Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2719

Search results for: loss tangent

2719 Processing and Characterization of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3 Dielectric Ceramics

Authors: Shalini Bahel, Maalti Puri, Sukhleen Bindra Narang


Ceramic samples of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55)(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 were synthesized by columbite precursor method and characterized for structural and dielectric properties. Both the synthesized samples have perovskite structure with tetragonal symmetry. The variations in relative permittivity and loss tangent were measured as a function of frequency at room temperature. Both the relative permittivity and loss tangent decreased with increase in frequency. A reasonably high value of relative permittivity of 63.46, loss tangent of 0.0067 at 15 MHz and temperature coefficient of relative permittivity of -82 ppm/˚C was obtained for (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3.

Keywords: loss tangent, perovskite, relative permittivity, X-ray diffraction

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2718 The Effects of the Uniaxial Anisotropy and the Loss Tangent on the Resonant Frequencies in Stacked Rectangular Patches Configuration

Authors: Boualem Mekimah, Abderraouf Messai, Abdelkrim Belhedri


Dielectric substrates have an important attention in the fabrication of microstrip patch antennas. The effects of the uniaxial anisotropy and the loss tangent on resonant frequencies of microstrip patches consist of two perfectly conducting rectangular patches in stacked and offset configuration, embedded in a bilayer medium containing isotropic or uniaxial anisotropic materials. The Green’s functions are discussed in detail and numerical results are validated by comparing the computed results with previously published data. The numerical results show, that the uniaxial anisotropy has more effects on resonant frequencies according to the optical axis. However, the loss tangent of dielectric substrates has almost no effect on resonant frequencies, but it strongly affects the imaginary parts of the resonant frequencies of the antenna. The dielectric constant has no effect on the separation in terms of frequencies.

Keywords: resonant frequencies, loss tangent, microstrip patches, stacked, anisotropic materials, optical axis

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
2717 Dielectric Properties of Ni-Al Nano Ferrites Synthesized by Citrate Gel Method

Authors: D. Ravinder, K. S. Nagaraju


Ni–Al ferrite with composition of NiAlxFe2-xO4 (x=0.2, 0.4 0.6, and 0.8, ) were prepared by citrate gel method. The dielectric properties for all the samples were investigated at room temperature as a function of frequency. The dielectric constant shows dispersion in the lower frequency region and remains almost constant at higher frequencies. The frequency dependence of dielectric loss tangent (tanδ) is found to be abnormal, giving a peak at certain frequency for mixed Ni-Al ferrites. A qualitative explanation is given for the composition and frequency dependence of the dielectric loss tangent.

Keywords: ferrites, citrate method, lattice parameter, dielectric constant

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
2716 Relation between Roots and Tangent Lines of Function in Fractional Dimensions: A Method for Optimization Problems

Authors: Ali Dorostkar


In this paper, a basic schematic of fractional dimensional optimization problem is presented. As will be shown, a method is performed based on a relation between roots and tangent lines of function in fractional dimensions for an arbitrary initial point. It is shown that for each polynomial function with order N at least N tangent lines must be existed in fractional dimensions of 0 < α < N+1 which pass exactly through the all roots of the proposed function. Geometrical analysis of tangent lines in fractional dimensions is also presented to clarify more intuitively the proposed method. Results show that with an appropriate selection of fractional dimensions, we can directly find the roots. Method is presented for giving a different direction of optimization problems by the use of fractional dimensions.

Keywords: tangent line, fractional dimension, root, optimization problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
2715 Operating Speed Models on Tangent Sections of Two-Lane Rural Roads

Authors: Dražen Cvitanić, Biljana Maljković


This paper presents models for predicting operating speeds on tangent sections of two-lane rural roads developed on continuous speed data. The data corresponds to 20 drivers of different ages and driving experiences, driving their own cars along an 18 km long section of a state road. The data were first used for determination of maximum operating speeds on tangents and their comparison with speeds in the middle of tangents i.e. speed data used in most of operating speed studies. Analysis of continuous speed data indicated that the spot speed data are not reliable indicators of relevant speeds. After that, operating speed models for tangent sections were developed. There was no significant difference between models developed using speed data in the middle of tangent sections and models developed using maximum operating speeds on tangent sections. All developed models have higher coefficient of determination then models developed on spot speed data. Thus, it can be concluded that the method of measuring has more significant impact on the quality of operating speed model than the location of measurement.

Keywords: operating speed, continuous speed data, tangent sections, spot speed, consistency

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2714 A Criterion for Evaluating Plastic Loads: Plastic Work-Tangent Criterion

Authors: Ying Zhang


In ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, the plastic load is defined by applying the twice elastic slope (TES) criterion of plastic collapse to a characteristic load-deformation curve for the vessel. Several other plastic criterion such as tangent intersection (TI) criterion, plastic work (PW) criterion have been proposed in the literature, but all exhibit a practical limitation: difficult to define the load parameter for vessels subject to several combined loads. An alternative criterion: plastic work-tangent (PWT) criterion for evaluating plastic load in pressure vessel design by analysis is presented in this paper. According to the plastic work-load curve, when the tangent variation is less than a given value in the plastic phase, the corresponding load is the plastic load. Application of the proposed criterion is illustrated by considering the elastic-plastic response of the lower head of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and nozzle intersection of (RPV). It is proposed that this is because the PWT criterion more fully represents the constraining effect of material strain hardening on the spread of plastic deformation and more efficiently ton evaluating the plastic load.

Keywords: plastic load, plastic work, strain hardening, plastic work-tangent criterion

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2713 On the PTC Thermistor Model with a Hyperbolic Tangent Electrical Conductivity

Authors: M. O. Durojaye, J. T. Agee


This paper is on the one-dimensional, positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor model with a hyperbolic tangent function approximation for the electrical conductivity. The method of asymptotic expansion was adopted to obtain the steady state solution and the unsteady-state response was obtained using the method of lines (MOL) which is a well-established numerical technique. The approach is to reduce the partial differential equation to a vector system of ordinary differential equations and solve numerically. Our analysis shows that the hyperbolic tangent approximation introduced is well suitable for the electrical conductivity. Numerical solutions obtained also exhibit correct physical characteristics of the thermistor and are in good agreement with the exact steady state solutions.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, hyperbolic tangent function, PTC thermistor, method of lines

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2712 Design for Filter and Transitions to Substrat Integated Waveguide at Ka Band

Authors: Damou Mehdi, Nouri Keltouma, Fahem Mohammed


In this paper, the concept of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology is used to design filter for 30 GHz communication systems. SIW is created in the substrate of RT/Duroid 5880 having relative permittivity ε_r= 2.2 and loss tangent tanφ = 0.0009. Four Via are placed on the century filter the structures of SIW are modeled using and have been optimized in software HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator), à transition is designed for a Ka-band transceiver module with a 28.5GHz center frequency, . and then the results are verified using another simulation CST Microwave Studio (Computer Simulation Technology). The return loss are less than -18 dB, and -13 dB respectively. The insertion loss is divided equally -1.2 dB and -1.4 respectively.

Keywords: transition, microstrip, substrat integrated wave guide, filter, via

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2711 Non-Contact Characterization of Standard Liquids Using Waveguide at 12.4 to18 Ghz Frequency Span

Authors: Kasra Khorsand-Kazemi, Bianca Vizcaino, Mandeep Chhajer Jain, Maryam Moradpour


This work presents an approach to characterize a non- contact microwave sensor using waveguides for different standard liquids such as ethanol, methanol and 2-propanol (Isopropyl Alcohol). Wideband waveguides operating between 12.4GHz to 18 GHz form the core of the sensing structure. Waveguides are sensitive to changes in conductivity of the sample under test (SUT), making them an ideal tool to characterize different polar liquids. As conductivity of the sample under test increase, the loss tangent of the material increase, thereby decreasing the S21 (dB) response of the waveguide. Among all the standard liquids measured, methanol exhibits the highest conductivity and 2-Propanol exhibits the lowest. The cutoff frequency measured for ethanol, 2-propanol, and methanol are 10.28 GHz, 10.32 GHz, and 10.38 GHz respectively. The measured results can be correlated with the loss tangent results of the standard liquid measured using the dielectric probe. This conclusively enables us to characterize different liquids using waveguides expanding the potential future applications in domains ranging from water quality management to bio-medical, chemistry and agriculture.

Keywords: Waveguides, , Microwave sensors, , Standard liquids characterization, Non-contact sensing

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2710 Comparative Operating Speed and Speed Differential Day and Night Time Models for Two Lane Rural Highways

Authors: Vinayak Malaghan, Digvijay Pawar


Speed is the independent parameter which plays a vital role in the highway design. Design consistency of the highways is checked based on the variation in the operating speed. Often the design consistency fails to meet the driver’s expectation which results in the difference between operating and design speed. Literature reviews have shown that significant crashes take place in horizontal curves due to lack of design consistency. The paper focuses on continuous speed profile study on tangent to curve transition for both day and night daytime. Data is collected using GPS device which gives continuous speed profile and other parameters such as acceleration, deceleration were analyzed along with Tangent to Curve Transition. In this present study, models were developed to predict operating speed on tangents and horizontal curves as well as model indicating the speed reduction from tangent to curve based on continuous speed profile data. It is observed from the study that vehicle tends to decelerate from approach tangent to between beginning of the curve and midpoint of the curve and then accelerates from curve to tangent transition. The models generated were compared for both day and night and can be used in the road safety improvement by evaluating the geometric design consistency.

Keywords: operating speed, design consistency, continuous speed profile data, day and night time

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
2709 The Malfatti’s Problem in Reuleaux Triangle

Authors: Ching-Shoei Chiang


The Malfatti’s Problem is to ask for fitting 3 circles into a right triangle such that they are tangent to each other, and each circle is also tangent to a pair of the triangle’s side. This problem has been extended to any triangle (called general Malfatti’s Problem). Furthermore, the problem has been extended to have 1+2+…+n circles, we call it extended general Malfatti’s problem, these circles whose tangency graph, using the center of circles as vertices and the edge connect two circles center if these two circles tangent to each other, has the structure as Pascal’s triangle, and the exterior circles of these circles tangent to three sides of the triangle. In the extended general Malfatti’s problem, there are closed-form solutions for n=1, 2, and the problem becomes complex when n is greater than 2. In solving extended general Malfatti’s problem (n>2), we initially give values to the radii of all circles. From the tangency graph and current radii, we can compute angle value between two vectors. These vectors are from the center of the circle to the tangency points with surrounding elements, and these surrounding elements can be the boundary of the triangle or other circles. For each circle C, there are vectors from its center c to its tangency point with its neighbors (count clockwise) pi, i=0, 1,2,..,n. We add all angles between cpi to cp(i+1) mod (n+1), i=0,1,..,n, call it sumangle(C) for circle C. Using sumangle(C), we can reduce/enlarge the radii for all circles in next iteration, until sumangle(C) is equal to 2πfor all circles. With a similar idea, this paper proposed an algorithm to find the radii of circles whose tangency has the structure of Pascal’s triangle, and the exterior circles of these circles are tangent to the unit Realeaux Triangle.

Keywords: Malfatti’s problem, geometric constraint solver, computer-aided geometric design, circle packing, data visualization

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2708 Greatly Improved Dielectric Properties of Poly'vinylidene fluoride' Nanocomposites Using Ag-BaTiO₃ Hybrid Nanoparticles as Filler

Authors: K. Silakaew, P. Thongbai


There is an increasing need for high–permittivity polymer–matrix composites (PMC) owing to the rapid development of the electronics industry. Unfortunately, the dielectric permittivity of PMC is still too low ( < 80). Moreover, the dielectric loss tangent is usually high (tan > 0.1) when the dielectric permittivity of PMC increased. In this research work, the dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)–based nanocomposites can be significantly improved by incorporating by silver–BaTiO3 (Ag–BT) ceramic hybrid nanoparticles. The Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites were fabricated using various volume fractions of Ag–BT hybrid nanoparticles (fAg–BT = 0–0.5). The Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites were characterized using several techniques. The main phase of Ag and BT can be detected by the XRD technique. The microstructure of the Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites was investigated to reveal the dispersion of Ag–BT hybrid nanoparticles because the dispersion state of a filler can have an effect on the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites. It was found that the filler hybrid nanoparticles were well dispersed in the PVDF matrix. The phase formation of PVDF phases was identified using the XRD and FTIR techniques. We found that the fillers can increase the polar phase of a PVDF polymer. The fabricated Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites are systematically characterized to explain the dielectric behavior in Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites. Interestingly, largely enhanced dielectric permittivity (>240) and suppressed loss tangent (tan<0.08) over a wide frequency range (102 – 105 Hz) are obtained. Notably, the dielectric permittivity is slightly dependent on temperature. The greatly enhanced dielectric permittivity was explained by the interfacial polarization between the Ag and PVDF interface, and due to a high permittivity of BT particles.

Keywords: BaTiO3, PVDF, polymer composite, dielectric properties

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2707 Simulation of Dynamic Behavior of Seismic Isolators Using a Parallel Elasto-Plastic Model

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Giorgio Serino


In this paper, a one-dimensional (1d) Parallel Elasto- Plastic Model (PEPM), able to simulate the uniaxial dynamic behavior of seismic isolators having a continuously decreasing tangent stiffness with increasing displacement, is presented. The parallel modeling concept is applied to discretize the continuously decreasing tangent stiffness function, thus allowing to simulate the dynamic behavior of seismic isolation bearings by putting linear elastic and nonlinear elastic-perfectly plastic elements in parallel. The mathematical model has been validated by comparing the experimental force-displacement hysteresis loops, obtained testing a helical wire rope isolator and a recycled rubber-fiber reinforced bearing, with those predicted numerically. Good agreement between the simulated and experimental results shows that the proposed model can be an effective numerical tool to predict the forcedisplacement relationship of seismic isolators within relatively large displacements. Compared to the widely used Bouc-Wen model, the proposed one allows to avoid the numerical solution of a first order ordinary nonlinear differential equation for each time step of a nonlinear time history analysis, thus reducing the computation effort, and requires the evaluation of only three model parameters from experimental tests, namely the initial tangent stiffness, the asymptotic tangent stiffness, and a parameter defining the transition from the initial to the asymptotic tangent stiffness.

Keywords: base isolation, earthquake engineering, parallel elasto-plastic model, seismic isolators, softening hysteresis loops

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2706 Design and Parametric Analysis of Pentaband Meander Line Antenna for Mobile Handset Applications

Authors: Shrinivas P. Mahajan, Aarti C. Kshirsagar


Wireless communication technology is rapidly changing with recent developments in portable devices and communication protocols. This has generated demand for more advanced and compact antenna structures and therefore, proposed work focuses on Meander Line Antenna (MLA) design. Here, Pentaband MLA is designed on a FR4 substrate (85 mm x 40 mm) with dielectric constant (ϵr) 4.4, loss tangent (tan ) 0.018 and height 1.6 mm with coplanar feed and open stub structure. It can be operated in LTE (0.670 GHz-0.696 GHz) GPS (1.564 GHz-1.579 GHz), WCDMA (1.920 GHz-2.135 GHz), LTE UL frequency band 23 (2-2.020 GHz) and 5G (3.10 GHz-3.550 GHz) application bands. Also, it gives good performance in terms of Return Loss (RL) which is < -10 dB, impedance bandwidth with maximum Bandwidth (BW) up to 0.21 GHz and realized gains with maximum gain up to 3.28 dBi. Antenna is simulated with open stub and without open stub structures to see the effect on impedance BW coverage. In addition to this, it is checked with human hand and head phantoms to assure that it falls within specified Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) limits.

Keywords: coplanar feed, L shaped ground, Meander Line Antenna, MLA, Phantom, Specific Absorption Rate, SAR

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2705 Prediction of Terrorist Activities in Nigeria using Bayesian Neural Network with Heterogeneous Transfer Functions

Authors: Tayo P. Ogundunmade, Adedayo A. Adepoju


Terrorist attacks in liberal democracies bring about a few pessimistic results, for example, sabotaged public support in the governments they target, disturbing the peace of a protected environment underwritten by the state, and a limitation of individuals from adding to the advancement of the country, among others. Hence, seeking for techniques to understand the different factors involved in terrorism and how to deal with those factors in order to completely stop or reduce terrorist activities is the topmost priority of the government in every country. This research aim is to develop an efficient deep learning-based predictive model for the prediction of future terrorist activities in Nigeria, addressing low-quality prediction accuracy problems associated with the existing solution methods. The proposed predictive AI-based model as a counterterrorism tool will be useful by governments and law enforcement agencies to protect the lives of individuals in society and to improve the quality of life in general. A Heterogeneous Bayesian Neural Network (HETBNN) model was derived with Gaussian error normal distribution. Three primary transfer functions (HOTTFs), as well as two derived transfer functions (HETTFs) arising from the convolution of the HOTTFs, are namely; Symmetric Saturated Linear transfer function (SATLINS ), Hyperbolic Tangent transfer function (TANH), Hyperbolic Tangent sigmoid transfer function (TANSIG), Symmetric Saturated Linear and Hyperbolic Tangent transfer function (SATLINS-TANH) and Symmetric Saturated Linear and Hyperbolic Tangent Sigmoid transfer function (SATLINS-TANSIG). Data on the Terrorist activities in Nigeria gathered through questionnaires for the purpose of this study were used. Mean Square Error (MSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Test Error are the forecast prediction criteria. The results showed that the HETFs performed better in terms of prediction and factors associated with terrorist activities in Nigeria were determined. The proposed predictive deep learning-based model will be useful to governments and law enforcement agencies as an effective counterterrorism mechanism to understand the parameters of terrorism and to design strategies to deal with terrorism before an incident actually happens and potentially causes the loss of precious lives. The proposed predictive AI-based model will reduce the chances of terrorist activities and is particularly helpful for security agencies to predict future terrorist activities.

Keywords: activation functions, Bayesian neural network, mean square error, test error, terrorism

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2704 Loss Allocation in Radial Distribution Networks for Loads of Composite Types

Authors: Sumit Banerjee, Chandan Kumar Chanda


The paper presents allocation of active power losses and energy losses to consumers connected to radial distribution networks in a deregulated environment for loads of composite types. A detailed comparison among four algorithms, namely quadratic loss allocation, proportional loss allocation, pro rata loss allocation and exact loss allocation methods are presented. Quadratic and proportional loss allocations are based on identifying the active and reactive components of current in each branch and the losses are allocated to each consumer, pro rata loss allocation method is based on the load demand of each consumer and exact loss allocation method is based on the actual contribution of active power loss by each consumer. The effectiveness of the proposed comparison among four algorithms for composite load is demonstrated through an example.

Keywords: composite type, deregulation, loss allocation, radial distribution networks

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2703 A Horn Antenna Loaded with FSS of Crossed Dipoles

Authors: Ibrahim Mostafa El-Mongy, Abdelmegid Allam


In this article analysis and investigation of the effect of loading a horn antenna with frequency selective surface (FSS) of crossed dipoles of finite size is presented. It is fabricated on Rogers RO4350 (lossy) of relative permittivity 3.33, thickness 1.524 mm and loss tangent 0.004. Basically it is applied for filtering and minimizing the interference and noise in the desired band. The filtration is carried out using a finite FSS of crossed dipoles of overall dimensions 98x58 mm2. The filtration is shown by limiting the transmission bandwidth from 4 GHz (8–12 GHz) to 0.25 GHz (10.75–11 GHz). It is simulated using CST MWS and measured using network analyzer. There is a good agreement between the simulated and measured results.

Keywords: antenna, filtenna, frequency selective surface (FSS), horn

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2702 Bayesian Estimation under Different Loss Functions Using Gamma Prior for the Case of Exponential Distribution

Authors: Md. Rashidul Hasan, Atikur Rahman Baizid


The Bayesian estimation approach is a non-classical estimation technique in statistical inference and is very useful in real world situation. The aim of this paper is to study the Bayes estimators of the parameter of exponential distribution under different loss functions and then compared among them as well as with the classical estimator named maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). In our real life, we always try to minimize the loss and we also want to gather some prior information (distribution) about the problem to solve it accurately. Here the gamma prior is used as the prior distribution of exponential distribution for finding the Bayes estimator. In our study, we also used different symmetric and asymmetric loss functions such as squared error loss function, quadratic loss function, modified linear exponential (MLINEX) loss function and non-linear exponential (NLINEX) loss function. Finally, mean square error (MSE) of the estimators are obtained and then presented graphically.

Keywords: Bayes estimator, maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), modified linear exponential (MLINEX) loss function, Squared Error (SE) loss function, non-linear exponential (NLINEX) loss function

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2701 Economic Loss due to Ganoderma Disease in Oil Palm

Authors: K. Assis, K. P. Chong, A. S. Idris, C. M. Ho


Oil palm or Elaeis guineensis is considered as the golden crop in Malaysia. But oil palm industry in this country is now facing with the most devastating disease called as Ganoderma Basal Stem Rot disease. The objective of this paper is to analyze the economic loss due to this disease. There were three commercial oil palm sites selected for collecting the required data for economic analysis. Yield parameter used to measure the loss was the total weight of fresh fruit bunch in six months. The predictors include disease severity, change in disease severity, number of infected neighbor palms, age of palm, planting generation, topography, and first order interaction variables. The estimation model of yield loss was identified by using backward elimination based regression method. Diagnostic checking was conducted on the residual of the best yield loss model. The value of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was used to measure the forecast performance of the model. The best yield loss model was then used to estimate the economic loss by using the current monthly price of fresh fruit bunch at mill gate.

Keywords: ganoderma, oil palm, regression model, yield loss, economic loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
2700 A Horn Antenna Loaded with SIW FSS of Crossed Dipoles

Authors: Ibrahim Mostafa El-Mongy, Abdelmegid Allam


In this article analysis and investigation of the effect of loading a horn antenna with substrate integrated waveguide frequency selective surface (SIW FSS) of crossed dipoles of finite size is presented. It is fabricated on Rogers RO4350 (lossy) of relative permittivity 3.33, thickness 1.524mm and loss tangent 0.004. This structure is called a filtering antenna (filtenna). Basically it is applied for filtering and minimizing the interference and noise in the desired band. The filtration is carried out using a finite SIW FSS of crossed dipoles of overall dimensions 98x58 mm2. The filtration is shown by limiting the transmission bandwidth from 4 GHz (8–12 GHz) to 0.3 GHz (0.955–0.985 GHz). It is simulated using CST MWS and measured using network analyzer. There is a good agreement between the simulated and measured results.

Keywords: antenna, filtenna, frequency-selective surface (FSS), horn antennas

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
2699 Influence of Prestress Loss on Mechanical Performance of Fabricated Girder Bridge

Authors: Wu Xiaoguang, Liu Jiaxin, Fang Miaomiao, Wei Saidong


There are many prestressed concrete prefabricated girder Bridges with small and medium span and the damage is serious. This paper mainly study the effect of prestress loss of prefabricated bridge bearing performance, through the establishment of ANSYS finite element model, from the condition of different prestress loss research, get the stress and strain data, draw curve, finally get the following conclusion: loss of prestress can reduce the ultimate bearing capacity of Bridges, the side span across the deflection value than the influence of times side span, the influence of the deflection in the midspan cross value. Therefore, the prestress loss and the effective prestress should be strictly considered in the design and construction process.

Keywords: across the deflection, loss of prestress, prefabricated girder bridge, the main tensile stress

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2698 Grain and Grain Boundary Behavior of Sm Substituted Barium Titanate Based Ceramics

Authors: Parveen Kumar, J. K. Juneja, Chandra Prakash, K. K. Raina


A series of polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics with compositional formula Ba0.80-xSmxPb0.20Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 with x varying from 0 to 0.01 in the steps of 0.0025 has been prepared by solid state reaction method. The dielectric constant and tangent loss was measured as a function of frequency from 100Hz to 1MHz at different temperatures (200-500oC). The electrical behavior was then investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique. From the CIS study, it has been found that there is a contribution of both grain and grain boundary in the electrical behavior of such ceramics. Grain and grain boundary resistivity and capacitance were calculated at different temperature using CIS technique. The present paper is about the discussion of grain and grain boundary contribution towards the electrical properties of Sm modified BaTiO3 based ceramics at high temperature.

Keywords: grain, grain boundary, impedance, dielectric

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2697 Modeling Salam Contract for Profit and Loss Sharing

Authors: Dchieche Amina, Aboulaich Rajae


Profit and loss sharing suggests an equitable sharing of risks and profits between the parts involved in a financial transaction. Salam is a contract in which advance payment is made for goods to be delivered at a future date. The purpose of this work is to price a new contract for profit and loss sharing based on Salam contract, using Khiyar Al Ghabn which is an agreement of choice in case of misrepresent facts.

Keywords: Islamic finance, shariah compliance, profi t and loss sharing, derivatives, risks, hedging, salam contract

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
2696 Factors Associated with Weight Loss Maintenance after an Intervention Program

Authors: Filipa Cortez, Vanessa Pereira


Introduction: The main challenge of obesity treatment is long-term weight loss maintenance. The 3 phases method is a weight loss program that combines a low carb and moderately high-protein diet, food supplements and a weekly one-to-one consultation with a certified nutritionist. Sustained weight control is the ultimate goal of phase 3. Success criterion was the minimum loss of 10% of initial weight and its maintenance after 12 months. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with successful weight loss maintenance after 12 months at the end of 3 phases method. Methods: The study included 199 subjects that achieved their weight loss goal (phase 3). Weight and body mass index (BMI) were obtained at the baseline and every week until the end of the program. Therapeutic adherence was measured weekly on a Likert scale from 1 to 5. Subjects were considered in compliance with nutritional recommendation and supplementation when their classification was ≥ 4. After 12 months of the method, the current weight and number of previous weight-loss attempts were collected by telephone interview. The statistical significance was assumed at p-values < 0.05. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS TM software v.21. Results: 65.3% of subjects met the success criterion. The factors which displayed a significant weight loss maintenance prediction were: greater initial percentage weight loss (OR=1.44) during the weight loss intervention and a higher number of consultations in phase 3 (OR=1.10). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the percentage weight loss during the weight loss intervention and the number of consultations in phase 3 may facilitate maintenance of weight loss after the 3 phases method.

Keywords: obesity, weight maintenance, low-carbohydrate diet, dietary supplements

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2695 Estimation of Pressure Loss Coefficients in Combining Flows Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Shahzad Yousaf, Imran Shafi


This paper presents a new method for calculation of pressure loss coefficients by use of the artificial neural network (ANN) in tee junctions. Geometry and flow parameters are feed into ANN as the inputs for purpose of training the network. Efficacy of the network is demonstrated by comparison of the experimental and ANN based calculated data of pressure loss coefficients for combining flows in a tee junction. Reynolds numbers ranging from 200 to 14000 and discharge ratios varying from minimum to maximum flow for calculation of pressure loss coefficients have been used. Pressure loss coefficients calculated using ANN are compared to the models from literature used in junction flows. The results achieved after the application of ANN agrees reasonably to the experimental values.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, combining flow, pressure loss coefficients, solar collector tee junctions

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2694 An Assessment of Vegetable Farmers’ Perceptions about Post-harvest Loss Sources in Ghana

Authors: Kofi Kyei, Kenchi Matsui


Loss of vegetable products has been a major constraint in the post-harvest chain. Sources of post-harvest loss in the vegetable industry start from the time of harvesting to its handling and at the various market centers. Identifying vegetable farmers’ perceptions about post-harvest loss sources is one way of addressing this issue. In this paper, we assessed farmers’ perceptions about sources of post-harvest losses in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We also identified the factors that influence their perceptions. To clearly understand farmers’ perceptions, we selected Sekyere-Kumawu District in the Ashanti Region. Sekyere-Kumawu District is one of the major producers of vegetables in the Region. Based on a questionnaire survey, 100 vegetable farmers growing tomato, pepper, okra, cabbage, and garden egg were purposely selected from five communities in Sekyere-Kumawu District. For farmers’ perceptions, the five points Likert scale was employed. On a scale from 1 (no loss) to 5 (extremely high loss), we processed the scores for each vegetable harvest. To clarify factors influencing farmers’ perceptions, the Pearson Correlation analysis was used. Our findings revealed that farmers perceive post-harvest loss by pest infestation as the most extreme loss. However, vegetable farmers did not perceive loss during transportation as a serious source of post-harvest loss. The Pearson Correlation analysis results further revealed that farmers’ age, gender, level of education, and years of experience had an influence on their perceptions. This paper then discusses some recommendations to minimize the post-harvest loss in the region.

Keywords: Ashanti Region, pest infestation, post-harvest loss, vegetable farmers

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2693 Efficient Model Selection in Linear and Non-Linear Quantile Regression by Cross-Validation

Authors: Yoonsuh Jung, Steven N. MacEachern


Check loss function is used to define quantile regression. In the prospect of cross validation, it is also employed as a validation function when underlying truth is unknown. However, our empirical study indicates that the validation with check loss often leads to choosing an over estimated fits. In this work, we suggest a modified or L2-adjusted check loss which rounds the sharp corner in the middle of check loss. It has a large effect of guarding against over fitted model in some extent. Through various simulation settings of linear and non-linear regressions, the improvement of check loss by L2 adjustment is empirically examined. This adjustment is devised to shrink to zero as sample size grows.

Keywords: cross-validation, model selection, quantile regression, tuning parameter selection

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2692 Predictive Simulations to Estimate Tire Pressure Loss and Air Mass Leakage Rate

Authors: Mahmoud C. Assaad


Inflated tires experience a loss of pressure with time. This phenomenon is due to the movement of gas through the boundary surrounding the cavity, namely the inner liner. Tire gauges and materials permeability are two essential parameters needed to provide an engineering estimate of the tire pressure loss with time. This predictive methodology was developed jointly with Sandia National Laboratories (National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia), it provides the analysts with a numerical tool to predict the air net mass leakage rate \dot{m}.

Keywords: tire, pressure loss, porous media, fea

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2691 Seasonal and Species Variations in Incidence of Foetal Loss at the Maiduguri Abattoir in Northern Nigeria

Authors: Abdulrazaq O. Raji, Abba Mohammed, Ibrahim D. Mohammed


This study was conducted to investigate foetal loss among slaughtered livestock species at the Maiduguri abattoir from 2009 to 2013. Record of animals slaughtered monthly and fetuses recovered were collected from the management of the Maiduguri abattoir. Data was subjected to Analysis of Variance using the General Linear Model of SPSS 13.0 with Season, Species and their interaction as fixed factors. Average yearly slaughter at the Maiduguri abattoir was 63,225 animals with cattle, camel, goat and sheep accounting for 19737, 7374, 19281 and 17540 of the total. The corresponding number of those pregnant were 3117, 839, 2281 and 2432 out of a total of 8522 animals. Thus, cattle, camel, goat and sheep accounted for 30.87, 11.53, 30.16 and 27.44%, respectively of the animals slaughtered at the Abattoir and 35.96, 9.68, 26.31 and 28.05% of the foetal loss. The effect of season and species on foetal loss was significant (P < 0.05). The number of pregnant animals slaughtered and foetal loss were higher during wet than dry season. Similarly, foetal loss at the abattoir was higher in the month of May in respect of camel, goat and sheep, and August for cattle. Camel was the least slaughtered animal and had the least number of pregnant females. Foetal loss (%) was higher (P < 0.05) for cattle compared to other species. The interaction showed that camel was the least slaughtered species in both seasons and cattle in the wet season had the highest foetal loss.

Keywords: abattoir, foetal loss, season, species

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2690 Design and Performance Comparison of Metamaterial Based Antenna for 4G/5G Mobile Devices

Authors: Jalal Khan, Daniyal Ali Sehrai, Shakeel Ahmad


This paper presents the design and performance evaluation of multiband metamaterial based antenna operating in the 3.6 GHz (4G), 14.33 GHz, and 28.86 GHz (5G) frequency bands, for future mobile and handheld devices. The radiating element of the proposed design is made up of a conductive material supported by a 1.524 mm thicker Rogers-4003 substrate, having a relative dielectric constant and loss tangent of 3.55 and 0.0027, respectively. The substrate is backed by truncated ground plane. The future mobile communication system is based on higher frequencies, which are highly affected by the atmospheric conditions. Therefore, to overcome the path loss problem, essential enhancements and improvements must be made in the overall performance of the antenna. The traditional ground plane does not provide the in-phase reflection and surface wave suppression due to which side and back lobes are produced. This will affect the antenna performance in terms of gain and efficiency. To enhance the overall performance of the antenna, a metamaterial acting as a high impedance surface (HIS) is used as a reflector in the proposed design. The simulated gain of the metamaterial based antenna is enhanced from {2.76-6.47, 4.83-6.71 and 7.52-7.73} dB at 3.6, 14.33 and 28.89 GHz, respectively relative to the gain of the antenna backed by a traditional ground plane. The proposed antenna radiated efficiently with a radiated efficiency (>85 %) in all the three frequency bands with and without metamaterial surface. The total volume of the antenna is (L x W x h=45 x 40 x 1.524) mm3. The antenna can be potentially used for wireless handheld devices and mobile terminal. All the simulations have been performed using the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software.

Keywords: CST MWS, fourth generation/fifth generation, 4G/5G, high gain, multiband, metamaterial

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