Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 614

Search results for: cavitation cloud

614 Measuring the Cavitation Cloud by Electrical Impedance Tomography

Authors: Michal Malik, Jiri Primas, Darina Jasikova, Michal Kotek, Vaclav Kopecky

Abstract:

This paper is a case study dealing with the viability of using Electrical Impedance Tomography for measuring cavitation clouds in a pipe setup. The authors used a simple passive cavitation generator to cause a cavitation cloud, which was then recorded for multiple flow rates using electrodes in two measuring planes. The paper presents the results of the experiment, showing the used industrial grade tomography system ITS p2+ is able to measure the cavitation cloud and may be particularly useful for identifying the inception of cavitation in setups where other measuring tools may not be viable.

Keywords: cavitation cloud, conductivity measurement, electrical impedance tomography, mechanically induced cavitation

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613 Cavitating Jet Design for Enhanced Drilling Performance

Authors: Abdullah Ababtain, Mouhammad El Hassan, Hassan Assoum, Anas Sakout

Abstract:

In this paper, a brief literature review on cavitation jets is presented in order to introduce the cavitation mechanism, strategies to assess when cavitation occurs, and the factors that influence cavitation in cavitating jets. The objectivity of the cavitation number often used to predict cavitation is also discussed. The results show that cavitation cannot be foreseen just using the cavitation number. Therefore, more efforts are needed to innovate and develop a self-resonating jet geometry that would be maintains the flow and the pressure in the cavitation condition just earlier than the flow acts on the target that would be used in such operating conditions. This study focused on a particular aspect related to improving drilling efficiency and the rate of penetration (ROP). In addition, a discussion on the methods used to measure cavitation and the factors that affect cavitation occurrence will be discussed. Two different types of cavitation nozzles were designed and tested. It has been shown that the self-resonating cavitation nozzle presents greater performance than standard non-resonating nozzle. It is thus concluded that a self-resonating cavitation jet present a high potential for improving drilling performance.

Keywords: cavitating jet, erosion, cavitation number, rate of penetration (ROP)

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612 Utilization of Schnerr-Sauer Cavitation Model for Simulation of Cavitation Inception and Super Cavitation

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Azadeh Yazdi, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Amirmasoud Hamedi

Abstract:

In this study, the Reynolds-Stress-Navier-Stokes framework is utilized to investigate the flow inside the diesel injector nozzle. The flow is assumed to be multiphase as the formation of vapor by pressure drop is visualized. For pressure and velocity linkage, the coupled algorithm is used. Since the cavitation phenomenon inherently is unsteady, the quasi-steady approach is utilized for saving time and resources in the current study. Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model is used, which was capable of predicting flow behavior both at the initial and final steps of the cavitation process. Two different turbulent models were used in this study to clarify which one is more capable in predicting cavitation inception and super-cavitation. It was found that K-ε was more compatible with the Shnerr-Sauer cavitation model; therefore, the mentioned model is used for the rest of this study.

Keywords: CFD, RANS, cavitation, fuel, injector

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611 Study of Cavitation Erosion of Pump-Storage Hydro Power Plant Prototype

Authors: Tine Cencič, Marko Hočevar, Brane Širok

Abstract:

An experimental investigation has been made to detect cavitation in pump–storage hydro power plant prototype suffering from cavitation in pump mode. Vibrations and acoustic emission on the housing of turbine bearing and pressure fluctuations in the draft tube were measured and the corresponding signals have been recorded and analyzed. The analysis was based on the analysis of high-frequency content of measured variables. The pump-storage hydro power plant prototype has been operated at various input loads and Thoma numbers. Several estimators of cavitation were evaluated according to coefficient of determination between Thoma number and cavitation estimators. The best results were achieved with a compound discharge coefficient cavitation estimator. Cavitation estimators were evaluated in several intervals of frequencies. Also, a prediction of cavitation erosion was made in order to choose the appropriate maintenance and repair periods.

Keywords: cavitation erosion, turbine, cavitation measurement, fluid dynamics

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610 Investigation about Mechanical Equipment Needed to Break the Molecular Bonds of Heavy Oil by Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation

Authors: Mahdi Asghari

Abstract:

The cavitation phenomenon is the formation and production of micro-bubbles and eventually the bursting of the micro-bubbles inside the liquid fluid, which results in localized high pressure and temperature, causing physical and chemical fluid changes. This pressure and temperature are predicted to be 2000 atmospheres and 5000 °C, respectively. As a result of small bubbles bursting from this process, temperature and pressure increase momentarily and locally, so that the intensity and magnitude of these temperatures and pressures provide the energy needed to break the molecular bonds of heavy compounds such as fuel oil. In this paper, we study the theory of cavitation and the methods of cavitation production by acoustic and hydrodynamic methods and the necessary mechanical equipment and reactors for industrial application of the hydrodynamic cavitation method to break down the molecular bonds of the fuel oil and convert it into useful and economical products.

Keywords: Cavitation, Hydrodynamic Cavitation, Cavitation Reactor, Fuel Oil

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609 Cloud Computing: Major Issues and Solutions

Authors: S. Adhirai Subramaniyam, Paramjit Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents major issues in cloud computing. The paper describes different cloud computing deployment models and cloud service models available in the field of cloud computing. The paper then concentrates on various issues in the field. The issues such as cloud compatibility, compliance of the cloud, standardizing cloud technology, monitoring while on the cloud and cloud security are described. The paper suggests solutions for these issues and concludes that hybrid cloud infrastructure is a real boon for organizations.

Keywords: cloud, cloud computing, mobile cloud computing, private cloud, public cloud, hybrid cloud, SAAS, PAAS, IAAS, cloud security

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608 Optimal Design of 3-Way Reversing Valve Considering Cavitation Effect

Authors: Myeong-Gon Lee, Yang-Gyun Kim, Tae-Young Kim, Seung-Ho Han

Abstract:

The high-pressure valve uses one set of 2-way valves for the purpose of reversing fluid direction. If there is no accurate control device for the 2-way valves, lots of surging can be generated. The surging is a kind of pressure ripple that occurs in rapid changes of fluid motions under inaccurate valve control. To reduce the surging effect, a 3-way reversing valve can be applied which provides a rapid and precise change of water flow directions without any accurate valve control system. However, a cavitation occurs due to a complicated internal trim shape of the 3-way reversing valve. The cavitation causes not only noise and vibration but also decreasing the efficiency of valve-operation, in which the bubbles generated below the saturated vapor pressure are collapsed rapidly at higher pressure zone. The shape optimization of the 3-way reversing valve to minimize the cavitation effect is necessary. In this study, the cavitation index according to the international standard ISA was introduced to estimate macroscopically the occurrence of the cavitation effect. Computational fluid dynamic analysis was carried out, and the cavitation effect was quantified by means of the percent of cavitation converted from calculated results of vapor volume fraction. In addition, the shape optimization of the 3-way reversing valve was performed by taking into account of the percent of cavitation.

Keywords: 3-Way reversing valve, cavitation, shape optimization, vapor volume fraction

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607 Numerical Prediction of Wall Eroded Area by Cavitation

Authors: Ridha Zgolli, Ahmed Belhaj, Maroua Ennouri

Abstract:

This study presents a new method to predict cavitation area that may be eroded. It is based on the post-treatment of URANS simulations in cavitant flows. The most RANS calculations with incompressible consideration are based on cavitation model using mixture fluid with density (ρm) calculated as a function of liquid density (ρliq), vapour or gas density (ρvap) and vapour or gas volume fraction α (ρm = αρvap + (1-α) ρliq). The calculations are performed on hydrofoil geometries and compared with experimental works concerning flows characteristics (size of pocket, pressure, velocity). We present here the used cavitation model and the approach followed to evaluate the value of α fixing the shape of pocket around wall before collapsing.

Keywords: flows, CFD, cavitation, erosion

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606 Numerical Investigation of Cavitation on Different Venturi Shapes by Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Sedat Yayla, Mehmet Oruc, Shakhwan Yaseen

Abstract:

Cavitation phenomena might rigorously impair machine parts such as pumps, propellers and impellers or devices as the pressure in the fluid declines under the liquid's saturation pressure. To evaluate the influence of cavitation, in this research two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) venturi models with variety of inlet pressure values, throat lengths and vapor fluid contents were applied. In this research three different vapor contents (0%, 5% 10%), four inlet pressures (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 atm) and two venturi models were employed at different throat lengths ( 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm) for discovering the impact of each parameter on the cavitation number. It is uncovered that there is a positive correlation between pressure inlet and vapor fluid content and cavitation number. Furthermore, it is unveiled that velocity remains almost constant at the inlet pressures of 6, 8,10atm, nevertheless increasing the length of throat results in the substantial escalation in the velocity of the throat at inlet pressures of 2 and 4 atm. Furthermore, velocity and cavitation number were negatively correlated. The results of the cavitation number varied between 0.092 and 0.495 depending upon the velocity values of the throat.

Keywords: cavitation number, computational fluid dynamics, mixture of fluid, two-phase flow, velocity of throat

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605 Study of Cavitation Phenomena Based on Flow Visualization Test in 3-Way Reversing Valve

Authors: Hyo Lim Kang, Tae An Kim, Seung Ho Han

Abstract:

A 3-way reversing valve has been used in automotive washing machines to remove remaining oil and dirt on machined engine and transmission blocks. It provides rapid and accurate changes of water flow direction without any precise control device. However, due to its complicated bottom-plug shape, a cavitation occurs in a wide range of the bottom-plug in a downstream. In this study, the cavitation index and POC (percent of cavitation) were used to evaluate quantitatively the cavitation phenomena occurring at the bottom-plug. An optimal shape design was carried out via parametric study for geometries of the bottom-plug, in which a simple CAE-model was used in order to avoid time-consuming CFD analysis and hard to achieve convergence. To verify the results of numerical analysis, a flow visualization test was carried out using a test specimen with a transparent acryl pipe according to ISA-RP75.23. The flow characteristics such as the cavitation occurring in the downstream were investigated by using a flow test equipment with valve and pump including a flow control system and high-speed camera.

Keywords: cavitation, flow visualization test, optimal shape design, percent of cavitation, reversing valve

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604 Metal Berthelot Tubes with Windows for Observing Cavitation under Static Negative Pressure

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, T. Sasayama

Abstract:

Cavitation under static negative pressure is not revealed well. The Berthelot method to generate such negative pressure can be a means to study cavitation inception. In this study, metal Berthelot tubes built in observation windows are newly developed and are checked whether high static negative pressure is generated or not. Negative pressure in the tube with a pair of a corundum plate and an aluminum gasket increased with temperature cycles. The trend was similar to that as reported before.

Keywords: Berthelot method, cavitation, negative pressure, observation

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603 Investigation of Cavitation in a Centrifugal Pump Using Synchronized Pump Head Measurements, Vibration Measurements and High-Speed Image Recording

Authors: Simon Caba, Raja Abou Ackl, Svend Rasmussen, Nicholas E. Pedersen

Abstract:

It is a challenge to directly monitor cavitation in a pump application during operation because of a lack of visual access to validate the presence of cavitation and its form of appearance. In this work, experimental investigations are carried out in an inline single-stage centrifugal pump with optical access. Hence, it gives the opportunity to enhance the value of CFD tools and standard cavitation measurements. Experiments are conducted using two impellers running in the same volute at 3000 rpm and the same flow rate. One of the impellers used is optimized for lower NPSH₃% by its blade design, whereas the other one is manufactured using a standard casting method. The cavitation is detected by pump performance measurements, vibration measurements and high-speed image recordings. The head drop and the pump casing vibration caused by cavitation are correlated with the visual appearance of the cavitation. The vibration data is recorded in an axial direction of the impeller using accelerometers recording at a sample rate of 131 kHz. The vibration frequency domain data (up to 20 kHz) and the time domain data are analyzed as well as the root mean square values. The high-speed recordings, focusing on the impeller suction side, are taken at 10,240 fps to provide insight into the flow patterns and the cavitation behavior in the rotating impeller. The videos are synchronized with the vibration time signals by a trigger signal. A clear correlation between cloud collapses and abrupt peaks in the vibration signal can be observed. The vibration peaks clearly indicate cavitation, especially at higher NPSHA values where the hydraulic performance is not affected. It is also observed that below a certain NPSHA value, the cavitation started in the inlet bend of the pump. Above this value, cavitation occurs exclusively on the impeller blades. The impeller optimized for NPSH₃% does show a lower NPSH₃% than the standard impeller, but the head drop starts at a higher NPSHA value and is more gradual. Instabilities in the head drop curve of the optimized impeller were observed in addition to a higher vibration level. Furthermore, the cavitation clouds on the suction side appear more unsteady when using the optimized impeller. The shape and location of the cavitation are compared to 3D fluid flow simulations. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental investigations. In conclusion, these investigations attempt to give a more holistic view on the appearance of cavitation by comparing the head drop, vibration spectral data, vibration time signals, image recordings and simulation results. Data indicates that a criterion for cavitation detection could be derived from the vibration time-domain measurements, which requires further investigation. Usually, spectral data is used to analyze cavitation, but these investigations indicate that the time domain could be more appropriate for some applications.

Keywords: cavitation, centrifugal pump, head drop, high-speed image recordings, pump vibration

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602 Bulk/Hull Cavitation Induced by Underwater Explosion: Effect of Material Elasticity and Surface Curvature

Authors: Wenfeng Xie

Abstract:

Bulk/hull cavitation evolution induced by an underwater explosion (UNDEX) near a free surface (bulk) or a deformable structure (hull) is numerically investigated using a multiphase compressible fluid solver coupled with a one-fluid cavitation model. A series of two-dimensional computations is conducted with varying material elasticity and surface curvature. Results suggest that material elasticity and surface curvature influence the peak pressures generated from UNDEX shock and cavitation collapse, as well as the bulk/hull cavitation regions near the surface. Results also show that such effects can be different for bulk cavitation generated from UNDEX-free surface interaction and for hull cavitation generated from UNDEX-structure interaction. More importantly, results demonstrate that shock wave focusing caused by a concave solid surface can lead to a larger cavitation region and thus intensify the cavitation reload. The findings can be linked to the strength and the direction of reflected waves from the structural surface and reflected waves from the expanding bubble surface, which are functions of material elasticity and surface curvature. Shockwave focusing effects are also observed for axisymmetric simulations, but the strength of the pressure contours for the axisymmetric simulations is less than those for the 2D simulations due to the difference between the initial shock energy. The current method is limited to two-dimensional or axisymmetric applications. Moreover, the thermal effects are neglected and the liquid is not allowed to sustain tension in the cavitation model.

Keywords: cavitation, UNDEX, fluid-structure interaction, multiphase

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601 Modeling of the Cavitation by Bubble around a NACA0009 Profile

Authors: L. Hammadi, D. Boukhaloua

Abstract:

In this study, a numerical model was developed to predict cavitation phenomena around a NACA0009 profile. The equations of the Rayleigh-Plesset and modified Rayleigh-Plesset are used to modeling the cavitation by bubble around a NACA0009 profile. The study shows that the distributions of pressures around extrados and intrados of profile for angle of incidence equal zero are the same. The study also shows that the increase in the angle of incidence makes it possible to differentiate the pressures on the intrados and the extrados.

Keywords: cavitation, NACA0009 profile, flow, pressure coefficient

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600 Security Architecture for Cloud Networking: A Survey

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

In the cloud computing hierarchy IaaS is the lowest layer, all other layers are built over it. Thus it is the most important layer of cloud and requisite more importance. Along with advantages IaaS faces some serious security related issue. Mainly Security focuses on Integrity, confidentiality and availability. Cloud computing facilitate to share the resources inside as well as outside of the cloud. On the other hand, cloud still not in the state to provide surety to 100% data security. Cloud provider must ensure that end user/client get a Quality of Service. In this report we describe possible aspects of cloud related security.

Keywords: cloud computing, cloud networking, IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, cloud security

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599 Cloud Computing in Jordanian Libraries: An Overview

Authors: Mohammad A. Al-Madi, Nagham A. Al-Madi, Fanan A. Al-Madi

Abstract:

The current concept of the technology of cloud computing libraries has been increasing where users can store their data in a virtual space and can be retrieved from anywhere whilst using the network. By using cloud computing technology, industries and individuals save money, time, and space. Moreover, data and information about libraries can be placed in the cloud. This paper discusses the meaning of cloud computing along with its types. Further, the focus has been given to the application of cloud computing in modern libraries. Additionally, the advantages of cloud computing and the areas in which cloud computing be applied with current usage are discussed. Finally, the present situation of the Jordanian libraries is considered and discussed in further detail.

Keywords: cloud computing, community cloud, hybrid cloud, private cloud, public cloud

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598 Cloud Computing Architecture Based on SOA

Authors: Negin Mohammadrezaee Larki

Abstract:

Cloud Computing is a popular solution that has been used in recent years to cooperate and collaborate among distributed applications over networks. Moving successfully into cloud computing requires an architecture that will support the new cloud capabilities. Many business leaders and analysts agree that moving to cloud requires having a solid, service-oriented architecture to provide the infrastructure needed for successful cloud implementation.

Keywords: Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Service Oriented Cloud Computing Architecture (SOCCA), cloud computing, cloud computing architecture

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597 Free Radical Dosimetry for Ultrasound in Terephthalic Acid Solutions Containing Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Ahmad Shanei, Mohammad Mahdi Shanei

Abstract:

When a liquid is irradiated with high intensities (> 1 W) and low frequencies (≤ 1 MHz) ultrasound, acoustic cavitation occurs. Acoustic cavitation generates free radicals from the breakdown of water and other molecules. The existence of particles in liquid provide nucleation sites for cavitation bubbles and lead to decrease the ultrasonic intensity threshold needed for cavitation onset. The study was designed to measure hydroxyl radicals in terephthalic acid solutions containing 30 nm gold nanoparticles in a near field of a 1 MHz sonotherapy probe. The effect of ultrasound irradiation parameters containing mode of sonication and ultrasound intensity in hydroxyl radicals production have been investigated by the spectrofluorometry method. Recorded fluorescence signal in terephthalic acid solution containing gold nanoparticles was higher than the terephthalic acid solution without gold nanoparticles. Also, the results showed that any increase in intensity of the sonication would be associated with an increase in the fluorescence intensity. Acoustic cavitation in the presence of gold nanoparticles has been introduced as a way for improving therapeutic effects on the tumors. Also, the terephthalic acid dosimetry is suitable for detecting and quantifying free hydroxyl radicals as a criterion of cavitation production over a range of condition in medical ultrasound fields.

Keywords: acoustic cavitation, gold nanoparticle, chemical dosimetry, terephthalic acid

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596 Design and Optimization of Flow Field for Cavitation Reduction of Valve Sleeves

Authors: Kamal Upadhyay, Zhou Hua, Yu Rui

Abstract:

This paper aims to improve the streamline linked with the flow field and cavitation on the valve sleeve. We observed that local pressure fluctuation produces a low-pressure zone, central to the formation of vapor volume fraction within the valve chamber led to air-bubbles (or cavities). Thus, it allows simultaneously to a severe negative impact on the inner surface and lifespan of the valve sleeves. Cavitation reduction is a vitally important issue to pressure control valves. The optimization of the flow field is proposed in this paper to reduce the cavitation of valve sleeves. In this method, the inner wall of the valve sleeve is changed from a cylindrical surface to the conical surface, leading to the decline of the fluid flow velocity and the rise of the outlet pressure. Besides, the streamline is distributed inside the sleeve uniformly. Thus, the bubble generation is lessened. The fluid models are built and analysis of flow field distribution, pressure, vapor volume and velocity was carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and numerical technique. The results indicate that this structure can suppress the cavitation of valve sleeves effectively.

Keywords: streamline, cavitation, optimization, computational fluid dynamics

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595 Fog Computing- Network Based Computing

Authors: Navaneeth Krishnan, Chandan N. Bhagwat, Aparajit P. Utpat

Abstract:

Cloud Computing provides us a means to upload data and use applications over the internet. As the number of devices connecting to the cloud grows, there is undue pressure on the cloud infrastructure. Fog computing or Network Based Computing or Edge Computing allows to move a part of the processing in the cloud to the network devices present along the node to the cloud. Therefore the nodes connected to the cloud have a better response time. This paper proposes a method of moving the computation from the cloud to the network by introducing an android like appstore on the networking devices.

Keywords: cloud computing, fog computing, network devices, appstore

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594 Towards a Common Architecture for Cloud Computing Interoperability

Authors: Sana Kouchi, Hassina Nacer, Kadda Beghdad-bey

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Cloud computing is growing very fast in the market and has become one of the most controversial discussed developments in recent years. Cloud computing providers become very numerous in these areas and each of them prefers its own cloud computing infrastructure, due to the incompatibility of standards and cloud access formats, which prevents them from accepting to support cloud computing applications in a standardized manner, this heterogeneity creates the problem of interoperability between clouds, and considering that cloud customers are probably in search of an interoperable cloud computing, where they will have total control over their applications and simply migrate their services as needed, without additional development investment. A cloud federation strategy should be considered. In this article, we propose a common architecture for the cloud that is based on existing architectures and also the use of best practices from ICT frameworks, such as IBM, ITIL, NIST, etc., to address the interoperability of architectures issues in a multi-cloud system.

Keywords: cloud computing, reference architecture, interoperability, standard

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593 Design of Cloud Service Brokerage System Intermediating Integrated Services in Multiple Cloud Environment

Authors: Dongjae Kang, Sokho Son, Jinmee Kim

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Cloud service brokering is a new service paradigm that provides interoperability and portability of application across multiple Cloud providers. In this paper, we designed cloud service brokerage system, any broker, supporting integrated service provisioning and SLA based service life cycle management. For the system design, we introduce the system concept and whole architecture, details of main components and use cases of primary operations in the system. These features ease the Cloud service provider and customer’s concern and support new Cloud service open market to increase cloud service profit and prompt Cloud service echo system in cloud computing related area.

Keywords: cloud service brokerage, multiple Clouds, Integrated service provisioning, SLA, network service

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592 Simulations of Cryogenic Cavitation of Low Temperature Fluids with Thermodynamics Effects

Authors: A. Alhelfi, B. Sunden

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Cavitation in cryogenic liquids is widely present in contemporary science. In the current study, we re-examine a previously validated acoustic cavitation model which was developed for a gas bubble in liquid water. Furthermore, simulations of cryogenic fluids including the thermal effect, the effect of acoustic pressure amplitude and the frequency of sound field on the bubble dynamics are presented. A gas bubble (Helium) in liquids Nitrogen, Oxygen and Hydrogen in an acoustic field at ambient pressure and low temperature is investigated numerically. The results reveal that the oscillation of the bubble in liquid Hydrogen fluctuates more than in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen. The oscillation of the bubble in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen is approximately similar.

Keywords: cryogenic liquids, cavitation, rocket engineering, ultrasound

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591 Significance of High Specific Speed in Circulating Water Pump, Which Can Cause Cavitation, Noise and Vibration

Authors: Chandra Gupt Porwal

Abstract:

Excessive vibration means increased wear, increased repair efforts, bad product selection & quality and high energy consumption. This may be sometimes experienced by cavitation or suction/discharge re-circulation which could occur only when net positive suction head available NPSHA drops below the net positive suction head required NPSHR. Cavitation can cause axial surging if it is excessive, will damage mechanical seals, bearings, possibly other pump components frequently and shorten the life of the impeller. Efforts have been made to explain Suction Energy (SE), Specific Speed (Ns), Suction Specific Speed (Nss), NPSHA, NPSHR & their significance, possible reasons of cavitation /internal re-circulation, its diagnostics and remedial measures to arrest and prevent cavitation in this paper. A case study is presented by the author highlighting that the root cause of unwanted noise and vibration is due to cavitation, caused by high specific speeds or inadequate net- positive suction head available which results in damages to material surfaces of impeller & suction bells and degradation of machine performance, its capacity and efficiency too. The author strongly recommends revisiting the technical specifications of CW pumps to provide sufficient NPSH margin ratios > 1.5, for future projects and Nss be limited to 8500 -9000 for cavitation free operation.

Keywords: best efficiency point (BEP), net positive suction head NPSHA, NPSHR, specific speed NS, suction specific speed NSS

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590 Resource Management Framework in Cloud Computing

Authors: Gagandeep Kaur, Sonal Chawla

Abstract:

In a Cloud Computing environment, resource provisioning, resource allocation and resource scheduling is the most complex issues these days. Cloud User expects the best resource utilization and Cloud Provider expects revenue maximization by considering budget and time constraints. In this research paper, Resource Management Framework has been proposed to allocate the resources to Cloud Users and Cloud Providers in Cloud environment. The main aim of the proposed work is to provide the resources and services to Cloud Providers and Cloud Users in an efficient and effective manner. The proposed framework has been simulated and tested using the CloudSim simulator tool.

Keywords: cloud computing, resource allocation, auction, provisioning

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589 Design of the Ubiquitous Cloud Learning Management System

Authors: Panita Wannapiroon, Noppadon Phumeechanya, Sitthichai Laisema

Abstract:

This study is the research and development which is intended to: 1) design the ubiquitous cloud learning management system and: 2) assess the suitability of the design of the ubiquitous cloud learning management system. Its methods are divided into 2 phases. Phase 1 is the design of the ubiquitous cloud learning management system, phase 2 is the assessment of the suitability of the design the samples used in this study are work done by 25 professionals in the field of Ubiquitous cloud learning management systems and information and communication technology in education selected using the purposive sampling method. Data analyzed by arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The results showed that the ubiquitous cloud learning management system consists of 2 main components which are: 1) the ubiquitous cloud learning management system server (u-Cloud LMS Server) including: cloud repository, cloud information resources, social cloud network, cloud context awareness, cloud communication, cloud collaborative tools, and: 2) the mobile client. The result of the system suitability assessment from the professionals is in the highest range.

Keywords: learning management system, cloud computing, ubiquitous learning, ubiquitous learning management system

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588 Classification of Attacks Over Cloud Environment

Authors: Karim Abouelmehdi, Loubna Dali, Elmoutaoukkil Abdelmajid, Hoda Elsayed, Eladnani Fatiha, Benihssane Abderahim

Abstract:

The security of cloud services is the concern of cloud service providers. In this paper, we will mention different classifications of cloud attacks referred by specialized organizations. Each agency has its classification of well-defined properties. The purpose is to present a high-level classification of current research in cloud computing security. This classification is organized around attack strategies and corresponding defenses.

Keywords: cloud computing, classification, risk, security

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587 Effect of Needle Height on Discharge Coefficient and Cavitation Number

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Azadeh Yazdi, Amirmasoud Hamedi

Abstract:

Cavitation inside diesel injector nozzle is investigated using Reynolds-Stress-Navier Stokes equations. Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model is used for modeling cavitation inside diesel injector nozzle. The carrying fluid utilized in the current study is diesel fuel. The flow is verified at the beginning by comparing with the previous experimental data, and it was found that K-Epsilon turbulent model could lead to a better accuracy comparing to K-Omega turbulent model. Moreover, the mass flow rate obtained numerically is compared with the experimental value, and the discrepancy was found to be less than 5 percent which shows the accuracy of the current results. Finally, a real-size four-hole nozzle is investigated, and the flow inside it is visualized based on velocity profile, discharge coefficient, and cavitation number. It was found that the mesh density could be reduced significantly by utilizing periodic boundary conditions. Velocity contour at the mid nozzle showed that the maximum value of velocity occurs at the end of the needle before entering the orifice area. Last but not least, at the same boundary conditions, when different needle heights were utilized, it was found that as needle height increases with an increase in cavitation number, discharge coefficient increases, while the mentioned increases are more tangible at smaller values of needle heights.

Keywords: cavitation, diesel fuel, CFD, real size nozzle, mass flow rate

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586 Detection of New Attacks on Ubiquitous Services in Cloud Computing and Countermeasures

Authors: L. Sellami, D. Idoughi, P. F. Tiako

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Cloud computing provides infrastructure to the enterprise through the Internet allowing access to cloud services at anytime and anywhere. This pervasive aspect of the services, the distributed nature of data and the wide use of information make cloud computing vulnerable to intrusions that violate the security of the cloud. This requires the use of security mechanisms to detect malicious behavior in network communications and hosts such as intrusion detection systems (IDS). In this article, we focus on the detection of intrusion into the cloud sing IDSs. We base ourselves on client authentication in the computing cloud. This technique allows to detect the abnormal use of ubiquitous service and prevents the intrusion of cloud computing. This is an approach based on client authentication data. Our IDS provides intrusion detection inside and outside cloud computing network. It is a double protection approach: The security user node and the global security cloud computing.

Keywords: cloud computing, intrusion detection system, privacy, trust

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585 Multiple Approaches for Ultrasonic Cavitation Monitoring of Oxygen-Loaded Nanodroplets

Authors: Simone Galati, Adriano Troia

Abstract:

Ultrasound (US) is widely used in medical field for a variety diagnostic techniques but, in recent years, it has also been creating great interest for therapeutic aims. Regarding drug delivery, the use of US as an activation source provides better spatial delivery confinement and limits the undesired side effects. However, at present there is no complete characterization at a fundamental level of the different signals produced by sono-activated nanocarriers. Therefore, the aim of this study is to obtain a metrological characterization of the cavitation phenomena induced by US through three parallel investigation approaches. US was focused into a channel of a customized phantom in which a solution with oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNDs) was led to flow and the cavitation activity was monitored. Both quantitative and qualitative real-time analysis were performed giving information about the dynamics of bubble formation, oscillation and final implosion with respect to the working acoustic pressure and the type of nanodroplets, compared with pure water. From this analysis a possible interpretation of the observed results is proposed.

Keywords: cavitation, drug delivery, nanodroplets, ultra-sound

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