Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8586

Search results for: impedance control

8586 Implicit Force Control of a Position Controlled Robot - A Comparison with Explicit Algorithms

Authors: Alexander Winkler, Jozef Suchý

Abstract:

This paper investigates simple implicit force control algorithms realizable with industrial robots. A lot of approaches already published are difficult to implement in commercial robot controllers, because the access to the robot joint torques is necessary or the complete dynamic model of the manipulator is used. In the past we already deal with explicit force control of a position controlled robot. Well known schemes of implicit force control are stiffness control, damping control and impedance control. Using such algorithms the contact force cannot be set directly. It is further the result of controller impedance, environment impedance and the commanded robot motion/position. The relationships of these properties are worked out in this paper in detail for the chosen implicit approaches. They have been adapted to be implementable on a position controlled robot. The behaviors of stiffness control and damping control are verified by practical experiments. For this purpose a suitable test bed was configured. Using the full mechanical impedance within the controller structure will not be practical in the case when the robot is in physical contact with the environment. This fact will be verified by simulation.

Keywords: robot force control, stiffness control, damping control, impedance control, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
8585 Research on Robot Adaptive Polishing Control Technology

Authors: Yi Ming Zhang, Zhan Xi Wang, Hang Chen, Gang Wang

Abstract:

Manual polishing has problems such as high labor intensity, low production efficiency and difficulty in guaranteeing the consistency of polishing quality. It is more and more necessary to replace manual polishing with robot polishing. Polishing force directly affects the quality of polishing, so accurate tracking and control of polishing force is one of the most important conditions for improving the accuracy of robot polishing. The traditional force control strategy is difficult to adapt to the strong coupling of force control and position control during the robot polishing process. Therefore, based on the analysis of force-based impedance control and position-based impedance control, this paper proposed a new type of adaptive controller. Based on force feedback control of active compliance control, the controller can adaptively estimate the stiffness and position of the external environment and eliminate the steady-state force error produced by traditional impedance control. The simulation results of the model shows that the adaptive controller has good adaptability to changing environmental positions and environmental stiffness, and can accurately track and control polishing force.

Keywords: robot polishing, force feedback, impedance control, adaptive control

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
8584 Stability and Performance Improvement of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Robot under Interaction Using the Impedance Control

Authors: Seyed Reza Mirdehghan, Mohammad Reza Haeri Yazdi

Abstract:

In this paper, the stability and the performance of a two-degree-of-freedom robot under an interaction with a unknown environment has been investigated. The time when the robot returns to its initial position after an interaction and the primary resistance of the robot against the impact must be reduced. Thus, the applied torque on the motor will be reduced. The impedance control is an appropriate method for robot control in these conditions. The stability of the robot at interaction moment was transformed to be a robust stability problem. The dynamic of the unknown environment was modeled as a weight function and the stability of the robot under an interaction with the environment has been investigated using the robust control concept. To improve the performance of the system, a force controller has been designed which the normalized impedance after interaction has been reduced. The resistance of the robot has been considered as a normalized cost function and its value was 0.593. The results has showed reduction of resistance of the robot against impact and the reduction of convergence time by lower than one second.

Keywords: impedance control, control system, robots, interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
8583 Using Electrical Impedance Tomography to Control a Robot

Authors: Shayan Rezvanigilkolaei, Shayesteh Vefaghnematollahi

Abstract:

Electrical impedance tomography is a non-invasive medical imaging technique suitable for medical applications. This paper describes an electrical impedance tomography device with the ability to navigate a robotic arm to manipulate a target object. The design of the device includes various hardware and software sections to perform medical imaging and control the robotic arm. In its hardware section an image is formed by 16 electrodes which are located around a container. This image is used to navigate a 3DOF robotic arm to reach the exact location of the target object. The data set to form the impedance imaging is obtained by having repeated current injections and voltage measurements between all electrode pairs. After performing the necessary calculations to obtain the impedance, information is transmitted to the computer. This data is fed and then executed in MATLAB which is interfaced with EIDORS (Electrical Impedance Tomography Reconstruction Software) to reconstruct the image based on the acquired data. In the next step, the coordinates of the center of the target object are calculated by image processing toolbox of MATLAB (IPT). Finally, these coordinates are used to calculate the angles of each joint of the robotic arm. The robotic arm moves to the desired tissue with the user command.

Keywords: electrical impedance tomography, EIT, surgeon robot, image processing of electrical impedance tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
8582 Autonomous Control of Ultrasonic Transducer Drive System

Authors: Dong-Keun Jeong, Jong-Hyun Kim, Woon-Ha Yoon, Hee-Je Kim

Abstract:

In order to automatically operate the ultrasonic transducer drive system for sonicating aluminum, this paper proposes the ultrasonic transducer sensorless control algorithm. The resonance frequency shift and electrical impedance change is a common phenomenon in the state of the ultrasonic transducer. The proposed control algorithm make use of the impedance change of ultrasonic transducer according to the environment between air state and aluminum alloy state, it controls the ultrasonic transducer drive system autonomous without a sensor. The proposed sensorless autonomous ultrasonic transducer control algorithm was experimentally verified using a 3kW prototype ultrasonic transducer drive system.

Keywords: ultrasonic transducer drive system, impedance change, sensorless, autonomous control algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
8581 Stability Analysis and Experimental Evaluation on Maxwell Model of Impedance Control

Authors: Le Fu, Rui Wu, Gang Feng Liu, Jie Zhao

Abstract:

Normally, impedance control methods are based on a model that connects a spring and damper in parallel. The series connection, namely the Maxwell model, has emerged as a counterpart and draw the attention of robotics researchers. In the theoretical analysis, it turns out that the two pattern are both equivalents to some extent, but notable differences of response characteristics exist, especially in the effect of damping viscosity. However, this novel impedance control design is lack of validation on realistic robot platforms. In this study, stability analysis and experimental evaluation are achieved using a 3-fingered Barrett® robotic hand BH8-282 endowed with tactile sensing, mounted on a torque-controlled lightweight and collaborative robot KUKA® LBR iiwa 14 R820. Object handover and incoming objects catching tasks are executed for validation and analysis. Experimental results show that the series connection pattern has much better performance in natural impact or shock absorption, which indicate promising applications in robots’ safe and physical interaction with humans and objects in various environments.

Keywords: impedance control, Maxwell model, force control, dexterous manipulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
8580 Manipulator Development for Telediagnostics

Authors: Adam Kurnicki, Bartłomiej Stanczyk, Bartosz Kania

Abstract:

This paper presents development of the light-weight manipulator with series elastic actuation for medical telediagnostics (USG examination). General structure of realized impedance control algorithm was shown. It was described how to perform force measurements based mainly on elasticity of manipulator links.

Keywords: telediagnostics, elastic manipulator, impedance control, force measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
8579 Impedance Matching of Axial Mode Helical Antennas

Authors: Hossein Mardani, Neil Buchanan, Robert Cahill, Vincent Fusco

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the input impedance characteristics of axial mode helical antennas to find an effective way for matching it to 50 Ω. The study is done on the important matching parameters such as like wire diameter and helix to the ground plane gap. It is intended that these parameters control the matching without detrimentally affecting the radiation pattern. Using transmission line theory, a simple broadband technique is proposed, which is applicable for perfect matching of antennas with similar design parameters. We provide design curves to help to choose the proper dimensions of the matching section based on the antenna’s unmatched input impedance. Finally, using the proposed technique, a 4-turn axial mode helix is designed at 2.5 GHz center frequency and the measurement results of the manufactured antenna will be included. This parametric study gives a good insight into the input impedance characteristics of axial mode helical antennas and the proposed impedance matching approach provides a simple, useful method for matching these types of antennas.

Keywords: antenna, helix, helical, axial mode, wireless power transfer, impedance matching

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
8578 Synthesis, Characterization and Impedance Analysis of Polypyrrole/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 Nanocomposites

Authors: M. G. Smitha, M. V. Murugendrappa

Abstract:

Perovskite manganite La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 was synthesized by Sol-gel method. Polymerization of pyrrole was carried by in-situ polymerization method. The composite of pyrrole (Py)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 composite in the presence of oxidizing agent ammonium per sulphate to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCM) composite was carried out by the same in-situ polymerization method. The PPy/LCM composites were synthesized with varying compositions like 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt.% of LCM in Py. The surface morphologies of these composites were analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The images show that LCM particles are embedded in PPy chain. The impedance measurement of PPy/LCM at different temperature ranges from 30 to 180 °C was studied using impedance analyzer. The study shows that impedance is frequency and temperature dependent and it is found to decrease with increase in frequency and temperature.

Keywords: polypyrrole, sol gel, impedance, composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
8577 Symbolic Analysis of Input Impedance of CMOS Floating Active Inductors with Application in Fully Differential Bandpass Amplifier

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch

Abstract:

This paper proposes studies of input impedance of two types of the CMOS active inductor. It derives two input impedance formulas. The first formula is the input impedance of a grounded active inductor. The second formula is an input impedance of floating active inductor. After that, these formulas can be used to simulate magnitude and phase response of input impedance as a function of current consumption with MATLAB. Common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of a fully differential bandpass amplifier is derived based on superposition principle. CMRR as a function of input frequency is plotted as a function of current consumption

Keywords: grounded active inductor, floating active inductor, fully differential bandpass amplifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
8576 Study of the Transport of Multivalent Metal Cations Through Cation-Exchange Membranes by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Authors: V. Pérez-Herranz, M. Pinel, E. M. Ortega, M. García-Gabaldón

Abstract:

In the present work, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrocopy (EIS) is applied to study the transport of different metal cations through a cation-exchange membrane. This technique enables the identification of the ionic-transport characteristics and to distinguish between different transport mechanisms occurring at different current density ranges. The impedance spectra are dependent on the applied dc current density, on the type of cation and on the concentration. When the applied dc current density increases, the diameter of the impedance spectra loops increases because all the components of membrane system resistance increase. The diameter of the impedance plots decreases in the order of Na(I), Ni(II) and Cr(III) due to the increased interactions between the negatively charged sulfonic groups of the membrane and the cations with greater charge. Nyquist plots are shifted towards lower values of the real impedance, and its diameter decreases with the increase of concentration due to the decrease of the solution resistance.

Keywords: ion-exchange membranes, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrocopy, multivalent metal cations, membrane system

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
8575 The System for Root Canal Length Measurement Based on Multifrequency Impedance Method

Authors: Zheng Zhang, Xin Chen, Guoqing Ding

Abstract:

Electronic apex locators (EAL) has been widely used clinically for measuring root canal working length with high accuracy, which is crucial for successful endodontic treatment. In order to maintain high accuracy in different measurement environments, this study presented a system for root canal length measurement based on multifrequency impedance method. This measuring system can generate a sweep current with frequencies from 100 Hz to 1 MHz through a direct digital synthesizer. Multiple impedance ratios with different combinations of frequencies were obtained and transmitted by an analog-to-digital converter and several of them with representatives will be selected after data process. The system analyzed the functional relationship between these impedance ratios and the distance between the file and the apex with statistics by measuring plenty of teeth. The position of the apical foramen can be determined by the statistical model using these impedance ratios. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy of the system based on multifrequency impedance ratios method to determine the position of the apical foramen was higher than the dual-frequency impedance ratio method. Besides that, for more complex measurement environments, the performance of the system was more stable.

Keywords: root canal length, apex locator, multifrequency impedance, sweep frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
8574 Impedance Based Biosensor for Agricultural Pathogen Detection

Authors: Rhea Patel, Madhuri Vinchurkar, Rajul Patkar, Gopal Pranjale, Maryam Shojaei Baghini

Abstract:

One of the major limitations on food resources worldwide is the deterioration of plant products due to pathogenic infections. Early screening of plants for pathogenic infections can serve as a boon in the Agricultural sector. The standard microbiology techniques has not kept pace with the rapid enumeration and automated methods for bacteria detection. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) serves as a label free bio sensing technique to monitor pathogens in real time. The changes in the electrical impedance of a growing bacterial culture can be monitored to detect activity of microorganisms. In this study, we demonstrate development of a gold interdigitated electrode (gold IDE) based impedance biosensor to detect bacterial cells in real on-field crop samples. To calibrate our impedance measurement system, nutrient broth suspended Escherichia coli cells were used. We extended this calibrated protocol to identify the agricultural pathogens in real potato tuber samples. Distinct difference was seen in the impedance recorded for the healthy and infected potato samples. Our results support the potential application of this Impedance based biosensor in Agricultural pathogen detection.

Keywords: agriculture, biosensor, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, microelectrode, pathogen detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
8573 Seismic Inversion to Improve the Reservoir Characterization: Case Study in Central Blue Nile Basin, Sudan

Authors: Safwat E. Musa, Nuha E. Mohamed, Nuha A. Bagi

Abstract:

In this study, several crossplots of the P-impedance with the lithology logs (gamma ray, neutron porosity, deep resistivity, water saturation and Vp/Vs curves) were made in three available wells, which were drilled in central part of the Blue Nile basin in depths varies from 1460 m to 1600 m. These crossplots were successful to discriminate between sand and shale when using P-Impedance values, and between the wet sand and the pay sand when using both P-impedance and Vp/Vs together. Also, some impedance sections were converted to porosity sections using linear formula to characterize the reservoir in terms of porosity. The used crossplots were created on log resolution, while the seismic resolution can identify only the reservoir, unless a 3D seismic angle stacks were available; then it would be easier to identify the pay sand with great confidence; through high resolution seismic inversion and geostatistical approach when using P-impedance and Vp/Vs volumes.

Keywords: basin, Blue Nile, inversion, seismic

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
8572 Characterization of Graphene Oxide Coated Gold Electrodes for Bioimpedance Measurements

Authors: Fatma Gülden Şi̇mşek, Osman Meli̇h Can, Mehmet Yumak, Bora Gari̇pcan, Yekta Ülgen

Abstract:

In this study, the impedance spectroscopy is used as a detection tool in order to characterize surface coating with graphene oxide. Gold electrodes are produced by standard lithography procedures and then coated with graphene oxide using self-assembly method. The impedance of redox solution through bare gold electrodes and graphene oxide coated gold electrodes is measured in the low and high frequency range. The graphene oxide coating reduces the impedance value of the gold electrode and this reduction is distinguishable in the low-frequency range.

Keywords: bioimpedance, electrode characterization, graphene oxide, gold electrodes, impedance spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
8571 A Novel Solution to Restricted Earth Fault Low Impedance Relay Mal Operation

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, R. Ramaprabha, V. Rajini, V. Nagarajan

Abstract:

In this paper, the various methods of providing restricted earth fault protection are discussed. The proper operation of high and low impedance restricted earth fault (REF) protection for various applications has been discussed. The mal operation of a relay due to improper placement of CTs has been identified and a simple/unique solution has been proposed in this work with a case study. Moreover, it is found that the proper placement of CT in high impedance method will provide the same result with reduced CT. This methododlocy has been successfully implemented in Al Takreer refinery for a 2000 KVA transformer. The outcome of the paper may be included in IEEEC37.91 standard to give the proper guidance for protection engineers to sort out the problems related to mal functioning of REF relays.

Keywords: relay mal operation, transformer, low impedance REF, MATLAB, 64R, IEEE C37.91

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
8570 Symbolic Analysis of Power Spectrum of CMOS Cross Couple Oscillator

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch

Abstract:

This paper proposes for the first time symbolic formula of the power spectrum of cross couple oscillator and its modified circuit. Many principle existed to derived power spectrum in microwave textbook such as impedance, admittance parameters, ABCD, H parameters, etc. It can be compared by graph of power spectrum which methodology is the best from the point of view of practical measurement setup such as condition of impedance parameter which used superposition of current to derived (its current injection of the other port of the circuit is zero, which is impossible in reality). Four Graphs of impedance parameters of cross couple oscillator is proposed. After that four graphs of Scattering parameters of cross couple oscillator will be shown.

Keywords: optimization, power spectrum, impedance parameters, scattering parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
8569 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari

Abstract:

Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: density, p-impedance, s-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
8568 Investigation of Design Process of an Impedance Matching in the Specific Frequency for Radio Frequency Application

Authors: H. Nabaei, M. Joghataie

Abstract:

In this article, we study the design methods of matched filter with commercial software including CST Studio and ADS in specific frequency: 900 MHz. At first, we select two amounts of impedance for studying matching of them. Then, using by matched filter utility tool in ADS software, we simulate and deviate the elements of matched filters. In the following, we implement matched filter in CST STUDIO software. The simulated results show the great conformity in this field. Also, we peruse scattering and Impedance parameters in the Derivative structure. Finally, the layout of matched filter is obtained by the schematic tool of CST STUDIO. In fact, here, we present the design process of matched filters in the specific frequency.

Keywords: impedance matching, lumped element, transmission line, maximum power transmission, 3D layout

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
8567 Load Characteristics of Improved Howland Current Pump for Bio-Impedance Measurement

Authors: Zhao Weijie, Lin Xinjian, Liu Xiaojuan, Li Lihua

Abstract:

The Howland current pump is widely used in bio-impedance measurement. Much attention has been focused on the output impedance of the Howland circuit. Here we focus on the maximum load of the Howland source and discuss the relationship between the circuit parameters at maximum load. We conclude that the signal input terminal of the feedback resistor should be as large as possible, but that the current-limiting resistor should be smaller. The op-amp saturation voltage should also be high. The bandwidth of the circuit is proportional to the bandwidth of the op-amp. The Howland current pump was simulated using multisim12. When the AD8066AR was selected as the op-amp, the maximum load was 11.5 kΩ, and the Howland current pump had a stable output ipp to 2mAp up to 200 kHz. However, with an OPA847 op-amp and a load of 6.3 kΩ, the output current was also stable, and the frequency was as high as 3 MHz.

Keywords: bio-impedance, improved Howland current pump, load characteristics, bioengineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
8566 A New Microstrip Diplexer Using Coupled Stepped Impedance Resonators

Authors: A. Chinig, J. Zbitou, A. Errkik, L. Elabdellaoui, A. Tajmouati, A. Tribak, M. Latrach

Abstract:

This paper presents a new structure of microstrip band pass filter (BPF) based on coupled stepped impedance resonators. Each filter consists of two coupled stepped impedance resonators connected to microstrip feed lines. The coupled junction is utilized to connect the two BPFs to the antenna. This two band pass filters are designed and simulated to operate for the digital communication system (DCS) and Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands at 1.8 GHz and 2.45 GHz respectively. The proposed circuit presents good performances with an insertion loss lower than 2.3 dB and isolation between the two channels greater than 21 dB. The prototype of the optimized diplexer have been investigated numerically by using ADS Agilent and verified with CST microwave software.

Keywords: band pass filter, coupled junction, coupled stepped impedance resonators, diplexer, insertion loss, isolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
8565 Comparative Study of Impedance Parameters for 42CrMo4 Steel Nitrided and Exposed at Electrochemical Corrosion

Authors: M. H. Belahssen, S. Benramache

Abstract:

This paper presents corrosion behavior of alloy 42CrMo4 steel nitrided by plasma. Different samples nitrided were tested. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the tests were carried out in acid chloride solution 1M. The best corrosion protection was observed for nitrided samples. The aim of this work is to compare equivalents circuits corresponding to Nyquist curves simulated and experimental and select who gives best results of impedance parameters with lowest error.

Keywords: pasma nitriding, steel, alloy 42CrMo4, elecrochemistry, corrosion behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
8564 Investigation and Analysis on Pore Pressure Variation by Sonic Impedance under Influence of Compressional, Shear, and Stonely Waves in High Pressure Zones

Authors: Nouri, K., Ghassem Alaskari, M., K., Amiri Hazaveh, A., Nabi Bidhendi, M.

Abstract:

Pore pressure is one on the key Petrophysical parameter in exploration discussion and survey on hydrocarbon reservoir. Determination of pore pressure in various levels of drilling and integrity of drilling mud and high pressure zones in order to restrict blow-out and following damages are significant. The pore pressure is obtained by seismic and well logging data. In this study the pore pressure and over burden pressure through the matrix stress and Tarzaqi equation and other related formulas are calculated. By making a comparison on variation of density log in over normal pressure zones with change of sonic impedance under influence of compressional, shear, and Stonely waves, the correlation level of sonic impedance with density log is studied. The level of correlation and variation trend is recorded in sonic impedance under influence Stonely wave with density log that key factor in recording of over burden pressure and pore pressure in Tarzaqi equation is high. The transition time is in divert relation with porosity and fluid type in the formation and as a consequence to the pore pressure. The density log is a key factor in determination of pore pressure therefore sonic impedance under Stonley wave is denotes well the identification of high pressure besides other used factors.

Keywords: pore pressure, stonely wave, density log, sonic impedance, high pressure zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
8563 Measuring the Cavitation Cloud by Electrical Impedance Tomography

Authors: Michal Malik, Jiri Primas, Darina Jasikova, Michal Kotek, Vaclav Kopecky

Abstract:

This paper is a case study dealing with the viability of using Electrical Impedance Tomography for measuring cavitation clouds in a pipe setup. The authors used a simple passive cavitation generator to cause a cavitation cloud, which was then recorded for multiple flow rates using electrodes in two measuring planes. The paper presents the results of the experiment, showing the used industrial grade tomography system ITS p2+ is able to measure the cavitation cloud and may be particularly useful for identifying the inception of cavitation in setups where other measuring tools may not be viable.

Keywords: cavitation cloud, conductivity measurement, electrical impedance tomography, mechanically induced cavitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
8562 Dielectric and Impedance Spectroscopy of Samarium and Lanthanum Doped Barium Titanate at Room Temperature

Authors: Sukhleen Bindra Narang, Dalveer Kaur, Kunal Pubby

Abstract:

Dielectric ceramic samples in the BaO-Re2O3-TiO2 ternary system were synthesized with structural formula Ba2-xRe4+2x/3Ti8O24 where Re= rare earth metal and Re= Sm and La where x varies from 0.0 to 0.6 with step size 0.1. Polycrystalline samples were prepared by the conventional solid state reaction technique. The dielectric, electrical and impedance analysis of all the samples in the frequency range 1KHz- 1MHz at room temperature (25°C) have been done to get the understanding of electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation and their correlation. Dielectric response of the samples at lower frequencies shows dielectric dispersion while at higher frequencies it shows dielectric relaxation. The ac conductivity is well fitted by the Jonscher law (σac = σdc+Aωn). The spectroscopic data in the impedance plane confirms the existence of grain contribution to the relaxation. All the properties are found out to be function of frequency as well as the amount of substitution.

Keywords: dielectric ceramics, dielectric constant, loss tangent, AC conductivity, impedance spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
8561 An Electrically Small Silver Ink Printed FR4 Antenna for RF Transceiver Chip CC1101

Authors: F. Majeed, D. V. Thiel, M. Shahpari

Abstract:

An electrically small meander line antenna is designed for impedance matching with RF transceiver chip CC1101. The design provides the flexibility of tuning the reactance of the antenna over a wide range of values: highly capacitive to highly inductive. The antenna was printed with silver ink on FR4 substrate using the screen printing design process. The antenna impedance was perfectly matched to CC1101 at 433 MHz. The measured radiation efficiency of the antenna was 81.3% at resonance. The 3 dB and 10 dB fractional bandwidth of the antenna was 14.5% and 4.78%, respectively. The read range of the antenna was compared with a copper wire monopole antenna over a distance of five meters. The antenna, with a perfect impedance match with RF transceiver chip CC1101, shows improvement in the read range compared to a monopole antenna over the specified distance.

Keywords: meander line antenna, RFID, silver ink printing, impedance matching

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
8560 Dielectrophoretic Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanowires for Biotechnology Application

Authors: Ahmad Sabry Mohamad, Kai F. Hoettges, Michael Pycraft Hughes

Abstract:

This study investigates nanowires using Dielectrophoresis (DEP) in non-aqueous suspension of Tin (IV) Oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles dispersed in N,N-dimenthylformamide (DMF). The self assembly of nanowires in DEP impedance spectroscopy can be determined. In this work, dielectrophoretic method was used to measure non-organic molecules for estimating the permittivity and conductivity characteristic of the nanowires. As in aqueous such as salt solution has been dominating the transport of SnO2, which are the wire growth threshold, depend on applied voltage. While DEP assembly of nanowires depend on applied frequency, the applications of dielectrophoretic collection are measured using impedance spectroscopy.

Keywords: dielectrophoresis, impedance spectroscopy, nanowires, N, N-dimenthylformamide, SnO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 482
8559 Revised Tower Earthing Design in High-Voltage Transmission Network for High-Frequency Lightning Condition

Authors: Azwadi Mohamad, Pauzi Yahaya, Nadiah Hudi

Abstract:

Earthing system for high-voltage transmission tower is designed to protect the working personnel and equipments, and to maintain the quality of supply during fault. The existing earthing system for transmission towers in TNB’s system is purposely designed for normal power frequency (low-frequency) fault conditions that take into account the step and touch voltages. This earthing design is found to be inapt for lightning (transient) condition to a certain extent, which involves a high-frequency domain. The current earthing practice of laying the electrodes radially in straight 60 m horizontal lines under the ground, in order to achieve the specified impedance value of less than 10 Ω, was deemed ineffective in reducing the high-frequency impedance. This paper introduces a new earthing design that produces low impedance value at the high-frequency domain, without compromising the performance of low-frequency impedance. The performances of this new earthing design, as well as the existing design, are simulated for various soil resistivity values at varying frequency. The proposed concentrated earthing design is found to possess low TFR value at both low and high-frequency. A good earthing design should have a fine balance between compact and radial electrodes under the ground.

Keywords: earthing design, high-frequency, lightning, tower footing impedance

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
8558 Detection of Intravenous Infiltration Using Impedance Parameters in Patients in a Long-Term Care Hospital

Authors: Ihn Sook Jeong, Eun Joo Lee, Jae Hyung Kim, Gun Ho Kim, Young Jun Hwang

Abstract:

This study investigated intravenous (IV) infiltration using bioelectrical impedance for 27 hospitalized patients in a long-term care hospital. Impedance parameters showed significant differences before and after infiltration as follows. First, the resistance (R) after infiltration significantly decreased compared to the initial resistance. This indicates that the IV solution flowing from the vein due to infiltration accumulates in the extracellular fluid (ECF). Second, the relative resistance at 50 kHz was 0.94 ± 0.07 in 9 subjects without infiltration and was 0.75 ± 0.12 in 18 subjects with infiltration. Third, the magnitude of the reactance (Xc) decreased after infiltration. This is because IV solution and blood components released from the vein tend to aggregate in the cell membrane (and acts analogously to the linear/parallel circuit), thereby increasing the capacitance (Cm) of the cell membrane and reducing the magnitude of reactance. Finally, the data points plotted in the R-Xc graph were distributed on the upper right before infiltration but on the lower left after infiltration. This indicates that the infiltration caused accumulation of fluid or blood components in the epidermal and subcutaneous tissues, resulting in reduced resistance and reactance, thereby lowering integrity of the cell membrane. Our findings suggest that bioelectrical impedance is an effective method for detection of infiltration in a noninvasive and quantitative manner.

Keywords: intravenous infiltration, impedance, parameters, resistance, reactance

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
8557 An Ultra-Low Output Impedance Power Amplifier for Tx Array in 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Ashraf Abuelhaija, Klaus Solbach

Abstract:

In Ultra high-field MRI scanners (3T and higher), parallel RF transmission techniques using multiple RF chains with multiple transmit elements are a promising approach to overcome the high-field MRI challenges in terms of inhomogeneity in the RF magnetic field and SAR. However, mutual coupling between the transmit array elements disturbs the desirable independent control of the RF waveforms for each element. This contribution demonstrates a 18 dB improvement of decoupling (isolation) performance due to the very low output impedance of our 1 kW power amplifier.

Keywords: EM coupling, inter-element isolation, magnetic resonance imaging (mri), parallel transmit

Procedia PDF Downloads 374