was observed in IAS removed areas (2.43) than in control site (1.95). Furthermore, the number of tree seedlings and saplings in the IAS harvested blocks were significantly higher (p < 0.005) compared to the unharvested one. The sale of charcoal produced through the pyrolysis of IAS in ̔ Bio-energy kilns’ contributed for an average increased income of 30.95 % (Nepalese rupees 31,000) of the involved households. Despite above factors, some operational policy hurdles related to charcoal transport and taxation existed at field level. This study suggests that plant diversity could be increased through the removal of IAS, and considerable economic benefits could be achieved if charcoal is substantially produced and utilized.

Keywords: briquette, economic benefits, pyrolysis, regeneration

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