Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 129

Search results for: dimethyl hydrazine

129 Continuous Synthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles by Hydrazine Reduction

Authors: Yong-Su Jo, Seung-Min Yang, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

The synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by the reduction of nickel chloride with hydrazine in an aqueous solution. The effect of hydrazine concentration on batch-processed particle characteristics was investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Both average particle size and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were decreasing with increasing hydrazine concentration. The continuous synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by microemulsion method was also studied using FESEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The average size and geometric standard deviation of continuous-processed particles were 87.4 nm and 1.16, respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed continuous-processed particles were pure nickel crystalline with a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure.

Keywords: nanoparticle, hydrazine reduction, continuous process, microemulsion method

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128 Formulation and Anticancer Evaluation of Beta-Sitosterol in Henna Methanolic Extract Embedded in Controlled Release Nanocomposite

Authors: Sanjukta Badhai, Durga Barik, Bairagi C. Mallick

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In the present study, Beta-Sitosterol in Lawsonia methanolic leaf extract embedded in controlled release nanocomposite was prepared and evaluated for in vivo anticancer efficacy in dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer. In the present study, colon cancer was induced by s.c injection of DMH (20 mg/kg b.wt) for 15 weeks. The animals were divided into five groups as follows control, DMH alone, DMH and Beta Sitosterol nanocomposite (50mg/kg), DMH and Beta Sitosterol nanocomposite (100 mg/kg) and DMH and Standard Silymarin (100mg/kg) and the treatment was carried out for 15 weeks. At the end of the study period, the blood was withdrawn, and serum was separated for haematological, biochemical analysis and tumor markers. Further, the colonic tissue was removed for the estimation of antioxidants and histopathological analysis. The results of the study displays that DMH intoxication elicits altered haematological parameters (RBC,WBC, and Hb), elevated lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidants level (SOD, CAT, GPX, GST and GSH), elevated lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglycerides), tumor markers (CEA and AFP) and altered colonic tissue histology. Meanwhile, treatment with Beta Sitosterol nanocomposites significantly restored the altered biochemicals parameters in DMH induced colon cancer mediated by its anticancer efficacy. Further, Beta Sitosterol nanocomposite (100 mg/kg) showed marked efficacy.

Keywords: nanocomposites, herbal formulation, henna, beta sitosterol, colon cancer, dimethyl hydrazine, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
127 Some Changes in Biochemical Parameters of Body and Hepato-Biliary System under the Influence of Hydrazine Derivatives

Authors: G. Y. Saspugayeva, R. R. Beysenova, M. R. Khanturin, E. T. Abseitov, K. B. Massenov

Abstract:

This research is devoted to the problems of rocket fuel and impact of its derivatives on environment and living things. Hydrazine derivatives are used in different spheres, in aero-space activity, medical practice, laboratory-diagnosis practice and etc. For Kazakhstan, which has the cosmodrome "Baikonur", the problem of environmental pollution by rocket fuel and its components is important issue. An unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine is mostly used as rocket fuel for launch vehicles which has high toxicity to humans and animals referred to the World Health Organization. The question about influence of hydrazine derivatives on human organism and ways of detoxication is very actual and requires special approaches in solving these problems. In connection with this situation, we set the goal: study the negative influence of hydrazine derivatives-hydrazine sulphur, nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), phenylhydrazine, isonicotinic acid hydrazide (IAH) on some biochemical parameters of blood, hepatobiliary system and correction of functional damages of organism with “Salsocollin” drugs.

Keywords: isonicotinic acid hydrazide (IAH), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), AlAT-alanine aminotransferase, AsAT-aspartate aminotransaminase

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126 Electrochemical Anodic Oxidation Synthesis of TiO2 nanotube as Perspective Electrode for the Detection of Phenyl Hydrazine

Authors: Sadia Ameen, M. Nazim, Hyumg-Kee Seo, Hyung-Shik Shin

Abstract:

TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays were grown on titanium (Ti) foil substrate by electrochemical anodic oxidation and utilized as working electrode to fabricate a highly sensitive and reproducible chemical sensor for the detection of harmful phenyl hydrazine chemical. The fabricated chemical sensor based on TiO2 NT arrays electrode exhibited high sensitivity of ~40.9 µA.mM-1.cm-2 and detection limit of ~0.22 µM with short response time (10s).

Keywords: TiO2 NT, phenyl hydrazine, chemical sensor, sensitivity, electrocatalytic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
125 Synthesis of Nanoparticle Mordenite Zeolite for Dimethyl Ether Carbonylation

Authors: Zhang Haitao

Abstract:

The different size of nanoparticle mordenite zeolites were prepared by adding different soft template during hydrothermal process for carbonylation of dimethyl ether (DME) to methyl acetate (MA). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Ar adsorption-desorption, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, NH3-temperature programmed desorption, scanning electron microscopy and Thermogravimetric. The characterization results confirmed that mordenite zeolites with small nanoparticle showed more strong acid sites which was the active site for carbonylation thus promoting conversion of DME and MA selectivity. Furthermore, the nanoparticle mordenite had increased the mass transfer efficiency which could suppress the formation of coke.

Keywords: nanoparticle mordenite, carbonylation, dimethyl ether, methyl acetate

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
124 The Effects of Dimethyl Adipate (DMA) on Coated Diesel Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar

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An experimental study is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of diesel fuel with dimethyl adipate (DMA) in proportions of 2%, 6/%, and 12% on a coated engine. In this study, cylinder, piston, exhaust and inlet valves which are combustion chamber components have been coated with a ceramic material. Cylinder, exhaust and inlet valves of the diesel engine used in the tests were coated with ekabor-2 commercial powder, which is a ceramic material, to a thickness of 50 µm, by using the boriding method. The piston of a diesel engine was coated in 300 µm thickness with bor-based powder by using plasma coating method. Due to thermal barrier coating, the diesel engine's hazardous emission values decreased.

Keywords: diesel engine, dimethyl adipate (DMA), exhaust emissions, coating

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123 Enhancement of Lignin Bio-Degradation through Homogenization with Dimethyl Sulfoxide

Authors: Ivana Brzonova, Asina Fnu, Alena Kubatova, Evguenii Kozliak, Yun Ji

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Bio-decomposition of lignin by Basidiomycetes in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was investigated. The addition of 3-5 vol% DMSO to lignin aqueous media significantly increased the lignin solubility based on UV absorbance. After being dissolved in DMSO, the thermal evolution profile also changed significantly, yielding more high-MW organic carbon at the expense of recalcitrant elemental carbon. Medical fungi C. versicolor, G. lucidum and P. pulmonarius, were observed to grow on the lignin in media containing up to 15 vol. % DMSO. Further detailed product characterization by chromatographic methods corroborated these observations, as more low-MW phenolic products were observed with DMSO as a co-solvent. These results may be explained by the high solubility of lignin in DMSO; thus, the addition of DMSO to the medium increases the lignin availability for microorganisms. Some of these low-MW phenolic products host a big potential to be used in medicine. No significant inhibition of enzymatic activity (laccase, MnP, LiP) was observed by the addition of up to 3 vol% DMSO.

Keywords: basidiomycetes, bio-degradation, dimethyl sulfoxide, lignin

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122 Thermodynamic Attainable Region for Direct Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether from Synthesis Gas

Authors: Thulane Paepae, Tumisang Seodigeng

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This paper demonstrates the use of a method of synthesizing process flowsheets using a graphical tool called the GH-plot and in particular, to look at how it can be used to compare the reactions of a combined simultaneous process with regard to their thermodynamics. The technique uses fundamental thermodynamic principles to allow the mass, energy and work balances locate the attainable region for chemical processes in a reactor. This provides guidance on what design decisions would be best suited to developing new processes that are more effective and make lower demands on raw material and energy usage.

Keywords: attainable regions, dimethyl ether, optimal reaction network, GH Space

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
121 Synthesis of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles in Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate

Authors: Fereshteh Chekin, Sepideh Sadeghi

Abstract:

Nickel nanoparticles have attracted much attention because of applications in catalysis, medical diagnostics and magnetic applications. In this work, we reported a simple and low-cost procedure to synthesize nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) by using sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and gelatin as stabilizer. The synthesized NiO-NPs were characterized by a variety of means such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the NiO nanoparticles with high crystalline can be obtained using this simple method. The grain size measured by TEM was 16 in presence of SDS, which agrees well with the XRD data. SDS plays an important role in the formation of the NiO nanoparticles. Moreover, the NiO nanoparticles have been used as a solid phase catalyst for the decomposition of hydrazine hydrate at room temperatures. The decomposition process has been monitored by UV–vis analysis. The present study showed that nanoparticles are not poisoned after their repeated use in decomposition of hydrazine.

Keywords: nickel oxide nanoparticles, sodium dodecyl sulphate, synthesis, stabilizer

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120 Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Investigation of Binary 2,2-Dimethyl-1-Propanol+ CO₂ Gas Hydrates

Authors: Seokyoon Moon, Yun-Ho Ahn, Heejoong Kim, Sujin Hong, Yunseok Lee, Youngjune Park

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Gas hydrate is a non-stoichiometric crystalline compound consisting of host water-framework and low molecular weight guest molecules. Small gaseous molecules such as CH₄, CO₂, and N₂ can be captured in the host water framework lattices of the gas hydrate with specific temperature and pressure conditions. The three well-known crystal structures of structure I (sI), structure II (sII), and structure H (sH) are determined by the size and shape of guest molecules. In this study, we measured the phase equilibria of binary (2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol + CO₂, CH₄, N₂) hydrates to explore their fundamental thermodynamic characteristics. We identified the structure of the binary gas hydrate by employing synchrotron high-resolution powder diffraction (HRPD), and the guest distributions in the lattice of gas hydrate were investigated via dispersive Raman and ¹³C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. The end-to-end distance of 2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol was calculated to be 7.76 Å, which seems difficult to be enclathrated in large cages of sI or sII. However, due to the flexibility of the host water framework, binary hydrates of sI or sII types can be formed with the help of small gas molecule. Also, the synchrotron HRPD patterns revealed that the binary hydrate structure highly depends on the type of help gases; a cubic Fd3m sII hydrate was formed with CH₄ or N₂, and a cubic Pm3n sI hydrate was formed with CO₂. Interestingly, dispersive Raman and ¹³C NMR spectra showed that the unique tuning phenomenon occurred in binary (2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol + CO₂) hydrate. By optimizing the composition of NPA, we can achieve both thermodynamic stability and high CO₂ storage capacity for the practical application to CO₂ capture.

Keywords: clathrate, gas hydrate, neopentyl alcohol, CO₂, tuning phenomenon

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119 Simulation of Polymeric Precursors Production from Wine Industrial Organic Wastes

Authors: Tanapoom Phuncharoen, Tawiwat Sriwongsa, Kanita Boonruang, Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul

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The production of dimethyl acetal, isovaleradehyde, and pyridine were simulated using Aspen Plus simulation. Upgrading cleaning water from wine industrial production is the main objective of the project. The winery waste composes of acetaldehyde, methanol, ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, water, isoamyl alcohol, and isobutanol. The project is separated into three parts; separation, reaction, and purification. Various processes were considered to maximize the profit along with obtaining high purity and recovery of each component with optimum heat duty. The results show a significant value of the product with purity more than 75% and recovery over 98%.

Keywords: dimethyl acetal, pyridine, wine, aspen plus, isovaleradehyde, polymeric precursors

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118 Functionalized DOX Nanocapsules by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: Afsaneh Ghorbanzadeh, Afshin Farahbakhsh, Zakieh Bayat

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The drug capsulation was used for release and targeted delivery in determined time, place and temperature or pH. The DOX nanocapsules were used to reduce and to minimize the unwanted side effects of drug. In this paper, the encapsulation methods of doxorubicin (DOX) and the labeling it by the magnetic core of iron (Fe3O4) has been studied. The Fe3O4 was conjugated with DOX via hydrazine bond. The solution was capsuled by the sensitive polymer of heat or pH such as chitosan-g-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide), dextran-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide) and mPEG-G2.5 PAMAM by hydrazine bond. The drug release was very slow at temperatures lower than 380°C. There was a rapid and controlled drug release at temperatures higher than 380°C. According to experiments, the use mPEG-G2.5PAMAM is the best method of DOX nanocapsules synthesis, because in this method, the drug delivery time to certain place is lower than other methods and the percentage of released drug is higher. The synthesized magnetic carrier system has potential applications in magnetic drug-targeting delivery and magnetic resonance imaging.

Keywords: drug carrier, drug release, doxorubicin, iron oxide NPs

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117 Multi-Functional Metal Oxides as Gas Sensors, Photo-Catalysts and Bactericides

Authors: Koyar Rane

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Nano- to submicron size particles of narrow particle size distribution of semi-conducting TiO₂, ZnO, NiO, CuO, Fe₂O₃ have been synthesized by novel hydrazine method and tested for their gas sensing, photocatalytic and bactericidal activities and the behavior found to be enhanced when the oxides in the thin film forms, that obtained in a specially built spray pyrolysis reactor. Hydrazine method is novel in the sense, say, the UV absorption edge of the white pigment grade wide band gap (~3.2eV) TiO₂ and ZnO shifted to the visible region turning into yellowish particles, indicating modification occurring the band structure. The absorption in the visible region makes these oxides visible light sensitive photocatalysis in degrading pollutants, especially the organic dyes which otherwise increase the chemical oxygen demand of the drinking water, enabling the process feasible not under the harsh energetic UV radiation regime. The electromagnetic radiations on irradiation produce electron-hole pairs Semiconductor + hν → e⁻ + h⁺ The electron-hole pairs thus produced form Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS, on the surface of the semiconductors, O₂(adsorbed)+e⁻ → O₂• - superoxide ion OH-(surface)+h⁺ →•OH - Hydroxyl radical The ROS attack the organic material and micro-organisms. Our antibacterial studies indicate the metal oxides control the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) of drinking water which had beyond the safe level normally found in the municipal supply. Metal oxides in the thin film form show overall enhanced properties and the films are reusable. The results of the photodegradation and antibactericidal studies are discussed. Gas sensing studies too have been done to find the versatility of the multifunctional metal oxides.

Keywords: hydrazine method, visible light sensitive, photo-degradation of dyes, water/airborne pollutant

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116 Self-Assembled Nano Aggregates Based On Polyaspartamide Graft Copolymers for pH-Controlled Release of Doxorubicin

Authors: Van Tran Thi Thuy, Cheol Won Lim, Dukjoon Kim

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A series of biodegradable copolymers based on polyaspartamide (PASPAM) were synthesized by grafting hydrophilic O-(2-aminoethyl)-O'-methylpoly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG), hydrophobic cholic acid (CA), and pH-sensitive hydrazine (Hyd) segments on a PASPAM backbone. The hydrazine group was effectively cleaved to release doxorubicin (DOX) conjugated on PASPAM in an acidic environment. The chemical structure of the polymer and the degree of substitution of each graft segment were analyzed using FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The size of the MPEG/Hyd/CA-g-PASPAM copolymer self-aggregates was examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The mean diameter of the self - aggregates increased from 125 to 200 nm at pH 7.4, as the degree of substitution of CA increased from 10 to 20 %. The release kinetics of DOX was strongly affected by the pH of the releasing medium. While less than 30% of the DOX-loaded was released in about 30 h at pH 7.4, more than 60% was released at pH 5.0 within the same time. The viability tests of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human embryonic kidney cells (293T) show the potential application of MPEG/Hyd/CA-g-PASPAM copolymer self-aggregates in the controlled intracellular delivery for cancer treatments.

Keywords: pH-sensitive, drug delivery, polyaspartamide, self-assembly, nano-aggregates

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115 Simultaneous Determination of Some Phenolic Pesticides in Environmental and Biological Samples

Authors: Yasmeen F. Pervez, Etesh K. Janghel, Santosh Kumar Sar

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Simple and sensitive analytical thermal gradient-thin layer chromatography technique has been developed for the simultaneous determination of phenolic pesticides like carbaryl, propoxur and carbofuran. It is based on the differential migration of colored derivatives formed by the reaction of hydrolysed phenolic compound with diazotized 3, 4 dimethyl aniline on a silica gel plate. Quantitative evaluation of hydrolyzed phenolic compound is made by visual comparison of intensities of color by spectrophotometry. The color system obeys Beer’s law in the following working range in ppm : carbaryl, 0.5-6.6; propoxur, 0.8-7.2; and carbofuran, 0.2-3.3 respectively. The Molar absorptivity, Sandell’s sensitivity, Correlation coefficient have been determined. The effects of analytical parameters on migration and analysis have been evaluated. The methods are highly reproducible and have been successfully applied to determination of phenolic pesticides in environmental and biological samples.

Keywords: phenolic pesticides (carbaryl, propoxur and carbofuran), 3.4 dimethyl aniline, environmental, biological samples

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114 Designing Dibenzosilole and Methyl Carbazole Based Donor Materials with Favourable Photovoltaic Parameters for Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

Authors: J. Iqbal, Z. Zara

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Five new Acceptor-Donor-Acceptor (A-D-A) type small donor molecules (M1-M5) namely; dimethyl cyanoacetate terthiophene di(methylthiophene) dibenzosilole (DMCAO3TBS) (M1), dimelononitrile terthiophene di(methylthiophene) dibenzosilole (DMCNTBS) (M2), dimethyl rhodanine terthiophene di(methylthiophene) dibenzosilole (DMRTBS) (M3), dimelanonitrile terthiophene di(methylthiophene) methyl fluorene (DMCNTF) (M4) and dimethyl rhodanine terthiophene di(methylthiophene) methyl fluorine (DMRTF) (M5) were designed and theoretically explored their electronic, photophysical and geometrical properties via DFT best functional MPW1PW91/6-311G (d,p) level of theory with respect to reference molecules dioctyl cyanoacetate terthiophene di(octylthiophene) dioctylfluorene (DCAO3TF) (Ra) and dioctyl cyanoacetate terthiophene di(octylthiophene) octylcarbazole (DCAO3TCz) (Rb). Among the designed donor molecules (M1-M5), M2 and M4 represented lowest band gap value (2.480 eV and 2.47 eV) with distinctive broad absorption peak at 598 and 601 nm in chloroform due to the presence of stronger electron withdrawing acceptor molecule which pulls the λmax value towards red shift. Theoretically estimated reorganization energies of these molecules recommended excellent property of charge mobility. The designed donor molecules M1-M5, demonstrated lower λe value with reference to their λh, showing that these molecules could be ideal candidates for the transfer of electron with and M2, M4 are best among these as champion molecules with having lowest λe (0.006 D and 0.005 D respectively). Additionally, the Voc of M2 and M4 are 2.01 eV and 1.85 eV respectively with reference respect to PCBM. Thus, our present investigation suggested that our designed donor molecules (M1-M5) are suitable candidates for the solar cell and proposed for high and better performance for the small molecule based solar cell devices.

Keywords: dibenzisilol, donor materials, hole mobility, organic solar cells

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113 Thermodynamic Properties of Binary Mixtures of 1, 2-Dichloroethane with Some Polyethers: DISQUAC Calculations Compared with Dortmund UNIFAC Results

Authors: F. Amireche, I. Mokbel, J. Jose, B. F. Belaribi

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The experimental vapour-liquid equilibria (VLE) at isothermal conditions and excess molar Gibbs energies GE are carried out for the three binary mixtures: 1, 2- dichloroethane + ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, + diethylene glycol dimethyl ether or + diethylene glycol diethyl ether, at ten temperatures ranging from 273 to 353.15 K. A good static device was employed for these measurements. The VLE data were reduced using the Redlich-Kister equation by taking into consideration the vapour pressure non-ideality in terms of the second molar virial coefficient. The experimental data were compared to the results predicted with the DISQUAC and Dortmund UNIFAC group contribution models for the total pressures P, the excess molar Gibbs energies GE and the excess molar enthalpies HE.

Keywords: Disquac model, Dortmund UNIFAC model, 1, 2- dichloroethane, excess molar Gibbs energies GE, polyethers, VLE

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112 Hepatoprotective Assessment of L-Ascorbate 1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-4,6-Dimethyl-1, 2-Dihydropyrimidine-2-On Exposure to Carbon Tetrachloride

Authors: Nail Nazarov, Alexandra Vyshtakalyuk, Vyacheslav Semenov, Irina Galyametdinova, Vladimir Zobov, Vladimir Reznik

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Among hepatic pyrimidine used as a means of stimulating protein synthesis and recovery of liver cells in her damaged toxic and infectious etiology. When an experimental toxic hepatitis hepatoprotective activity detected some pyrimidine derivatives. There are literature data on oksimetiluratcila hepatoprotective effect. For analogs of pyrimidine nucleobases - drugs Methyluracilum pentoxy and hepatoprotective effect of weakly expressed. According to the American scientists broad spectrum of biological activity, including hepatoprotective properties, have a 2,4-dioxo-5-arilidenimino uracils. Influenced Xymedon medicinal preparation (1- (beta-hydroxyethyl) -4,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydro-2-oksopirimidin) developed as a means of stimulating the regeneration of tissue revealed increased activity of microsomal oxidases human liver. In studies on the model of toxic liver damage in rats have shown hepatoprotective effect xymedon and stimulating its impact on the recovery of the liver tissue. Hepatoprotective properties of the new compound in the series of pyrimidine derivatives L-ascorbate 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydropirimidine-2-one synthesized on the basis Xymedon preparation were firstly investigated on rats under the carbon tetrachloride action. It was shown the differences of biochemical parameters from the reference value and severity of structural-morphological liver violations decreased in comparison with control group under the influence of the compound injected before exposure carbon tetrachloride. Hepatoprotective properties of the investigated compound were more pronounced in comparison with Xymedon.

Keywords: hepatoprotectors, pyrimidine derivatives, toxic liver damage, xymedon

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111 Chemical Stability and Characterization of Ion Exchange Membranes for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

Authors: Min-Hwa Lim, Mi-Jeong Park, Ho-Young Jung

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Imidazolium-brominated polyphenylene oxide (Im-bPPO) is based on the functionalization of bromomethylated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO) using 1-Methylimdazole. For the purpose of long cycle life of vanadium redox battery (VRB), the chemical stability of Im-bPPO, sPPO (sulfonated 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and Fumatech membranes were evaluated firstly in the 0.1M vanadium (V) solution dissolved in 3M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) for 72h, and UV analyses of the degradation products proved that ether bond in PPO backbone was vulnerable to be attacked by vanadium (V) ion. It was found that the membranes had slightly weight loss after soaking in 2 ml distilled water included in STS pressure vessel for 1 day at 200◦C. ATR-FT-IR data indicated before and after the degradation of the membranes. Further evaluation on the degradation mechanism of the menbranes were carried out in Fenton’s reagent solution for 72 h at 50 ◦C and analyses of the membranes before and after degradation confirmed the weight loss of the membranes. The Fumatech membranes exhibited better performance than AEM and CEM, but Nafion 212 still suffers chemical degradation.

Keywords: vanadium redox flow battery, ion exchange membrane, permeability, degradation, chemical stability

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110 Production Process for Diesel Fuel Components Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers from Methanol and Formaldehyde Solution

Authors: Xiangjun Li, Huaiyuan Tian, Wujie Zhang, Dianhua Liu

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Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) as clean diesel additive can improve the combustion efficiency and quality of diesel fuel and alleviate the problem of atmospheric pollution. Considering synthetic routes, PODE production from methanol and formaldehyde is regarded as the most economical and promising synthetic route. However, methanol used for synthesizing PODE can produce water, which causes the loss of active center of catalyst and hydrolysis of PODEn in the production process. Macroporous strong acidic cation exchange resin catalyst was prepared, which has comparative advantages over other common solid acid catalysts in terms of stability and catalytic efficiency for synthesizing PODE. Catalytic reactions were carried out under 353 K, 1 MPa and 3mL·gcat-1·h-1 in a fixed bed reactor. Methanol conversion and PODE3-6 selectivity reached 49.91% and 23.43%, respectively. Catalyst lifetime evaluation showed that resin catalyst retained its catalytic activity for 20 days without significant changes and catalytic activity of completely deactivated resin catalyst can basically return to previous level by simple acid regeneration. The acid exchange capacities of original and deactivated catalyst were 2.5191 and 0.0979 mmol·g-1, respectively, while regenerated catalyst reached 2.0430 mmol·g-1, indicating that the main reason for resin catalyst deactivation is that Brønsted acid sites of original resin catalyst were temporarily replaced by non-hydrogen ion cations. A separation process consisting of extraction and distillation for PODE3-6 product was designed for separation of water and unreacted formaldehyde from reactive mixture and purification of PODE3-6, respectively. The concentration of PODE3-6 in final product can reach up to 97%. These results indicate that the scale-up production of PODE3-6 from methanol and formaldehyde solution is feasible.

Keywords: inactivation, polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers, separation process, sulfonic cation exchange resin

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109 Stationary Methanol Steam Reforming to Hydrogen Fuel for Fuel-Cell Filling Stations

Authors: Athanasios A. Tountas, Geoffrey A. Ozin, Mohini M. Sain

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Renewable hydrogen (H₂) carriers such as methanol (MeOH), dimethyl ether (DME), oxymethylene dimethyl ethers (OMEs), and conceivably ammonia (NH₃) can be reformed back into H₂ and are fundamental chemical conversions for the long-term viability of the H₂ economy due to their higher densities and ease of transportability compared to H₂. MeOH is an especially important carrier as it is a simple C1 chemical that can be produced from green solar-PV-generated H₂ and direct-air-captured CO₂ with a current commercially practical solar-to-fuel efficiency of 10% from renewable solar energy. MeOH steam reforming (MSR) in stationary systems next to H₂ fuel-cell filling stations can eliminate the need for onboard mobile reformers, and the former systems can be more robust in terms of attaining strict H₂ product specifications, and MeOH is a safe, lossless, and compact medium for long-term H₂ storage. Both thermal- and photo-catalysts are viable options for achieving the stable, long-term performance of stationary MSR systems.

Keywords: fuel-cell vehicle filling stations, methanol steam reforming, hydrogen transport and storage, stationary reformer, liquid hydrogen carriers

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108 Determination of Starting Design Parameters for Reactive-Dividing Wall Distillation Column Simulation Using a Modified Shortcut Design Method

Authors: Anthony P. Anies, Jose C. Muñoz

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A new shortcut method for the design of reactive-dividing wall columns (RDWC) is proposed in this work. The RDWC is decomposed into its thermodynamically equivalent configuration naming the Petlyuk column, which consists of a reactive prefractionator and an unreactive main fractionator. The modified FUGK(Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland-Kirkbride) shortcut distillation method, which incorporates the effect of reaction on the Underwood equations and the Gilliland correlation, is used to design the reactive prefractionator. On the other hand, the conventional FUGK shortcut method is used to design the unreactive main fractionator. The shortcut method is applied to the synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) through the liquid phase dehydration of methanol, and the results were used as the starting design inputs for rigorous simulation in Aspen Plus V8.8. A mole purity of 99 DME in the distillate stream, 99% methanol in the side draw stream, and 99% water in the bottoms stream were obtained in the simulation, thereby making the proposed shortcut method applicable for the preliminary design of RDWC.

Keywords: aspen plus, dimethyl ether, petlyuk column, reactive-dividing wall column, shortcut method, FUGK

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107 Vapor Phase Transesterification of Dimethyl Malonate with Phenol over Cordierite Honeycomb Coated with Zirconia and Its Modified Forms

Authors: Prathap S. Raghavendra, Mohamed S. Z. Shamshuddin, Thimmaraju N. Venkatesh

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The transesterification of dimethyl malonate (DMM) with phenol has been studied in vapour phase over cordierite honeycomb coated with solid acid catalysts such as ZrO2,Mo(VI)/ZrO2 and SO42-/ZrO2. The catalytic materials were prepared honeycomb coated and powder forms and characterized for their total surface acidity by NH3-TPD and crystalinity by powder XRD methods. Phenyl methyl malonate (PMM) and diphenyl malonate (DPM) were obtained as the reaction products. A good conversion of DMM (up to 82%) of MPM with 95% selectivity was observed when the reactions were carried out at a catalyst bed temperature of 200 °C and flow-rate of 10 mL/h in presence of Mo(VI)/ZrO2 as catalyst. But over SO42-/ZrO2 catalyst, the yield of DPM was found to be higher. The results have been interpreted based on the variation of acidic properties and powder XRD phases of zirconia on incorporation of Mo(VI) or SO42– ions. Transesterification reactions were also carried out over powder forms of the catalytic materials and the yield of the desired phenyl ester products were compared with that of the HC coated catalytic materials. The solid acids were found to be reusable when used for at least 5 reaction cycles.

Keywords: cordierite honeycomb, methyl phenyl malonate, vapour phase transesterification, zirconia

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106 Catalytic Performance of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) in the Synthesis of Pyrazolines

Authors: Ali Gharib, Leila Vojdanifard, Nader Noroozi Pesyan

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Different Pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized by cyclization of substituted chalcone derivatives in presence of hydrazine hydrate. A series of novel 1,3,5-triaryl pyrazoline derivatives has been synthesized by the reaction of chalcone and phenylhydrazine in the presence of the Fe3O4 NPs, in high yields. The structures of compounds obtained were determined by IR and 1H NMR spectra. Fe3O4 NPs was recycled and no appreciable change in activity was noticed after three cycles.

Keywords: pyrazoline, chalcone, nanoparticles, Fe3O4, catalyst, synthesis

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105 Alumina Supported Cu-Mn-Cr Catalysts for CO and VOCs oxidation

Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Elitsa Kolentsova, Dimitar Dimitrov, Petya Petrova, Tatyana Tabakova

Abstract:

This work studies the effect of chemical composition on the activity and selectivity of γ–alumina supported CuO/ MnO2/Cr2O3 catalysts toward deep oxidation of CO, dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of the support with an aqueous solution of copper nitrate, manganese nitrate and CrO3 under different conditions. Thermal, XRD and TPR analysis were performed. The catalytic measurements of single compounds oxidation were carried out on continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Flow-line equipment with an adiabatic reactor for simultaneous oxidation of all compounds under the conditions that mimic closely the industrial ones was used. The reactant and product gases were analyzed by means of on-line gas chromatographs. On the basis of XRD analysis it can be concluded that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-Cr/γ–alumina catalysts consists of at least six compounds – CuO, Cr2O3, MnO2, Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, Cu1.5Cr1.5O4 and CuCr2O4, depending on the Cu/Mn/Cr molar ratio. Chemical composition strongly influences catalytic properties, this influence being quite variable with regards to the different processes. The rate of CO oxidation rapidly decrease with increasing of chromium content in the active component while for the DME was observed the reverse trend. It was concluded that the best compromise are the catalysts with Cu/(Mn + Cr) molar ratio 1:5 and Mn/Cr molar ratio from 1:3 to 1:4.

Keywords: Cu-Mn-Cr oxide catalysts, volatile organic compounds, deep oxidation, dimethyl ether (DME)

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104 Development of Membrane Reactor for Auto Thermal Reforming of Dimethyl Ether for Hydrogen Production

Authors: Tie-Qing Zhang, Seunghun Jung, Young-Bae Kim

Abstract:

This research is devoted to developing a membrane reactor to flexibly meet the hydrogen demand of onboard fuel cells, which is an important part of green energy development. Among many renewable chemical products, dimethyl ether (DME) has the advantages of low reaction temperature (400 °C in this study), high hydrogen atom content, low toxicity, and easy preparation. Autothermal reforming, on the other hand, has a high hydrogen recovery rate and exhibits thermal neutrality during the reaction process, so the additional heat source in the hydrogen production process can be omitted. Therefore, the DME auto thermal reforming process was adopted in this study. To control the temperature of the reaction catalyst bed and hydrogen production rate, a Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme was designed. Taking the above two variables as the control objectives, stable operation of the reformer can be achieved by controlling the flow rates of DME, steam, and high-purity air in real-time. To prevent catalyst poisoning in the fuel cell, the hydrogen needs to be purified to reduce the carbon monoxide content to below 50 ppm. Therefore, a Pd-Ag hydrogen semi-permeable membrane with a thickness of 3-5 μm was inserted into the auto thermal reactor, and the permeation efficiency of hydrogen was improved by steam purging on the permeation side. Finally, hydrogen with a purity of 99.99 was obtained.

Keywords: hydrogen production, auto thermal reforming, membrane, fuel cell

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103 Structural, Electrochemical and Electrocatalysis Studies of a New 2D Metal-Organic Coordination Polymer of Ni (II) Constructed by Naphthalene-1,4-Dicarboxylic Acid; Oxidation and Determination of Fructose

Authors: Zohreh Derikvand

Abstract:

One new 2D metal-organic coordination polymer of Ni(II) namely [Ni2(ndc)2(DMSO)4(H2O)]n, where ndc = naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and DMSO= dimethyl sulfoxide has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis), thermal (TG/DTG) analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 possesses a 2D layer structure constructed from dinuclear nickel(II) building blocks in which two crystallographically independent Ni2+ ions are bridged by ndc2– ligands and water molecule. The ndc2– ligands adopt μ3 bridging modes, linking the metal centers into a two-dimensional coordination framework. The two independent NiII cations are surrounded by dimethyl sulfoxide and naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylate molecules in distorted octahedron geometry. In the crystal structures of 1 there are non-classical hydrogen bonding arrangements and C-H–π stacking interactions. Electrochemical behavior of [Ni2(ndc)2(DMSO)4(H2O)]n, (Ni-NDA) on the surface of carbon nanotube (CNTs) glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was described. The surface structure and composition of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Oxidation of fructose on the surface of modified electrode was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the results showed that the Ni-NDA/CNTs film displays excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards fructose oxidation.

Keywords: naphthalene-1, 4-dicarboxylic acid, crystal structure, coordination polymer, electrocatalysis, impedance spectroscopy

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102 Exergy Analysis of a Green Dimethyl Ether Production Plant

Authors: Marcello De Falco, Gianluca Natrella, Mauro Capocelli

Abstract:

CO₂ capture and utilization (CCU) is a promising approach to reduce GHG(greenhouse gas) emissions. Many technologies in this field are recently attracting attention. However, since CO₂ is a very stable compound, its utilization as a reagent is energetic intensive. As a consequence, it is unclear whether CCU processes allow for a net reduction of environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective and whether these solutions are sustainable. Among the tools to apply for the quantification of the real environmental benefits of CCU technologies, exergy analysis is the most rigorous from a scientific point of view. The exergy of a system is the maximum obtainable work during a process that brings the system into equilibrium with its reference environment through a series of reversible processes in which the system can only interact with such an environment. In other words, exergy is an “opportunity for doing work” and, in real processes, it is destroyed by entropy generation. The exergy-based analysis is useful to evaluate the thermodynamic inefficiencies of processes, to understand and locate the main consumption of fuels or primary energy, to provide an instrument for comparison among different process configurations and to detect solutions to reduce the energy penalties of a process. In this work, the exergy analysis of a process for the production of Dimethyl Ether (DME) from green hydrogen generated through an electrolysis unit and pure CO₂ captured from flue gas is performed. The model simulates the behavior of all units composing the plant (electrolyzer, carbon capture section, DME synthesis reactor, purification step), with the scope to quantify the performance indices based on the II Law of Thermodynamics and to identify the entropy generation points. Then, a plant optimization strategy is proposed to maximize the exergy efficiency.

Keywords: green DME production, exergy analysis, energy penalties, exergy efficiency

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101 Hepatoprotective Assessment of L-Ascorbate 1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-4,6-Dimethyl-1, 2-Dihydropyrimidine-2-on in Toxic Liver Damage Test

Authors: Vladimir Zobov, Nail Nazarov, Alexandra Vyshtakalyuk, Vyacheslav Semenov, Irina Galyametdinova, Vladimir Reznik

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate hepatoprotective properties of the Xymedon derivative L-ascorbate 1- (2-hydroxyethyl)-4,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydropyrimidine-2-one (XD), which exhibits high efficiency as actoprotector. The study was carried out on 68 male albino rats weighing 250-400 g using preventive exposure to the test preparation. Effectiveness of XD win comparison with effectiveness of Xymedon (original substance) after administration of the compounds in identical doses. Maximum dose was 20 mg/kg. The animals orally received Xymedon or its derivative in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg over 4 days. In 1-1.5 h after drug administration, CCl4 in vegetable oil (1:1) in a dose of 2 ml/kg. Controls received CCl4 but without hepatoprotectors. Intact control group consisted of rats, not receiving CCl4 or other compounds. The next day after the last administration of CCl4 and compounds under study animals were dehematized under ether anesthesia, blood and liver samples were taken for biochemical and histological analysis. Xymedon and XD administered according to the preventice scheme, exerted hepatoprotective effects: Xymedon — in the dose of 20 mg/kg, XD — in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg. The drugs under study had different effects on liver condition, affected by induction with CCl4. Xymedon had a more pronounced effect both on the ALT level, which can be elevated not only due to destructive changes in hepatocytes, but also as a cholestasis manifestation, and on the serum total protein level, which reflects protein synthesis in liver. XD had a more pronounced effect on AST level, which is one of the markers of hepatocyte damage. Lower effective dose of XD — 10 mg/kg, compared to Xymedon effective according to, and its pronounced effect on AST, the hepatocyte cytolysis marker, is indicative of its higher preventive effectiveness, compared to Xymedon. This work was performed with the financial support of Russian Science Foundation (grant No: 14-50-00014).

Keywords: hepatoprotectors, pyrimidine derivatives, toxic liver damage, xymedon

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100 Highly Selective Phosgene Free Synthesis of Methylphenylcarbamate from Aniline and Dimethyl Carbonate over Heterogeneous Catalyst

Authors: Nayana T. Nivangune, Vivek V. Ranade, Ashutosh A. Kelkar

Abstract:

Organic carbamates are versatile compounds widely employed as pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, dyes, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and in the synthesis of polyurethanes. Carbamates can be easily transformed into isocyanates by thermal cracking. Isocyantes are used as precursors for manufacturing agrochemicals, adhesives and polyurethane elastomers. Manufacture of polyurethane foams is a major application of aromatic ioscyanates and in 2007 the global consumption of polyurethane was about 12 million metric tons/year and the average annual growth rate was about 5%. Presently Isocyanates/carbamates are manufactured by phosgene based process. However, because of high toxicity of phoegene and formation of waste products in large quantity; there is a need to develop alternative and safer process for the synthesis of isocyanates/carbamates. Recently many alternative processes have been investigated and carbamate synthesis by methoxycarbonylation of aromatic amines using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as a green reagent has emerged as promising alternative route. In this reaction methanol is formed as a by-product, which can be converted to DMC either by oxidative carbonylation of methanol or by reacting with urea. Thus, the route based on DMC has a potential to provide atom efficient and safer route for the synthesis of carbamates from DMC and amines. Lot of work is being carried out on the development of catalysts for this reaction and homogeneous zinc salts were found to be good catalysts for the reaction. However, catalyst/product separation is challenging with these catalysts. There are few reports on the use of supported Zn catalysts; however, deactivation of the catalyst is the major problem with these catalysts. We wish to report here methoxycarbonylation of aniline to methylphenylcarbamate (MPC) using amino acid complexes of Zn as highly active and selective catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, IR, solid state NMR and XPS analysis. Methoxycarbonylation of aniline was carried out at 170 °C using 2.5 wt% of the catalyst to achieve >98% conversion of aniline with 97-99% selectivity to MPC as the product. Formation of N-methylated products in small quantity (1-2%) was also observed. Optimization of the reaction conditions was carried out using zinc-proline complex as the catalyst. Selectivity was strongly dependent on the temperature and aniline:DMC ratio used. At lower aniline:DMC ratio and at higher temperature, selectivity to MPC decreased (85-89% respectively) with the formation of N-methylaniline (NMA), N-methyl methylphenylcarbamate (MMPC) and N,N-dimethyl aniline (NNDMA) as by-products. Best results (98% aniline conversion with 99% selectivity to MPC in 4 h) were observed at 170oC and aniline:DMC ratio of 1:20. Catalyst stability was verified by carrying out recycle experiment. Methoxycarbonylation preceded smoothly with various amine derivatives indicating versatility of the catalyst. The catalyst is inexpensive and can be easily prepared from zinc salt and naturally occurring amino acids. The results are important and provide environmentally benign route for MPC synthesis with high activity and selectivity.

Keywords: aniline, heterogeneous catalyst, methoxycarbonylation, methylphenyl carbamate

Procedia PDF Downloads 195