Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1228

Search results for: herbal formulation

1228 Treatment of Mycotic Dermatitis in Domestic Animals with Poly Herbal Drug

Authors: U. Umadevi, T. Umakanthan

Abstract:

Globally, mycotic dermatitis is very common but there is no single proven specific allopathic treatment regimen. In this study, domestic animals with skin diseases of different age and breed from geographically varied regions of Tamil Nadu state, India were employed. Most of them have had previous treatment with native and allopathic medicines without success. Clinically, the skin lesions were found to be mild to severe. The trial animals were treated with poly herbal formulation (ointment) prepared using the indigenous medicinal plants – viz Andrographis paniculata, Lawsonia inermis and Madhuca longifolia. Allopathic antifungal drugs and ointments, povidone iodine and curabless (Terbinafine HCl, Ofloxacin, Ornidazole, Clobetasol propionate) were used in control. Comparatively, trial animals were found to have lesser course of treatment time and higher recovery rate than control. In Ethnoveterinary, this combination was tried for the first time. This herbal formulation is economical and an alternative for skin diseases.

Keywords: allopathic drugs, dermatitis, domestic animals, poly herbal formulation

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1227 Development and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Herbal Mouthwash Including Methanolic Extracts of Beautea monosperma and Cordia obliqua

Authors: Reenu Yadav, S. K. Yadav

Abstract:

Herbal therapy has been used for daily oral health care to prevent, treat or cure oral conditions from halitosis to periodontal diseases. The importance of mouth and teeth cleanliness has been recognized from the earliest days of civilization to the 21st century. In the present study, leaves and seeds of Cordia obliqua and barks and twigs of Beautea monosperma, which is used traditionally for oral diseases was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity tests indicated that the methanolic extract exhibited stronger activities against the commonly encountered oral bacterial and fungal pathogens. The mouthwash formulation prepared and it is compared with marketed formulation HiOra. The results indicated that the herbal mouthwash could inhibit the growth of oral pathogens and may prevent plaque and other periodontal diseases caused by dental pathogens.

Keywords: herbal mouthwash, bio medicine, life sciences, herbal extracts

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1226 Formulation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Chewing Gum Delivery of Some Herbal Extracts for Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

Authors: Reenu Yadav, Vidhi Guha, Udit N. Soni, Jay Ram Patel

Abstract:

Chewing gums are mobile novel drug delivery systems, with a potential for administering drugs either for local action or for systemic absorption via the buccal route. An antimicrobial chewing gum delivery system of the methanolic extracts of Beatea monosperma (barks and twigs), Cordia obliqua (leaves and seeds) and Cuminun cyminum (seeds) against periodontal diseases caused by some oral pathogens, was designed and characterized on various parameters.The results of the study support the traditional application of the plants and suggest, plant extracts possess compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as potential antimicrobial agents and gums can be a good carrier of herbal extracts. Developed formulation will cure/protect from various periodontal diseases. Further development and evaluations chewing gums including the isolated compounds on the commercial scale and their clinical and toxicological studies are the future challenges.

Keywords: periodontal diseases, herbal chewing gum, herbal extracts, novel drug delivery systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
1225 Design and Development of Herbal Formulations: Challenges and Solutions

Authors: B. Sathyanarayana

Abstract:

As per the report of World Health Organization, more than 80% of world population uses medicines made from herbal and natural materials. They have stood the test of time for their safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects. Quality assurance and control measures, such as national quality specification and standards for herbal materials, good manufacturing practices (GMP) for herbal medicines, labelling, and licensing schemes for manufacturing, imports and marketing, should be in place in every country where herbal medicines are regulated. These measures are vital for ensuring the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. In the case of herbal products challenge begins at the stage of designing itself except the classical products. Selection of herbal ingredients, officinal parts to be used, proportions are vital. Once the formulation is designed one should take utmost care to produce the standardized product of assured quality and safety. Quality control measures should cover the validation of quality and identity of raw materials, in process control (as per SOP and GMP norms) and at the level of final product. Quality testing, safety and efficacy studies of the final product are required to ensure the safe and effective use of the herbal products in human beings. Medicinal plants being the materials of natural resource are subjected to great variation making it really difficult to fix quality standards especially in the case of polyherbal preparations. Manufacturing also needs modification according to the type of ingredients present. Hence, it becomes essential to develop Standard operative Procedure for a specific herbal product. Present paper throws a light on the challenges that are encountered during the design and development of herbal products.

Keywords: herbal product, challenges, quality, safety, efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
1224 Bioactive Chemical Markers Based Strategy for Quality Control of Herbal Medicines

Authors: Zhenzhong Yang

Abstract:

Herbal medicines are important supplements to chemical drugs and usually consist of a complex mixture of constituents. The current quality control strategy of herbal medicines is mainly based on chemical markers, which largely failed to owe to the markers, not reflecting the herbal medicines’ multiple mechanisms of action. Herein, a bioactive chemical markers based strategy was proposed and applied to the quality assessment and control of herbal medicines. This strategy mainly includes the comprehensive chemical characterization of herbal medicines, bioactive chemical markers identification, and related quantitative analysis methods development. As a proof-of-concept, this strategy was applied to a Panax notoginseng derived herbal medicine. The bioactive chemical markers based strategy offers a rational approach for quality assessment and control of herbal medicines.

Keywords: bioactive chemical markers, herbal medicines, quality assessment, quality control

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1223 Hepatoprotective Activity of Sharbat Deenar, against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Nazmul Huda, Ashik Mosaddik, Abdul Awal, Shafiqur Rahman, Rukhsana Shaheen, Mustofa Nabi

Abstract:

Polyherbal formulation Sharbat Deenar is a very popular unani medicine in Bangladesh. It is usually used for different kinds of liver disorders. In absence of reliable and inadequate hepatoprotective agents in conventional medicine, the herbal preparations are preferred for liver diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Sharbat Deenar on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in male Long-Evans albino rats. Group I served as normal control and received neither formulation nor carbon tetrachloride. Group II received only CCl4 1mL/kg body weight of rat intraperitoneally for consecutive 14 days. Group III received CCl4 1mL/kg body weight of rat intraperitoneally and Silymarin, in dose 50mg/kg body weight of rat orally. Group IV received CCl4 1mL/kg body weight of rat intraperitoneally and Sharbat Deenar 1mL/kg body weight of rat for the same 14 consecutive days. At the end of the study, hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by the levels of total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Histopathological study of rat liver was also carried out. The results showed that polyherbal formulation Sharbat Deenar exhibited a significant hepatoprotective effect. Such an outcome seems to be the synergistic effect of all ingredients of tested herbal formulation. Although this study suggests that Sharbat Deenar may be used to cure or minimize various liver diseases, it needs further study to attain the clarity of mechanism and safety.

Keywords: polyherbal formulation, sharbat deenar, carbon tetrachloride, silymarin, hepatoprotective

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1222 The Prevalence of Herbal Medicine Practice and Associated Factors among Cancer Patients Receiving Palliative Care at Mobile Hospice Mbarara

Authors: Harriet Nalubega, Eddie Mwebesa

Abstract:

In Uganda, over 90% of people use herbal remedies. Herbal medicine use has been associated with delayed clinical appointments, presentation with advanced cancers, financial constraints, and misdiagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of herbal medicine use and practices amongst cancer patients receiving Palliative Care at Mobile Hospice Mbarara (MHM) and the associated challenges. This was a mixed-methods prospective study conducted in 2022 at MHM, where patients were interviewed, and a questionnaire was completed. 87% of the patients had used herbal medicine. Of these, 83% were female, and 59% had not received formal education. 27% of patients had used herbal remedies for a year or more. 51% of patients who were consuming herbs stopped using them after starting palliative care treatment. Motivations for herbal medicine use were in the hope for a cure in 59%, for pain relief in 30%, and peer influence in 10%. There is a high prevalence of herbal medicine use in Palliative Care. Female gender and lack of formal education were disproportionately associated with herbal remedy use. Most patients consume herbal remedies in search of a cure or to relieve severe pain. Education of cancer patients about herbal remedy use may improve treatment outcomes in Palliative Care.

Keywords: prevalence, herbal medicine, cancer patients, palliative care

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1221 Developing Stability Monitoring Parameters for NIPRIMAL®: A Monoherbal Formulation for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria

Authors: Ekere E. Kokonne, Isimi C. Yetunde, Okoh E. Judith, Okafor E. Ijeoma, Ajeh J. Isaac, Olobayo O. Kunle, Emeje O. Martins

Abstract:

NIPRIMAL® is a mono herbal formulation of Nauclea latifolia used in the treatment of malaria. The stability of extracts made from plant material is essential to ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of the finished product. This study assessed the stability of the formulation under three different storage conditions; normal room temperature, infrared and under refrigeration. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) were used to monitor the formulations. The DSC analysis was done from 0oC to 350oC under the three storage conditions. Results obtained indicate that NIPRIMAL® was stable at all the storage conditions investigated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) after 6 months showed there was no significant difference between retention factor (RF) values for the various storage conditions. The reference sample had four spots with RF values of 0.47, 0.68, 0.76, 0.82 respectively and these spots were retained in the test formulations with corresponding RF values were after 6 months at room temperature and refrigerated temperature been 0.56, 0.73, 0.80, 0.92 and 0.47, 0.68, 0.76, 0.82 respectively. On the other hand, the RF values (0.55, 0.74, 0.77, 0.93) obtained under infrared after 1 month varied slightly from the reference. The sample exposed to infrared had a lower heat capacity compared to that stored under room temperature or refrigeration. A combination of TLC and DSC measurements has been applied for assessing the stability of NIPRIMAL®. Both methods were found to be rapid, sensitive and reliable in determining its stability. It is concluded that NIPRIMAL® can be stored under any of the tested conditions without degradation. This study is a major contribution towards developing appropriate stability monitoring parameters for herbal products.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry, formulation, NIPRIMAL®, stability, thin layer hromatography

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
1220 Formulation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Herbal Mouthwash from Some Herbal Extracts for Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

Authors: Reenu Yadav, Abhay Asthana, S. K. Yadav

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of the present work was to develop an oral gel for brushing with an antimicrobial activity which will cure/protect from various periodontal diseases such as periodontitis, gingivitis, and pyorrhea. Methods: Plant materials procured from local suppliers, extracted and standardized. Screening of antimicrobial activity was carried out with the help of disk diffusion method. The gel was formulated by dried extracts of Beautea monosperma and Cordia obliquus. Gels were evaluated on various parameters and standardization of the formulation was performed. The release of drugs was studied in pH 6.8 using a mastication device.Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride method, and stability studies were performed (40°C and RH 75% ± 5% for 90 days) to assess the effect of temperature and humidity on the concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. The results of accelerated stability conditions were compared with that of samples kept at controlled conditions (RT). The control samples were kept at room temperature (25°C, 35% RH for 180 days). Results: Results are encouraging; extracts possess significant antimicrobial activity at very low concentration (15µg/disc, 20µg/disc and 15 µg/ disc) on oral pathogenic bacteria. The formulation has optimal characteristics, as well as has a pleasant appearance, fragrance, texture, and taste, is highly acceptable by the volunteers. The diffusion coefficient values ranged from 0.6655 to 0.9164. Since the R values of korsmayer papas were close to 1, Drug release from formulation follows matrix diffusion kinetics. Hence, diffusion was the mechanism of the drug release. Formulation follows non-Fickian transport mechanism. Most Formulations released 50 % of their contents within 25-30 minutes. Results obtained from the accelerated stability studies are indicative of a slight reduction in flavonoids and phenolic contents with time on long time storage. When measured degradation under ambient conditions, degradation was significantly lower than in accelerated stability study. Conclusion: Plant extracts possess compounds with antimicrobial properties can be used as. Developed formulation will cure/protect from various periodontal diseases. Further development and evaluations oral gel including the isolated compounds on the commercial scale and their clinical and toxicological studies are the future challenges.

Keywords: herbal gel, dental care, ambient conditions, commercial scale

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1219 A Saudi Herbal Database: An Approach for Organizing the Rich Herbal Resource of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Syed Asif Hassan, Tabrej Khan

Abstract:

The use of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases as well as maintaining a healthy lifestyle has gained a significant acceptance across the globe. The increasing popularity of Herbal Medicine can be owed to the fact that is relatively inexpensive and has lesser side effects as compared to general medicines. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has a rich heritage of herbal medicine for overages. However, the information about essential traditional herbs of Arabian origin and their implication in the treatment of various diseases are not well documented in an organized manner. Therefore, the requirement of a local platform (database system) for herbal medicines of Arab origin is the need of the day. In this context, various questionnaire and surveys were conducted over a period of 6 months. The surveys were targeted to identify a range of herbal remedies used by the communities of Saudi Arabia e.g., pharmacists and local people. The survey leads us to identify many of the mysterious local medicinal herbs used for the treatment of various ailments and thus reveals a unique insight into the natural herbal resource of Saudi Arabia. The information of the herbal medicines will be further used to develop a Saudi herbal database system using the principles of waterfall method. An interactive dynamic electronic web portal of the herbal database system will be built using MySQL and PHP for accessing the information available in the Saudi herbal database system. The web portal will be a step forward in creating awareness among the Arab nationals of their rich herbal heritage.

Keywords: Saudi herbal medicine, community survey, database system and design, MySQL, PHP

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
1218 Finite Element Approximation of the Heat Equation under Axisymmetry Assumption

Authors: Raphael Zanella

Abstract:

This works deals with the finite element approximation of axisymmetric problems. The weak formulation of the heat equation under the axisymmetry assumption is established for continuous finite elements. The weak formulation is implemented in a C++ solver with implicit march-in-time. The code is verified by space and time convergence tests using a manufactured solution. The solving of an example problem with an axisymmetric formulation is compared to that with a full-3D formulation. Both formulations lead to the same result, but the code based on the axisymmetric formulation is much faster due to the lower number of degrees of freedom. This confirms the correctness of our approach and the interest in using an axisymmetric formulation when it is possible.

Keywords: axisymmetric problem, continuous finite elements, heat equation, weak formulation

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1217 Critical Assessment of Herbal Medicine Usage and Efficacy by Pharmacy Students

Authors: Anton V. Dolzhenko, Tahir Mehmood Khan

Abstract:

An ability to make an evidence-based decision is a critically important skill required for practicing pharmacists. The development of this skill is incorporated into the pharmacy curriculum. We aimed in our study to estimate perception of pharmacy students regarding herbal medicines and their ability to assess information on herbal medicines professionally. The current Monash University curriculum in Pharmacy does not provide comprehensive study material on herbal medicines and students should find their way to find information, assess its quality and make a professional decision. In the Pharmacy course, students are trained how to apply this process to conventional medicines. In our survey of 93 undergraduate students from year 1-4 of Pharmacy course at Monash University Malaysia, we found that students’ view on herbal medicines is sometimes associated with common beliefs, which affect students’ ability to make evidence-based conclusions regarding the therapeutic potential of herbal medicines. The use of herbal medicines is widespread and 95.7% of the participated students have prior experience of using them. In the scale 1 to 10, students rated the importance of acquiring herbal medicine knowledge for them as 8.1±1.6. More than half (54.9%) agreed that herbal medicines have the same clinical significance as conventional medicines in treating diseases. Even more, students agreed that healthcare settings should give equal importance to both conventional and herbal medicine use (80.6%) and that herbal medicines should comply with strict quality control procedures as conventional medicines (84.9%). The latter statement also indicates that students consider safety issues associated with the use of herbal medicines seriously. It was further confirmed by 94.6% of students saying that the safety and toxicity information on herbs and spices are important to pharmacists and 95.7% of students admitting that drug-herb interactions may affect therapeutic outcome. Only 36.5% of students consider herbal medicines as s safer alternative to conventional medicines. The students use information on herbal medicines from various sources and media. Most of the students (81.7%) obtain information on herbal medicines from the Internet and only 20.4% mentioned lectures/workshop/seminars as a source of such information. Therefore, we can conclude that students attained the skills on the critical assessment of therapeutic properties of conventional medicines have a potential to use their skills for evidence-based decisions regarding herbal medicines.

Keywords: evidence-based decision, pharmacy education, student perception, traditional medicines

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1216 Evaluation of Chromium Fortified-Parboiled Rice Coated with Herbal Extracts: Resistant Starch, and Glycemic Index

Authors: Wisnu Adi Yulianto, Chatarina Lilis Suryani, Mamilisti Susiati, Hendy Indra Permana

Abstract:

Parboiled rice was developed to produce rice that has low glycemic index, especially for diabetics. Yet, parboiled rice is not enough because diabetics also lack of chromium. The sign of chromium (Cr) deficiency in diabetics is impaired glucose tolerance. Cr fortification was done for increasing Cr content in rice. Naturally-occurring compounds that have been proven to improve insulin sensitivity include Cr and polyphenol found in cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. This research aimed to evaluate content of resistant starch and glycemic index of Cr - fortified - parboiled rice (Cr-PR) coated with herbal extracts. Variety of unhulled rice and forticant used in the experiment were Ciherang and CrCl3, respectively. Three herbal extracts used were cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. Each concentration of herbal extracts in the amount of 3%, 6%, and 9% were added in the coating substance to coat Cr-PR. Resistant starch (RS) content was determined by enzymatic process through glucooxydase method. Testing of the GI was conducted on 18 non-diabetic volunteers. RS content of Cr-PR coated with herbal extracts ranged between 8.27 – 8.84 % (dry weight). Cr-PR coated with all herbal extracts of 3% concentration had higher RS content than the ones with herbal extracts of 6% and 9% concentration (P <0.05). Value of the rice GI ranged 29 - 40. The lowest GI (29-30) was attained by the rice coated with enrichment of 6-9% cinnamon extract.

Keywords: coating, Cr-fortified-parboiled rice, glycemic index, herbal extracts, resistant starch

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1215 Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with Ingestion of Herbal Mixtures Containing Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: A Case Study

Authors: M. Hakami, A. Jammaly, I. Attafi, M. Oraiby, M. Jeraiby

Abstract:

We reviewed an unusual case of a 65-year-old male taking an herbal mixture containing compounds with anticholinesterase activity for a long period of time, presented with acute my myocardial infarction and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome followed by death. Clinically, there are findings correlated with anticholinesterase activity, such as bilateral miosis, diaphoresis, vomiting and fasciculation without a history of any toxic ingestion or exposure. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry screening studies identified the presence of thymol, anethole in the herbal extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in the blood sample. Hence, with this case report, we intend to highlight the necessity of evaluating the long-term use of the herbal mixture.

Keywords: cholinesterase inhibitors, thymole, anethole, butylatedhydroxytoluene, cardiac toxicity, myocardial infarction

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1214 Use of DNA Barcoding and UPLC-MS to Authenticate Agathosma spp. in South African Herbal Products

Authors: E. Pretorius, A. M. Viljoen, M. van der Bank

Abstract:

Introduction: The phytochemistry of Agathosma crenulata and A. betulina has been studied extensively, while their molecular analysis through DNA barcoding remains virtually unexplored. This technique can confirm the identity of plant species included in a herbal product, thereby ensuring the efficacy of the herbal product and the accuracy of its label. Materials and methods: Authentic Agathosma reference material of A. betulina (n=16) and A. crenulata (n=10) were obtained. Thirteen commercial products were purchased from various health shops around Johannesburg, South Africa, using the search term “Agathosma” or “Buchu.” The plastid regions matK and ycf1 were used to barcode the Buchu products, and BRONX analysis confirmed the taxonomic identity of the samples. UPLC-MS analyses were also performed. Results: Only (30/60) 60% of the traded samples tested from 13 suppliers contained A. betulina in their herbal products. Similar results were also obtained for the UPLC-MS analysis. Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrate the application of DNA barcoding in combination with phytochemical analysis to authenticate herbal products claiming to contain Agathosma plants as an ingredient in their products. This supports manufacturing efforts to ensure that herbal products that are safe for the consumer.

Keywords: Buchu, substitution, barcoding, BRONX algorithm, matK, ycf1, UPLC-MS

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1213 Quantitative Determination of Heavy Metals in Some Commonly Consumed Herbal Medicines in Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Aliyu Umar, Mohammed Yau, Faruruwa M. Dahiru, Saed Garba

Abstract:

Evaluation of heavy metals in twelve commonly consumed herbal medicines/preparations in Kano State, Nigeria, was carried out. The samples comprised of five unregistered powdered medicines, namely, Zuwo, (ZW); Rai Dorai, (RD); Miyar Tsanya, (MTS); Bagaruwar Makka, (BM); and Madobiya, (M); five unregistered liquid herbal medicinal concussions for pile (MB), yellow fever (MS), typhoid (MT), stomach pain (MC), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); and two registered herbal medicines; Alif Powder (AP) and Champion Leaf (CL). The heavy metals evaluation was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and the result revealed the concentrations (ppm) ranges of the heavy metals as follows: Cadmium (0.0045 – 0.1601), Chromium (0.0418 – 0.2092), Cobalt (0.0038 – 0.0760), Copper (0.0547 – 0.2465), Iron (0.1197 – 0.3592), Manganese (0.0123 – 1.4462), Nickel (0.0073 – 0.0960), Lead (0.185 – 0.0927) and Zinc (0.0244 – 0.2444). Comparing the results obtained in this work with the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and permissible limits of other countries, the concentrations of heavy metals in the herbal medicine/preparations are within the allowed permissible limits range in herbal medicines and their use could be safe.

Keywords: Kano state, herbal medicines, registered, unregistered

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1212 Herbal Medicines Used for the Cure of Jaundice among the Some Tribal Populations of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Awdhesh Narayan Sharma

Abstract:

The use of herbal medicines for the cure of various ailments among the tribal population is as old as human origin itself. Most of the tribal populations of Madhya Pradesh inhabit in remote and inaccessible ecological setup. From long back, tribals and forests are interrelated to each other. They use an enormous range of wild plants for their basic needs and medicines. The tribal developed a unique understanding with wild plants, herbs, etc., and earned specialized knowledge of disease pattern and curative therapy-through hard experiences, common sense, trial, and error methods. They have passed this knowledge through traditions, taboos, totems, folklore by words of mouth from generation to generation. Here, an attempt has been made to study the possible aspects of herbal medicine for the cure of Jaundice among the tribal populations of Madhya Pradesh, India, through primary data as well as available secondary data. The data have been collected from the 305 Bharias of Patalkot, Madhya Pradesh, India, and included available secondary source of data by various investigators. It may be concluded that a sizable herbal medicinal plants' wealth exists in Madhya Pradesh, India, which still awaits for scientific exploration. The existing herbal medicines used for the cure of jaundice need an extensive investigation from the pharmaceutical point of view.

Keywords: Bharias, herbal medicine, tribal, Madhya Pradesh

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1211 In vitro Anti-Gonococcal, Anti-Inflammatory and HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Activities of the Herbal Mixture

Authors: T. E. Tshikalange, B. C. Mophuting

Abstract:

Traditional medicine often consists of complex ingredients prepared from a mixture of plant species. These herbal mixtures are used in the treatment of various ailments such as sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The present study was carried out to determine the biological activities of the herbal mixture used traditionally in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. This herbal mixture consists of four plant species from families Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Fabaceae, and Myrtaceae. Five crude extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, methanol, water and boiled) of the herbal mixture were investigated for anti-gonococcal, anti-inflammatory, and reverse transcriptase activities. The anti-inflammatory activity of the plant extracts was determined by measuring the extract inhibitory effect on the pro-inflammatory enzyme lipoxygenase. The extracts were also tested for anti-HIV activity against recombinant HIV-1 enzyme using non-radioactive HIV-RT colorimetric assay. The boiled extract exhibited good anti-inflammatory activity with an IC₅₀ of 87 µg/ml compared to that of the positive control quercetin (IC₅₀= 92 µg/ml). All the other extracts showed little or no activity. Hexane extract was the only extract that showed reverse transcriptase extract inhibitory effect with an IC₅₀ of 74 µg/ml. Anti-gonococcal and cytotoxicity investigations are underway. The preliminary results support the use of herbal mixture by traditional healers.

Keywords: sexually transmitted diseases, lipoxygenase, anti-inflammatory, herbal mixture

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1210 Rapid Nanoparticle Formulation Development and Screening Using NanoFabTxTM Platform

Authors: Zhen Ye, Maryam Zaroudi, Elizabeth Aisenbrey, Nicolynn E. Davis, Peng Gao

Abstract:

Nanoparticles have been used as drug delivery systems in the treatment of life-threatening diseases for decades, but traditional formulation development methods are time consuming and labor intensive. Millipore Sigma has developed a platform¬¬– NanoFabTxTM¬¬– for rapid and reproducible formulation development and screening to ensure consistentnanoparticle characteristics. Reproducible and precise control of the development process for a range of nanoparticle formulations accelerates the introduction of novel formulations to the clinic.

Keywords: Bio platform, Formulation development, NanoFabTxTM, Drug delivery

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1209 Evaluation of the Nutritional Potential of a Developed Spice Formulation for nah poh (An Emulsion-Based Gravy): Physicochemical and Techno-Functional Characterisations

Authors: Djiazet Stève, Mezajoug Kenfack Laurette Blandine, Ravi Pullakhandam, Bethala L. A. Prabhavathi Devi, Tchiegang Clergé, Prathapkumar Halady Shetty

Abstract:

The nutritional potential of a developed spice formulation for nah poh was evaluated. It was found that when spices were used for the formulation for nah poh, the concentration of some nutrients is diluted while that of some of them increases. The proportion of unsaturated fats was estimated to be 76.2% of the total fat content while the chemical score varied between 31 to 39%. The contents of some essential minerals of nutritional interest in mg are as follows for 100g of spice: 2372.474 ± 0.007 for potassium, 16.447 ± 0.010 for iron, 4.772 ± 0.005 for zinc, 0.537 ± 0.001 for cupper, 0.138 ± 0.005 for selenium, and 112.954 ± 0.003 for manganese. This study shows that the consumption of these spices in the form of formulation significantly contributes to meet the mineral requirements of the populations whose food habits regularly require these spices.

Keywords: spice formulation, characterisation, nutritional potential, nah poh, techno functional properties

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1208 Assessment of Mammary Gland Immunity and Therapeutic Potential of Topical Herbal Gel against Bovine Subclinical Mastitis

Authors: Mukesh N. Kher, Anju P. Kunjadia, Dev S. Nauriyal, Chaitanya G. Joshi, Navin R. Sheth, Vaibhav D. Bhatt

Abstract:

In-vivo immunotherapeutic potential on cytokines production and antibacterial activity of a topical herbal gel was evaluated in two breeds of cattle in bovine subclinical mastitis. The response to treatment was evaluated by enumerating somatic cell count (SCC), determining total bacterial count and studying the expression of different cytokines like (interleukin 6, 8, 12, GMCSF, interferon–γ and TNF‑α). The pre‑ and post‑treatment SCC in mastitic quarters did not differ statistically-significantly. However, total bacterial count declined significantly from day 0 onwards in both the breeds. Significant differences (P < 0.01) were observed in all types of cytokines production on day 0, 5, and 21 post last treatments in both the breeds. The comparison of cytokine expression profiles between crossbred and Gir cattle affirmed a significant difference in expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The topical herbal gel showed immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities in subclinical mastitis, and therefore the work supports its use as substitute herbal therapy against subclinical mastitis in bovines.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, immunomodulation, herbal gel, subclinical mastitis

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1207 Multiobjective Optimization of a Pharmaceutical Formulation Using Regression Method

Authors: J. Satya Eswari, Ch. Venkateswarlu

Abstract:

The formulation of a commercial pharmaceutical product involves several composition factors and response characteristics. When the formulation requires to satisfy multiple response characteristics which are conflicting, an optimal solution requires the need for an efficient multiobjective optimization technique. In this work, a regression is combined with a non-dominated sorting differential evolution (NSDE) involving Naïve & Slow and ε constraint techniques to derive different multiobjective optimization strategies, which are then evaluated by means of a trapidil pharmaceutical formulation. The analysis of the results show the effectiveness of the strategy that combines the regression model and NSDE with the integration of both Naïve & Slow and ε constraint techniques for Pareto optimization of trapidil formulation. With this strategy, the optimal formulation at pH=6.8 is obtained with the decision variables of micro crystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and compression pressure. The corresponding response characteristics of rate constant and release order are also noted down. The comparison of these results with the experimental data and with those of other multiple regression model based multiobjective evolutionary optimization strategies signify the better performance for optimal trapidil formulation.

Keywords: pharmaceutical formulation, multiple regression model, response surface method, radial basis function network, differential evolution, multiobjective optimization

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1206 CICAP: Promising Wound Healing Gel from Bee Products and Medicinal Plants

Authors: Laïd Boukraâ

Abstract:

Complementary and Alternative Medicine is an inclusive term that describes treatments, therapies, and modalities that are not accepted as components of mainstream education or practice, but that are performed on patients by some practitioners. While these treatments and therapies often form part of post-graduate education, study and writing, they are generally viewed as alternatives or complementary to more universally accepted treatments. Ancient civilizations used bee products and medicinal plants, but modern civilization and ‘education’ have seriously lessened our natural instinctive ability and capability. Despite the fact that the modern Western establishment appears to like to relegate apitherapy and aromatherapy to the status of 'folklore' or 'old wives' tales', they contain a vast spread of pharmacologically-active ingredients and each one has its own unique combination and properties. They are classified in modern herbal medicine according to their spheres of action. Bee products and medicinal plants are well-known natural product for their healing properties and their increasing popularity recently as they are widely used in wound healing. Honey not only has antibacterial properties which can help as an antibacterial agent but also has chemical properties which may further help in the wound healing process. A formulation with honey as its main component was produced into a honey gel. This new formulation has enhanced texture and is more user friendly for usage as well. This new formulation would be better than other formulas as it is hundred percent consisting of natural products and has been made into a better formulation. In vitro assay, animal model study and clinical trials have shown the effectiveness of LEADERMAX for the treatment of diabetic foot, burns, leg ulcer and bed sores. This one hundred percent natural product could be the best alternative to conventional products for wound and burn management. The advantages of the formulation are: 100% natural, affordable, easy to use, strong power of absorption, dry surface on the wound making a film, will not stick to the wound bed; helps relieve wound pain, inflammation, edema and bruising while improving comfort.

Keywords: bed sore bee products, burns, diabetic foot, medicinal plants, leg ulcer, wounds

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1205 Antiangiogenic and Pro-Apoptotic Properties of Shemamruthaa: An Herbal Preparation in Experimental Mammary Carcinoma-Bearing Rats and Breast Cancer Cell Line In vitro

Authors: Nandhakumar Elumalai, Purushothaman Ayyakannu, Sachidanandam T. Panchanatham

Abstract:

Background: Understanding the basic mechanisms and factors underlying the tumor growth and invasion has gained attention in recent times. The processes of angiogenesis and apoptosis are known to play a vital role in various stages of cancer. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is well established as one of the key regulators of tumor angiogenesis while MMPs are known for their exclusive ability to degrade ECM. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the pro apoptotic and anti angiogenic activity of the herbal formulation Shemamruthaa. The anticancer activity of Shemamruthaa was tested in breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Results of MTT, trypan blue and flow cytometric analysis of apoptotis suggested that Shemamruthaa can induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells, in a concentration- and time dependent manner and induce apoptosis. With these results, we further evaluated the antiangiogenic and pro-apoptotic activities of Shemamruthaa in DMBA induced mammary carcinoma in Sprague Dawley rats. Flavono tumour was induced in 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats by gastric intubation of 25 mg DMBA in 1ml olive oil. After 90 days of induction period, the rats were orally administered with Shemamruthaa (400 mg/kg body wt) for 45 days. Treatment with the drug SM significantly modulated the expression of p53, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9 and VEGF by means of its anti angiogenic and protease inhibiting activity. Conclusion: Based on these results, it might be concluded that the formulation, Shemamruthaa, constituted of dried flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, fruits of Emblica officinalis, and honey has been found to exhibit pronounced antiproliferative and apoptotic effects. This enhanced anticancer effect of Shemamruthaa might be attributed to the synergistic action of polyphenols such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, vitamin C, niacin, pyrogallol, hydroxymethylfurfural, trilinolein, and other compounds present in the formulation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Shemamruthaa holds potential to be developed as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against mammary carcinoma.

Keywords: Shemamruthaa, flavonoids, MCF-7 cell line, mammary cancer

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1204 Evaluation of Thrombolytic Activity of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and Thai Herbal Prasaplai Formula

Authors: Warachate Khobjai, Suriyan Sukati, Khemjira Jarmkom, Pattaranut Eakwaropas, Surachai Techaoei

Abstract:

The propose of this study was to investigate in vitro thrombolytic activity of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and Prasaplai, a Thai herbal formulation of Z. cassumunar Roxb. Herbs were extracted with boiling water and concentrated by lyophilization. To observe their thrombolytic potential, an in vitro clot lysis method was applied where streptokinase and sterile distilled water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Crude aqueous extracts from Z. cassumunar Roxb. and Prasaplai formula showed significant thrombolytic activity by clot lysis of 17.90% and 25.21%, respectively, compared to the negative control water (5.16%) while the standard streptokinase revealed 64.78% clot lysis. These findings suggest that Z. cassumunar Roxb. exhibits moderate thrombolytic activity and cloud play an important role in the thrombolytic properties of Prasaplai formula. However, further study should be done to observe in vivo clot dissolving potential and to isolate active component(s) of these extracts.

Keywords: thrombolytic activity, clot lysis, Zingiber cassumunar Roxb., Prasaplai formula, aqueous extract

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1203 Toxicological Standardization of Heavy Metals and Microbial Contamination Haematinic Herbal Formulations Marketed in India

Authors: A. V. Chandewar, Sanjay Bais

Abstract:

Backgound: In India, drugs of herbal origin have been used in traditional systems of medicines such as Unani and Ayurveda since ancient times. WHO limit for Escherichia coli is 101/gm cfu, for Staphylococus aureus 105/gm cfu, and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa 103/gm cfu and for Salmonella species nil cfu. WHO mentions maximum permissible limits in raw materials only for arsenic, cadmium, and lead, which amount to 1.0, 0.3, and 10 ppm, respectively. Aim: The main purpose of the investigation was to document evidence for the users, and practitioners of marketed haematinic herbal formulations. In the present study haematinic herbal formulations marketed in Yavatmal India were determined for the presence of microbial and heavy metal content. Method: The investigations were performed by using specific medias and atomic absorption spectrometry. Result: The present work indicates the presence of heavy metal contents in herbal formulations selected for study. It was found that arsenic content in formulations was below the permissible limit in all formulations. The cadmium and lead content in six formulations were above the permissible limits. Such formulations are injurious to health of patient if consumed regularly. The specific medias were used to determining the presence of Escherichia coli 4 samples, Staphylococcus aureus 3 samples, and P. aeruginosa 4 samples. The data indicated suggest that there is requirement of in process improvement to provide better quality for consumer health in order to be competitive in international markets. Summary/Conclusion: The presence of microbial and heavy metal content above WHO limits indicates that the GMP was not followed during manufacturing of herbal formulations marketed in India.

Keywords: toxicological standardization, heavy metals, microbial contamination, haematinic herbal formulations

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1202 Development and Evaluation of a Nutraceutical Herbal Summer Drink

Authors: Munish Garg, Vinni Ahuja

Abstract:

In the past few years, the high consumption of soft drinks has attracted negative attention world-wide due to its possible adverse effects, leading the health conscious people to find alternative nutraceutical or herbal health drinks. In the present study, a nutraceutical soft drink was developed utilizing some easily available and well known traditional herbs having nutritional potential. The key ingredients were selected as bael, amla, lemon juice, ashwagandha and poppy seeds based on their household routine use in the summer with proven refreshing, cooling and energetic feeling since ages. After several trials made, the final composition of nutraceutical summer soft drink was selected as most suitable combination based on the taste, physicochemical, microbial and organoleptic point of view. The physicochemical analysis of the prepared drink found to contain optimum level of titratable acidity, total soluble solids and pH which were in accordance of the commercial recommendations. There were no bacterial colonies found in the product therefore found within limits. During the nine point’s hedonic scale sensory evaluation, the drink was strongly liked for colour, taste, flavour and texture. The formulation was found to contain flavonoids (80mg/100ml), phenolics (103mg/100ml), vitamin C (250mg/100ml) and has antioxidant potential (75.52%) apart from providing several other essential vitamins, minerals and healthy components. The developed nutraceutical drink provides an economical and feasible option for the consumers with very good taste combined with potential health benefits. The present drink is potentially capable to replace the synthetic soft drinks available in the market.

Keywords: herbal drink, summer drink, nutraceuticals, soft drink

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1201 Design, Development and Evaluation of Ketoconazole Loaded Nanosponges in Hydrogel for the Management of Topical Fungal Infections

Authors: Nagasamy Venkatesh Dhandapani

Abstract:

This work aims at investigating the use of β-Cyclodextrin as a cross linker, in an attempt to formulate nanosponges containing ketoconazole. The nanosponges were prepared by cross-linking method. The excipients used in this study did not alter the physicochemical properties of a drug as revealed by FTIR spectroscopy. Studies on various formulation variables revealed that all the variables are inter-related with the formulation. The ideal batch among the formulation was selected based on the higher entrapment efficiency and drug loading. The in vitro release studies of ketoconazole nanosponges in hydrogel exhibited a sustained release over a period of 24 hours. Mathematical analysis of drug release from the formulation followed non-Fickian diffusion obeying first order kinetics. The anti-fungal activity of the formulation exhibited better zone of inhibition when compared to pure drug (ketoconazole) against Tinea corporis.

Keywords: nanosponges, beta-cyclodextrin, ketoconazole, tinea corporis

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1200 In-vitro Antioxidant Activity of Two Selected Herbal Medicines

Authors: S. Vinotha, I. Thabrew, S. Sri Ranjani

Abstract:

Hot aqueous and methanol extracts of the two selected herbal medicines such are Vellarugu Chooranam (V.C) and Amukkirai Chooranam (A.C) were examined for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant activity using four different methods. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents in methanol extract of V.C were found to be higher (44.41±1.26 mg GAE⁄g; 174.44±9.32 mg QE⁄g) than in the methanol extract of A.C (20.56±0.67 mg GAE⁄g;7.21±0.85 mg QE⁄g). Hot methanol and aqueous extracts of both medicines showed low antioxidant activity in DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP methods and Iron chelating activity not found at highest possible concentration. V.C contains higher concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoid contents than A.C and can also exert greater antioxidant activity than A.C, although the activities demonstrated were lower than the positive control Trolox. The in-vitro antioxidant activity was not related with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the methanol and aqueous extracts of both herbal medicines (A.C and V.C).

Keywords: activity, different extracts, herbal medicines, in-vitro antioxidant

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1199 High-Performance Thin-layer Chromatography (HPTLC) Analysis of Multi-Ingredient Traditional Chinese Medicine Supplement

Authors: Martin Cai, Khadijah B. Hashim, Leng Leo, Edmund F. Tian

Abstract:

Analysis of traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) supplements has always been a laborious task, particularly in the case of multi‐ingredient formulations. Traditionally, herbal extracts are analysed using one or few markers compounds. In the recent years, however, pharmaceutical companies are introducing health supplements of TCM active ingredients to cater to the needs of consumers in the fast-paced society in this age. As such, new problems arise in the aspects of composition identification as well as quality analysis. In most cases of products or supplements formulated with multiple TCM herbs, the chemical composition, and nature of each raw material differs greatly from the others in the formulation. This results in a requirement for individual analytical processes in order to identify the marker compounds in the various botanicals. Thin-layer Chromatography (TLC) is a simple, cost effective, yet well-regarded method for the analysis of natural products, both as a Pharmacopeia-approved method for identification and authentication of herbs, and a great analytical tool for the discovery of chemical compositions in herbal extracts. Recent technical advances introduced High-Performance TLC (HPTLC) where, with the help of automated equipment and improvements on the chromatographic materials, both the quality and reproducibility are greatly improved, allowing for highly standardised analysis with greater details. Here we report an industrial consultancy project with ONI Global Pte Ltd for the analysis of LAC Liver Protector, a TCM formulation aimed at improving liver health. The aim of this study was to identify 4 key components of the supplement using HPTLC, following protocols derived from Chinese Pharmacopeia standards. By comparing the TLC profiles of the supplement to the extracts of the herbs reported in the label, this project proposes a simple and cost-effective analysis of the presence of the 4 marker compounds in the multi‐ingredient formulation by using 4 different HPTLC methods. With the increasing trend of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) bringing natural products and health supplements into the market, it is crucial that the qualities of both raw materials and end products be well-assured for the protection of consumers. With the technology of HPTLC, science can be incorporated to help SMEs with their quality control, thereby ensuring product quality.

Keywords: traditional Chinese medicine supplement, high performance thin layer chromatography, active ingredients, product quality

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