Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 194

Search results for: benign prostatic hyperplasia

194 ALDH1A1 as a Cancer Stem Cell Marker: Value of Immunohistochemical Expression in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

Authors: H. M. Abdelmoneim, N. A. Babtain, A. S. Barhamain, A. Z. Kufiah, A. S. Malibari, S. F. Munassar, R. S. Rawa


Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in men in developed countries. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) could be responsible for the progression and relapse of cancer. Therefore, CSCs markers could provide a prognostic strategy for human malignancies. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) activity has been shown to be associated with tumorigenesis and proposed to represent a functional marker for tumor initiating cells in various tumor types including prostate cancer. Material & Methods: We analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of ALDH1A1 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostatic adenocarcinoma and assessed their significant correlations in 50 TURP sections. They were microscopically interpreted and the results were correlated with histopathological types and tumor grade. Results: In different prostatic histopathological lesions we found that ALDH1A1 expression was low in BPH (13.3%) and PIN (6.7%) and then its expression increased with prostatic adenocarcinoma (40%), and this was statistically highly significant (P value = 0.02). However, in different grades of prostatic adenocarcinoma we found that the higher the Gleason grade the higher the expression for ALDH1A1 and this was statistically significant (P value = 0.02). We compared the expression of ALDH1A1 in PIN and prostatic adenocarcinoma. ALDH1A1 expression was decreased in PIN and highly expressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma and this was statistically significant (P value = 0.04). Conclusion: Increasing ALDH1A1 expression is correlated with aggressive behavior of the tumor. Immunohistochemical expression of ALDH1A1 might provide a potential approach to study tumorigenesis and progression of primary prostate carcinoma.

Keywords: ALDH1A1, BPH, PIN, prostatic adenocarcinoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
193 Ameliorative Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Extracts on Testosterone Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats

Authors: Alok Nahata


Introduction: Nowadays, androgen-mediated diseases such as prostate cancer, hirsutism, acne, androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have become serious problems. The aim of the present study was to find out whether Ganoderma lucidum (GL) can be used as a clinically effective medicine for the management of prostatic hyperplasia. Methodology: In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of GL. Testosterone (3 mg/kg s.c.) was administered to the rats along with the test extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg p.o for a period of 28 days. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg/kg p.o.). Major Findings: GL extracts attenuated the increase in the prostate/body weight ratio (P/BW) induced by testosterone. Most of the values were significant when compared to testosterone-treated group and finasteride treated groups. Petroleum ether extract (50 mg/kg p.o.) exhibited the best activity (P < 0.01). Ethanolic extract (20 and 50 mg/kg p.o.) also exhibited significant activity (P < 0.01). The urine output also improved significantly (P < 0.01 in all groups as compared to standard finasteride), which emphasize the clinical implications of the study. Testosterone levels measured weekly and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels measured at the end of the study also support the findings. Histological studies suggested improvement in prostatic histoarchitecture in extract-treated groups as compared to the testosterone-treated group. Conclusion: Study clearly reflects the utility of extracts in BPH. Because of conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, the prostate size is increased, thereby causing obstruction in urinary output. The observed effect that extracts do not allow the increase as reflected by urinary output, P/BW ratios and histoarchitecture showed that activity of administered testosterone was blocked by the extract and resulted in recovery.

Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia, Ganoderma lucidum, prostate-specific antigen, 5α-reductase, testosterone

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192 Psycho-Social Predictors of Health-Related Quality of Life among Persons Living with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: A. C. Obosi, H. O. Osinowo, L. I. Okeke


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one among other prostate diseases with an increasing public health concern. The prevalence and increased psychological distress of BPH among men negatively impact on their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Although several biomedical factors have been implicated in poor HRQoL among people with BPH, there is a dearth of research on the psychosocial factors predicting HRQoL among them especially in developing climes. This study, therefore, examined the psychosocial (knowledge, perceived stigma, depression, anxiety, perceived social support and illness acceptance) predictors of health-related quality of life among persons living with BPH in Ibadan, Nigeria. Biopsychosocial model and Health-related Quality of life guided this study which utilized ex-post facto design. Eighty-seven males living with BPH were purposively selected and actively participated in the study. Participants’ mean age was 61.77 ± 15.80 years. A standardized questionnaire comprising Socio-demographics and measures of health-related quality of life (α = 0.47); knowledge (α = 0.72); psychological distress (α = 0.95); perceived social support (α = 0.96) and Illness acceptance (α = 0.89) scales was utilized in the study. Data were content analysed, while bivariate correlation, hierarchical multiple regression and t-test for independent samples were computed at p < 0.05. Results revealed that 42.5% of the respondents reported poor HRQoL. Furthermore, age, length of illness, perceived stigma, depression, anxiety, knowledge, perceived social support and illness acceptance jointly predicted HRQoL significantly (R2=0.33, F(9,75)=4.05) and accounted for 33% variance in the total observed variance on HRQoL, while Illness acceptance (β=0.43), anxiety (β=-0.54), and perceived social support (β=0.16) had significant independent contributions to the observed variance on HRQoL. Illness acceptance, knowledge, perceived social support and psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and perceived stigma are important predictors of HRQoL. Therefore, it was recommended that urgent psychological intervention targeted at improving the quality of life of these persons be undertaken.

Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia, Health-related quality of life, prostate disorders, psychosocial factors

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191 Antioxidant and Anti-Lipid Peroxidation Activities of Some Thai Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Authors: Wararut Buncharoen, Kanokporn Saenphet, Supap Saenphet


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a reproductive problem, affecting elderly men worldwide. Several factors particularly free radical reaction and oxidative damage have been contributed to be key factors leading to the development of BPH. A number of medicinal plants with high antioxidant properties are extensively constituted in Thai herbal pharmacopoeia for treating BPH. These plants may prevent or delay the progression of BPH through an antioxidant mechanism. Thus, this study was to prove the antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation potential of medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of BPH such as Artabotrys harmandii Finet & Gagnep. Miq., Uvaria rufa Blume, Anomianthus dulcis (Dunal) J. Sinclair and Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Antioxidant parameters including free radical (2, 2-azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and superoxide) scavenging, ferric reducing power and anti-lipid peroxidation activity were determined in different crude extracts from the stem of these four plants. Total phenolic and ascorbic contents were also investigated. The highest total phenolic content was shown in ethyl acetate crude extract of A. dulcis (510 ± 26.927 µg GAE/g extract) while the highest ascorbic content was found in ethanolic extract of U. rufa (234.727 ± 30.356 µg AAE/g extract). The strongest scavenging activity of ABTS•+ and DPPH• was found in ethyl acetate extract of C. sappan with the IC50 values of 0.469 and 0.255 mg/ml, respectively. The petroleum ether extracts of C. sappan and U. rufa at concentration of 1 mg/ml exhibited high scavenging activity toward superoxide radicals with the inhibition of 37.264 ± 8.672 and 34.434 ± 6.377 %, respectively. Ethyl acetate crude extract of C. sappan displayed the greatest reducing power. The IC50 value of water extract of A. dulcis was 1.326 mg/ml which indicated the strongest activity in the inhibition of lipid-peroxidation among all plant extracts whereas the IC50 value of the standard, butyl hydroxyl toluene was 1.472 µg/ml. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that the stem of A. dulcis, U. rufa and C. sappan are the potential natural antioxidants and could have an importance as therapeutic agents in the preventing free radicals and oxidative damage related diseases including BPH.

Keywords: anti-lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, benign prostatic hyperplasia, Thai medicinal plants

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190 Molecular Insights into the 5α-Reductase Inhibitors: Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship, Pre-Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion and Docking Studies

Authors: Richa Dhingra, Monika, Manav Malhotra, Tilak Raj Bhardwaj, Neelima Dhingra


5-Alpha-reductases (5AR), a membrane bound, NADPH dependent enzyme and convert male hormone testosterone (T) into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is the required for the development and function of male sex organs, but its overproduction has been found to be associated with physiological conditions like Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Thus the inhibition of 5ARs could be a key target for the treatment of BPH. In present study, 2D and 3D Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) pharmacophore models have been generated for 5AR based on known inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) values with extensive validations. The four featured 2D pharmacophore based PLS model correlated the topological interactions (–OH group connected with one single bond) (SsOHE-index); semi-empirical (Quadrupole2) and physicochemical descriptors (Mol. wt, Bromines Count, Chlorines Count) with 5AR inhibitory activity, and has the highest correlation coefficient (r² = 0.98, q² =0.84; F = 57.87, pred r² = 0.88). Internal and external validation was carried out using test and proposed set of compounds. The contribution plot of electrostatic field effects and steric interactions generated by 3D-QSAR showed interesting results in terms of internal and external predictability. The well validated 2D Partial Least Squares (PLS) and 3D k-nearest neighbour (kNN) models were used to search novel 5AR inhibitors with different chemical scaffold. To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of action of these steroidal derivatives, molecular docking and in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies were also performed. Studies have revealed the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding of the ligand with residues Alanine (ALA) 63A, Threonine (THR) 60A, and Arginine (ARG) 456A of 4AT0 protein at the hinge region. The results of QSAR, molecular docking, in silico ADME studies provide guideline and mechanistic scope for the identification of more potent 5-Alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI).

Keywords: 5α-reductase inhibitor, benign prostatic hyperplasia, ligands, molecular docking, QSAR

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189 Micro-Ribonucleic Acid-21 as High Potential Prostate Cancer Biomarker

Authors: Regina R. Gunawan, Indwiani Astuti, H. Raden Danarto


Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer is caused by mutations that alter the function of normal human genes and give rise to cancer genes. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA that regulates the gen through complementary bond towards mRNA target and cause mRNA degradation. miRNA works by either promoting or suppressing cell proliferation. miRNA level expression in cancer may offer another value of miRNA as a biomarker in cancer diagnostic. miRNA-21 is believed to have a role in carcinogenesis by enhancing proliferation, anti-apoptosis, cell cycle progression and invasion of tumor cells. Hsa-miR-21-5p marker has been identified in Prostate Cancer (PCa) and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) patient’s urine. This research planned to explore the diagnostic performance of miR-21 to differentiate PCa and BPH patients. In this study, urine samples were collected from 20 PCa patients and 20 BPH patients. miR-21 relative expression against the reference gene was analyzed and compared between the two. miRNA expression was analyzed using the comparative quantification method to find the fold change. miR-21 validity in identifying PCa patients was performed by quantifying the sensitivity and specificity with the contingency table. miR-21 relative expression against miR-16 in PCa patient and in BPH patient has 12,98 differences in fold change. From a contingency table of Cq expression of miR-21 in identifying PCa patients from BPH patient, Cq miR-21 has 100% sensitivity and 75% specificity. miR-21 relative expression can be used in discriminating PCa from BPH by using a urine sample. Furthermore, the expression of miR-21 has higher sensitivity compared to PSA (Prostate specific antigen), therefore miR-21 has a high potential to be analyzed and developed more.

Keywords: benign prostate hyperplasia, biomarker, miRNA-21, prostate cancer

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188 Importance of Prostate Volume, Prostate Specific Antigen Density and Free/Total Prostate Specific Antigen Ratio for Prediction of Prostate Cancer

Authors: Aliseydi Bozkurt


Objectives: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common benign disease, and prostate cancer (PC) is malign disease of the prostate gland. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-bx) is one of the most important diagnostic tools in PC diagnosis. Identifying men at increased risk for having a biopsy detectable prostate cancer should consider prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), f/t PSA Ratio, an estimate of prostate volume. Method: We retrospectively studied 269 patients who had a prostate specific antigen (PSA) score of 4 or who had suspected rectal examination at any PSA level and received TRUS-bx between January 2015 and June 2018 in our clinic. TRUS-bx was received by 12 experienced urologists with 12 quadrants. Prostate volume was calculated prior to biopsy together with TRUS. Patients were classified as malignant and benign at the end of pathology. Age, PSA value, prostate volume in transrectal ultrasonography, corpuscle biopsy, biopsy pathology result, the number of cancer core and Gleason score were evaluated in the study. The success rates of PV, PSAD, and f/tPSA were compared in all patients and those with PSA 2.5-10 ng/mL and 10.1-30 ng/mL tp foresee prostate cancer. Result: In the present study, in patients with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, PV cut-off value was 43,5 mL (n=42 < 43,5 mL and n=102 > 43,5 mL) while in those with PSA 10.1-30 ng/mL prostate volüme (PV) cut-off value was found 61,5 mL (n=31 < 61,5 mL and n=36 > 61,5 mL). Total PSA values in the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml were found lower (6.0 ± 1.3 vs 6.7 ± 1.7) than that with PV < 43,5 mL, this value was nearly significant (p=0,043). In the group with PSA value 10.1-30 ng/mL, no significant difference was found (p=0,117) in terms of total PSA values between the group with PV < 61,5 mL and that with PV > 61,5 mL. In the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, in patients with PV < 43,5 mL, f/t PSA value was found significantly lower compared to the group with PV > 43,5 mL (0.21 ± 0.09 vs 0.26 ± 0.09 p < 0.001 ). Similarly, in the group with PSA value of 10.1-30 ng/mL, f/t PSA value was found significantly lower in patients with PV < 61,5 mL (0.16 ± 0.08 vs 0.23 ± 0.10 p=0,003). In the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, PSAD value in patients with PV < 43,5 mL was found significantly higher compared to those with PV > 43,5 mL (0.17 ± 0.06 vs 0.10 ± 0.03 p < 0.001). Similarly, in the group with PSA value 10.1-30 ng/mL PSAD value was found significantly higher in patients with PV < 61,5 mL (0.47 ± 0.23 vs 0.17 ± 0.08 p < 0.001 ). The biopsy results suggest that in the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, in 29 of the patients with PV < 43,5 mL (69%) cancer was detected while in 13 patients (31%) no cancer was detected. While in 19 patients with PV > 43,5 mL (18,6%) cancer was found, in 83 patients (81,4%) no cancer was detected (p < 0.001). In the group with PSA value 10.1-30 ng/mL, in 21 patients with PV < 61,5 mL (67.7%) cancer was observed while only in10 patients (32.3%) no cancer was seen. In 5 patients with PV > 61,5 mL (13.9%) cancer was found while in 31 patients (86.1%) no cancer was observed (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Identifying men at increased risk for having a biopsy detectable prostate cancer should consider PSA, f/t PSA Ratio, an estimate of prostate volume. Prostate volume in PC was found lower.

Keywords: prostate cancer, prostate volume, prostate specific antigen, free/total PSA ratio

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187 Managing Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia Appropriately and Safely: A Retrospective Case Series Review

Authors: C. M. Williams, R. English, P. King, I. M. Brown


Introduction: Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign fibrous proliferation of breast stroma affecting predominantly premenopausal women with no significant increased risk of breast cancer. Informal recommendations for management have continued to evolve over recent years from surgical excision to observation, although there are no specific national guidelines. This study assesses the safety of a non-surgical approach to PASH management by review of cases at a single centre. Methods: Retrospective case series review (January 2011 – August 2016) was conducted on consecutive PASH cases. Diagnostic classification (clinical, radiological and histological), management outcomes, and breast cancer incidence were recorded. Results: 43 patients were followed up for median of 25 months (3-64) with 75% symptomatic at presentation. 12% of cases (n=5) had a radiological score (BIRADS MMG or US) ≥ 4 of which 3 were confirmed malignant. One further malignancy was detected and proven radiologically occult and contralateral. No patients were diagnosed with a malignancy during follow-up. Treatment evolved from 67% surgical in 2011 to 33% in 2016. Conclusions: The management of PASH has transitioned in line with other published experience. The preliminary findings suggest this appears safe with no evidence of missed malignancies; however, longer follow up is required to confirm long-term safety. Recommendations: PASH with suspicious radiological findings ( ≥ U4/R4) warrants multidisciplinary discussion for excision. In the absence of histological or radiological suspicion of malignancy, PASH can be safely managed without surgery.

Keywords: benign breast disease, conservative management, malignancy, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, surgical excision

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
186 Evaluation of Gingival Hyperplasia Caused by Medications

Authors: Ilma Robo, Saimir Heta, Greta Plaka, Vera Ostreni


Purpose: Drug gingival hyperplasia is an uncommon pathology encountered during routine work in dental units. The purpose of this paper is to present the clinical appearance of gingival hyperplasia caused by medications. There are already three classes of medications that cause hyperplasia and based on data from the literature, the clinical cases encountered and included in this study have been compared. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a total of 311 patients, out of which 182 patients were included in our study, meeting the inclusion criteria. After each patient's history was recorded and it was found that patients were in their knowledge of chronic illness, undergoing treatment of gingivitis hypertrophic drugs was performed with a clinical examination of oral cavity and assessment by vertical and horizontal evaluation according to the periodontal indexes. Results: Of the data collected during the study, it was observed that 97% of patients with gingival hyperplasia are treated with nifedipine. 84% of patients treated with selected medicines and gingival hyperplasia in the oral cavity has been exposed at time period for more than 1 year and 1 month. According to the GOI, in the first rank of this index are about 21% of patients, in the second rank are 52%, in the third rank are 24% and in the fourth grade are 3%. According to the horizontal growth index of gingival hyperplasia, grade 1 included about 61% of patients and grade 2 included about 39% of patients with gingival hyperplasia. Bacterial index divides patients by degrees: grading 0 - 8.2%, grading 1 - 32.4%, grading 2 - 14% and grading 3 - 45.1%. Conclusions: The highest percentage of gingival hyperplasia caused by drugs is due to dosing of nifedipine for a duration of dosing and application for systemic healing for more than 1 year.

Keywords: drug gingival hyperplasia, horizontal growth index, vertical growth index

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185 Klinefelter Syndrome Presenting with Perinatal Ascites Associated with Unilateral Renal Agenesis and a Prostatic Utricle Cyst: A Case Report

Authors: Xuxin Lim, Rambha Rai, Suresh Chandran, Anette Jacobsen


We present a rare case of Klinefelter syndrome who presented with perinatal ascites, unilateral renal agenesis and a prostatic utricle cyst. Antenatally, amniocentesis revealed a fetal karyotype of Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY), and the 34-week ultrasound scan showed a cyst measuring 17mm x 21mm x 27mm located inferior-posterior to the bladder. There were no ascites noted then, but a small left pelvic kidney was present. We report the first case of Klinefelter syndrome associated with a prostatic utricle cyst and unilateral renal agenesis, presenting with neonatal ascites.

Keywords: congenital disorders, utricle cyst, neonatal, surgery, prostate

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184 Efficacy and Safety of Uventa Metallic Stent for Malignant and Benign Ureteral Obstruction

Authors: Deok Hyun Han


Objective: To explore outcomes of UventaTM metallic ureteral stent between malignant and benign ureteral obstruction. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 90 consecutive patients who underwent Uventa stent placement for benign or malignant ureteral obstruction from December 2009 to June 2013. We evaluated the clinical outcomes, complications, and reasons and results for unexpected stent removals. Results: The median follow-up was 10.7 (0.9 – 41) months. From a total of 125 ureter units, there were 24 units with benign obstructions and 101 units with malignant obstructions. Initial technical successes were achieved in all patients. The overall success rate was 70.8% with benign obstructions and 84.2% with malignant obstructions. The major reasons for treatment failure were stent migration (12.5%) in benign and tumor progression (11.9%) in malignant obstructions. The overall complication rate was similar between benign and malignant obstructions (58.3% and 42.6%), but severe complications, which are Clavien grade 3 or more, occurred in 41.7% of benign and 6.9% of malignant obstructions. The most common complications were stent migration (25.0%) in benign obstructions and persistent pain (14.9%) in malignant obstructions. The stent removal was done in 16 units; nine units that were removed by endoscopy and seven units were by open surgery. Conclusions: In malignant ureteral obstructions, the Uventa stent showed favorable outcomes with high success rate and acceptable complication rate. However, in benign ureteral obstructions, overall success rate and complication rate were less favorable. Malignant ureteral obstruction seems to be appropriate indication of Uventa stent placement. However, in chronic diffuse benign ureteral obstructions the decision of placement of Uventa stent has to be careful.

Keywords: cause, complication, ureteral obstruction, metal stent

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183 Microvesicles in Peripheral and Uterine Blood in Women with Atypical Hyperplasia and Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer

Authors: Barbara Zapala, Marek Dziechciowski, Olaf Chmura, Monika Piwowar, Katarzyna Gawlik, Dorota Pawlicka-Gosiewska, Krzysztof Skotniczny, Bogdan Solnica, Kazimierz Pitynski


BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries.We hypothesized that amount of circulating micro-particles in blood may be connected with the development of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. The aim of this study was to measure the micro-particles amount in uterine venous blood and in peripheral venous blood in women with atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrioid endometrial cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By using flow cytometry (BD Canto II cytometer) we measured micro-particles amount in citrate plasma samples from peripheral and uterine venous blood of women with atypical hyperplasia of endometrium or endometrial cancer. We determined the amount of total (TF+), endothelial (CD144+) and monocytic (CD14+) micro- particles. RESULTS: Here we show statistically significant higher micro-particle levels in women with atypical hyperplasia of endometrium or endometrial cancer in comparison to healthy women. Performing measurements of the amounts of total, endothelial and monocytic microparticles allow for reliable differentiation between healthy, atypical hyperplasia and endometrial cancer groups. In blood samples from uterine veins the circulating micro-particle levels were significantly different from peripheral blood samples. The micro-particle levels in uterine blood samples were 7-fold higher than in those from peripheral blood of women with both atypical hyperplasia of endometrium and endometrial cancer when compared to the control group of healthy women. CONCLUSION: These results strongly suggested that the level of circulating micro-particles may be a sign of endometrial cancer development, however the detailed study is needed focusing on molecular processes passed through this small circulating molecules.

Keywords: endometrial cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, microvesicles, uterine blood

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182 Tc-99m MIBI Scintigraphy to Differentiate Malignant from Benign Lesions, Detected on Planar Bone Scan

Authors: Aniqa Jabeen


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Tc-99m MIBI (Technetium 99-methoxy-iso-butyl-isonitrile) scintigraphy to differentiate malignancies from benign lesions, which were detected on planar bone scans. Materials and Methods: 59 patients with bone lesions were enrolled in the study. The scintigraphic findings were compared with the clinical, radiological and the histological findings. Each patient initially underwent a three-phase bone scan with Tc-99m MDP (Methylene Diphosphonate) and if evidence of lesion found, the patient then underwent a dynamic and static MIBI scintigraphy after three to four days. The MDP and MIBI scans were evaluated visually and quantitatively. For quantitative analysis count ratios of lesions and contralateral normal side (L/C) were taken by region of interests drawn on scans. The Student T test was applied to assess the significant difference between benign and malignant lesions p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Result: The MDP scans showed the increase tracer uptake, but there was no significant difference between benign and malignant uptake of the radiotracer. However significant difference (p-value 0.015), in uptake was seen in malignant (L/C = 3.51 ± 1.02) and benign lesion (L/C = 2.50±0.42) on MIBI scan. Three of thirty benign lesions did not show significant MIBI uptake. Seven malignant appeared as false negatives. Specificity of the scan was 86.66%, and its Negative Predictive Value (NPV) was 81.25% whereas the sensitivity of scan was 79.31%. In excluding the axial metastasis from the lesions, the sensitivity of MIBI scan increased to 91.66% and the NPV also increased to 92.85%. Conclusion: MIBI scintigraphy provides its usefulness by distinguishing malignant from benign lesions. MIBI also correctly identifies metastatic lesions. The negative predictive value of the scan points towards its ability to accurately diagnose the normal (benign) cases. However, biopsy remains the gold standard and a definitive diagnostic modality in musculoskeletal tumors. MIBI scan provides useful information in preoperative assessment and in distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions.

Keywords: benign, malignancies, MDP bone scan, MIBI scintigraphy

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181 Benign Osteoblastoma of the Mandible Resection and Replacement of the Defects with Decellularized Cattle Bone Scaffold with Mesenchymal Bone Marrow Stem Cells

Authors: K. Mardaleishvili, G. Loladze, G. Shatirishivili, D. Chakhunashvili, A. Vishnevskaya, Z. Kakabadze


Benign osteoblastoma is a benign tumor of the bone, usually affecting the vertebrae and long tubular bones. It is a rarely seen tumor of the facial bones. The authors present a case of a 28-year-old male patient with a tumor in mandibular body. The lesion was radically resected and histological analysis of the specimen demonstrated features typical of a benign osteoblastoma. The defect of the jaw was reconstructed with titanium implants and decellularized and lyophilized cattle bone matrix with mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells transplantation. This presentation describes the procedures for rehabilitating a patient with decellularized bone scaffold in the region of the face, recovering the facial contours and esthetics of the patient.

Keywords: facial bones, osteoblastoma, stem cells, transplantation

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180 Computer-Aided Drug Repurposing for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by Targeting Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase

Authors: Neslihan Demirci, Serdar Durdağı


Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still a worldwide disease-causing agent that, according to WHO, led to the death of 1.5 million people from tuberculosis (TB) in 2020. The bacteria reside in macrophages located specifically in the lung. There is a known quadruple drug therapy regimen for TB consisting of isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), pyrazinamide (PZA), and ethambutol (EMB). Over the past 60 years, there have been great contributions to treatment options, such as recently approved delamanid (OPC67683) and bedaquiline (TMC207/R207910), targeting mycolic acid and ATP synthesis, respectively. Also, there are natural compounds that can block the tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) enzyme, chuangxinmycin, and indolmycin. Yet, already the drug resistance is reported for those agents. In this study, the newly released TrpRS enzyme structure is investigated for potential inhibitor drugs from already synthesized molecules to help the treatment of resistant cases and to propose an alternative drug for the quadruple drug therapy of tuberculosis. Maestro, Schrodinger is used for docking and molecular dynamic simulations. In-house library containing ~8000 compounds among FDA-approved indole-containing compounds, a total of 57 obtained from the ChemBL were used for both ATP and tryptophan binding pocket docking. Best of indole-containing 57 compounds were subjected to hit expansion and compared later with virtual screening workflow (VSW) results. After docking, VSW was done. Glide-XP docking algorithm was chosen. When compared, VSW alone performed better than the hit expansion module. Best scored compounds were kept for ten ns molecular dynamic simulations by Desmond. Further, 100 ns molecular dynamic simulation was performed for elected molecules according to Z-score. The top three MMGBSA-scored compounds were subjected to steered molecular dynamic (SMD) simulations by Gromacs. While SMD simulations are still being conducted, ponesimod (for multiple sclerosis), vilanterol (β₂ adrenoreceptor agonist), and silodosin (for benign prostatic hyperplasia) were found to have a significant affinity for tuberculosis TrpRS, which is the propulsive force for the urge to expand the research with in vitro studies. Interestingly, top-scored ponesimod has been reported to have a side effect that makes the patient prone to upper respiratory tract infections.

Keywords: drug repurposing, molecular dynamics, tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, tuberculosis

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179 Phytochemical Screening, Proximate Analysis, Lethality Studies and Anti-Tumor Potential of Annona muricata L. (Soursop) Fruit Extract in Rattus novergicus

Authors: O. C. Abbah, O. Obidoa, J. Omale


Prostate tumor is fast becoming a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in human male adults, with 50 percent of men aged 50 years and above having histological evidence of the benign tumor. The study was set out to undertake phytochemical screening and proximate analysis of the pulp of A. muricata fruit - soursop; to determine the acute toxicity of the fruit pulp extract and its effect on male albino Wistar rats with concurrent induction of experimental benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Eighteen rats (average weight of 100g) were used for the lethality studies and were orally administered graded doses of aqueous extracts of the fruit pulp up to 5000 mg/kg body weight. Twenty five rats weighing 150-200g were divided into five groups of five rats each for the tumor studies. The groups included four controls – Hormone control, HC, which took Testosterone, T; and Estradiol, E2 – only, in olive oil as vehicle; Vehicle control, VC; Soursop control, SC, which received the extract only; VS, Vehicle and Soursop – and the Test group, TG (500mg/kg b.w.). All rats were dosed orally. Tumor was induced with exogenous Testosterone propionate: Estradiol valerate at 300µg: 80µg/kg b.w. (respectively) in olive oil, administered subcutaneously in the inguinal region of the rats on alternate days for 21 days. Administration of the fruit pulp at graded doses up to 5000mg/kg resulted in no lethality even after 72 hours. Results from tumor studies revealed that the administration of the fruit extracts significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the relative prostate weight of the TG compared with the HC, with values of 006±0.001 and 0.010±0.003 respectively. Treatment with vehicle, soursop and vehicle with soursop caused no significant (p>0.05) change in prostate size, with their respective relative prostate weights being 0.002±0.001, 0.004±0.002 and 0.002±0.001 compared with TG. Also, treatment with A. muricata fruit extract significantly decreased (p < 0.05) serum prostate specific antigen, PSA, in TG compared with HC, with values 0.055±0.017 and 0.194±0.068 ng/ml respectively. Furthermore, A. muricata administration displayed Testosterone boosting, Estradiol lowering and consequently testosterone-estradiol ratio increasing potential at the end of the 21 days. The preventive property of soursop against experimental BPH was corroborated by histological evidence in this study. The study concludes that A. muricata fruit holds a great potential for benign prostate tumor prevention and, possibly, management.

Keywords: annona muricata, benign prostate tumor, hormone, preventive potential, soursop

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178 Fabrication of Biosensor Based on Layered Double Hydroxide/Polypyrrole/Carbon Paste Electrode for Determination of Anti-Hypertensive and Prostatic Hyperplasia Drug Terazosin

Authors: Amira M. Hassanein, Nehal A. Salahuddin, Atsunori Matsuda, Toshiaki Hattori, Mona N. Elfiky


New insights into the design of highly sensitive, carbon-based electrochemical sensors are presented in this work. This was achieved by exploring the interesting properties of conductive (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide- Dodecyl Sulphate/Polypyrrole nanocomposites which were synthesized by in-situ polymerization of pyrrole during the assembly of (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide, and by employing the anionic surfactant Dodecyl sulphate as a modifier. The morphology and surface area of the nanocomposites changed with the percentage of Pyrrole. Under optimal conditions, the modified carbon paste electrode successfully achieved detection limits of 0.057 and 0.134 nmol.L-1 of Terazosin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum fluid, respectively. Moreover, the sensors are highly stable, reusable, and free from interference by other commonly present excipients in drug formulations.

Keywords: layered double hydroxide, polypyrrole, terazosin hydrochloride, square-wave adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetry

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177 Patterns of Malignant and Benign Breast Lesions in Hail Region: A Retrospective Study at King Khalid Hospital

Authors: Laila Seada, Ashraf Ibrahim, Amjad Al Shammari


Background and Objectives: Breast carcinoma is the most common cancer of females in Hail region, accounting for 31% of all diagnosed cancer cases followed by thyroid carcinoma (25%) and colorectal carcinoma (13%). Methods: In the present retrospective study, all cases of breast lesions received at the histopathology department in King Khalid Hospital, Hail, during the period from May 2011 to April 2016 have been retrieved from department files. For all cases, a trucut biopsy, lumpectomy, or modified radical mastectomy was available for histopathologic diagnosis, while 105/140 (75%) had, as well, preoperative fine needle aspirates (FNA). Results: 49 cases out of 140 (35%) breast lesions were carcinomas: 44/49 (89.75%) was invasive ductal, 2/49(4.1%) invasive lobular carcinomas, 1/49(2.05%) intracystic low grade papillary carcinoma and 2/49 (4.1%) ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Mean age for malignant cases was 45.06 (+/-10.58): 32.6% were below the age of 40 and 30.6 below 50 years, 18.3% below 60 and 16.3% below 70 years. For the benign group, mean age was 32.52 (+/10.5) years. Benign lesions were in order of frequency: 34 fibroadenomas, 14 fibrocystic disease, 12 chronic mastitis, five granulomatous mastitis, three intraductal papillomas, and three benign phyllodes tumor. Tubular adenoma, lipoma, skin nevus, pilomatrixoma, and breast reduction specimens constituted the remaining specimens. Conclusion: Breast lesions are common in our series and invasive carcinoma accounts for more than 1/3rd of the lumps, with 63.2% incidence in pre-menopausal ladies, below the age of 50 years. FNA as a non-invasive procedure, proved to be an effective tool in diagnosing both benign and malignant/suspicious breast lumps and should continue to be used as a first assessment line of palpable breast masses.

Keywords: age incidence, breast carcinoma, fine needle aspiration, hail region

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176 Role of Human Epididymis Protein 4 as a Biomarker in the Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer

Authors: Amar Ranjan, Julieana Durai, Pranay Tanwar


Background &Introduction: Ovarian cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor in the female. 70% of the cases of ovarian cancer are diagnosed at an advanced stage. The five-year survival rate associated with ovarian cancer is less than 30%. The early diagnosis of ovarian cancer becomes a key factor in improving the survival rate of patients. Presently, CAl25 (carbohydrate antigen125) is used for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of ovarian cancer, but its sensitivity and specificity is not ideal. The introduction of HE4, human epididymis protein 4 has attracted much attention. HE4 has a sensitivity and specificity of 72.9% and 95% for differentiating between benign and malignant adnexal masses, which is better than CA125 detection.  Methods: Serum HE4 and CA -125 were estimated using the chemiluminescence method. Our cases were 40 epithelial ovarian cancer, 9 benign ovarian tumor, 29 benign gynaecological diseases and 13 healthy individuals. This group include healthy woman those who have undergoing family planning and menopause-related medical consultations and they are negative for ovarian mass. Optimal cut off values for HE4 and CA125 were 55.89pmol/L and 40.25U/L respectively (determined by statistical analysis). Results: The level of HE4 was raised in all ovarian cancer patients (n=40) whereas CA125 levels were normal in 6/40 ovarian cancer patients, which were the cases of OC confirmed by histopathology. There is a significant decrease in the level of HE4 with comparison to CA125 in benign ovarian tumor cases. Both the levels of HE4 and CA125 were raised in the nonovarian cancer group, which includes cancer of endometrium and cervix. In the healthy group, HE4 was normal in all patients except in one case of the rudimentary horn, and the reason for this raised HE4 level is due to the incomplete development of uterus whereas CA125 was raised in 3 cases. Conclusions: Findings showed that the serum level of HE4 is an important indicator in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer, and it also distinguishes between benign and malignant pelvic masses. However, a combination of HE4 and CA125 panel will be extremely valuable in improving the diagnostic efficiency of ovarian cancer. These findings of our study need to be validated in the larger cohort of patients.

Keywords: human epididymis protein 4, ovarian cancer, diagnosis, benign lesions

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175 Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules

Authors: Ilirian Laçi, Alketa Spahiu


Big strums of thyroid glandule observed by a simple viewing can be witnessed in everyday life. Medical cabinets evidence patients withpalpablenodes of thyroid glandule, mainly nodes of the size of 10 millimeters. Further, more cases which have resulted in negative under palpation have resulted in positive at ultrasound examination. Therefore, the use of ultrasound for diagnosing has increased the number of patients with nodes of thyroid glandule in the last couple of decades in all countries, Albania included. Thus, there has been evidence of an increased number of patients affected by this pathology, where female patients dominate. Demographically, the capital shows high numbers due to the high population, but of interest is the high incidence of those areas distanced from the sea. While regarding related pathologies, no significant link was evidenced, an element of ancestry was evident in the nodes of the thyroid glandule. When we talk of nodes of the thyroid glandule, we should consider hyperplasia, neoplasia, and inflammatory diseases that cause nodes of the thyroid glandule. This increase parallels the world’s increase of the incidence of thyroid glandule, with malign cases, which are at about 5% and are not depended on size. Given the numbers, with most thyroid glandule nodes being benign, the main objective of the examination of the nodes was the determination of benign and malign cases to avoid undue surgery. Subject of this study were 212 patients that underwent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) under ultrasound guidance at the Medical University Center of Tirana. All the patients came to the Mother Teresa University Hospital from public and private hospitals and other polyclinics. These patients had an ultrasound examination before visiting the Center of Nuclear Medicine for a scintigraph of thyroid glandule in the period September 2016 and September 2017. To correlate, all patients had been examined via ultrasound of the thyroid glandule prior to the scintigraph. The ultrasound included evaluation of the number of nodes, their size, their solid, cystic, or solid-cystic structure, echogenicity according to the gray scale, the presence of calcification, the presence of lymph nodes, the presence of adenopathy, and the correlation of the cytology results from the Laboratory of Pathological Anatomy of Medical University Center of Tirana.

Keywords: thyroid nodes, fine needle aspiration, ultrasound, scintigraphy

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174 A Pattern Recognition Neural Network Model for Detection and Classification of SQL Injection Attacks

Authors: Naghmeh Moradpoor Sheykhkanloo


Structured Query Language Injection (SQLI) attack is a code injection technique in which malicious SQL statements are inserted into a given SQL database by simply using a web browser. Losing data, disclosing confidential information or even changing the value of data are the severe damages that SQLI attack can cause on a given database. SQLI attack has also been rated as the number-one attack among top ten web application threats on Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP). OWASP is an open community dedicated to enabling organisations to consider, develop, obtain, function, and preserve applications that can be trusted. In this paper, we propose an effective pattern recognition neural network model for detection and classification of SQLI attacks. The proposed model is built from three main elements of: a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) generator in order to generate thousands of malicious and benign URLs, a URL classifier in order to: 1) classify each generated URL to either a benign URL or a malicious URL and 2) classify the malicious URLs into different SQLI attack categories, and an NN model in order to: 1) detect either a given URL is a malicious URL or a benign URL and 2) identify the type of SQLI attack for each malicious URL. The model is first trained and then evaluated by employing thousands of benign and malicious URLs. The results of the experiments are presented in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: neural networks, pattern recognition, SQL injection attacks, SQL injection attack classification, SQL injection attack detection

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173 Eco-Benign and Highly Efficient Procedures for the Synthesis of Amides Catalyzed by Heteropolyanion-Based Ionic Liquids under Solvent-Free Conditions

Authors: Zhikai Chena, Renzhong Fu, Wen Chaib, Rongxin Yuanb


Two eco-benign and highly efficient routes for the synthesis of amides have been developed by treating amines with corresponding carboxylic acids or carboxamides in the presence of heteropolyanion-based ionic liquids (HPAILs) as catalysts. These practical reactions can tolerate a wide range of substrates. Thus, various amides were obtained in good to excellent yields under solvent-free conditions at heating. Moreover, recycling studies revealed that HPAILs are easily reusable for this two procedures. These methods provide green and much improved protocols over the existing methods.

Keywords: synthesis, amide, ıonic liquid, catalyst

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172 Molecular Study of P53- and Rb-Tumor Suppressor Genes in Human Papilloma Virus-Infected Breast Cancers

Authors: Shakir H. Mohammed Al-Alwany, Saad Hasan M. Ali, Ibrahim Mohammed S. Shnawa


The study was aimed to define the percentage of detection of high-oncogenic risk types of HPV and their genotyping in archival tissue specimens that ranged from apparently healthy tissue to invasive breast cancer by using one of the recent versions of In Situ Hybridization(ISH) 0.2. To find out rational significance of such genotypes as well as over expressed products of mutants P53 and RB genes on the severity of underlying breast cancers. The DNA of HPV was detected in 46.5 % of tissues from breast cancers while HPV DNA in the tissues from benign breast tumours was detected in 12.5%. No HPV positive–ISH reaction was detected in healthy breast tissues of the control group. HPV DNA of genotypes (16, 18, 31 and 33) was detected in malignant group in frequency of 25.6%, 27.1%, 30.2% and 12.4%, respectively. Over expression of p53 was detected by IHC in 51.2% breast cancer cases and in 50% benign breast tumour group, while none of control group showed P53- over expression. Retinoblastoma protein was detected by IHC test in 49.7% of malignant breast tumours, 54.2% of benign breast tumours but no signal was reported in the tissues of control group. The significance prevalence of expression of mutated p53 & Rb genes as well as detection of high-oncogenic HPV genotypes in patients with breast cancer supports the hypothesis of an etiologic role for the virus in breast cancer development.

Keywords: human papilloma virus, P53, RB, breast cancer

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171 Benign Recurrent Unilateral Abducens (6th) Nerve Palsy in 14 Months Old Girl: A Case Report

Authors: Khaled Alabduljabbar


Background: Benign, isolated, recurrent sixth nerve palsy is very rare in children. Here we report a case of recurrent abducens nerve palsy with no obvious etiology. It is a diagnosis of exclusion. A recurrent benign form of 6th nerve palsy, a rarer still palsy, has been described in the literature, and it is of most likely secondary to inflammatory causes, e.g, following viral and bacterial infections. Purpose: To present a case of 14 months old girl with recurrent attacks of isolated left sixth cranial nerve palsy following upper respiratory tract infection. Observation: The patient presented to opthalmology clinic with sudden onset of inward deviation (esotropia) of the left eye with a compensatory left face turn one week following signs of upper respiratory tract infection. Ophthalmological examination revealed large angle esotropia of the left eye in primary position, with complete limitation of abduction of the left eye, no palpebral fissure changes, and abnormal position of the head (left face turn). Visual acuity was normal, and no significant refractive error on cycloplegic refraction for her age. Fundus examination was normal with no evidence of papilledema. There was no relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) and no anisocoria. Past medical history and family history were unremarkable, with no history of convulsion attacks or head trauma. Additional workout include CBC. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and angiography of the brain were performed and demonstrated the absence of intracranial and orbital lesions. Referral to pediatric neurologist was also done and concluded no significant finding. The patient showed improvement of the left sixth cranial nerve palsy and left face turn over a period of two months. Seven months since the first attack, she experienced a recurrent attack of left eye esotropia with left face turn concurrent with URTI. The rest of eye examination was again unremarkable. CT scan and MRI scan of brain and orbit were performed and showed only signs of sinusitis with no intracranial pathology. The palsy resolved spontaneously within two months. A third episode of left 6th nerve palsy occurred 6 months later, whichrecovered over one month. Examination and neuroimagingwere unremarkable. A diagnosis of benign recurrent left 6th cranial nerve palsy was made. Conclusion: Benign sixth cranial nerve palsy is always a diagnosis of exclusion given the more serious and life-threatening alternative causes. It seems to have a good prognosis with only supportive measures. The likelihood of benign 6th cranial nerve palsy to resolve completely and spontaneously is high. Observation for at least 6 months without intervention is advisable.

Keywords: 6th nerve pasy, abducens nerve pasy, recurrent nerve palsy, cranial nerve palsy

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170 Diagnostic Accuracy Of Core Biopsy In Patients Presenting With Axillary Lymphadenopathy And Suspected Non-Breast Malignancy

Authors: Monisha Edirisooriya, Wilma Jack, Dominique Twelves, Jennifer Royds, Fiona Scott, Nicola Mason, Arran Turnbull, J. Michael Dixon


Introduction: Excision biopsy has been the investigation of choice for patients presenting with pathological axillary lymphadenopathy without a breast abnormality. Core biopsy of nodes can provide sufficient tissue for diagnosis and has advantages in terms of morbidity and speed of diagnosis. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of core biopsy in patients presenting with axillary lymphadenopathy. Methods: Between 2009 and 2019, 165 patients referred to the Edinburgh Breast Unit had a total of 179 axillary lymph node core biopsies. Results: 152 (92%) of the 165 initial core biopsies were deemed to contain adequate nodal tissue. Core biopsy correctly established malignancy in 75 of the 78 patients with haematological malignancy (96%) and in all 28 patients with metastatic carcinoma (100%) and correctly diagnosed benign changes in 49 of 57 (86%) patients with benign conditions. There were no false positives and no false negatives. In 67 (85.9%) of the 78 patients with hematological malignancy, there was sufficient material in the first core biopsy to allow the pathologist to make an actionable diagnosis and not ask for more tissue sampling prior to treatment. There were no complications of core biopsy. On follow up, none of the patients with benign cores has been shown to have malignancy in the axilla and none with lymphoma had their initial disease incorrectly classified. Conclusions: This study shows that core biopsy is now the investigation of choice for patients presenting with axillary lymphadenopathy even in those suspected as having lymphoma.

Keywords: core biopsy, excision biopsy, axillary lymphadenopathy, non-breast malignancy

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169 Identification of Breast Anomalies Based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks and K-Nearest Neighbors

Authors: Ayyaz Hussain, Tariq Sadad


Breast cancer (BC) is one of the widespread ailments among females globally. The early prognosis of BC can decrease the mortality rate. Exact findings of benign tumors can avoid unnecessary biopsies and further treatments of patients under investigation. However, due to variations in images, it is a tough job to isolate cancerous cases from normal and benign ones. The machine learning technique is widely employed in the classification of BC pattern and prognosis. In this research, a deep convolution neural network (DCNN) called AlexNet architecture is employed to get more discriminative features from breast tissues. To achieve higher accuracy, K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifiers are employed as a substitute for the softmax layer in deep learning. The proposed model is tested on a widely used breast image database called MIAS dataset for experimental purposes and achieved 99% accuracy.

Keywords: breast cancer, DCNN, KNN, mammography

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168 Clinical Implication of Hyper-Intense Signal Thyroid Incidentaloma on Time of Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography

Authors: Inseon Ryoo, Soo Chin Kim, Hyena Jung, Sangil Suh


Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of hyper-intense signal thyroid incidentalomas on the time of flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) using correlation study with ultrasound (US). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 3,505 non-contrast TOF-MRA performed at an institution between September 2014 and May 2017. Two radiologists correlated the thyroid incidentalomas detected on TOF-MRA with US features which was obtained within three months interval between MRA and US examinations in consensus method. Results: The prevalence of hyper-intense signal thyroid nodules incidentally detected on TOF-MRA was 1.2% (43/3505). Among them, 35 people (81.4%) underwent US examinations, and total 45 hyper-intense signal thyroid nodules were detected on US exams. Of these 45 nodules, 35 nodules (72.9%) were categorized as benign (K-TIRADS category 2) on US exams. Fine needle aspiration was performed on 9 nodules according to the indications recommended by Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology. All except one high-suspicious thyroid nodule were confirmed as benign (Bethesda 2) on cytologic exams. One high-suspicious nodule on US showed a non-diagnostic result (Bethesda 1) on cytologic exam. However, this nodule collapsed after aspiration of thick colloid material. Conclusions: Our study showed that the most hyper-intense signal thyroid nodules detected on TOF-MRA were benign. Therefore, if a hyper-intense signal incidentaloma is found on TOF-MRA, further evaluation, especially invasive biopsy of the nodules could be suspended unless the patient had other symptoms or clinical factors suggesting the need for further evaluation.

Keywords: incidentaloma, thyroid nodule, TOF MR angiography, ultrasound

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167 A Rare Case of Acquired Benign Tracheoesophageal Fistula: Case Report and Literature Review

Authors: Sarah Bouayyad, Ajay Nigam, Meera Beena


Acquired benign tracheoesophageal fistula is a rare medical condition that usually results from trauma, foreign bodies, or granulomatous infections. This is an unusual presentation of a male patient with a history of laryngectomy who had had over a period of several years inappropriately and vigorously used valve cleaning brushes to clean tracheal secretions, which had led to the formation of a tracheoesophageal fistula. Due to the patient’s obsessive habit, we couldn’t manage him using conventional surgical methods. Instead, we opted for the placement of a salivary bypass tube, which yielded good results and recovery. To the best of our knowledge, no other case of similar etiology has been published. We would like to highlight the importance of appropriate patient selection and education prior to performing a tracheoesophageal puncture to avoid developing life-threatening complications as demonstrated in our case report.

Keywords: tracheoesophageal fistula, speech valve, endoscopic insertion of salivary bypass tube, head and neck malignancies

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166 NK Cells Expansion Model from PBMC Led to a Decrease of CD4+ and an Increase of CD8+ and CD25+CD127- T-Reg Lymphocytes in Patients with Ovarian Neoplasia

Authors: Rodrigo Fernandes da Silva, Daniela Maira Cardozo, Paulo Cesar Martins Alves, Sophie Françoise Derchain, Fernando Guimarães


T-reg lymphocytes are important for the control of peripheral tolerance. They control the adaptive immune system and prevent autoimmunity through its suppressive action on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. The suppressive action also includes B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages and recently, studies have shown that T-reg are also able to inhibit NK cells, therefore they exert their control of the immune response from innate to adaptive response. Most tumors express self-ligands, therefore it is believed that T-reg cells induce tolerance of the immune system, hindering the development of successful immunotherapies. T-reg cells have been linked to the suppression mechanisms of the immune response against tumors, including ovarian cancer. The goal of this study was to disclose the sub-population of the expanded CD3+ lymphocytes reported by previous studies, using the long-term culture model designed by Carlens et al 2001, to generate effector cell suspensions enriched with cytotoxic CD3-CD56+ NK cells, from PBMC of ovarian neoplasia patients. Methods and Results: Blood was collected from 12 patients with ovarian neoplasia after signed consent: 7 benign (Bng) and 5 malignant (Mlg). Mononuclear cells were separated by Ficoll-Paque gradient. Long-term culture was conducted by a 21 day culturing process with SCGM CellGro medium supplemented with anti-CD3 (10ng/ml, first 5 days), IL-2 (1000UI/ml) and FBS (10%). After 21 days of expansion, there was an increase in the population of CD3+ lymphocytes in the benign and malignant group. Within CD3+ population, there was a significant decrease in the population of CD4+ lymphocytes in the benign (median Bgn D-0=73.68%, D-21=21.05%) (p<0.05) and malignant (median Mlg D-0=64.00%, D-21=11.97%) (p < 0.01) group. Inversely, after 21 days of expansion, there was an increase in the population of CD8+ lymphocytes within the CD3+ population in the benign (median Bgn D-0=16.80%, D-21=38.56%) and malignant (median Mlg D-0=27.12%, D-21=72.58%) group. However, this increase was only significant on the malignant group (p<0.01). Within the CD3+CD4+ population, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the population of T-reg lymphocytes in the benign (median Bgn D-0=9.84%, D-21=39.47%) and malignant (median Mlg D-0=3.56%, D-21=16.18%) group. Statistical analysis inter groups was performed by Kruskal-Wallis test and intra groups by Mann Whitney test. Conclusion: The CD4+ and CD8+ sub-population of CD3+ lymphocytes shifts with the culturing process. This might be due to the process of the immune system to produce a cytotoxic response. At the same time, T-reg lymphocytes increased within the CD4+ population, suggesting a modulation of the immune response towards cells of the immune system. The expansion of the T-reg population can hinder an immune response against cancer. Therefore, an immunotherapy using this expansion procedure should aim to halt the expansion of T-reg or its immunosuppresion capability.

Keywords: regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, NK cell expansion

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165 Computer Aide Discrimination of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules by Ultrasound Imaging

Authors: Akbar Gharbali, Ali Abbasian Ardekani, Afshin Mohammadi


Introduction: Thyroid nodules have an incidence of 33-68% in the general population. More than 5-15% of these nodules are malignant. Early detection and treatment of thyroid nodules increase the cure rate and provide optimal treatment. Between the medical imaging methods, Ultrasound is the chosen imaging technique for assessment of thyroid nodules. The confirming of the diagnosis usually demands repeated fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). So, current management has morbidity and non-zero mortality. Objective: To explore diagnostic potential of automatic texture analysis (TA) methods in differentiation benign and malignant thyroid nodules by ultrasound imaging in order to help for reliable diagnosis and monitoring of the thyroid nodules in their early stages with no need biopsy. Material and Methods: The thyroid US image database consists of 70 patients (26 benign and 44 malignant) which were reported by Radiologist and proven by the biopsy. Two slices per patient were loaded in Mazda Software version 4.6 for automatic texture analysis. Regions of interests (ROIs) were defined within the abnormal part of the thyroid nodules ultrasound images. Gray levels within an ROI normalized according to three normalization schemes: N1: default or original gray levels, N2: +/- 3 Sigma or dynamic intensity limited to µ+/- 3σ, and N3: present intensity limited to 1% - 99%. Up to 270 multiscale texture features parameters per ROIs per each normalization schemes were computed from well-known statistical methods employed in Mazda software. From the statistical point of view, all calculated texture features parameters are not useful for texture analysis. So, the features based on maximum Fisher coefficient and the minimum probability of classification error and average correlation coefficients (POE+ACC) eliminated to 10 best and most effective features per normalization schemes. We analyze this feature under two standardization states (standard (S) and non-standard (NS)) with Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Non-Linear Discriminant Analysis (NDA). The 1NN classifier was performed to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors. The confusion matrix and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used for the formulation of more reliable criteria of the performance of employed texture analysis methods. Results: The results demonstrated the influence of the normalization schemes and reduction methods on the effectiveness of the obtained features as a descriptor on discrimination power and classification results. The selected subset features under 1%-99% normalization, POE+ACC reduction and NDA texture analysis yielded a high discrimination performance with the area under the ROC curve (Az) of 0.9722, in distinguishing Benign from Malignant Thyroid Nodules which correspond to sensitivity of 94.45%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 97.14%. Conclusions: Our results indicate computer-aided diagnosis is a reliable method, and can provide useful information to help radiologists in the detection and classification of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

Keywords: ultrasound imaging, thyroid nodules, computer aided diagnosis, texture analysis, PCA, LDA, NDA

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