Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: proline

69 In vitro Assessment of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) Seedlings Growth and Proline Production under Salt Stress

Authors: Amir Wahid, Fazal Hadi, Amin Ullah Jan


Tomato and Cauliflower seedlings were grown in-vitro under salt concentrations (0, 2, 4, 8, and 10 dSm-1) with objectives to investigate; (1) The effect of salinity on seedling growth and free proline production, (2) the correlation between seedling growth and proline contents, (3) comparative salt tolerance of both species. Different concentrations of salt showed considerable effect on percent (%) germination of seeds, length and biomass of shoot and root and also showed effect on percent water content of both plants seedlings. Germination rate in cauliflower was two times higher than tomato even at highest salt concentration (10 dSm-1). Seedling growth of both species was less effected at low salt concentrations (2 and 4 dSm-1) but at high concentrations (6 and 8 dSm-1) the seedling growth of both species was significantly decreased. Particularly the tomato root was highly significantly reduced. The proline level linearly increased in both species with increasing salt concentrations up-to 4 dSm-1 and then declined. The cauliflower showed higher free proline level than tomato under all salt treatments. Overall, the cauliflower seedlings showed better growth response along with higher proline contents on comparison with tomato seedlings.

Keywords: NaCl (Sodium Chloride), EC (Electrical Conductivity), MS (Murashig and Skoog), ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), LSD (Least Significant Differences)

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68 Screening of Nickel-Tolerant Genotype of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) Based on Photosynthesis and Antioxidant System

Authors: Mohammad Yusuf, Qazi Fariduddin


The main aim of this study was to explore the different cultivars of Vigna radiata on basis of photosynthesis, antioxidants and proline to assess Ni-sensitive and Ni-tolerant cultivar. Seeds of five different cultivars were sown in soil amended with different levels of Ni (0, 50, 100, or 150 mg kg 1). At 30 d stage, plants were harvested to assess the various parameters. The Ni treatment diminished growth, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content and net photosynthesis along with nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities in the concentration dependent manner whereas, it enhanced proline content and various antioxidant enzymes. The varieties T-44 found least affected, whereas PDM-139 experienced maximum damage at 150 mg kg-1 of Ni. Moreover, T-44 possessed maximum activity of antioxidant enzymes and proline content at all the levels of metal whereas PDM-139 possessed minimum values. Therefore, T-44 and PDM-139 were established as the most resistant and sensitive varieties, respectively.

Keywords: Vigna radiata, antioxidants, nickel, photosynthesis, proline

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67 Analysis of Osmotin as Transcription Factor/Cell Signaling Modulator Using Bioinformatic Tools

Authors: Usha Kiran, M. Z. Abdin


Osmotin is an abundant cationic multifunctional protein discovered in cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var Wisconsin 38) adapted to an environment of low osmotic potential. It provides plants protection from pathogens, hence placed in the PRP family of proteins. The osmotin induced proline accumulation has been reported in plants including transgenic tomato and strawberry conferring tolerance against both biotic and abiotic stresses. The exact mechanism of induction of proline by osmotin is however, not known till date. These observations have led us to hypothesize that osmotin induced proline accumulation could be due to its involvement as transcription factor and/or cell signal pathway modulator in proline biosynthesis. The present investigation was therefore, undertaken to analyze the osmotin protein as transcription factor /cell signalling modulator using bioinformatics tools. The results of available online DNA binding motif search programs revealed that osmotin does not contain DNA-binding motifs. The alignment results of osmotin protein with the protein sequence from DATF showed the homology in the range of 0-20%, suggesting that it might not contain a DNA binding motif. Further to find unique DNA-binding domain, the superimposition of osmotin 3D structure on modeled Arabidopsis transcription factors using Chimera also suggested absence of the same. We, however, found evidence implicating osmotin in cell signaling. With these results, we concluded that osmotin is not a transcription factor but regulating proline biosynthesis and accumulation through cell signaling during abiotic stresses.

Keywords: osmotin, cell signaling modulator, bioinformatic tools, protein

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66 Energy Metabolites Show Cross-Protective Plastic Responses for Stress Resistance in a Circumtropical Drosophila Species

Authors: Ankita Pathak, Ashok Munjal, Ravi Parkash


Plastic responses to multiple environmental stressors in wet or dry seasonal populations of tropical Drosophila species have received less attention. We tested plastic effects of heat hardening, acclimation to drought or starvation; and changes in trehalose, proline and body lipids in D. ananassae flies reared under wet or dry season specific conditions. Wet season flies revealed significant increase in heat knockdown, starvation resistance and body lipids after heat hardening. However, accumulation of proline was observed only after desiccation acclimation of dry season flies while wet season flies elicited no proline but trehalose only. Therefore, drought-induced proline can be a marker metabolite for dry season flies. Further, partial utilization of proline and trehalose under heat hardening reflects their possible thermoprotective effects. Heat hardening elicited cross-protection to starvation stress. Stressor-specific accumulation or utilization, as well as rates of metabolic change for each energy metabolite, were significantly higher in wet season flies than dry season flies. Energy metabolite changes due to inter-related stressors (heat vs. desiccation or starvation) resulted in possible maintenance of energetic homeostasis in wet or dry season flies. Thus, low or high humidity induced plastic changes in energy metabolites can provide cross-protection to seasonally varying climatic stressors.

Keywords: wet-dry seasons, plastic changes, stress related traits, energy metabolites, cross protection

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65 Adaptive Responses of Carum copticum to in vitro Salt Stress

Authors: R. Razavizadeh, F. Adabavazeh, M. Rezaee Chermahini


Salinity is one of the most widespread agricultural problems in arid and semi-arid areas that limits the plant growth and crop productivity. In this study, the salt stress effects on protein, reducing sugar, proline contents and antioxidant enzymes activities of Carum copticum L. under in vitro conditions were studied. Seeds of C. copticum were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl and calli were cultured in MS medium containing 1 μM 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 4 μM benzyl amino purine and different levels of NaCl (0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM). After NaCl treatment for 28 days, the proline and reducing sugar contents of shoots, roots and calli increased significantly in relation to the severity of the salt stress. The highest amount of proline and carbohydrate were observed at 150 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively. The reducing sugar accumulation in shoots was the highest as compared to roots, whereas, proline contents did not show any significant difference in roots and shoots under salt stress. The results showed significant reduction of protein contents in seedlings and calli. Based on these results, proteins extracted from the shoots, roots and calli of C. copticum treated with 150 mM NaCl showed the lowest contents. The positive relationships were observed between activity of antioxidant enzymes and the increase in stress levels. Catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity increased significantly under salt concentrations in comparison to the control. These results suggest that the accumulation of proline and sugars, and activation of antioxidant enzymes play adaptive roles in the adaptation of seedlings and callus of C. copticum to saline conditions.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, Carum copticum, organic solutes, salt stress

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64 Effect of Blue Light on Some Physiological Characters of Two Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

Authors: Mozhgan Farzamisepehr, Samira Salehi


Salinity is one of the most important environmental factors limiting the growth and production of crops in plants. This limitation is due to the effect of salinity stress on plant physiology aspects and its development. The structure of the plants is regulated by the optical signals emanating from the environment. Light is an energy source for photosynthetic organs, and the type of optical wavelength plays an important role in growth. In order to investigate the effect of blue light on delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (proline precursor) in 2 wheat cultivar, resistant to salinity (BAM) and sensitive to salinity (Tajan), in a culture medium with 5 treatments Salinity (control), 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl were exposed to light and white light. After five days of growth of wheat seedlings, the growth indices (fresh weight, dry weight and longitudinal growth), proline, chlorophyll a, b, sodium and potassium contents, peroxidase enzyme activity, malondialdehyde and pyrolin-5- Carboxylate (Proline precursor) contents were measured. Data were analyzed using Duncan statistical test. Blue light increased the amount of proline and PSC in the salinity-resistant cultivar. In sensitive cultivar, the amount of potassium under white light was higher than blue light in different amounts of salt. The amount of sodium accumulated under the influence of blue light in different amounts of salt in the resistant cultivar was higher than the sensitive cultivar. The peroxidation activity of resistant wheat cultivar was higher and blue light did not increase peroxidation activity, but the amount of malondialdehyde in sensitive cultivar increased under the blue light regime and in increasing amounts of salt. The fresh and dry weight of plants in resistant cultivar was highest under white light and plant length in the resistant cultivar and under increasing amounts of salt was higher than cultivar sensitive to both light and white light.

Keywords: salinity, wheat, blue light, proline precursor

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63 Effect of Deficit Irrigation on Photosynthesis Pigments, Proline Accumulation and Oil Quantity of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in Flowering and Seed Formation Stages

Authors: Batoul Mohamed Abdullatif, Nouf Ali Asiri


O. basilicum plant was subjected to deficit irrigation using four treatments viz. control, irrigated with 70% of soil water capacity (SWC), Treatment 1, irrigated with 50% SWC, Treatment 2, irrigated with 30% SWC and Treatment 3, irrigated with 10 % SWC. Photosynthesis pigments viz. chlorophyll a, b, and the carotenoids, proline accumulation, and oil quantity were investigated under these irrigation treatments. The results indicate that photosynthesis pigments and oil content of deficit irrigation treatments did not significantly reduced than that of the full irrigation control. Photosynthesis pigments were affected by the stage of growth and not by irrigation treatments. They were high during flowering stage and low during seed formation stage for all treatments. The lowest irrigation plants (10 % SWC) achieved, during flowering stage, 0.72 mg\g\fresh weight of chlorophyll a, compared to 0.43 mg\g\fresh weight in control plant, 0.40 mg\g\fresh weight of chlorophyll b, compared to 0.19 mg\g\fresh weight in control plants and 0.29 mg\g\fresh weight of carotenoids, compared to 0.21 mg\g\fresh weight in control plants. It has been shown that reduced irrigation rates tend to enhance O. basilicum to have high oil quantity reaching a value of 63.37 % in a very low irrigation rate (10 % SWC) compared to 45.38 of control in seeds. Proline was shown to be accumulated in roots to almost double the amount in shoot during flowering stage in treatment 3. This accumulation seems to have a pronounce effect on O. basilicum acclimation to deficit irrigation.

Keywords: deficit irrigation, photosynthesis pigments, proline accumulation, oil quantity, sweet basil flowering formation, seed formation

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62 Alleviation of Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Soybean (Glycine max. L.) by Using Osmoprotectants and Compost Application

Authors: Ayman El Sabagh, SobhySorour, AbdElhamid Omar, Adel Ragab, Mohammad Sohidul Islam, Celaleddin Barutçular, Akihiro Ueda, Hirofumi Saneoka


Salinity is one of the major factors limiting crop production in an arid environment. What adds to the concern is that all the legume crops are sensitive to increasing soil salinity. So it is implacable to either search for salinity enhancement of legume plants. The exogenous of osmoprotectants has been found effective in reducing the adverse effects of salinity stress on plant growth. Despite its global importance soybean production suffer the problems of salinity stress causing damages at plant development. Therefore, in the current study we try to clarify the mechanism that might be involved in the ameliorating effects of osmo-protectants such as proline and glycine betaine and compost application on soybean plants grown under salinity stress. Experiments were carried out in the greenhouse of the experimental station, plant nutritional physiology, Hiroshima University, Japan in 2011- 2012. The experiment was arranged in a factorial design with 4 replications at NaCl concentrations (0 and 15 mM). The exogenous, proline and glycine betaine concentrations (0 mM and 25 mM) for each. Compost treatments (0 and 24 t ha-1). Results indicated that salinity stress induced reduction in all growth and physiological parameters (dry weights plant-1, chlorophyll content, N and K+ content) likewise, seed and quality traits of soybean plant compared with those of the unstressed plants. In contrast, salinity stress led to increases in the electrolyte leakage ratio, Na and proline contents. Thus tolerance against salt stress was observed, the improvement of salt tolerance resulted from proline, glycine betaine and compost were accompanied with improved membrane stability, K+, and proline accumulation on contrary, decreased Na+ content. These results clearly demonstrate that could be used to reduce the harmful effect of salinity on both physiological aspects and growth parameters of soybean. They are capable of restoring yield potential and quality of seed and may be useful in agronomic situations where saline conditions are diagnosed as a problem. Consequently, exogenous osmo-protectants combine with compost will effectively solve seasonal salinity stress problem and are a good strategy to increase salinity resistance in the drylands.

Keywords: compost, glycine betaine, proline, salinity tolerance, soybean

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61 Formation of the Water Assisted Supramolecular Assembly in the Transition Structure of Organocatalytic Asymmetric Aldol Reaction: A DFT Study

Authors: Kuheli Chakrabarty, Animesh Ghosh, Atanu Roy, Gourab Kanti Das


Aldol reaction is an important class of carbon-carbon bond forming reactions. One of the popular ways to impose asymmetry in aldol reaction is the introduction of chiral auxiliary that binds the approaching reactants and create dissymmetry in the reaction environment, which finally evolves to enantiomeric excess in the aldol products. The last decade witnesses the usage of natural amino acids as chiral auxiliary to control the stereoselectivity in various carbon-carbon bond forming processes. In this context, L-proline was found to be an effective organocatalyst in asymmetric aldol additions. In last few decades the use of water as solvent or co-solvent in asymmetric organocatalytic reaction is increased sharply. Simple amino acids like L-proline does not catalyze asymmetric aldol reaction in aqueous medium not only that, In organic solvent medium high catalytic loading (~30 mol%) is required to achieve moderate to high asymmetric induction. In this context, huge efforts have been made to modify L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-proline to prepare organocatalyst for aqueous medium asymmetric aldol reaction. Here, we report the result of our DFT calculations on asymmetric aldol reaction of benzaldehyde, p-NO2 benzaldehyde and t-butyraldehyde with a number of ketones using L-proline hydrazide as organocatalyst in wet solvent free condition. Gaussian 09 program package and Gauss View program were used for the present work. Geometry optimizations were performed using B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Transition structures were confirmed by hessian calculation and IRC calculation. As the reactions were carried out in solvent free condition, No solvent effect were studied theoretically. Present study has revealed for the first time, the direct involvement of two water molecules in the aldol transition structures. In the TS, the enamine and the aldehyde is connected through hydrogen bonding by the assistance of two intervening water molecules forming a supramolecular network. Formation of this type of supramolecular assembly is possible due to the presence of protonated -NH2 group in the L-proline hydrazide moiety, which is responsible for the favorable entropy contribution to the aldol reaction. It is also revealed from the present study that, water assisted TS is energetically more favorable than the TS without involving any water molecule. It can be concluded from this study that, insertion of polar group capable of hydrogen bond formation in the L-proline skeleton can lead to a favorable aldol reaction with significantly high enantiomeric excess in wet solvent free condition by reducing the activation barrier of this reaction.

Keywords: aldol reaction, DFT, organocatalysis, transition structure

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60 Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Microbes and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Wheat Growth in the Saline Soil

Authors: Ahmed Elgharably, Nivien Nafady


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth promoting microbes (PGPM) can promote plant growth under saline conditions. This study investigated how AMF and PGPM affected the growth and grain yield of wheat at different soil salinity levels (0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl). AMF colonization percentage, grain yield and dry weights and lengths of shoot and root, N, P K, Na, malondialdehyde, chlorophyll and proline contents and shoot relative permeability were determined. Salinity reduced NPK uptake and malondialdehyde and chlorophyll contents, and increased shoot Na concentration, relative permeability, and proline content, and thus declined plant growth. PGPM inoculation enhanced AMF colonization, P uptake, and K/Na ratio, but alone had no significant effect on plant growth and grain yield. AMF inoculation significantly enhanced NPK uptake, increased chlorophyll content and decreased shoot relative permeability, proline and Na contents, and thus promoted the plant growth. The inoculation of PGPM significantly enhanced the positive effects of AMF in controlling Na uptake and in increasing chlorophyll and NPK contents. Compared to AMF inoculation alone, dual inoculation with AMF and PGPM resulted in approximately 10, 25 and 25% higher grain yield at 0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl, respectively. The results provide that PGPM inoculation can maximize the effects of AMF inoculation in alleviating the deleterious effects of NaCl salts on wheat growth.

Keywords: mycorrhizal fungi, salinity, sodium, wheat

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59 Elucidation of Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of an Endemic Halophyte Centaurea Tuzgoluensis under Salt Stress

Authors: Mustafa Kucukoduk, Evren Yildiztugay, A. Hediye Sekmen, Ismail Turkan, Yavuz Bagci


In this study, physiological and biochemical responses of Centaurea tuzgoluensis, a Turkish endemic halophyte, to salinity were studied. Therefore, the changes in shoot growth, leaf relative water content (RWC), ion concentrations, lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl (OH.) radical scavenging activity, proline (Pro) content, and antioxidant system [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR)] were investigated. The 60 days (d) old C. tuzgoluensis seedlings were subjected to 0, 150 and 300 mM NaCl for 7 d and 14 d. The relative shoot growth was generally did not change in the 150 mM NaCl, but reduced with 300 mM NaCl stress at 7 d and 14 d. RWC was higher in 150 mM NaCl-treated leaves than that of 300 mM NaCl. Salinity decreased K+/Na+ ratio, but increased Na+, Cl, Ca+2 and Na+/Cl ratio in the leaves. On the other hand, it did not change or increase the K+ content at 150 and 300 mM NaCl, respectively. MDA content in the 150 and 300 mM NaCl-treated leaves remained close to control at 7 d. This was related to enhanced activities of SOD, CAT, APX and GR enzymes, and their isoenzymes especially Fe-SOD in the leaves. On the other hand, the higher sensitivity to 300 mM NaCl at 14 d was associated with inadequate increase in antioxidant enzymes and the decreased OH radical scavenging activity. All these results suggest that C. tuzgoluensis has different antioxidant metabolisms between short- (7 d) and long-term (14 d) salt treatments and salinity tolerance of C. tuzgoluensis might be closely related to increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accumulation of osmoprotectant proline under salinity conditions.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, endemic halophyte, ion exchange, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, enzymes, endemic halophyte, ion exchange, lipid peroxidation, proline, Centaurea tuzgoluensis

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58 Effect of Nitrogen Source on Production of CMCase by Bacillus megaterium 1295S Isolated from Sewage Treatment Plants

Authors: Adel A. S. Al-Gheethi, M. O. Abdul-Monem


Cellulase-producing bacteria were isolated from wastewater and sludge, and identified as Bacillus megaterium 1295S, Sporosarcina pasteurii 586S, Bacillus subtilis 117S, Burkholderia cepacia 120S and Staphylococcus xylosus 222W. Among bacteria, B. megaterium 1295S was the best cellulase producer under the catabolic repression and was therefore selected to study the factors affecting cellulase production. The optimum conditions for cellulase production were observed in CMC-Yeast Extract (CYE) agar medium (pH 6.5) inoculated with 0.4 mL of bacterial culture and incubated at 45˚C for 72 h. Twenty amino acids were introduced into the production medium as nitrogen source to investigate the production of cellulase in presence of amino acids in comparison to peptone (as an organic source) and sodium nitrate (as an inorganic source). The results found that the maximum production of cellulase was recorded at 50 ppm when L-hydroxy proline, L-arginine, glycine, L-histidine, L-leucine, DL-isoleucine, DL-β-phenylalanine were used as sole nitrogen sources and at 100 ppm when DL-threonine, L-ornithine 12.29, L-proline were used as sole nitrogen sources. The highest biomass yield was found when glycine 5 ppm and DL-serine 100 ppm used as a nitrogen source.

Keywords: CMCase, Bacillus megaterium 1295S, factors, amino acids

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57 Influence of Salicylic Acid on Yield and Some Physiological Parameters in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Authors: Farid Shekari


Salicylic Acid (SA) is a plant hormone that improves some physiological responses of plants under stress conditions. Seeds of two desi type chickpea cultivars, viz., Kaka and Pirooz, primed with 250, 500, 750, and 1000 μM of SA and a group of seeds without any treating (as control) were evaluated under rain fed conditions. Seed priming in both cultivars led to higher efficiency compare to non-primed treatments. In general, seed priming with 500 and 750 μM of SA had appropriate effects; however the cultivars responses were different in this regard. Kaka showed better performance both in primed and non-primed seed than Pirooz. Results of this study revealed that not only yield quantity but also yield quality, as seed protein amounts, could positively affect by SA treatments. It seems that SA by enhancing of soluble sugars and proline amounts enhanced total water potential (ψ) and RWC. The increment in RWC led to rose of chlorophyll content of plants chlorophyll stability. In general, SA increased water use efficiency, both in biologic and seed yield base, and drought tolerance of chickpea plants. HI was a little decreased in SA treatments and it shows that SA more effective in biomass production than seed yield.

Keywords: chlorophyll, harvest index, proline, seed protein, soluble sugar, water use efficiency, yield component

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56 Efficacy of Pisum sativum and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis for Phytoextraction of Heavy Metalloids from Soil

Authors: Ritu Chaturvedi, Manoj Paul


A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) on metal(loid) uptake and accumulation efficiency of Pisum sativum along with physiological and biochemical response. Plants were grown in soil spiked with 50 and 100 mg kg-1 Pb, 25 and 50 mg kg-1 Cd, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 As and a combination of all three metal(loid)s. A parallel set was maintained and inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus for comparison. After 60 days, plants were harvested and analysed for metal(loid) content. A steady increase in metal(loid) accumulation was observed on increment of metal(loid) dose and also on AMF inoculation. Plant height, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoid and carbohydrate content reduced upon metal(loid) exposure. Increase in enzymatic (CAT, SOD and APX) and nonenzymatic (Proline) defence proteins was observed on metal(loid) exposure. AMF inoculation leads to an increase in plant height, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, carbohydrate and enzymatic defence proteins (p≤0.001) under study; whereas proline content was reduced. Considering the accumulation efficiency and adaptive response of plants and alleviation of stress by AMF, this symbiosis can be applied for on-site remediation of Pb and Cd contaminated soil.

Keywords: heavy metal, mycorrhiza, pea, phyroremediation

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55 Yield, Biochemical Responses and Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of Two Barley Accessions 'Ardhaoui' under Deficit Drip Irrigation Using Saline Water in Southern Tunisia

Authors: Mohamed Bagues, Ikbel Souli, Feiza Boussora, Kamel Nagaz


In southern Tunisia, two local barley accessions CV. Ardhaoui; 'Bengardeni' and 'Karkeni' were cultivated in the field under deficit drip irrigation with saline water. Three treatments were used: control or full irrigation T0 (100%ETc) and stressed T1 (75%ETc), T2 (50%ETc). Proline and soluble sugars contents increase significantly under drought between accessions compared to control and varies between growth stages. Moreover, the increasing of Ca2+ concentration enhances the absorption of Na+ ion, consequently K+/Na+ decrease significantly between accessions, these results suggest that a high tolerance of Bengardeni accession to drought stress. Therefore, drought tolerance indices (STI, SSI, MP, GMP, YSI and TOL) were used to identify high yielding and drought tolerant between accessions. MP explained the variation of GYi. GMP and STI explained the variation of GYs. The high values of MP, STI and GMP were associated with higher yielding accession. Higher TOL value is associated with significant grain yield reduction in stressed environment suggesting higher stress responses of accessions. Significant positive correlations between MP, STI and GMP and negative between YSI and SSI. MP, STI, GMP and YSI, TOL, SSI are not correlated with each other.

Keywords: drought, proline, soluble sugars, minerals, yield, drought tolerance indices, barley

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54 Changes in Amounts of Glycyrrhizin and Phenolic Compounds of Glycrrhiza glabra L. Seedlings Treated by Copper and Zinc Oxide

Authors: Roya Razavizadeh, Razieh Soltaninejad, Hakimeh Oloumi


Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Licorice) is one of the oldest medicinal plants in Iran and secondary metabolites present in the plant root is used in food and pharmaceutical industries. With the use of heavy metals as elicitors, plant secondary metabolite production can be increased. In this study, the effects of the concentrations of 1 and 10 μM of zinc oxide and copper oxide on the contents of reducing sugars (as precursor of secondary metabolites), proline, glycyrrhizin, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanin in Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings were investigated. Also, the correlation between the content of these metabolites in the treated seedlings was examined using Pearson's test. The amount of reducing sugars at concentration of 10 μM zinc oxide was decreased. Whereas, the amounts of proline and glycyrrhizin under treatment 1 and 10 μM copper oxide and 1 μM zinc oxide compared with the control plants was increased. The content of total phenolic compounds was increased with increasing concentrations of copper oxide. The highest amount of flavonoids was observed at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide. Anthocyanin content was increased in concentration of 1 μM copper oxide. Also, the tannin content of the Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings at concentrations of 10 μM zinc oxide was increased. Based on the result it seemed that at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide the amount of glycyrrhizin, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins were significantly increased, whereas, zinc oxide had no significant impact on the levels of these metabolites.

Keywords: zinc oxide, copper oxide, phenolic compounds, licorice (glycyrrhiza glabra L.), glycyrrhizin

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53 Screening of Freezing Tolerance in Eucalyptus Genotypes (Eucalyptus spp.) Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Ionic Leakage, Proline Accumulation and Stomatal Density

Authors: S. Lahijanian, M. Mobli, B. Baninasab, N. Etemadi


Low temperature extremes are amongst the major stresses that adversely affect the plant growth and productivity. Cold stress causes oxidative stress, physiological, morphological and biochemical changes in plant cells. Generally, low temperatures similar to salinity and drought exert their negative effects mainly by disrupting the ionic and osmotic equilibrium of the plant cells. Changes in climatic condition leading to more frequent extreme conditions will require adapted crop species on a larger scale in order to sustain agricultural production. Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees (and a few shrubs) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Members of this genus dominate the tree flora of Australia. The eucalyptus genus contains more than 580 species and large number of cultivars, which are native to Australia. Large distribution and diversity of compatible eucalyptus cultivars reflect the fact of ecological flexibility of eucalyptus. Some eucalyptus cultivars can sustain hard environmental conditions like high and low temperature, salinity, high level of PH, drought, chilling and freezing which are intensively effective on crops with tropical and subtropical origin. In this study, we tried to evaluate freezing tolerance of 12 eucalyptus genotypes by means of four different morphological and physiological methods: Chlorophyll fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, proline and stomatal density. The studied cultivars include Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. coccifera, E. darlympleana, E. erythrocorys, E. glaucescens, E. globulus, E. gunnii, E. macrocorpa, E. microtheca, E. rubida, E. tereticornis, and E. urnigera. Except for stomatal density recording, in other methods, plants were exposed to five gradual temperature drops: zero, -5, -10, -15 and -20 degree of centigrade and they remained in these temperatures for at least one hour. Experiment for measuring chlorophyll fluorescence showed that genotypes E. erythrocorys and E. camaldulensis were the most resistant genotypes and E. gunnii and E.coccifera were more sensitive than other genotypes to freezing stress effects. In electrolyte leakage experiment with regard to significant interaction between cultivar and temperature, genotypes E. erythrocorys and E.macrocorpa were shown to be the most tolerant genotypes and E. gunnii, E. urnigera, E. microtheca and E. tereticornis with the more ionic leakage percentage showed to be more sensitive to low temperatures. Results of Proline experiment approved that the most resistant genotype to freezing stress is E. erythrocorys. In the stomatal density experiment, the numbers of stomata under microscopic field were totally counted and the results showed that the E. erythrocorys and E. macrocorpa genotypes had the maximum and E. coccifera and E. darlympleana genotypes had minimum number of stomata under microscopic field (0.0605 mm2). In conclusion, E. erythrocorys identified as the most tolerant genotype; meanwhile E. gunnii classified as the most freezing susceptible genotype in this investigation. Further, remarkable correlation was not obtained between the stomatal density and other cold stress measures.

Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence, cold stress, ionic leakage, proline, stomatal density

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52 The Impact of P108L Genetic Variant on Calcium Release and Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptibility

Authors: Mohammed Althobiti, Patrick Booms, Dorota Fiszer, Philip Hopkins


Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle. MH results from anaesthetics induced breakdown of calcium homeostasis. RYR1 and CACN1AS mutations represent the aetiology in ~70% of the MH population. Previous studies indicate that up to 25% of MH patients carry no variants in these genes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between MH susceptibility and genes encoding skeletal muscle Ca2+ channels as well as accessory proteins. The JSRP, encoding JP-45, was previously sequenced and novel genetic variants were identified. The variant p.P108L (c.323C > T) was identified in exon 4 and encodes a change from a proline at amino acid 108 to leucine residue. The variant P108L was detected in two patients out of 50 with 4% frequency in the sample population. The alignment of DNA sequences in different species indicates highly conserved proline sequences involved in the substitution of the P108L variant. In this study, the variant P108L co-segregates with the SNP p.V92A (c.275T > C) at the same exon, both variants being inherited in the same two patients only. This indicates that the two variants may represent a haplotype. Therefore, a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms and statistical analysis will be used to investigate the effects of haplotypes on MH susceptibility. Furthermore, investigating the effect of the P108L variant in combination with RYR1 mutations or other genetic variants in other genes as a combination of two or more genetic variants, haplotypes may then provide stronger genetic evidence indicating that JSRP1 is associated with MH susceptibility. In conclusion, these preliminary results lend a potential modifier role of the variant P108L in JSRP1 in MH susceptibility and further investigations are suggested to confirm these results.

Keywords: JSRP1, malignant hyperthermia, RyR1, skeletal muscle

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51 The Effect of a Weed-Killer Sulfonylurea on Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf)

Authors: L. Meksem Amara, M. Ferfar, N. Meksem, M. R. Djebar


The wheat is the cereal the most consumed in the world. In Algeria, the production of this cereal covers only 20 in 25 % of the needs for the country, the rest being imported. To improve the efficiency and the productivity of the durum wheat, the farmers turn to the use of pesticides: weed-killers, fungicides and insecticides. However this use often entrains losses of products more at least important contaminating the environment and all the food chain. Weed-killers are substances developed to control or destroy plants considered unwanted. That they are natural or produced by the human being (molecule of synthesis), the absorption and the metabolization of weed-killers by plants cause the death of these plants. In this work, we set as goal the evaluation of the effect of a weed-killer sulfonylurea, the CossackOD with various concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 9 µg) on variety of Triticum durum: Cirta. We evaluated the plant growth by measuring the leaves and root length, compared with the witness as well as the content of proline and analyze the level of one of the antioxydative enzymes: catalase, after 14 days of treatment. Sulfonylurea is foliar and root weed-killers inhibiting the acetolactate synthase: a vegetable enzyme essential to the development of the plant. This inhibition causes the ruling of the growth then the death. The obtained results show a diminution of the average length of leaves and roots this can be explained by the fact that the ALS inhibitors are more active in the young and increasing regions of the plant, what inhibits the cellular division and talks a limitation of the foliar and root’s growth. We also recorded a highly significant increase in the proline levels and a stimulation of the catalase activity. As a response to increasing the herbicide concentrations a particular increases in antioxidative mechanisms in wheat cultivar Cirta suggest that the high sensitivity of Cirta to this sulfonylurea herbicide is related to the enhanced production and oxidative damage of reactive oxygen species.

Keywords: sulfonylurea, triticum durum, oxydative stress, toxicity

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50 The Evaluation of the Effect of a Weed-Killer Sulfonylurea on Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf)

Authors: Meksem Amara Leila, Ferfar Meriem, Meksem Nabila, Djebar Mohammed Reda


The wheat is the cereal the most consumed in the world. In Algeria, the production of this cereal covers only 20 in 25 % of the needs for the country, the rest being imported. To improve the efficiency and the productivity of the durum wheat, the farmers turn to the use of pesticides: weed-killers, fungicides and insecticides. However this use often entrains losses of products more at least important contaminating the environment and all the food chain. Weed-killers are substances developed to control or destroy plants considered unwanted. That they are natural or produced by the human being (molecule of synthesis), the absorption and the metabolization of weed-killers by plants cause the death of these plants.In this work, we set as goal the evaluation of the effect of a weed-killer sulfonylurea, the CossackOD with various concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 9 µg) on variety of Triticum durum: Cirta. We evaluated the plant growth by measuring the leaves and root length, compared with the witness as well as the content of proline and analyze the level of one of the antioxydative enzymes: catalse, after 14 days of treatment. Sulfonylurea is foliar and root weed-killers inhibiting the acetolactate synthase: a vegetable enzyme essential to the development of the plant. This inhibition causes the ruling of the growth then the death. The obtained results show a diminution of the average length of leaves and roots this can be explained by the fact that the ALS inhibitors are more active in the young and increasing regions of the plant, what inhibits the cellular division and talks a limitation of the foliar and root’s growth. We also recorded a highly significant increase in the proline levels and a stimulation of the catalase activity. As a response to increasing the herbicide concentrations a particular increases in antioxidative mechanisms in wheat cultivar Cirta suggest that the high sensitivity of Cirta to this sulfonylurea herbicide is related to the enhanced production and oxidative damage of reactive oxygen species.

Keywords: sulfonylurea, Triticum durum, oxydative stress, Toxicity

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49 Exploration Study of Civet Coffee: Amino Acids Composition and Cup Quality

Authors: Murna Muzaifa, Dian Hasni, Febriani, Anshar Patria, Amhar Abubakar


Coffee flavour is influenced by many factors such as processing techniques. Civet coffee is known as one of premium coffee due to its unique processing technique and its superior cupping quality. The desirable aroma of coffee is foremost formed during roasting step at a high temperature from precursors that are present in the green bean. Sugars, proteins, acids and trigonelline are the principal flavor precursors compounds in green coffee bean. It is now widely accepted that amino acids act as precursors of the Maillard reaction during which the colour and aroma are formed. To investigate amino acids on civet coffee, concentration of 20 amino acids (L-Isoleucine, L-Valine, L-Proline, L-Phenylalanine, L-Arginine, L-Asparagine, L-Threonine, L-Tryptophan, L-Leucine, L-Serine, L-Glutamine, L-Methionine, L-Histidine, Aspartic acid, L-Tyrosine, L-Lysine, L-Glutamic acid, and L-Cysteine, L-Alanine and Glycine) were determined in green and roasted bean of civet coffee by LCMS analysis. The cup quality of civet coffee performed using professional Q-grader followed SCAA standard method. The measured parameters were fragrance/aroma, flavor, acidity, body, uniformity, clean up, aftertaste, balance, sweetness and overall. The work has been done by collecting samples of civet coffee from six locations in Gayo Higland, Aceh-Indonesia. The results showed that 18 amino acids were detected in green bean of civet coffee (L-Isoleucine, L-Valine, L-Proline, L-Phenylalanine, L-Arginine, L-Asparagine, L-Threonine, L-Tryptophan, L-Leucine, L-Serine, L-Glutamine, L-Methionine, L-Histidine, Aspartic acid, L-Tyrosine, L-Lysine, L-Glutamic acid, and L-Cysteine) and 2 amino acids were not detected (L-Alanine and Glycine). On the other hand, L-Tyrosine and Glycine were not detected in roasted been of civet coffee. Glutamic acid is the amino acid with highest concentration in both green and roasted bean (21,02 mg/g and 24,60 mg/g), followed by L- Valine (19,98 mg/g and 20,22 mg/g) and Aspartic acid (14,93 mg/g and 18,58 mg/g). Civet coffee has a fairly high cupping value (cup quality), ranging from 83.75 to 84.75, categorized as speciality coffee. Moreover, civet coffee noted to have nutty, chocolaty, fishy, herby and watery.

Keywords: amino acids, civet coffee, cupping quality, luwak

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48 Physiological and Biochemical Assisted Screening of Wheat Varieties under Partial Rhizosphere Drying

Authors: Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza


Environmental stresses are one of the major reasons for poor crop yield across the globe. Among the various environmental stresses, drought stress is the most damaging one, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Wheat is the major staple food of many countries of the world, which is badly affected by drought stress. In order to fulfill the dietary needs of increasing population with depleting water resources there is a need to adopt technologies which result in sufficient crop yield with less water consumption. One of them is partial root zone drying. Keeping in view these conditions, a wire house experiment was conducted at agronomic research area of University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University Bahawalpur during 2015, to screen out the different wheat varieties for partial root zone drying (PRD). Five approved local wheat varieties (V1= Galaxy-2013, V2= Punjab-2011, V3 = Faisalabad-2008, V4 = Lasani-2008 and V5 = V.8200) and two irrigation levels (I1= control irrigation and I2 = PRD irrigation) with completely randomized design having four replications were used in the experiment. Among the varieties, Galaxy-2013 performed the best and attained maximum plant height, leaf area, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, total sugars, proline contents and antioxidant enzymes activities and minimum values of growth and physiological parameters were recorded in variety V.8200. For irrigation levels, higher values of growth, physiological and water related parameters were recorded in control treatment (I1) except leaf water potential, osmotic potential, total sugars and proline contents. However, enzyme activities were higher under PRD treatment for all varieties. It was concluded that Galaxy-2013 is the most compatible and V.8200 is the most susceptible variety for PRD, respectively and more quality traits and enzymatic activities were recorded under PRD irrigation as compared to control treatment.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes activities, osmolytes concentration, partial root zone drying, photosynthetic rate, water relations, wheat

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47 A Study on the Vegetative and Osmolyte Accumulation of Capsicum frutescens L. under Zinc Metal Stress

Authors: Ja’afar Umar, Adamu Aliyu Aliero


Plant growth, biochemical parameters, zinc metal concentrations were determined for Capsicum frutescens L. in response to varied concentration of zinc metal. The plant exhibited a decline in the vegetative parameters measured. Free proline and glycine betaine content increases with increasing concentration of zinc metal and differ significantly (P<0.05). It can be concluded that the osmolyte (pro and GB) accumulations, and high length of stem and wide leaf expansion are possible indicator of tolerance to heavy metals (Zinc) in Capsicum frutescens.

Keywords: zinc metal, osmolyte, Capsicum frutescens, stress

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46 Salinity Stress: Effects on Growth Biochemical Parameters and Ion Homeostasis in Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L.)

Authors: Umar Jaafar, Mungadi


Plant growth, biochemical parameters, cytotoxic ion sequestration and ionic in balance were determined for spinach in response to varied concentrations of NaCl. The plant show decline in all vegetative parameters measured. Free proline content increase with increasing salt concentration and differ significantly (p<0.05) while the glycine betaine insignificantly (p>0.05) affected by concentration of NaCl. Salinity increases the cytotoxic ions, sodium chlorine ion and calcium with corresponding decrease in potassium ion concentrations. The ionic balance (Na+/K+) is low due to high content of potassium ion in plant accumulation ranging from 7700 to 6500 mg/kg. It can be concluded that the osmolyte accumulations, high number of leaves are possible indicators of salt tolerance in the spinach.

Keywords: spinach, salinity, osmolyte, cytotoxic

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45 Use RP-HPLC To Investigate Factors Influencing Sorghum Protein Extraction

Authors: Khaled Khaladi, Rafika Bibi, Hind Mokrane, Boubekeur Nadjemi


Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important cereal crop grown in the semi-arid tropics of Africa and Asia due to its drought tolerance. Sorghum grain has protein content varying from 6 to 18%, with an average of 11%, Sorghum proteins can be broadly classified into prolamin and non-prolamin proteins. Kafirins, the major storage proteins, are classified as prolamins, and as such, they contain high levels of proline and glutamine and are soluble in non-polar solvents such as aqueous alcohols. Kafirins account for 77 to 82% of the protein in the endosperm, whereas non-prolamin proteins (namely, albumins, globulins, and glutelins) make up about 30% of the proteins. To optimize the extraction of sorghum proteins, several variables were examined: detergent type and concentration, reducing agent type and concentration, and buffer pH and concentration. Samples were quantified and characterized by RP-HPLC.

Keywords: sorghum, protein extraction, detergent, food science

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44 Isolation and Characterization of Collagen from Chicken Feet

Authors: P. Hashim, M. S. Mohd Ridzwan, J. Bakar


Collagen was isolated from chicken feet by using papain and pepsin enzymes in acetic acid solution at 4°C for 24h with a yield of 18.16% and 22.94% by dry weight, respectively. Chemical composition and characteristics of chicken feet collagen such as amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE patterns, FTIR spectra and thermal properties were evaluated. The chicken feet collagen is rich in the amino acids glycine, glutamic acid, proline and hydroxyproline. Electrophoresis pattern demonstrated two distinct α-chains (α1 and α2) and β chain, indicating that type I collagen is a major component of chicken feet collagen. The thermal stability of collagen isolated by papain and pepsin revealed stable denaturation temperatures of 48.40 and 53.35°C, respectively. The FTIR spectra of both collagens were similar with amide regions in A, B, I, II, and III. The study demonstrated that chicken feet collagen using papain isolation method is possible as commercial alternative ingredient.

Keywords: chicken feet, collagen, papain, pepsin

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43 Effect of Dust Rejected by Iron and Steel Complex on Roots of Bean Phaseolus vulgaris

Authors: Labiba Zerari Bourafa, Djebar Mohamed Reda, Berrebah Houria, Khadri Sihem, Chiheb Linda


The study of the effect of metal dust (pollutants) was performed on higher plant white beans Phaseolus vulgaris; the experience took place in cellular toxicology laboratory (in vitro culture). The seeds of the bean Phaseolus vulgaris are cultured in a metal contaminated dust medium (a single treatment by different increasing doses), at a rate of 10 seeds per box, for 10 days. The measurement of morpho-metric parameters is performed during the first 96 hours that follow the germination; while the dosage of the proline, the protein content and histological sections are formed on the tenth day (240 h). All morpho-metric and biochemical parameters measured were highly disturbed by metal dust; histological sections confirm this disurbance.

Keywords: conductive fabrics, metal dust, osmoticums, roots, Phaseolus vulgaris

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42 Phytotoxicity of Lead on the Physiological Parameters of Two Varieties of Broad Bean (Vicia faba)

Authors: El H. Bouziani, H. A. Reguieg Yssaad


The phytotoxicity of heavy metals can be expressed on roots and visible part of plants and is characterized by molecular and metabolic answers at various levels of organization of the whole plant. The present study was undertaken on two varieties of broad bean Vicia faba (Sidi Aïch and Super Aguadulce). The device was mounted on a substrate prepared by mixing sand, soil and compost, the substrate was artificially contaminated with three doses of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] 0, 500 and 1000 ppm. Our objective is to follow the behavior of plant opposite the stress by evaluating the physiological parameters. The results reveal a reduction in the parameters of the productivity (chlorophyll and proteins production) with an increase in the osmoregulators (soluble sugars and proline).These results show that the production of broad bean is strongly modified by the disturbance of its internal physiology under lead exposure.

Keywords: broad bean, lead, stress, physiological parameters, phytotoxicity

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41 Ascorbic Acid Application Mitigates the Salt Stress Effects on Helianthus annuus L. Plants Grown on a Reclaimed Saline Soil

Authors: Mostafa M. Rady, Majed M. Howladar, Saad M. Howladar


A field trial was conducted during two successive seasons (2013 and 2014) in Southeast Fayoum, Egypt (29º 17'N; 30º 53'E) to investigate the improving effect of ascorbic acid (Vit C) foliar spray at the rates of 0, 1, 2 or 3 mM on the growth, seed and oil yields, and some chemical constituents of sunflower plants grown on a reclaimed saline soil (EC = 7.98–7.83). Vit C application at all rates (1, 2 and 3 mM) was significantly increased growth traits, seed and oil yields, and the concentrations of endogenous Vit C, leaf photosynthetic pigments, total soluble sugars, free proline and nutrient elements as well as K/Na ratio. In contrast, Na concentration was significantly reduced with the application of all Vit C levels. Vit C foliar spray at the rate of 2 mM was found to be the best treatment, alleviating the inhibitory effects of salinity on sunflower plants grown on a reclaimed saline soil.

Keywords: Helianthus annuus L., Vit C, salinity, growth, seed and oil yields, osmoprotectants

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40 Effect of Vesicular Arbuscular mycorrhiza on Phytoremedial Potential and Physiological Changes in Solanum melongena Plants Grown under Heavy Metal Stress

Authors: Ritu Chaturvedi, Mayank Varun, M. S. Paul


Heavy metal contamination of soil is a growing area of concern since the soil is the matrix that supports flora and impacts humans directly. Phytoremediation of contaminated sites is gaining popularity due to its cost effectiveness and solar driven nature. Some hyperaccumulators have been identified for their potential. Metal-accumulating plants have various mechanisms to cope up with stress and one of them is increasing antioxidative capacity. The aim of this research is to assess the effect of Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) application on the phytoremedial potential of Solanum melongena (Eggplant) and level of photosynthetic pigments along with antioxidative enzymes. Results showed that VAM application increased shoot length, root proliferation pattern of plants. The level of photosynthetic pigments, proline, SOD, CAT, APX altered significantly in response to heavy metal treatment. In conclusion, VAM increased the uptake of heavy metals which lead to the activation of the defense system in plants for scavenging free radicals.

Keywords: heavy metal, phytoextraction, phytostabilization, reactive oxygen species

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