Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3046

Search results for: conductivity measurement

3046 Estimation of Uncertainty of Thermal Conductivity Measurement with Single Laboratory Validation Approach

Authors: Saowaluck Ukrisdawithid

Abstract:

The thermal conductivity of thermal insulation materials are measured by Heat Flow Meter (HFM) apparatus. The components of uncertainty are complex and difficult on routine measurement by modelling approach. In this study, uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement was estimated by single laboratory validation approach. The within-laboratory reproducibility was 1.1%. The standard uncertainty of method and laboratory bias by using SRM1453 expanded polystyrene board was dominant at 1.4%. However, it was assessed that there was no significant bias. For sample measurement, the sources of uncertainty were repeatability, density of sample and thermal conductivity resolution of HFM. From this approach to sample measurements, the combined uncertainty was calculated. In summary, the thermal conductivity of sample, polystyrene foam, was reported as 0.03367 W/m·K ± 3.5% (k = 2) at mean temperature 23.5 °C. The single laboratory validation approach is simple key of routine testing laboratory for estimation uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement by using HFM, according to ISO/IEC 17025-2017 requirements. These are meaningful for laboratory competent improvement, quality control on products, and conformity assessment.

Keywords: single laboratory validation approach, within-laboratory reproducibility, method and laboratory bias, certified reference material

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3045 High Efficiency Electrolyte Lithium Battery and RF Characterization

Authors: Wei Quan, Liu Chao, Mohammed N. Afsar

Abstract:

The dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of novel "ceramic state" polymer electrolytes for high capacity lithium battery are characterized by radio-frequency and Microwave methods in two broad frequency ranges from 50 Hz to 20 KHz and 4 GHz to 40 GHz. This innovative solid polymer electrolyte which is highly ionic conductive (10-3 S/cm at room temperature) from -40 oC to +150 oC and can be used in any battery application. Such polymer exhibits properties more like a ceramic rather than polymer. The various applied measurement methods produced accurate dielectric results for comprehensive analysis of electrochemical properties and ion transportation mechanism of this newly invented polymer electrolyte. Two techniques and instruments employing air gap measurement by capacitance bridge and inwave guide measurement by vector network analyzer are applied to measure the complex dielectric spectra. The complex dielectric spectra are used to determine the complex alternating current electrical conductivity and thus the ionic conductivity.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte, dielectric permittivity, lithium battery, ionic relaxation, microwave measurement

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3044 Measurement of VIP Edge Conduction Using Vacuum Guarded Hot Plate

Authors: Bongsu Choi, Tae-Ho Song

Abstract:

Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) is a promising thermal insulator for buildings, refrigerator, LNG carrier and so on. In general, it has the thermal conductivity of 2~4 mW/m•K. However, this thermal conductivity is that measured at the center of VIP. The total effective thermal conductivity of VIP is larger than this value due to the edge conduction through the envelope. In this paper, the edge conduction of VIP is examined theoretically, numerically and experimentally. To confirm the existence of the edge conduction, numerical analysis is performed for simple two-dimensional VIP model and a theoretical model is proposed to calculate the edge conductivity. Also, the edge conductivity is measured using the vacuum guarded hot plate and the experiment is validated against numerical analysis. The results show that the edge conductivity is dependent on the width of panel and thickness of Al-foil. To reduce the edge conduction, it is recommended that the VIP should be made as big as possible or made of thin Al film envelope.

Keywords: envelope, edge conduction, thermal conductivity, vacuum insulation panel

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3043 Thermal, Chemical, and Mineralogical Properties of Soil Building Blocks Reinforced with Cement

Authors: Abdelmalek Ammari

Abstract:

This paper represents an experimental study to determine the effect between thermal conductivity of Compressed Earth Block Stabilized (CEBs) by cement and the mineralogical and chemical analyses of soil, all the samples of CEB in the dry state and with different content of cement, the samples made by soil stabilized by Portland Cement. The soil used collected from fez city in Morocco. That determination of the thermal conductivity of CEBs plays an important role when considering its suitability for energy saving insulation. The measurement technique used to determine thermal conductivity is called hot ring method, the thermal conductivity of the tested samples is strongly affected by the quantity of the cement added. The soil of Fez, mainly composed of calcite, quartz, and dolomite, improved the behaviour of the material by the addition of cement. The findings suggest that to manufacture lightweight samples with high thermal insulation properties, it is advisable to use clays that contain quartz. . In addition, quartz has high thermal conductivity.

Keywords: compressed earth blocks, thermal conductivity, mineralogical, chemical, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
3042 Thermal Conductivity Measurement and Data Analysis of Biomass-Based Oxygenated Compounds Using Microfluidics

Authors: Rosa Moreno Jimenez, Claire Marliere, Benoit Creton, Olivier Nguyen, Lionel Teule-Gay, Samuel Marre

Abstract:

Concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere are rising rapidly, with the combustion of fossil resources responsible for a large part of the human induced carbon dioxide emission. Biomass-based biofuels can drastically reduce GHG emissions. The use of oxygenated bio-derived fuels (biofuels) have attracted attention as it provides environmental benefits. To convert biomass into useful forms of energy, a variety of conversion processes are required, and the design of such processes need, thermophysical property data. Thermal conductivity is considered as one of the most important thermophysical properties of fluids for heat transfer applications. Standard methods for measuring thermal conductivity are time consuming and error-prone due to convection effects. Microfluidics has been shown to be a viable solution to these issues thanks to its low reagent consumption, low operating time, improvement of heat and mass transfers etc, allowing an automated manipulation to perform high throughput experimentation. In addition, a new field of investigation called "high pressure and high temperature (HP-HT) microfluidics" 4 has gained increasing interest, for the determination of the thermo-physical properties of fluids systems. Currently, available methods for measuring thermal conductivity in microfluidics are not adapted to HP-HT conditions. Thermal conductivity of oxygenated compounds data remains scarce and often inconsistent between the various sources , particularly in extreme conditions. Therefore, the use of predictive models, combined with microfluidics, can be developed to complement experimental data. Machine learning (ML) provides powerful predictive tools with the ability to learn from available data and has been used to analyze data generated by microfluidics in several scenarios, showing promising results. Combining microfluidics and modeling results in high throughput generation of data. In this study, two types of sensor devices are implemented within a microfluidic device, allowing the measurement of thermal conductivity using different methodologies. In parallel, a data compilation resulting in a database has been established for the development of a ML based predictive model to estimate thermal conductivity of oxygenated compounds.

Keywords: microfluidics, thermal conductivity, temperature measurement, sensor, predictive model

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3041 Development of an Instrument for Measurement of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Tropical Fruit Juice

Authors: T. Ewetumo, K. D. Adedayo, Festus Ben

Abstract:

Knowledge of the thermal properties of foods is of fundamental importance in the food industry to establish the design of processing equipment. However, for tropical fruit juice, there is very little information in literature, seriously hampering processing procedures. This research work describes the development of an instrument for automated thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity measurement of tropical fruit juice using a transient thermal probe technique based on line heat principle. The system consists of two thermocouple sensors, constant current source, heater, thermocouple amplifier, microcontroller, microSD card shield and intelligent liquid crystal. A fixed distance of 6.50mm was maintained between the two probes. When heat is applied, the temperature rise at the heater probe measured with time at time interval of 4s for 240s. The measuring element conforms as closely as possible to an infinite line source of heat in an infinite fluid. Under these conditions, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are simultaneously measured, with thermal conductivity determined from the slope of a plot of the temperature rise of the heating element against the logarithm of time while thermal diffusivity was determined from the time it took the sample to attain a peak temperature and the time duration over a fixed diffusivity distance. A constant current source was designed to apply a power input of 16.33W/m to the probe throughout the experiment. The thermal probe was interfaced with a digital display and data logger by using an application program written in C++. Calibration of the instrument was done by determining the thermal properties of distilled water. Error due to convection was avoided by adding 1.5% agar to the water. The instrument has been used for measurement of thermal properties of banana, orange and watermelon. Thermal conductivity values of 0.593, 0.598, 0.586 W/m^o C and thermal diffusivity values of 1.053 ×〖10〗^(-7), 1.086 ×〖10〗^(-7), and 0.959 ×〖10〗^(-7) 〖m/s〗^2 were obtained for banana, orange and water melon respectively. Measured values were stored in a microSD card. The instrument performed very well as it measured the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the tropical fruit juice samples with statistical analysis (ANOVA) showing no significant difference (p>0.05) between the literature standards and estimated averages of each sample investigated with the developed instrument.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, tropical fruit juice, diffusion equation

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3040 Mapping Thermal Properties Using Resistivity, Lithology and Thermal Conductivity Measurements

Authors: Riccardo Pasquali, Keith Harlin, Mark Muller

Abstract:

The ShallowTherm project is focussed on developing and applying a methodology for extrapolating relatively sparsely sampled thermal conductivity measurements across Ireland using mapped Litho-Electrical (LE) units. The primary data used consist of electrical resistivities derived from the Geological Survey Ireland Tellus airborne electromagnetic dataset, GIS-based maps of Irish geology, and rock thermal conductivities derived from both the current Irish Ground Thermal Properties (IGTP) database and a new programme of sampling and laboratory measurement. The workflow has been developed across three case-study areas that sample a range of different calcareous, arenaceous, argillaceous, and volcanic lithologies. Statistical analysis of resistivity data from individual geological formations has been assessed and integrated with detailed lithological descriptions to define distinct LE units. Thermal conductivity measurements from core and hand samples have been acquired for every geological formation within each study area. The variability and consistency of thermal conductivity measurements within each LE unit is examined with the aim of defining a characteristic thermal conductivity (or range of thermal conductivities) for each LE unit. Mapping of LE units, coupled with characteristic thermal conductivities, provides a method of defining thermal conductivity properties at a regional scale and facilitating the design of ground source heat pump closed-loop collectors.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, ground source heat pumps, resistivity, heat exchange, shallow geothermal, Ireland

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3039 Analysis of Pollution in Agriculture Land Using Decagon Em-50 and Rock Magnetism Method

Authors: Adinda Syifa Azhari, Eleonora Agustine, Dini Fitriani

Abstract:

This measurement has been done to analyze the impact of industrial pollution on the environment. Our research is to indicate the soil which has contained some pollution by industrial activity around the area, especially in Sumedang, West Java. The parameter phsyics such as total dissolved solid, volumetric water content, electrical conductivity bulk and FD have shown that the soil has polluted and measured by Decagon EM 50. Decagon EM 50 is one of the geophysical environment instrumentation that is used to interpret the soil condition. This experiment has given a result of these parameter physics, these are: Volumetric water content (m³/m³) = 0,154 – 0,384; Electrical Conductivity Bulk (dS/m) = 0,29 – 1,11 ; Dielectric Permittivity (DP) = 77,636 – 78, 339.Based on these data, we have got the conclusion that the area has, in fact, been contaminated by dangerous materials. VWC is parameter physics that has shown water in soil. The data show the pollution of the soil at the place, of which the specifications are PH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Electrical Conductivity (EC) bigger (>>) and Frequency Dependent (FD) smaller (<<); that means the soil is alkali with big grain and has high salt concentration.

Keywords: Decagon EM 50, electrical conductivity, industrial textiles, land, pollution

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3038 Conductivity and Selection of Copper Clad Steel Wires for Grounding Applications

Authors: George Eduful, Kingsford J. A. Atanga

Abstract:

Copper clad steel wire (CCS) is primarily used for grounding applications to reduce the high incidence of copper ground conductor theft in electrical installations. The cross sectional area of the CCS is selected by relating the diameter equivalence to a copper conductor. The main difficulty is how to use a simple analytical relation to determine the right conductivity of CCS for a particular application. The use of Eddy-Current instrument for measuring conductivity is known but in most cases, the instrument is not readily available. The paper presents a simplified approach on how to size and determine CCS conductivity for a given application.

Keywords: copper clad steel wire, conductivity, grounding, skin effect

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3037 Study on the Non-Contact Sheet Resistance Measuring of Silver Nanowire Coated Film Using Terahertz Wave

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Wan-Ho Chung, Hak-Sung Kim

Abstract:

In this work, non-destructive evaluation was conducted to measure the sheet resistance of silver nanowire coated film and find a damage of that film using terahertz (THz) wave. Pulse type THz instrument was used, and the measurement was performed under transmission and pitch-catch reflection modes with 30 degree of incidence angle. In the transmission mode, the intensity of the THz wave was gradually increased as the conductivity decreased. Meanwhile, the intensity of THz wave was decreased as the conductivity decreased in the pitch-catch reflection mode. To confirm the conductivity of the film, sheet resistance was measured by 4-point probe station. Interaction formula was drawn from a relation between the intensity and the sheet resistance. Through substituting sheet resistance to the formula and comparing the resultant value with measured maximum THz wave intensity, measurement of sheet resistance using THz wave was more suitable than that using 4-point probe station. In addition, the damage on the silver nanowire coated film was detected by applying the THz image system. Therefore, the reliability of the entire film can be also be ensured. In conclusion, real-time monitoring using the THz wave can be applied in the transparent electrodes with detecting the damaged area as well as measuring the sheet resistance.

Keywords: terahertz wave, sheet resistance, non-destructive evaluation, silver nanowire

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3036 The Influence of Fiber Volume Fraction on Thermal Conductivity of Pultruded Profile

Authors: V. Lukášová, P. Peukert, V. Votrubec

Abstract:

Thermal conductivity in the x, y and z-directions was measured on a pultruded profile that was manufactured by the technology of pulling from glass fibers and a polyester matrix. The results of measurements of thermal conductivity showed considerable variability in different directions. The caused variability in thermal conductivity was expected due fraction variations. The cross-section of the pultruded profile was scanned. An image analysis illustrated an uneven distribution of the fibers and the matrix in the cross-section. The distribution of these inequalities was processed into a Voronoi diagram in the observed area of the pultruded profile cross-section. In order to verify whether the variation of the fiber volume fraction in the pultruded profile can affect its thermal conductivity, the numerical simulations in the ANSYS Fluent were performed. The simulation was based on the geometry reconstructed from image analysis. The aim is to quantify thermal conductivity numerically. Above all, images with different volume fractions were chosen. The results of the measured thermal conductivity were compared with the calculated thermal conductivity. The evaluated data proved a strong correlation between volume fraction and thermal conductivity of the pultruded profile. Based on presented results, a modification of production technology may be proposed.

Keywords: pultrusion profile, volume fraction, thermal conductivity, numerical simulation

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3035 Comparing the Experimental Thermal Conductivity Results Using Transient Methods

Authors: Sofia Mylona, Dale Hume

Abstract:

The main scope of this work is to compare the experimental thermal conductivity results of fluids between devices using transient techniques. A range of different liquids within a range of viscosities was measured with two or more devices, and the results were compared between the different methods and the reference equations wherever it was available. The liquids selected are the most commonly used in academic or industrial laboratories to calibrate their thermal conductivity instruments having a variety of thermal conductivity, viscosity, and density. Three transient methods (Transient Hot Wire, Transient Plane Source, and Transient Line Source) were compared for the thermal conductivity measurements taken by using them. These methods have been chosen as the most accurate and because they all follow the same idea; as a function of the logarithm of time, the thermal conductivity is calculated from the slope of a plot of sensor temperature rise. For all measurements, the selected temperature range was at the atmospheric level from 10 to 40 ° C. Our results are coming with an agreement with the objections of several scientists over the reliability of the results of a few popular devices. The observation was surprising that the device used in many laboratories for fast measurements of liquid thermal conductivity display deviations of 500 percent which can be very poorly reproduced.

Keywords: accurate data, liquids, thermal conductivity, transient methods.

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3034 Thermoelectric Properties of Doped Polycrystalline Silicon Film

Authors: Li Long, Thomas Ortlepp

Abstract:

The transport properties of carriers in polycrystalline silicon film affect the performance of polycrystalline silicon-based devices. They depend strongly on the grain structure, grain boundary trap properties, and doping concentration, which in turn are determined by the film deposition and processing conditions. Based on the properties of charge carriers, phonons, grain boundaries, and their interactions, the thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline silicon are analyzed with the relaxation time approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation. With this approach, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient as a function of grain size, trap properties, and doping concentration can be determined. An experiment on heavily doped polycrystalline silicon is carried out, and measurement results are compared with the model.

Keywords: conductivity, polycrystalline silicon, relaxation time approximation, Seebeck coefficient, thermoelectric property

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3033 Effect of Manganese Doping Percentage on Optical Band Gap and Conductivity of Copper Sulphide Nano-Films Prepared by Electrodeposition Method

Authors: P. C. Okafor, A. J. Ekpunobi

Abstract:

Mn doped copper sulphide (CuS:Mn) nano-films were deposited on indiums coated tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates using electrodeposition method. Electrodeposition was carried out using bath of PH = 3 at room temperature. Other depositions parameters such as deposition time (DT) are kept constant while Mn doping was varied from 3% to 23%. Absorption spectra of CuS:Mn films was obtained by using JENWAY 6405 UV-VIS -spectrophotometer. Optical band gap (E_g ), optical conductivity (σo) and electrical conductivity (σe) of CuS:Mn films were determined using absorption spectra and appropriate formula. The effect of Mn doping % on these properties were investigated. Results show that film thickness (t) for the 13.27 nm to 18.49 nm; absorption coefficient (α) from 0.90 x 1011 to 1.50 x 1011 optical band gap from 2.29eV to 2.35 eV; optical conductivity from 1.70 x 1013 and electrical conductivity from 160 millions to 154 millions. Possible applications of such films for solar cells fabrication and optoelectronic devices applications were also discussed.

Keywords: copper sulphide (CuS), Manganese (Mn) doping, electrodeposition, optical band gap, optical conductivity, electrical conductivity

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3032 Effect of the Vertical Pressure on the ‎Electrical Behaviour of the Micro-Copper ‎Polyurethane Composite Films

Authors: Saeid Mehvari, Yolanda Sanchez-Vicente, Sergio González Sánchez, Khalid Lafdi

Abstract:

Abstract- Materials with a combination of transparency, electrical conductivity, and flexibility are required in the ‎growing electronic sector. In this research, electrically conductive and flexible films have been prepared. These ‎composite films consist of dispersing micro-copper particles into polyurethane (PU) matrix. Two sets of samples were ‎made using both spin coating technique (sample thickness lower than 30 μm) and materials casting (sample thickness ‎lower than 100 μm). Copper concentrations in the PU matrix varied from 0.5 to 20% by volume. The dispersion of ‎micro-copper particles into polyurethane (PU) matrix were characterised using optical microscope and scanning electron ‎microscope. The electrical conductivity measurement was carried out using home-made multimeter set up under ‎pressures from 1 to 20 kPa through thickness and in plane direction. It seems that samples made by casting were not ‎conductive. However, the sample made by spin coating shows through-thickness conductivity when they are under ‎pressure. The results showed that spin-coated films with higher concentration of 2 vol. % of copper displayed a ‎significant increase in the conductivity value, known as percolation threshold. The maximum conductivity of 7.2 × 10-1 ‎S∙m-1 was reached at concentrations of filler with 20 vol. % at 20kPa. A semi-empirical model with adjustable ‎coefficients was used to fit and predict the electrical behaviour of composites. For the first time, the finite element ‎method based on the representative volume element (FE-RVE) was successfully used to predict their electrical ‎behaviour under applied pressures. ‎

Keywords: electrical conductivity, micro copper, numerical simulation, percolation threshold, polyurethane, RVE model

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3031 Preparation, Characterization and Ionic Conductivity of (1‒x) (CdI2‒Ag2CrO4)‒(x) Al2O3 Composite Solid Electrolytes

Authors: Rafiuddin

Abstract:

Composite solid electrolyte of the salt and oxide type is an effective approach to improve the ionic conductivity in low and intermediate temperature regions. The conductivity enhancement in the composites occurs via interfaces. Because of their high ionic conduction, composite electrolytes have wide applications in different electrochemical devices such as solid-state batteries, solid oxide fuel cells, and electrochemical cells. In this work, a series of novel (1‒x) (CdI2‒Ag2CrO4)‒xAl2O3 composite solid electrolytes has been synthesized. The prepared materials were characterized by X‒ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and AC impedance spectroscopy. The impedance spectra show single semicircle representing the simultaneous contribution of grain and grain boundary. The conductivity increased with the increase of Al2O3 content and shows the maximum conductivity (σ= 0.0012 S cm‒1) for 30% of Al2O3 content at 30 ℃.

Keywords: composite solid electrolyte, X-ray diffraction, Impedance spectroscopy, ionic conductivity

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3030 Mg Doped CuCrO₂ Thin Oxides Films for Thermoelectric Properties

Authors: I. Sinnarasa, Y. Thimont, L. Presmanes, A. Barnabé

Abstract:

The thermoelectricity is a promising technique to overcome the issues in recovering waste heat to electricity without using moving parts. In fact, the thermoelectric (TE) effect defines as the conversion of a temperature gradient directly into electricity and vice versa. To optimize TE materials, the power factor (PF = σS² where σ is electrical conductivity and S is Seebeck coefficient) must be increased by adjusting the carrier concentration, and/or the lattice thermal conductivity Kₜₕ must be reduced by introducing scattering centers with point defects, interfaces, and nanostructuration. The PF does not show the advantages of the thin film because it does not take into account the thermal conductivity. In general, the thermal conductivity of the thin film is lower than the bulk material due to their microstructure and increasing scattering effects with decreasing thickness. Delafossite type oxides CuᴵMᴵᴵᴵO₂ received main attention for their optoelectronic properties as a p-type semiconductor they exhibit also interesting thermoelectric (TE) properties due to their high electrical conductivity and their stability in room atmosphere. As there are few proper studies on the TE properties of Mg-doped CuCrO₂ thin films, we have investigated, the influence of the annealing temperature on the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient of Mg-doped CuCrO₂ thin films and calculated the PF in the temperature range from 40 °C to 220 °C. For it, we have deposited Mg-doped CuCrO₂ thin films on fused silica substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. This study was carried out on 300 nm thin films. The as-deposited Mg doped CuCrO₂ thin films have been annealed at different temperatures (from 450 to 650 °C) under primary vacuum. Electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the thin films have been measured from 40 to 220 °C. The highest electrical conductivity of 0.60 S.cm⁻¹ with a Seebeck coefficient of +329 µV.K⁻¹ at 40 °C have been obtained for the sample annealed at 550 °C. The calculated power factor of optimized CuCrO₂:Mg thin film was 6 µW.m⁻¹K⁻² at 40 °C. Due to the constant Seebeck coefficient and the increasing electrical conductivity with temperature it reached 38 µW.m⁻¹K⁻² at 220 °C that was a quite good result for an oxide thin film. Moreover, the degenerate behavior and the hopping mechanism of CuCrO₂:Mg thin film were elucidated. Their high and constant Seebeck coefficient in temperature and their stability in room atmosphere could be a great advantage for an application of this material in a high accuracy temperature measurement devices.

Keywords: thermoelectric, oxides, delafossite, thin film, power factor, degenerated semiconductor, hopping mode

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3029 Annular Hyperbolic Profile Fins with Variable Thermal Conductivity Using Laplace Adomian Transform and Double Decomposition Methods

Authors: Yinwei Lin, Cha'o-Kuang Chen

Abstract:

In this article, the Laplace Adomian transform method (LADM) and double decomposition method (DDM) are used to solve the annular hyperbolic profile fins with variable thermal conductivity. As the thermal conductivity parameter ε is relatively large, the numerical solution using DDM become incorrect. Moreover, when the terms of DDM are more than seven, the numerical solution using DDM is very complicated. However, the present method can be easily calculated as terms are over seven and has more precisely numerical solutions. As the thermal conductivity parameter ε is relatively large, LADM also has better accuracy than DDM.

Keywords: fins, thermal conductivity, Laplace transform, Adomian, nonlinear

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3028 Protonic Conductivity Highlighted by Impedance Measurement of Y-Doped BaZrO3 Synthesized by Supercritical Hydrothermal Process

Authors: Melanie Francois, Gilles Caboche, Frederic Demoisson, Francois Maeght, Maria Paola Carpanese, Lionel Combemale, Pascal Briois

Abstract:

Finding new clean, and efficient way for energy production is one of the actual global challenges. Advances in fuel cell technology have shown that, for few years, Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cell (PCFC) has attracted much attention in the field of new hydrogen energy thanks to their lower working temperature, possible higher efficiency, and better durability than classical SOFC. On the contrary of SOFC, where O²⁻ oxygen ion is the charge carrier, PCFC works with H⁺ proton as a charge carrier. Consequently, the lower activation energy of proton diffusion compared to the one of oxygen ion explains those benefits and allows PCFC to work in the 400-600°C temperature range. Doped-BaCeO₃ is currently the most chosen material for this application because of its high protonic conductivity; for example, BaCe₀.₉Y₀.₁O₃ δ exhibits a total conductivity of 1.5×10⁻² S.cm⁻¹ at 600°C in wet H₂. However, BaCeO₃ based perovskite has low stability in H₂O and/or CO₂ containing atmosphere, which limits their practical application. On the contrary, BaZrO₃ based perovskite exhibits good chemical stability but lower total conductivity than BaCeO₃ due to its larger grain boundary resistance. By substituting zirconium with 20% of yttrium, it is possible to achieve a total conductivity of 2.5×10⁻² S.cm⁻¹ at 600°C in wet H₂. However, the high refractory property of BaZr₀.₈Y₀.₂O₃-δ (noted BZY20) causes problems to obtain a dense membrane with large grains. Thereby, using a synthesis process that gives fine particles could allow better sinterability and thus decrease the number of grain boundaries leading to a higher total conductivity. In this work, BaZr₀.₈Y₀.₂O₃-δ have been synthesized by classical batch hydrothermal device and by a continuous hydrothermal device developed at ICB laboratory. The two variants of this process are able to work in supercritical conditions, leading to the formation of nanoparticles, which could be sintered at a lower temperature. The as-synthesized powder exhibits the right composition for the perovskite phase, impurities such as BaCO₃ and YO-OH were detected at very low concentration. Microstructural investigation and densification rate measurement showed that the addition of 1 wt% of ZnO as sintering aid and a sintering at 1550°C for 5 hours give high densified electrolyte material. Furthermore, it is necessary to heat the synthesized powder prior to the sintering to prevent the formation of secondary phases. It is assumed that this thermal treatment homogenizes the crystal structure of the powder and reduces the number of defects into the bulk grains. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy investigations in various atmospheres and a large range of temperature (200-700°C) were then performed on sintered samples, and the protonic conductivity of BZY20 has been highlighted. Further experiments on half-cell, NiO-BZY20 as anode and BZY20 as electrolyte, are in progress.

Keywords: hydrothermal synthesis, impedance measurement, Y-doped BaZrO₃, proton conductor

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3027 Thermoelectrical Properties of Cs Doped BiCuSeO as Promising Oxide Materials for Thermoelectric Energy Converter

Authors: Abdenour Achour, Kan Chen, Mike Reece, Zhaorong Huang

Abstract:

Here we report the synthesis of pure and cost effective of BiCuSeO by a flux method in air, and the enhancement of the thermoelectric performance by Cs doping. The comparison between our synthesis and the usual vacuum furnace method has been studied for the pristine oxyselenides BiCuSeO. We report for very high Seebeck coefficients up to 516 μV K⁻¹ at room temperature with the electrical conductivity of 5.20 S cm⁻¹ which lead to a high power factor of 140 µWm⁻¹K⁻². We also report at the high temperatures the lowest thermal conductivity value of 0.42 µWm⁻¹K⁻¹. Upon doping with Cs, enhanced electrical conductivity coupled with a moderate Seebeck coefficient lead to a power factor of 338 µWm⁻¹K⁻² at 682 K. Moreover, it shows a very low thermal conductivity in the temperature range of 300 to 682 K (0.75 to 0.35 Wm⁻¹K⁻¹). By optimizing the power factor and reducing the thermal conductivity, this results in a high ZT of ~ 0.66 at 682 K for Bi0.995Cs0.005CuSeO.

Keywords: BiCuSeO, Cs doping, thermoelectric, oxyselenide

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3026 Numerical Study of Heat Transfer in Silica Aerogel

Authors: Amal Maazoun, Abderrazak Mezghani, Ali Ben Moussa

Abstract:

Aerogel consists of a ramified and inter-connected solid skeleton enclosing a very important number of nano-sized pores filled with air that occupies most of the volume and makes very low density. The thermal conductivity of this material can reach lower values than those of any other material, and it changes with the type of the aerogel and its composition. So, in order to explain the causes of the super-insulation of our material and to determine the factors in which depends on its conductivity we used a numerical simulation. We have developed a numerical code that generates random fractal structure of silica aerogel with pre-defined concentration, properties of the backbone and the gas in the pores as well as the size of the particles. The calculation of the conductivity at any point of domain shows that it is not constant and that it depends on the pore size and the location in the pore. A numerical method based on resolution by inversion of block tridiagonal matrices is used to calculate the equivalent thermal conductivity of the whole fractal structure. The average conductivity calculated for each concentration is in good agreement with those of typical aerogels. And we found that the equivalent thermal conductivity of a silica aerogel depends strongly not only on the porosity but also on the tortuosity of the solid backbone.

Keywords: aerogel, fractal structure, numerical study, porous media, thermal conductivity

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3025 Stagnation Point Flow Over a Stretching Cylinder with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Slip Conditions

Authors: M. Y. Malik, Farzana Khan

Abstract:

In this article, we discuss the behavior of viscous fluid near stagnation point over a stretching cylinder with variable thermal conductivity. The effects of slip conditions are also encountered. Thermal conductivity is considered as a linear function of temperature. By using homotopy analysis method and Fehlberg method we compare the graphical results for both momentum and energy equations. The effect of different parameters on velocity and temperature fields are shown graphically.

Keywords: slip conditions, stretching cylinder, heat generation/absorption, stagnation point flow, variable thermal conductivity

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3024 Determination of Thermophysical Properties of Water Based Magnetic Nanofluids

Authors: Eyüphan Manay, Bayram Sahin, Emre Mandev, Ibrahim Ates, Tuba Yetim

Abstract:

In this study, it was aimed to determine the thermophysical properties of two different magnetic nanofluids (NiFe2O4-water and CoFe2O4-water). Magnetic nanoparticles were dispersed into the pure water at different volume fractions from 0 vol.% to 4 vol.%. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 15 oC-55 oC. In order to get better idea on the temperature dependent thermophysical properties of magnetic nanofluids (MNFs), viscosity and thermal conductivity measurements were made. SEM images of both NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were used in order to confirm the average dimensions. The measurements showed that the thermal conductivity of MNFs increased with an increase in the volume fraction as well as viscosity. Increase in the temperature of both MNFs resulted in an increase in the thermal conductivity and a decrease in the viscosity. Based on the measured data, the correlations for both the viscosity and the thermal conductivity were presented with respect to solid volume ratio and temperature. Effective thermal conductivity of the prepared MNFs was also calculated. The results indicated that water based NiFe2O4 nanofluid had higher thermal conductivity than that of the CoFe2O4. Once the viscosity values of both MNFs were compared, almost no difference was observed.

Keywords: magnetic nanofluids, thermal conductivity, viscosity, nife2o4-water, cofe2o4-water

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
3023 Degradation of Irradiated UO2 Fuel Thermal Conductivity Calculated by FRAPCON Model Due to Porosity Evolution at High Burn-Up

Authors: B. Roostaii, H. Kazeminejad, S. Khakshournia

Abstract:

The evolution of volume porosity previously obtained by using the existing low temperature high burn-up gaseous swelling model with progressive recrystallization for UO2 fuel is utilized to study the degradation of irradiated UO2 thermal conductivity calculated by the FRAPCON model of thermal conductivity. A porosity correction factor is developed based on the assumption that the fuel morphology is a three-phase type, consisting of the as-fabricated pores and pores due to intergranular bubbles whitin UO2 matrix and solid fission products. The predicted thermal conductivity demonstrates an additional degradation of 27% due to porosity formation at burn-up levels around 120 MWd/kgU which would cause an increase in the fuel temperature accordingly. Results of the calculations are compared with available data.

Keywords: irradiation-induced recrystallization, matrix swelling, porosity evolution, UO₂ thermal conductivity

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3022 Thermal Conductivity and Optical Absorption of GaInAsSb/GaSb Laser Structure: Impact of Annealing Time

Authors: Soufiene Ilahi, Noureddine Yacoubi

Abstract:

GaInAsSb grown on GaSb substrate is an interesting material employed as an active layer in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating in mid-infrared emission. This material presents some advantages like highs optical absorption coefficient and good thermal conductivity, which is very desirable for VCSEL application. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of thermal annealing on optical properties and thermal conductivity of GaInAsSb/GaSb. The studies are carried out by means of the photo thermal deflection spectroscopy technique (PDS). In fact, optical absorption spectrum and thermal conductivity have been determined by a comparison between the experimental and theoretical phases of the PDS signal. We have found that thermal conductivity increased significantly to 13 W/m.K for GaInAsSb annealed during 60 min. In addition, we have found that bandgap energy is blue-shifted around 30 meV. The amplitudes signal of PDS reveals multiple reflections as a function of annealing time, which reflect the high crystalline quality of the layer.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, bandgap energy of GaInAsSb, GaInAsSb active layer, optical absorption

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3021 Determining a Suitable Time and Temperature Combination for Electricial Conductivity Test in Sorghum

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine a suitable time and temperature combination for the electrical conductivity test to be used in sorghum seeds. Fifty seeds known initial seed moisture content and weight of fresh and dead seeds (105°C for 6h) of seven sorghum cultivars were used as material. The electrical conductivities of soak water were measured using EC meter at 20, 25 and 30°C for 4, 8, 12 and 24 h using 50 mL deionized water. The experimental design was three factors factorial (7 × 3 × 4) arranged in a completely randomized design; with four replications and 50 seeds per replicate. The results showed that increased time and temperature caused a remarkable increase in EC values of all of the cultivars. Temperature significantly affected the electrical conductivity values and the best results were obtained at 25°C. The cultivars having the lowest germination percentage gave the highest electrical conductivity value. Dead seeds always gave higher electrical conductivity at 25°C for all periods. It was concluded that the temperature of 25°C and higher period than 12 h was the optimum combination for the electrical conductivity test in sorghum.

Keywords: Sorghum bicolor, seed vigor, cultivar, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
3020 Materials for Electrically Driven Aircrafts: Highly Conductive Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Simon Bard, Martin Demleitner, Florian Schonl, Volker Altstadt

Abstract:

For an electrically driven aircraft, whose engine is based on semiconductors, alternative materials are needed. The avoid hotspots in the materials thermally conductive polymers are necessary. Nevertheless, the mechanical properties of these materials should remain. Herein, the work of three years in a project with airbus and Siemens is presented. Different strategies have been pursued to achieve conductive fiber-reinforced composites: Metal-coated carbon fibers, pitch-based fibers and particle-loaded matrices have been investigated. In addition, a combination of copper-coated fibers and a conductive matrix has been successfully tested for its conductivity and mechanical properties. First, prepregs have been produced with a laboratory scale prepreg line, which can handle materials with maximum width of 300 mm. These materials have then been processed to fiber-reinforced laminates. For the PAN-fiber reinforced laminates, it could be shown that there is a strong dependency between fiber volume content and thermal conductivity. Laminates with 50 vol% of carbon fiber offer a conductivity of 0.6 W/mK, those with 66 vol% of fiber a thermal conductivity of 1 W/mK. With pitch-based fiber, the conductivity enhances to 1.5 W/mK for 61 vol% of fiber, compared to 0.81 W/mK with the same amount of fibers produced from PAN (+83% in conducitivity). The thermal conductivity of PAN-based composites with 50 vol% of fiber is at 0.6 W/mK, their nickel-coated counterparts with the same fiber volume content offer a conductivity of 1 W/mK, an increase of 66%.

Keywords: carbon, electric aircraft, polymer, thermal conductivity

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3019 Study on the Thermal Conductivity about Porous Materials in Wet State

Authors: Han Yan, Jieren Luo, Qiuhui Yan, Xiaoqing Li

Abstract:

The thermal conductivity of porous materials is closely related to the thermal and moisture environment and the overall energy consumption of the building. The study of thermal conductivity of porous materials has great significance for the realization of low energy consumption building and economic construction building. Based on the study of effective thermal conductivity of porous materials at home and abroad, the thermal conductivity under a variety of different density of polystyrene board (EPS), plastic extruded board (XPS) and polyurethane (PU) and phenolic resin (PF) in wet state through theoretical analysis and experimental research has been studied. Initially, the moisture absorption and desorption properties of specimens had been discussed under different density, which led a result indicates the moisture absorption of four porous materials all have three stages, fast, stable and gentle. For the moisture desorption, there are two types. One is the existence of the rapid phase of the stage, such as XPS board, PU board. The other one does not have the fast desorption, instead, it is more stabilized, such as XPS board, PF board. Furthermore, the relationship between water content and thermal conductivity of porous materials had been studied and fitted, which figured out that in the wake of the increasing water content, the thermal conductivity of porous material is continually improving. At the same time, this result also shows, in different density, when the same kind of materials decreases, the saturated moisture content increases. Finally, the moisture absorption and desorption properties of the four kinds of materials are compared comprehensively, and it turned out that the heat preservation performance of PU board is the best, followed by EPS board, XPS board, PF board.

Keywords: porous materials, thermal conductivity, moisture content, transient hot-wire method

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3018 Investigating the Influence of Solidification Rate on the Microstructural, Mechanical and Physical Properties of Directionally Solidified Al-Mg Based Multicomponent Eutectic Alloys Containing High Mg Alloys

Authors: Fatih Kılıç, Burak Birol, Necmettin Maraşlı

Abstract:

The directional solidification process is generally used for homogeneous compound production, single crystal growth, and refining (zone refining), etc. processes. The most important two parameters that control eutectic structures are temperature gradient and grain growth rate which are called as solidification parameters The solidification behavior and microstructure characteristics is an interesting topic due to their effects on the properties and performance of the alloys containing eutectic compositions. The solidification behavior of multicomponent and multiphase systems is an important parameter for determining various properties of these materials. The researches have been conducted mostly on the solidification of pure materials or alloys containing two phases. However, there are very few studies on the literature about multiphase reactions and microstructure formation of multicomponent alloys during solidification. Because of this situation, it is important to study the microstructure formation and the thermodynamical, thermophysical and microstructural properties of these alloys. The production process is difficult due to easy oxidation of magnesium and therefore, there is not a comprehensive study concerning alloys containing high Mg (> 30 wt.% Mg). With the increasing amount of Mg inside Al alloys, the specific weight decreases, and the strength shows a slight increase, while due to formation of β-Al8Mg5 phase, ductility lowers. For this reason, production, examination and development of high Mg containing alloys will initiate the production of new advanced engineering materials. The original value of this research can be described as obtaining high Mg containing (> 30% Mg) Al based multicomponent alloys by melting under vacuum; controlled directional solidification with various growth rates at a constant temperature gradient; and establishing relationship between solidification rate and microstructural, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Therefore, within the scope of this research, some > 30% Mg containing ternary or quaternary Al alloy compositions were determined, and it was planned to investigate the effects of directional solidification rate on the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of these alloys. Within the scope of the research, the influence of the growth rate on microstructure parameters, microhardness, tensile strength, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of directionally solidified high Mg containing Al-32,2Mg-0,37Si; Al-30Mg-12Zn; Al-32Mg-1,7Ni; Al-32,2Mg-0,37Fe; Al-32Mg-1,7Ni-0,4Si; Al-33,3Mg-0,35Si-0,11Fe (wt.%) alloys with wide range of growth rate (50-2500 µm/s) and fixed temperature gradient, will be investigated. The work can be planned as; (a) directional solidification of Al-Mg based Al-Mg-Si, Al-Mg-Zn, Al-Mg-Ni, Al-Mg-Fe, Al-Mg-Ni-Si, Al-Mg-Si-Fe within wide range of growth rates (50-2500 µm/s) at a constant temperature gradient by Bridgman type solidification system, (b) analysis of microstructure parameters of directionally solidified alloys by using an optical light microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), (c) measurement of microhardness and tensile strength of directionally solidified alloys, (d) measurement of electrical conductivity by four point probe technique at room temperature (e) measurement of thermal conductivity by linear heat flow method at room temperature.

Keywords: directional solidification, electrical conductivity, high Mg containing multicomponent Al alloys, microhardness, microstructure, tensile strength, thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
3017 Three-Dimensional Generalized Thermoelasticity with Variable Thermal Conductivity

Authors: Hamdy M. Youssef, Mowffaq Oreijah, Hunaydi S. Alsharif

Abstract:

In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the generalized thermoelasticity with one relaxation time and variable thermal conductivity has been constructed. The resulting non-dimensional governing equations together with the Laplace and double Fourier transforms techniques have been applied to a three-dimensional half-space subjected to thermal loading with rectangular pulse and traction free in the directions of the principle co-ordinates. The inverses of double Fourier transforms, and Laplace transforms have been obtained numerically. Numerical results for the temperature increment, the invariant stress, the invariant strain, and the displacement are represented graphically. The variability of the thermal conductivity has significant effects on the thermal and the mechanical waves.

Keywords: thermoelasticity, thermal conductivity, Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms

Procedia PDF Downloads 97