Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: helical

85 Temperature Distribution Simulation of Divergent Fluid Flow with Helical Arrangement

Authors: Ehan Sabah Shukri, Wirachman Wisnoe


Numerical study is performed to investigate the temperature distribution in an annular diffuser fitted with helical tape hub. Different pitches (Y = 20 mm, and Y = 30 mm) for the helical tape are studied with different heights (H = 20 mm, 22 mm, and 24 mm) to be compared. The geometry of the annular diffuser and the inlet condition for both hub arrangements are kept constant. The result obtains that using helical tape insert with different pitches and different heights will force the temperature to distribute in a helical direction; however the use of helical tape hub with height (H = 22 mm) for both pitches enhance the temperature distribution in a good manner.

Keywords: helical tape, divergent fluid flow, temperature distribution, swirl flow, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
84 Fin Efficiency of Helical Fin with Fixed Fin Tip Temperature Boundary Condition

Authors: Richard G. Carranza, Juan Ospina


The fin efficiency for a helical fin with a fixed fin tip (or arbitrary) temperature boundary condition is presented. Firstly, the temperature profile throughout the fin is determined via an energy balance around the fin itself. Secondly, the fin efficiency is formulated by integrating across the entire surface of the helical fin. An analytical expression for the fin efficiency is presented and compared with the literature for accuracy.

Keywords: efficiency, fin, heat, helical, transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
83 Temperature Distribution Enhancement in a Conical Diffuser Fitted with Helical Screw-Tape with and without Center-Rod

Authors: Ehan Sabah Shukri, Wirachman Wisnoe


Temperature distribution investigation in a conical diffuser fitted with helical screw-tape with and without center-rod is studied numerically. A helical screw-tape is inserted in the diffuser to create swirl flow that helps to enhance the temperature distribution rate with inlet Reynolds number 4.3 x 104. Three pitch lengths ratios (Y/L = 0.153, 0.23 and 0.307) for the helical screw-tape with and without center-rod are simulated and compared. The geometry of the conical diffuser and the inlet condition for both arrangements are kept constant. Numerical findings show that the helical screw-tape inserts without center-rod perform significantly better than the helical tape inserts with center-rod in the conical diffuser.

Keywords: diffuser, temperature distribution, CFD, pitch ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
82 Effect of Elastic Modulus Anisotropy on Helical Piles Behavior in Sandy Soil

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Javad Shamsi Soosahab


Helical piles are being used extensively in engineering applications all over the world. There are insufficient studies on the helical piles' behavior in anisotropic soils. In this paper, numerical modeling was adopted to investigate the effect of elastic modulus anisotropy on helical pile behavior resting on anisotropic sand by using a finite element limit analysis. The load-displacement behavior of helical piles under compression and tension loads is investigated in different relative densities of soils, and the effect of the ratio of horizontal elastic modulus with respect to vertical elastic modulus (EH/EV) is evaluated. The obtained results illustrate that in sandy soils, the anisotropic ratio of elastic modulus (EH/EV) has notable effect on bearing capacity of helical piles in different relative density. Therefore, it may be recommended that the effect of anisotropic condition of soil elastic modulus should be considered in helical piles behavior.

Keywords: helical piles, bearing capacity, numerical modeling, soil anisotropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
81 Analysis of Behaviors of Single and Group Helical Piles in Sands from Experiment Results

Authors: Jongho Park, Junwon Lee, Byeonghyun Choi, Kicheol Lee, Dongwook Kim


The typically-used oil sand plant foundations are driven pile or drilled shaft. With more strict environmental regulations world widely, it became more important to completely remove the foundation during the stage of plant demolition. However, it is difficult to remove driven piles or drilled shafts that are installed at a deeper and stronger depth to gain more bearing pile capacity. The helical pile can be easily removed after its use and recycled; therefore it is suitable for oil sand plant foundation. This study analyzes the behavior of helical piles in sands. Axial pile load tests were carried out the varying spacing of helix plates (helices), rotation speed and weight of axial loading during pile installation. From the experiments, optimal helix plate spacing, rotation speed, axial loading during installation were determined. In addition, the behavior of helical pile groups was examined varying pile spacing. Finally, the behavior of single helical piles and that of group helical piles were compared.

Keywords: oil sand plant, pile load test, helical pile, group helical pile, behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
80 The Inversion of Helical Twist Sense in Liquid Crystal by Spectroscopy Methods

Authors: Anna Drzewicz, Marzena Tykarska


The chiral liquid crystal phases form the helicoidal structure, which is characterized by the helical pitch and the helical twist sense. In anticlinic smectic phase with antiferroelectric properties three types of helix temperature dependence have been obtained: increased helical pitch with temperature and right-handed helix, decreased helical pitch with temperature and left-handed helix and the inversion of both. The change of helical twist sense may be observed during the transition from one liquid crystal phase to another or within one phase for the same substance. According to Gray and McDonnell theory, the helical handedness depends on the absolute configuration of the assymetric carbon atom and its position related to the rigid core of the molecule. However, this theory does not explain the inversion of helical twist sense phenomenon. It is supposed, that it may be caused by the presence of different conformers with opposite handendess, which concentration may change with temperature. In this work, the inversion of helical twist sense in the chiral liquid crystals differing in the length of alkyl chain, in the substitution the benzene ring by fluorine atoms and in the type of helix handedness was tested by vibrational spectroscopy (infrared and raman spectroscopy) and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the vibrational spectroscopy confirm the presence of different conformers. Moreover, the analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra is very useful to check, on which structural fragments the change of conformations are important for the change of helical twist sense.

Keywords: helical twist sense, liquid crystals, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
79 Behavior of Helical Piles as Foundation of Photovoltaic Panels in Tropical Soils

Authors: Andrea J. Alarcón, Maxime Daulat, Raydel Lorenzo, Renato P. Da Cunha, Pierre Breul


Brazil has increased the use of renewable energy during the last years. Due to its sunshine and large surface area, photovoltaic panels founded in helical piles have been used to produce solar energy. Since Brazilian territory is mainly cover by highly porous structured tropical soils, when the helical piles are installed this structure is broken and its soil properties are modified. Considering the special characteristics of these soils, helical foundations behavior must be extensively studied. The first objective of this work is to determine the most suitable method to estimate the tensile capacity of helical piles in tropical soils. The second objective is to simulate the behavior of these piles in tropical soil. To obtain the rupture to assess load-displacement curves and the ultimate load, also a numerical modelling using Plaxis software was conducted. Lastly, the ultimate load and the load-displacements curves are compared with experimental values to validate the implemented model.

Keywords: finite element, helical piles, modelling, tropical soil, uplift capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
78 Selective Excitation of Circular Helical Modes in Graded Index Fibers

Authors: S. Al-Sowayan


The impact of selective excitation of circular helical modes of graded-index fibers on its capacity is analyzed using a model for propagation delay variation with launch offset and angle that resulted from misalignment of source and fiber axis. Results show that promising technique to improve graded-index fiber capacities.

Keywords: fiber measurements, fiber optic, communications, circular helical modes

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
77 Performance Study of Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger with Helical Ribbons

Authors: S. Ali, M. Baccar


In this work, numerical simulations were carried out using a specific CFD code in order to study the performance of an innovative Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger (SSHE) with helical ribbons for Bingham fluids (threshold fluids). The resolution of three-dimensional form of the conservation equations (continuity, momentum and energy equations) was carried out basing on the finite volume method (FVM). After studying the effect of dimensionless numbers (axial Reynolds, rotational Reynolds and Oldroyd numbers) on the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors within SSHE, a parametric study was developed, by varying the width of the helical ribbon, the clearance between the stator wall and the tip of the ribbon and the number of turns of the helical ribbon, in order to improve the heat transfer inside the exchanger. The effect of these geometrical numbers on the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors was discussed.

Keywords: heat transfer, helical ribbons, hydrodynamic behavior, parametric study, SSHE, thermal behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
76 Fouling Mitigation Using Helical Baffle Heat Exchangers and Comparative Analysis Using HTRI Xchanger Suite® Educational Software

Authors: Kiran P. Chadayamuri, Saransh Bagdi


Heat exchangers are devices used to transfer heat from one fluid to another via convection and conduction. The need for effective heat transfer has made their presence vital in hundreds of industries including petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants, fertiliser plants and pharmaceutical companies. Fouling has been one of the major problems hindering efficient transfer of thermal energy in heat exchangers. Several design changes have been coined for fighting fouling. A recent development involves using helical baffles in place of conventional segmented baffles in shell and tube heat exchangers. The aim of this paper is to understand the advantages of helical baffle exchangers, how they aid in fouling mitigation and its corresponding limitations. A comparative analysis was conducted between a helical baffle heat exchanger and a conventional segmented baffle heat exchanger using HTRI Xchanger Suite® Educational software and conclusions were drawn to study how the heat transfer process differs in the two cases.

Keywords: heat transfer, heat exchangers, fouling mitigation, helical baffles

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
75 Effect of Elastic Modulus Varieties on Helical Pile Behavior in Sand

Authors: Javad Shamsi Soosahab, Reza Ziaie Moayed


The compressive and tensile bearing capacity of helical piles in sand is investigated by means of numerical modeling. The analyses are carried out using two-dimensional finite-element software, Optum G2. The load–displacement behavior under compression and tension is compared in different relative densities for constant and various elastic modulus. The criterion used to find the ultimate axial load is the load corresponding to 5% of the helical diameter. The results show that relative density of sand plays an essential role in the response of ultimate capacities towards various condition. Increase in elastic modulus with depth is found to play a relatively more significant role to the increase in ultimate compressive load capacities, however tension bearing capacity decreases.

Keywords: helical piles, Optum G2, relative density, constant and various elastic modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
74 Wear Diagnosis of Diesel Engine Helical Gear

Authors: Surjit Angra, Gajanan Rane, Vinod Kumar, Sushma Rani


This paper presents metallurgical investigation of failed helical gear of diesel engine gear box used in a car. The failure had occurred near the bottomland of the tooth spacing. The failed surface was studied under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and also visually investigated. The images produced through SEM at various magnifications were studied. Detailed metallurgical study indicates that failure was due to foreign material inclusion which is a casting defect. Further study also revealed pitting, spalling and inter-granular fracture as the causes of gear failure.

Keywords: helical gear, scanning electron microscope, casting defect, pitting

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
73 Heat Transfer Analysis of Helical Grooved Passages near the Leading Edge Region in Gas Turbine Blade

Authors: Harishkumar Kamath, Chandrakant R. Kini, N. Yagnesh Sharma


Gas turbines are highly effective engineered prime movers for converting energy from thermal form (combustion stage) to mechanical form – are widely used for propulsion and power generation systems. One method of increasing both the power output and thermal efficiency is to increase the temperature of the gas entering the turbine. In the advanced gas turbines of today, the turbine inlet temperature can be as high as 1500°C; however, this temperature exceeds the melting temperature of the metal blade. With modern gas turbines operating at extremely high temperatures, it is necessary to implement various cooling methods, so the turbine blades and vanes endure in the path of the hot gases. Merely passing coolant air through the blade does not provide adequate cooling; therefore, it is necessary to implement techniques that will further enhance the heat transfer from the blade walls. It is seen that by incorporating helical grooved passages into the leading edge built on turbulence and higher flow rates through the passages, the blade can be cooled effectively. It seen from the analysis helical grooved passages with diameter 5 mm, helical pitch of 50 mm and 8 starts results in better cooling of turbine blade and gives the best thermal performance.

Keywords: blade cooling, helical grooves, leading edge, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
72 Effect of Helical Flow on Separation Delay in the Aortic Arch for Different Mechanical Heart Valve Prostheses by Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Qianhui Li, Christoph H. Bruecker


Atherosclerotic plaques are typically found where flow separation and variations of shear stress occur. Although helical flow patterns and flow separations have been recorded in the aorta, their relation has not been clearly clarified and especially in the condition of artificial heart valve prostheses. Therefore, an experimental study is performed to investigate the hemodynamic performance of different mechanical heart valves (MHVs), i.e. the SJM Regent bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) and the Lapeyre-Triflo FURTIVA trileaflet mechanical heart valve (TMHV), in a transparent model of the human aorta under a physiological pulsatile right-hand helical flow condition. A typical systolic flow profile is applied in the pulse-duplicator to generate a physiological pulsatile flow which thereafter flows past an axial turbine blade structure to imitate the right-hand helical flow induced in the left ventricle. High-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are used to map the flow evolution. A circular open orifice nozzle inserted in the valve plane as the reference configuration initially replaces the valve under investigation to understand the hemodynamic effects of the entered helical flow structure on the flow evolution in the aortic arch. Flow field analysis of the open orifice nozzle configuration illuminates the helical flow effectively delays the flow separation at the inner radius wall of the aortic arch. The comparison of the flow evolution for different MHVs shows that the BMHV works like a flow straightener which re-configures the helical flow pattern into three parallel jets (two side-orifice jets and the central orifice jet) while the TMHV preserves the helical flow structure and therefore prevent the flow separation at the inner radius wall of the aortic arch. Therefore the TMHV is of better hemodynamic performance and reduces the pressure loss.

Keywords: flow separation, helical aortic flow, mechanical heart valve, particle image velocimetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
71 Comparison of Spiral Circular Coil and Helical Coil Structures for Wireless Power Transfer System

Authors: Zhang Kehan, Du Luona


Wireless power transfer (WPT) systems have been widely investigated for advantages of convenience and safety compared to traditional plug-in charging systems. The research contents include impedance matching, circuit topology, transfer distance et al. for improving the efficiency of WPT system, which is a decisive factor in the practical application. What is more, coil structures such as spiral circular coil and helical coil with variable distance between two turns also have indispensable effects on the efficiency of WPT systems. This paper compares the efficiency of WPT systems utilizing spiral or helical coil with variable distance between two turns, and experimental results show that efficiency of spiral circular coil with an optimum distance between two turns is the highest. According to efficiency formula of resonant WPT system with series-series topology, we introduce M²/R₋₁ to measure the efficiency of spiral circular coil and helical coil WPT system. If the distance between two turns s is too close, proximity effect theory shows that the induced current in the conductor, caused by a variable flux created by the current flows in the skin of vicinity conductor, is the opposite direction of source current and has assignable impart on coil resistance. Thus in two coil structures, s affects coil resistance. At the same time, when the distance between primary and secondary coils is not variable, s can also make the influence on M to some degrees. The aforementioned study proves that s plays an indispensable role in changing M²/R₋₁ and then can be adjusted to find the optimum value with which WPT system achieves the highest efficiency. In actual application situations of WPT systems especially in underwater vehicles, miniaturization is one vital issue in designing WPT system structures. Limited by system size, the largest external radius of spiral circular coil is 100 mm, and the largest height of helical coil is 40 mm. In other words, the turn of coil N changes with s. In spiral circular and helical structures, the distance between each two turns in secondary coil is set as a constant value 1 mm to guarantee that the R2 is not variable. Based on the analysis above, we set up spiral circular coil and helical coil model using COMSOL to analyze the value of M²/R₋₁ when the distance between each two turns in primary coil sp varies from 0 mm to 10 mm. In the two structure models, the distance between primary and secondary coils is 50 mm and wire diameter is chosen as 1.5 mm. The turn of coil in secondary coil are 27 in helical coil model and 20 in spiral circular coil model. The best value of s in helical coil structure and spiral circular coil structure are 1 mm and 2 mm respectively, in which the value of M²/R₋₁ is the largest. It is obviously to select spiral circular coil as the first choice to design the WPT system for that the value of M²/R₋₁ in spiral circular coil is larger than that in helical coil under the same condition.

Keywords: distance between two turns, helical coil, spiral circular coil, wireless power transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
70 Movable Airfoil Arm (MAA) and Ducting Effect to Increase the Efficiency of a Helical Turbine

Authors: Abdi Ismail, Zain Amarta, Riza Rifaldy Argaputra


The Helical Turbine has the highest efficiency in comparison with the other hydrokinetic turbines. However, the potential of the Helical Turbine efficiency can be further improved so that the kinetic energy of a water current can be converted into mechanical energy as much as possible. This paper explains the effects by adding a Movable Airfoil Arm (MAA) and ducting on a Helical Turbine. The first research conducted an analysis of the efficiency comparison between a Plate Arm Helical Turbine (PAHT) versus a Movable Arm Helical Turbine Airfoil (MAAHT) at various water current velocities. The first step is manufacturing a PAHT and MAAHT. The PAHT and MAAHT has these specifications (as a fixed variable): 80 cm in diameter, a height of 88 cm, 3 blades, NACA 0018 blade profile, a 10 cm blade chord and a 60o inclination angle. The MAAHT uses a NACA 0012 airfoil arm that can move downward 20o, the PAHT uses a 5 mm plate arm. At the current velocity of 0.8, 0.85 and 0.9 m/s, the PAHT respectively generates a mechanical power of 92, 117 and 91 watts (a consecutive efficiency of 16%, 17% and 11%). At the same current velocity variation, the MAAHT respectively generates 74, 60 and 43 watts (a consecutive efficiency of 13%, 9% and 5%). Therefore, PAHT has a better performance than the MAAHT. Using analysis from CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), the drag force of MAA is greater than the one generated by the plate arm. By using CFD analysis, the drag force that occurs on the MAA is more dominant than the lift force, therefore the MAA can be called a drag device, whereas the lift force that occurs on the helical blade is more dominant than the drag force, therefore it can be called a lift device. Thus, the lift device cannot be combined with the drag device, because the drag device will become a hindrance to the lift device rotation. The second research conducted an analysis of the efficiency comparison between a Ducted Helical Turbine (DHT) versus a Helical Turbine (HT) through experimental studies. The first step is manufacturing the DHT and HT. The Helical turbine specifications (as a fixed variable) are: 40 cm in diameter, a height of 88 cm, 3 blades, NACA 0018 blade profile, 10 cm blade chord and a 60o inclination angle. At the current speed of 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.1 m/s, the HT respectively generates a mechanical power of 72, 85, 93 and 98 watts (a consecutive efficiency of 38%, 30%, 23% and 13%). At the same current speed variation, the DHT generates a mechanical power of 82, 98, 110 and 134 watts (a consecutive efficiency of 43%, 34%, 27% and 18%), respectively. The usage of ducting causes the water current speed around the turbine to increase.

Keywords: hydrokinetic turbine, helical turbine, movable airfoil arm, ducting

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
69 Impedance Matching of Axial Mode Helical Antennas

Authors: Hossein Mardani, Neil Buchanan, Robert Cahill, Vincent Fusco


In this paper, we study the input impedance characteristics of axial mode helical antennas to find an effective way for matching it to 50 Ω. The study is done on the important matching parameters such as like wire diameter and helix to the ground plane gap. It is intended that these parameters control the matching without detrimentally affecting the radiation pattern. Using transmission line theory, a simple broadband technique is proposed, which is applicable for perfect matching of antennas with similar design parameters. We provide design curves to help to choose the proper dimensions of the matching section based on the antenna’s unmatched input impedance. Finally, using the proposed technique, a 4-turn axial mode helix is designed at 2.5 GHz center frequency and the measurement results of the manufactured antenna will be included. This parametric study gives a good insight into the input impedance characteristics of axial mode helical antennas and the proposed impedance matching approach provides a simple, useful method for matching these types of antennas.

Keywords: antenna, helix, helical, axial mode, wireless power transfer, impedance matching

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
68 Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Helical Gear with Torque-Limiter

Authors: Ahmed Guerine, Ali El Hafidi, Bruno Martin, Philippe Leclaire


This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic response of a mechanical torque limiter which is used to protect drive parts from overload (helical transmission gears). The system is driven by four excitations: two external excitations (aerodynamics torque and force) and two internal excitations (two mesh stiffness fluctuations). In this work, we develop a dynamic model with lumped components and 28 degrees of freedom. We use the Runge Kutta step-by-step time integration numerical algorithm to solve the equations of motion obtained by Lagrange formalism. The numerical results have allowed us to identify the sources of vibration in the wind turbine. Also, they are useful to help the designer to make the right design and correctly choose the times for maintenance.

Keywords: two-stage helical gear, lumped model, dynamic response, torque-limiter

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
67 Numerical investigation of Hydrodynamic and Parietal Heat Transfer to Bingham Fluid Agitated in a Vessel by Helical Ribbon Impeller

Authors: Mounir Baccar, Amel Gammoudi, Abdelhak Ayadi


The efficient mixing of highly viscous fluids is required for many industries such as food, polymers or paints production. The homogeneity is a challenging operation for this fluids type since they operate at low Reynolds number to reduce the required power of the used impellers. Particularly, close-clearance impellers, mainly helical ribbons, are chosen for highly viscous fluids agitated in laminar regime which is currently heated through vessel wall. Indeed, they are characterized by high shear strains closer to the vessel wall, which causes a disturbing thermal boundary layer and ensures the homogenization of the bulk volume by axial and radial vortices. The hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of Newtonian fluids in vessels agitated by helical ribbon impellers, has been mostly studied by many researchers. However, rarely researchers investigated numerically the agitation of yield stress fluid by means of helical ribbon impellers. This paper aims to study the effect of the Double Helical Ribbon (DHR) stirrers on both the hydrodynamic and the thermal behaviors of yield stress fluids treated in a cylindrical vessel by means of numerical simulation approach. For this purpose, continuity, momentum, and thermal equations were solved by means of 3D finite volume technique. The effect of Oldroyd (Od) and Reynolds (Re) numbers on the power (Po) and Nusselt (Nu) numbers for the mentioned stirrer type have been studied. Also, the velocity and thermal fields, the dissipation function and the apparent viscosity have been presented in different (r-z) and (r-θ) planes.

Keywords: Bingham fluid, Hydrodynamic and thermal behavior, helical ribbon, mixing, numerical modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
66 Evaluation of the Power Generation Effect Obtained by Inserting a Piezoelectric Sheet in the Backlash Clearance of a Circular Arc Helical Gear

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Yuya Nakamoto


Power generation effect, obtained by inserting a piezo- electric sheet in the backlash clearance of a circular arc helical gear, is evaluated. Such type of screw gear is preferred since, in comparison with the involute tooth profile, the circular arc profile leads to reduced stress-concentration effects, and improved life of the piezoelectric film. Firstly, geometry of the circular arc helical gear, and properties of the piezoelectric sheet are presented. Then, description of the test-rig, consisted of a right-hand thread gear meshing with a left-hand thread gear, and the voltage measurement procedure are given. After creating the tridimensional (3D) model of the meshing gears in SolidWorks, they are 3D-printed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resin. Variation of the generated voltage versus time, during a meshing cycle of the circular arc helical gear, is measured for various values of the center distance. Then, the change of the maximal, minimal, and peak-to-peak voltage versus the center distance is illustrated. Optimal center distance of the gear, to achieve voltage maximization, is found and its significance is discussed. Such results prove that the contact pressure of the meshing gears can be measured, and also, the electrical power can be generated by employing the proposed technique.

Keywords: circular arc helical gear, contact problem, optimal center distance, piezoelectric sheet, power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
65 Simulation of Die Casting Process in an Industrial Helical Gearbox Flange Die

Authors: Mehdi Modabberifar, Behrouz Raad, Bahman Mirzakhani


Flanges are widely used for connecting valves, pipes and other industrial devices such as gearboxes. Method of producing a flange has a considerable impact on the manner of their involvement with the industrial engines and gearboxes. By Using die casting instead of sand casting and machining for manufacturing flanges, production speed and dimensional accuracy of the parts increases. Also, in die casting, obtained dimensions are close to final dimensions and hence the need for machining flanges after die casting process decreases which makes a significant savings in raw materials and improves the mechanical properties of flanges. In this paper, a typical die of an industrial helical gearbox flange (size ISO 50) was designed and die casting process for producing this type of flange was simulated using ProCAST software. The results of simulation were used for optimizing die design. Finally, using the results of the analysis, optimized die was built.

Keywords: die casting, finite element, flange, helical gearbox

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
64 Vertical Uplift Capacity of a Group of Equally Spaced Helical Screw Anchors in Sand

Authors: Sanjeev Mukherjee, Satyendra Mittal


This paper presents the experimental investigations on the behaviour of a group of single, double and triple helical screw anchors embedded vertically at the same level in sand. The tests were carried out on one, two, three and four numbers of anchors in sand for different depths of embedment keeping shallow and deep mode of behaviour in mind. The testing program included 48 tests conducted on three model anchors installed in sand whose density kept constant throughout the tests. It was observed that the ultimate pullout load varied significantly with the installation depth of the anchor and the number of anchors. The apparent coefficient of friction (f*) between anchor and soil was also calculated based on the test results. It was found that the apparent coefficient of friction varies between 1.02 and 4.76 for 1, 2, 3, and 4 numbers of single, double and triple helical screw anchors. Plate load tests conducted on model soil showed that the value of ф increases from 35o for virgin soil to 48o for soil with four double screw helical anchors. The graphs of ultimate pullout capacity of a group of two, three and four no. of anchors with respect to one anchor were plotted and design equations have been proposed correlating them. Based on these findings, it has been concluded that the load-displacement relationships for all groups can be reduced to a common curve. A 3-D finite element model, PLAXIS, was used to confirm the results obtained from laboratory tests and the agreement is excellent.

Keywords: apparent coefficient of friction, helical screw anchor, installation depth, plate load test

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
63 Analytical Modeling of Globular Protein-Ferritin in α-Helical Conformation: A White Noise Functional Approach

Authors: Vernie C. Convicto, Henry P. Aringa, Wilson I. Barredo


This study presents a conformational model of the helical structures of globular protein particularly ferritin in the framework of white noise path integral formulation by using Associated Legendre functions, Bessel and convolution of Bessel and trigonometric functions as modulating functions. The model incorporates chirality features of proteins and their helix-turn-helix sequence structural motif.

Keywords: globular protein, modulating function, white noise, winding probability

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
62 Optimum Design of Helical Gear System on Basis of Maximum Power Transmission Capability

Authors: Yasaman Esfandiari


Mechanical engineering has always dealt with amplification of the input power in power trains. One of the ways to achieve this goal is to use gears to change the amplitude and direction of the torque and the speed. However, the gears should be optimally designed to best achieve these objectives. In this study, helical gear systems are optimized to achieve maximum power. Material selection, space restriction, available facilities for manufacturing, the probability of tooth breakage, and tooth wear are taken into account and governing equations are derived. Finally, a Matlab code was generated to solve the optimization problem and the results are verified.

Keywords: design, gears, Matlab, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
61 Numerical Simulation for Self-Loosening Phenomenon Analysis of Bolt Joint under Vibration

Authors: Long Kim Vu, Ban Dang Nguyen


In this paper, the finite element method (FEM) is utilized to simulate the comprehensive process including tightening, releasing and self-loosening of a bolt joint under transverse vibration. Following to the accurate geometry of helical threads, an absolutely hexahedral meshing is implemented. The accuracy of simulation process is verified and validated by comparison with the experimental results on clamping force-vibration relationship, which shows the sufficient correlation. Further analysis with different amplitude and frequency of transverse vibration is done to determine the dominant factor inducing the failure.

Keywords: bolt self-loosening, contact state, finite element method, FEM, helical thread modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
60 Study on the Effects of Geometrical Parameters of Helical Fins on Heat Transfer Enhancement of Finned Tube Heat Exchangers

Authors: H. Asadi, H. Naderan Tahan


The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of geometrical properties of helical fins in double pipe heat exchangers. On the other hand, the purpose of this project is to derive the hydraulic and thermal design tables and equations of double heat exchangers with helical fins. The numerical modeling is implemented to calculate the considered parameters. Design tables and correlated equations are generated by repeating the parametric numerical procedure for different fin geometries. Friction factor coefficient and Nusselt number are calculated for different amounts of Reynolds, fluid Prantle and fin twist angles for the range of laminar fluid flow in annular tube with helical fins. Results showed that friction factor coefficient and Nusselt number will be increased for higher Reynolds numbers and fins’ twist angles in general. These two parameters follow different patterns in response to Reynolds number increment. Thermal performance factor is defined to analyze these different patterns. Temperature and velocity contours are plotted against twist angle and number of fins to describe the changes in flow patterns in different geometries of twisted finned annulus. Finally twisted finned annulus friction factor coefficient, Nusselt Number and thermal performance factor are correlated by simulating the model in different design points.

Keywords: double pipe heat exchangers, heat exchanger performance, twisted fins, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
59 Turbulent Flow in Corrugated Pipes with Helical Grooves

Authors: P. Mendes, H. Stel, R. E. M. Morales


This article presents a numerical and experimental study of turbulent flow in corrugated pipes with helically “d-type" grooves, for Reynolds numbers between 7500 and 100,000. The ANSYS-CFX software is used to solve the RANS equations with the BSL two equation turbulence model, through the element-based finite-volume method approach. Different groove widths and helix angles are considered. Numerical results are validated with experimental pressure drop measurements for the friction factor. A correlation for the friction factor is also proposed considering the geometric parameters and Reynolds numbers evaluated.

Keywords: turbulent flow, corrugated pipe, helical, numerical, experimental, friction factor, correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
58 Extension-Torsion-Inflation Coupling in Compressible Magnetoelastomeric Tubes with Helical Magnetic Anisotropy

Authors: Darius Diogo Barreto, Ajeet Kumar, Sushma Santapuri


We present an axisymmetric variational formulation for coupled extension-torsion-inflation deformation in magnetoelastomeric thin tubes when both azimuthal and axial magnetic fields are applied. The tube's material is assumed to have a preferred magnetization direction which imparts helical magnetic anisotropy to the tube. We have also derived the expressions of the first derivative of free energy per unit tube's undeformed length with respect to various imposed strain parameters. On applying the thin tube limit, the two nonlinear ordinary differential equations to obtain the in-plane radial displacement and radial component of the Lagrangian magnetic field get converted into a set of three simple algebraic equations. This allows us to obtain simple analytical expressions in terms of the applied magnetic field, magnetization direction, and magnetoelastic constants, which tell us how these parameters can be tuned to generate positive/negative Poisson's effect in such tubes. We consider both torsionally constrained and torsionally relaxed stretching of the tube. The study can be useful in designing magnetoelastic tubular actuators.

Keywords: nonlinear magnetoelasticity, extension-torsion coupling, negative Poisson's effect, helical anisotropy, thin tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
57 Condensation Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of R-134a Flowing inside Dimpled Tubes

Authors: Kanit Aroonrat, Somchai Wongwises


A heat exchanger is one of the vital parts in a wide variety of applications. The tube with surface modification is generally referred to as an enhanced tube. With this, the thermal performance of the heat exchanger is improved. A dimpled tube is one of many kinds of enhanced tube. The heat transfer and pressure drop of two-phase flow inside dimpled tubes have received little attention in the literature, despite of having an important role in the development of refrigeration and air conditioning systems. As a result, the main aim of this study is to investigate the condensation heat transfer and pressure drop of refrigerant-134a flowing inside dimpled tubes. The test section is a counter-flow double-tube heat exchanger, which the refrigerant flows in the inner tube and water flows in the annulus. The inner tubes are one smooth tube and three dimpled tubes with different helical pitches. All test tubes are made from copper with an inside diameter of 8.1 mm and length of 1500 mm. The experiments are conducted over mass fluxes ranging from 300 to 500 kg/m²s, heat flux ranging from 10 to 20 kW/m², and condensing temperature ranging from 40 to 50 ˚C. The results show that all dimpled tubes provide higher heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop compared to the smooth tube. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop increase with decreasing of helical pitch. It can be observed that the dimpled tube with lowest helical pitch yields the heat transfer enhancement in the range of 60-89% with the frictional pressure drop increase of 289-674% in comparison to the smooth tube.

Keywords: condensation, dimpled tube, heat transfer, pressure drop

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56 Evaluation of Natural Frequency of Single and Grouped Helical Piles

Authors: Maryam Shahbazi, Amy B. Cerato


The importance of a systems’ natural frequency (fn) emerges when the vibration force frequency is equivalent to foundation's fn which causes response amplitude (resonance) that may cause irreversible damage to the structure. Several factors such as pile geometry (e.g., length and diameter), soil density, load magnitude, pile condition, and physical structure affect the fn of a soil-pile system; some of these parameters are evaluated in this study. Although experimental and analytical studies have assessed the fn of a soil-pile system, few have included individual and grouped helical piles. Thus, the current study aims to provide quantitative data on dynamic characteristics of helical pile-soil systems from full-scale shake table tests that will allow engineers to predict more realistic dynamic response under motions with variable frequency ranges. To evaluate the fn of single and grouped helical piles in dry dense sand, full-scale shake table tests were conducted in a laminar box (6.7 m x 3.0 m with 4.6 m high). Two different diameters (8.8 cm and 14 cm) helical piles were embedded in the soil box with corresponding lengths of 3.66m (excluding one pile with length of 3.96) and 4.27m. Different configurations were implemented to evaluate conditions such as fixed and pinned connections. In the group configuration, all four piles with similar geometry were tied together. Simulated real earthquake motions, in addition to white noise, were applied to evaluate the wide range of soil-pile system behavior. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of measured time history responses using installed strain gages and accelerometers were used to evaluate fn. Both time-history records using accelerometer or strain gages were found to be acceptable for calculating fn. In this study, the existence of a pile reduced the fn of the soil slightly. Greater fn occurred on single piles with larger l/d ratios (higher slenderness ratio). Also, regardless of the connection type, the more slender pile group which is obviously surrounded by more soil, yielded higher natural frequencies under white noise, which may be due to exhibiting more passive soil resistance around it. Relatively speaking, within both pile groups, a pinned connection led to a lower fn than a fixed connection (e.g., for the same pile group the fn’s are 5.23Hz and 4.65Hz for fixed and pinned connections, respectively). Generally speaking, a stronger motion causes nonlinear behavior and degrades stiffness which reduces a pile’s fn; even more, reduction occurs in soil with a lower density. Moreover, fn of dense sand under white noise signal was obtained 5.03 which is reduced by 44% when an earthquake with the acceleration of 0.5g was applied. By knowing the factors affecting fn, the designer can effectively match the properties of the soil to a type of pile and structure to attempt to avoid resonance. The quantitative results in this study assist engineers in predicting a probable range of fn for helical pile foundations under potential future earthquake, and machine loading applied forces.

Keywords: helical pile, natural frequency, pile group, shake table, stiffness

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