Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 645

Search results for: Seyed Reza Mirdehghan

645 Stability and Performance Improvement of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Robot under Interaction Using the Impedance Control

Authors: Seyed Reza Mirdehghan, Mohammad Reza Haeri Yazdi


In this paper, the stability and the performance of a two-degree-of-freedom robot under an interaction with a unknown environment has been investigated. The time when the robot returns to its initial position after an interaction and the primary resistance of the robot against the impact must be reduced. Thus, the applied torque on the motor will be reduced. The impedance control is an appropriate method for robot control in these conditions. The stability of the robot at interaction moment was transformed to be a robust stability problem. The dynamic of the unknown environment was modeled as a weight function and the stability of the robot under an interaction with the environment has been investigated using the robust control concept. To improve the performance of the system, a force controller has been designed which the normalized impedance after interaction has been reduced. The resistance of the robot has been considered as a normalized cost function and its value was 0.593. The results has showed reduction of resistance of the robot against impact and the reduction of convergence time by lower than one second.

Keywords: impedance control, control system, robots, interaction

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644 The Role of Brand Experience in Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty in Ayandeh Bank Branches in Tehran

Authors: Seyed Reza Agha Seyed Hosseini, Nicolas Hamelin


Many marketing executives are looking for a comprehensive plan for delivering quality services and products that will create a distinct and unforgettable long-term experience for customers in dealing with their brand. Various brand management experts believe that a company looking to enhance its brand experience in the minds of customers should have a plan to increase customer satisfaction as well as customer loyalty. The purpose of this research was to investigate the role of brand experience in customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in Ayandeh Bank branches in Tehran. The study employed a quantitative methodology. For data gathering, a questionnaire was utilised to measure all the variables of the research. The statistical population of the study consisted of all the customers of Ayandeh Bank branches in Tehran, and the study data was gathered from 400 respondents. The findings indicate that brand experience has a direct and meaningful impact on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, and, furthermore, that customer satisfaction has a direct and significant effect on customer loyalty in the branches of Ayandeh Bank in Tehran.

Keywords: brand experience, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, bank

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
643 Green and Facile Fabrication and Characterization of Fe/ZnO Hollow Spheres and Photodegradation of Azo Dyes

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Bahjat Afshari Razani


In this work, Fe/ZnO hollow spherical structures with high surface area using the template glucose was prepared by the hydrothermal method using an ultrasonic bath at room temperature was produced and were identified by FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM and BET. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized spherical Fe/ZnO hollow sphere were studied in the destruction of Congo Red and Methylene Blue as Azo dyes. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Fe/ZnO hollow spherical structures is improved compared with ZnO hollow sphere and other morphologys.

Keywords: azo dyes, Fe/ZnO hollow sphere, hollow sphere nanostructures, photocatalyst

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642 Facile Fabrication of Nickel/Zinc Oxide Hollow Spheres Nanostructure and Photodegradation of Congo Red

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Behjat Afshari


In this work, Nickel/Zinc Oxide hollow spherical structures with high surface area using the template Fructose was prepared by the hydrothermal method using a ultrasonic bath at room temperature was produced and were identified by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized hollow spherical Nickel/Zinc Oxide was studied in the destruction of Congo red as Azo dye. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Nickel/ Zinc Oxide hollow spherical nanostructures is improved compared with zinc oxide hollow sphere and other morphologies.

Keywords: azo dye, hollow spheres, photocatalyst, nickel/zinc oxide

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641 Effect of IGF-I on Ovine Oocytes Maturation and Subsequent Embryo Development following in Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

Authors: Babak Qasemi-Panahi, Gholamali Moghaddam, Seyed-Abbas Rafat, Hossein Daghigh Kia, Mansoureh Movahedin, Reza Hadavi


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of IGF-I on ovine oocytes maturation and subsequent development of embryos derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF). In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes and in vitro culture (IVC) of embryos was conducted with or without 100 ng/mL IGF-1. In the IGF-I treated group, mean percentage of oocyte maturation was significantly higher than the control group (57.67 ± 3.04 versus 49.81 ± 3.04%, respectively, P < 0.05). However, in comparison with control group, there was no significant effect of IGF-1 on rates of cleavage, morula, and blastocyst formation (85% versus 84%; 63% versus 65%, and 40% to 39%, respectively). These data demonstrate that IGF-I has a positive effect on ovine oocyte maturation rate, but it has not the significant outcome on embryo development.

Keywords: ovine, IGF-I, IVM, ICSI

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640 Uncovering the Relationship between EFL Students' Self-Concept and Their Willingness to Communicate in Language Classes

Authors: Seyedeh Khadijeh Amirian, Seyed Mohammad Reza Amirian, Narges Hekmati


The current study aims at examining the relationship between English as a foreign language (EFL) students' self-concept and their willingness to communicate (WTC) in EFL classes. To this effect, two questionnaires, namely 'Willingness to Communicate' (MacIntyre et al., 2001) and 'Self-Concept Scale' (Liu and Wang, 2005), were distributed among 174 (45 males and 129 females) Iranian EFL university students. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the two variables. The results indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation between EFL students' self-concept and their WTC in EFL classes (p < .0.05). Moreover, regression analyses indicated that self-concept has a significantly positive influence on students’ WTC in language classes (B= .302, p < .0.05) and explains .302 percent of the variance in the dependent variable (WTC). The results are discussed with regards to the individual differences in educational contexts, and implications are offered.

Keywords: EFL students, language classes, willingness to communicate, self-concept

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639 Assessment of Breast, Lung and Liver Effective Doses in Heart Imaging by CT-Scan 128 Dual Sources with Use of TLD-100 in RANDO Phantom

Authors: Seyedeh Sepideh Amini, Navideh Aghaei Amirkhizi, Seyedeh Paniz Amini, Seyed Soheil Sayyahi, Mohammad Reza Davar Panah


CT-Scan is one of the lateral and sectional imaging methods that produce 3D-images with use of rotational x-ray tube around central axis. This study is about evaluation and calculation of effective doses around heart organs such as breast, lung and liver with CT-Scan 128 dual sources with TLD_100 and RANDO Phantom by spiral, flash and conventional protocols. In results, it is showed that in spiral protocol organs have maximum effective dose and minimum in flash protocol. Thus flash protocol advised for children and risk persons.

Keywords: X-ray computed tomography, dosimetry, TLD-100, RANDO, phantom

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638 Formulating the Stochastic Finite Elements for Free Vibration Analysis of Plates with Variable Elastic Modulus

Authors: Mojtaba Aghamiri Esfahani, Mohammad Karkon, Seyed Majid Hosseini Nezhad, Reza Hosseini-Ara


In this study, the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of a plate on free vibration response is investigated. For this purpose, the elastic modulus of the plate is modeled as stochastic variable with normal distribution. Moreover, the distance autocorrelation function is used for stochastic field. Then, by applying the finite element method and Monte Carlo simulation, stochastic finite element relations are extracted. Finally, with a numerical test, the effect of uncertainty in the elastic modulus on free vibration response of a plate is studied. The results show that the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of the plate cannot play an important role on the free vibration response.

Keywords: stochastic finite elements, plate bending, free vibration, Monte Carlo, Neumann expansion method.

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637 Removal of Samarium in Environmental Water Samples by Modified Yeast Cells

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Seyed Mehdi Seyed Nejad, Elham Moniri


A novel bio-adsorbent is fabricated by attaching a cibacron blue to yeast cells. The modified bio-sorbent has been characterized by some techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis (CHN) and applied for the preconcentration and determination of samarium from aqueous water samples. The best pH value for adsorption of the brilliant crecyle blue by yeast cells- cibacron blue was 7. The sorption capacity of modified biosorbent was 18.5 mg. g⁻¹. A recovery of 95.3% was obtained for Sm(III) when eluted with 0.5 M nitric acid. The method was applied for Sm(III) preconcentration and determination in river water sample.

Keywords: samarium, solid phase extraction, yeast cells, water sample, removal

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636 Employing Motivation, Enjoyment and Self-Regulation to Predict Aural Vocabulary Knowledge

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Reza Amirian, Seyedeh Khadije Amirian, Maryam Sabouri


The present study aimed to investigate second language (L2) motivation, enjoyment, and self-regulation as the main variables for explaining variance in the process, and to find out the outcome of L2 Aural Vocabulary Knowledge (AVK) development by focusing on the Iranian EFL students at Hakim Sabzevari University. To this end, 122 EFL students (86 females) and (36 males) participated in this study. The students filled out the Motivation Questionnaire, Foreign Language Enjoyment Questionnaire, and Self-Regulation Questionnaire and also took Aural Vocabulary Knowledge (AVK) Test. Using SPSS software, the data were analyzed through multiple regressions and path analysis. A preliminary Pearson correlation analysis revealed that 2 out of 3 independent variables were significantly linked to AVK. According to the obtained regression model, self-regulation was a significant predictor of aural vocabulary knowledge test. Finally, the results of the mediation analysis showed that the indirect effect of enjoyment on AVK through self- regulation was significant. These findings are discussed, and implications are offered.

Keywords: aural vocabulary knowledge, enjoyment, motivation, self-regulation

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635 The Approach of Male and Female Spectators about the Presence of Female Spectators in Sport Stadiums of Iran

Authors: Mohammad Reza Boroumand Devlagh, Seyed Mohammad Hosein Razavi, Fatemeh Ahmadi, Azam Fazli Darzi


The issue of female presence in Iran stadiums has long been considered and debated by governmental experts and authorities, however, no conclusion is yielded yet. Thus, the present study has been done with the aim of investigating the approach of male and female spectators about the presence of female spectators in Iranian stadiums. The statistical population of the study includes all male and female spectators who have not experienced the live watching of male championship matches in stadiums. 224 subjects from the statistical population have selected through stratified random sampling as the sample of the study. For data collection, researcher-made questionnaire has been used whose validity has been confirmed by the university professors and its reliability has been studied and confirmed through an preliminary study. (r= 0.81). Data analysis has been done using descriptive and referential statistics in P< 0.05. The results of the study showed that male and female were meaningfully agreed with the female presence in stadiums and there is no meaningful difference between male and female approaches concerning the female spectators’ presence in sport stadiums of Iran (sig= 0.867).

Keywords: male, female spectators, Iran, sport stadiums, population

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634 Buckling Analysis of 2D Frames Using the Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi


The main purpose of this paper is to present the Modified Newmark Method of buckling analysis frame considering the effect of the axial load. The discussion will be restricted to plane frameworks containing a constant cross-section for each element. In addition, it is assumed that the frames are prevented from out-of-plane deflection. In this method, stiffness matrix of the structure is considered to be constant. The most important advantage of such a method is that it obtains both upper and lower critical loads. The advanced of the present method is fast convergence, ability to use computer simulations, and ability to model structures with semi-rigid support conditions using linear and rotational spring.

Keywords: buckling, stability, frame, modified newmark method

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633 Shear Strength of Unsaturated Clayey Soils Using Laboratory Vane Shear Test

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Seyed Abdolhassan Naeini, Peyman Nouri, Hamed Yekehdehghan


The shear strength of soils is a significant parameter in the design of clay structures, depots, clay gables, and freeways. Most research has addressed the shear strength of saturated soils. However, soils can become partially saturated with changes in weather, changes in groundwater levels, and the absorption of water by plant roots. Hence, it is necessary to study the strength behavior of partially saturated soils. The shear vane test is an experiment that determines the undrained shear strength of clay soils. This test may be performed in the laboratory or at the site. The present research investigates the effect of liquidity index (LI), plasticity index (PI), and saturation degree of the soil on its undrained shear strength obtained from the shear vane test. According to the results, an increase in the LI and a decrease in the PL of the soil decrease its undrained shear strength. Furthermore, studies show that a rise in the degree of saturation decreases the shear strength obtained from the shear vane test.

Keywords: liquidity index, plasticity index, shear strength, unsaturated soil

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632 Wireless Sensor Networks Optimization by Using 2-Stage Algorithm Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (2S-ICA)

Authors: Hamid Reza Lashgarian Azad, Seyed Nader Shetab Boushehri


Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have become progressively popular due to their wide range of applications. Wireless Sensor Network is made of numerous tiny sensor nodes that are battery powered. Maximizing the lifetime of wireless sensor network is very important problem. In this paper, we propose two-stage protocol based on imperialist competitive algorithm (2S-ICA) to solve a sensor network optimization problem. Long communication distances between sensors and a sink (or destination) in a sensor network can greatly drain the energy of sensors and reduce the lifetime of a network. By clustering a sensor network into a number of independent clusters using a 2S-ICA, we can greatly minimize the total communication distance, thus prolonging the network lifetime. Comparison results of proposed protocol and LEACH protocol, which is the common to solve WSN problem, show that our protocol has a better performance in term of improving network life and increasing number of transmitted data.

Keywords: imperialist competitive algorithm, K-means clustering, LEACH protocol, wireless sensor network

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631 Design, Control and Autonomous Trajectory Tracking of an Octorotor Rotorcraft

Authors: Seyed Jamal Haddadi, M. Reza Mehranpour, Roya Sadat Mortazavi, Zahra Sadat Mortazavi


Principal aim of this research is trajectory tracking, attitude and position control scheme in real flight mode by an Octorotor helicopter. For more stability, in this Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), number of motors is increased to eight motors which end of each arm installed two coaxial counter rotating motors. Dynamic model of this Octorotor includes of motion equation for translation and rotation. Utilized controller is proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control loop. The proposed controller is designed such that to be able to attenuate an effect of external wind disturbance and guarantee stability in this condition. The trajectory is determined by a Global Positioning System (GPS). Also an ARM CortexM4 is used as microprocessor. Electronic board of this UAV designed as able to records all of the sensors data, similar to an aircraft black box in external memory. Finally after auto landing of Octorotor, flight data is shown in MATLAB software and Experimental results of the proposed controller show the effectiveness of our approach on the Autonomous Quadrotor in real conditions.

Keywords: octorotor, design, PID controller, autonomous, trajectory tracking

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630 Experimental and Analytical Dose Assessment of Patient's Family Members Treated with I-131

Authors: Marzieh Ebrahimi, Vahid Changizi, Mohammad Reza Kardan, Seyed Mahdi Hosseini Pooya, Parham Geramifar


Radiation exposure to the patient's family members is one of the major concerns during thyroid cancer radionuclide therapy. The aim of this study was to measure the total effective dose of the family members by means of thermoluminescence personal dosimeter, and compare with those calculated by analytical methods. Eighty-five adult family members of fifty-one patients volunteered to participate in this research study. Considering the minimum and maximum range of dose rate from 15 µsv/h to 120 µsv/h at patients' release time, the calculated mean and median dose values of family members were 0.45 mSv and 0.28 mSv, respectively. Moreover, almost all family members’ doses were measured to be less than the dose constraint of 5 mSv recommended by Basic Safety Standards. Considering the influence parameters such as patient dose rate and administrated activity, the total effective doses of family members were calculated by TEDE and NRC formulas and compared with those of experimental results. The results indicated that, it is fruitful to use the quantitative calculations for releasing patients treated with I-131 and correct estimation of patients' family doses.

Keywords: effective dose, thermoluminescence, I-131, thyroid cancer

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629 Neural Adaptive Controller for a Class of Nonlinear Pendulum Dynamical System

Authors: Mohammad Reza Rahimi Khoygani, Reza Ghasemi


In this paper, designing direct adaptive neural controller is applied for a class of a nonlinear pendulum dynamic system. The radial basis function (RBF) is used for the Neural network (NN). The adaptive neural controller is robust in presence of external and internal uncertainties. Both the effectiveness of the controller and robustness against disturbances are the merits of this paper. The promising performance of the proposed controllers investigates in simulation results.

Keywords: adaptive control, pendulum dynamical system, nonlinear control, adaptive neural controller, nonlinear dynamical, neural network, RBF, driven pendulum, position control

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628 Some Accuracy Related Aspects in Two-Fluid Hydrodynamic Sub-Grid Modeling of Gas-Solid Riser Flows

Authors: Joseph Mouallem, Seyed Reza Amini Niaki, Norman Chavez-Cussy, Christian Costa Milioli, Fernando Eduardo Milioli


Sub-grid closures for filtered two-fluid models (fTFM) useful in large scale simulations (LSS) of riser flows can be derived from highly resolved simulations (HRS) with microscopic two-fluid modeling (mTFM). Accurate sub-grid closures require accurate mTFM formulations as well as accurate correlation of relevant filtered parameters to suitable independent variables. This article deals with both of those issues. The accuracy of mTFM is touched by assessing the impact of gas sub-grid turbulence over HRS filtered predictions. A gas turbulence alike effect is artificially inserted by means of a stochastic forcing procedure implemented in the physical space over the momentum conservation equation of the gas phase. The correlation issue is touched by introducing a three-filtered variable correlation analysis (three-marker analysis) performed under a variety of different macro-scale conditions typical or risers. While the more elaborated correlation procedure clearly improved accuracy, accounting for gas sub-grid turbulence had no significant impact over predictions.

Keywords: fluidization, gas-particle flow, two-fluid model, sub-grid models, filtered closures

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627 A Situational Awareness Map for Allocating Relief Resources after Earthquake Occurrence

Authors: Hamid Reza Ranjbar, Ali Reza Azmoude Ardalan, Hamid Dehghani, Mohammad Reza Sarajian


Natural disasters are unexpected events which predicting them is difficult. Earthquake is one of the most devastating disasters among natural hazards with high rate of mortality and wide extent of damages. After the earthquake occurrence, managing the critical condition and allocating limited relief sources requiring a complete awareness of damaged area. The information for allocating relief teams should be precise and reliable as much as possible, and be presented in the appropriate time after the earthquake occurrence. This type of information was previously presented in the form of a damage map; conducting relief teams by using damage map mostly lead to waste of time for finding alive occupants under the rubble. In this research, a proposed standard for prioritizing damaged buildings in terms of requiring rescue and relief was presented. This standard prioritizes damaged buildings into four levels of priority including very high, high, moderate and low by considering key parameters such as type of land use, activity time, and inactivity time of each land use, time of earthquake occurrence and distinct index. The priority map by using the proposed standard could be a basis for guiding relief teams towards the areas with high relief priority.

Keywords: Damage map, GIS, priority map, USAR

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626 Evaluation of Biofertilizer and Manure Effects on Quantitative Yield of Nigella Sativa L.

Authors: Mohammad Reza Haj Seyed Hadi, Fereshteh Ghanepasand, Mohammad Taghi Darzi


The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of Nitrogen fixing bacteria and manure application on the seed yield and yield components in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). The experiment was carried out at the RAN Research Station in Firouzkouh in 2012. A 4×4 factorial experiment, arranged in a randomized complete blocks designed with three replications. The treatments consisted of 4 level of nitrogen fixing bacteria (control, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Azotobacter + Azospirillum) and 4 level of manure (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 ton ha-1). The present results have shown that the highest height, 1000 seeds weight, seed number per follicle, follicle yield, seed yield and harvest index were obtained after using Azotobacter and Azospirillum, simultaneously. Manure application only affects on follicle yield and by 5ton manure ha-1 the highest follicle yield obtained. Results of this investigation showed that the maximum seed yield obtained when Aotobacter+Azospirillum inoculated with black cumin seeds and 5 ton manure ha-1 applied. Combined application of nitrogen fixing bacteria and manure can be helpful in developing of production and yield in Black cumin.

Keywords: azotobacter, azospirillum, black cumin, yield, yield components

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625 Financial Development, FDI, and Intellectual Property on Economic Growth in Iran

Authors: Fatemeh Fahimifar, Rouhollah Nazari, Seyed Mohammad Reza Hosseini


Achieving an adaptable rate of economic growth has always been at the forefront of Iran development programs. In order to increase welfare level of the people in the society, all economic and social indices should be improved which is possible just in case of country's economic development and growth. While developing countries has realized the gap between developed countries and developing countries in today's world, a massive movement has been emerged in less developed countries to eliminate this economic gap. Hence this study investigates the effect of financial development, foreign direct investment and intellectual property on Iran's economic growth and taking into account other variables on economic growth such as impact of the share of foreign direct investment on GDP, government consumptive expenditure share of GDP has been paid. Period used in this study is related to the years 1974 to 2009. Also, in this research we have used Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to examine relationship between variables. The results of this study indicate a meaningful and negative impact of financial development, the share of government consumptive expenditure to GDP and similarly, the initial GDP on economic growth. Also, the degree of economy openness, foreign direct investment and intellectual property has a meaningful positive impact on economic growth.

Keywords: financial development, FDI, intellectual property, economic growth, Iran

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624 Preparation and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Cellulose from Acacia mangium

Authors: Samira Gharehkhani, Seyed Farid Seyed Shirazi, Abdolreza Gharehkhani, Hooman Yarmand, Ahmad Badarudin, Rushdan Ibrahim, Salim Newaz Kazi


Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) were prepared by acid hydrolysis and ultrasound treatment of bleached Acacia mangium fibers. The obtained rod-shaped nanocrystals showed a uniform size. The results showed that NCC with high crystallinity can be obtained using 64 wt% sulfuric acid. The effect of synthesis condition was investigated. Different reaction times were examined to produce the NCC and the results revealed that an optimum reaction time has to be used for preparing the NCC. Morphological investigation was performed using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity increased with successive treatments. The NCC suspension was homogeneous and stable and no sedimentation was observed for a long time.

Keywords: acid hydrolysis, nanocrystalline cellulose, nano material, reaction time

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
623 Comparative Analysis of Competitive State Anxiety among Team Sport and Individual Sport Athletes in Iran

Authors: Hossein Soltani, Zahra Hojati, Seyed Reza Attarzadeh Hossini


Anxiety levels before and during competition are not clear due to conflicting findings; various athletes have reported different levels of anxiety from much too low. With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, and the lack of a comprehensive theory in this field made the author to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. The sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (taekwondo, karate, and wrestling) and 60 athletes in team sports (volleyball, basketball, futsal). All participants in this study were regularly competing at the super leagues and regional level. The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. This inventory was distributed among the subjects about 30 minutes before the first competition. Finally, using one-way ANOVA data was analyzed. The results indicated that the mean score of cognitive and somatic anxiety among individual sport athletes was higher than that of team sport athletes (P<0.05). Self-confidence levels of individual sports athletes was higher than that of team sports athletes but the difference was not significant (P >0.05). It seems the being part of a team alleviates some of the pressure experienced by those who compete alone. Conclusion: Individual sport athletes may be more exposed to evaluation and more engaged in their own skills and abilities than team sport athletes given that responsibility for performance is not distributed across several performers.

Keywords: competitive state anxiety, cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, team sports, individual sports

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622 The Effectiveness of Group Spiritual Therapy on Increasing the Life Expectancy and Mental Health in Elderlies

Authors: Seyed Reza Mirmahdi, Seyedeh Maryam Hashemi Jabali


This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of group spiritual therapy on increasing the life expectancy and mental health among the elderlies. This was a quasi-experimental research using a pretest-posttest design with a control group conducted over a population including all the elderly people of Tehran in 2012-13. A randomized sampling method was used to select 30 elderly people living in Parham nursing home that were then randomly assigned into two control and experimental groups of 15 people each. The instruments used were Miller’s life expectancy and mental health test (SCL.90.R) standard questionnaires. Individuals in experimental group received 12 sessions of group spiritual therapy while those in control group did not receive any kind of therapy. The tests were performed again for all the subjects (30 individuals) at the end of the experiment. To test the hypotheses, the data collected by questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive methods through relevant tables and charts and also inferential methods through the analysis of covariance using the SPSS software. Results showed that group spiritual therapy leads to a significant increase in both mental health and life expectancy in the experimental group of elderlies living in Parham nursing home compared to those in the control group.

Keywords: spiritual therapy, life expectancy, mental health, elderlies

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621 The Effect of Proper Drainage on the Cost of Building and Repairing Roads

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Saeid Amini, Hamid Reza Ghafouri


One of the most important factors in flexible pavement failure is the lack of proper drainage along the roads. Water on the Paving Systems is one of the main parameters of pavement failure. Though, if water is discharged without delay and prior to discharge in order to prevent damaging the pavement the lifetime of the pavement will be considerably increased. In this study, duration of water stay and materials properties in pavement systems and the effects of aggregate gradation, and hydraulic conductivity of the drainage rate and Effects of subsurface drainage systems, drainage and reduction in the lifetime of the pavement have been studied. The study conducted in accordance with the terms offered can be concluded as under. The more hydraulic conductivity the less drainage time and the use of sub-surface drainage system causes two to three times of the pavement lifetime. In this research it has been tried by study and calculate the drained and undrained pavements lifetime by considering the effectiveness of water and drainage coefficient on flexible materials modulus and by using KENLAYER software to compare the present value cost of these pavements has been paid for a 20 year lifetime design. In this study, 14 pavement sections have been considered, of which 7 sections have been drained and 7 other not. Results show that drained pavements have more initial costs but the failure severity is so little in them and have longer lifetime for a 20 year lifetime design, the drained pavements seem so economic.

Keywords: drainage, base and sub-base, elasticity modulus, aggregation

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620 Rethinking of Self-Monitoring and Self-Response Roles in Teaching Grammar Knowledge to Iranian EFL Learners

Authors: Gholam Reza Parvizi, Ali Reza Kargar, Amir Arani


In the present days, learning and teaching researchers have emphasized the role which teachers, tutors, and trainers’ constraint knowledge treat in resizing and trimming what they perform in educational atmosphere. Regarding English language as subject to teaching, although the prominence of instructor’s knowledge about grammar has also been stressed, but the lack of empirical insights into the relationship between teacher’ self-monitoring and self-response of grammar knowledge have been observed. With particular attention to the grammar this article indicates and discusses information obtained self- feedback and conversing teachers of a kind who backwash the issue. The result of the study indicates that enabling teachers to progress and maintain a logical and realistic awareness of their knowledge about grammar have to be prominent goal for teachers’ education and development programs.

Keywords: grammar knowledge, self-monitoring, self-response, teaching grammar, language teaching program

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619 Effect of Combining Return Policy and Early Order Commitment on Supply Chain Performance

Authors: Hamed Homaei, Seyed Reza Hejazi, Iraj Mahdavi


Return policy (RP) is a strategy for supply chain coordination, whereby the retailer returns the unsold products to the manufacturer or the manufacturer offers a credit on unsold products to the retailer at the end of selling season. Early order commitment (EOC) is another efficient mechanism for channel coordination wherein the retailer commits to purchasing from the manufacturer a fixed order quantity a few periods in advance of the regular delivery lead time. This paper studies the coordination issue of a two-level supply chain with one retailer and one manufacturer through combining two mentioned contracts. The main purpose of this paper is to present an analytical model to show that how the contract which is created by combining RP and EOC can improve supply chain performance. Numerical analyses show that the supply chain coordination through mentioned contract in compare with EOC mechanism, can improve supply chain performance under certain ranges of model parameters. Furthermore, some numerical analyses are done to determine the best buyback price in order to achieve maximum cost saving in the supply chain. Finally, a revenue sharing scheme is presented in order to achieve a win-win condition in the supply chain.

Keywords: supply chain coordination, early order commitment, return policy, revenue sharing

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618 Microwave Absorption Properties of Low Density Polyethelene-Cobalt Ferrite Nanocomposite

Authors: Reza Fazaeli, Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hamid Targhagh


Low density polyethylene (LDPE) nanocomposites with 3, 5 and 7 wt. % cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanopowder fabricated with extrusion mixing and followed up by hot press to reach compact samples. The transmission/reflection measurements were carried out with a network analyzer in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz. By increasing the percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder, reflection loss (S11) increases, while transferring loss (S21) decreases. Reflectivity (R) calculations made using S11 and S21. Increase in percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder up to 7 wt. % in composite leaded to higher reflectivity amount, and revealed that increasing the percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder up to 7 wt. % leads to further microwave absorption in 8-12 GHz range.

Keywords: nanocomposite, cobalt ferrite, low density polyethylene, microwave absorption

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617 A Genetic Algorithm Based Sleep-Wake up Protocol for Area Coverage in WSNs

Authors: Seyed Mahdi Jameii, Arash Nikdel, Seyed Mohsen Jameii


Energy efficiency is an important issue in the field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). So, minimizing the energy consumption in this kind of networks should be an essential consideration. Sleep/wake scheduling mechanism is an efficient approach to handling this issue. In this paper, we propose a Genetic Algorithm-based Sleep-Wake up Area Coverage protocol called GA-SWAC. The proposed protocol puts the minimum of nodes in active mode and adjusts the sensing radius of each active node to decrease the energy consumption while maintaining the network’s coverage. The proposed protocol is simulated. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed protocol in terms of coverage ratio, number of active nodes and energy consumption.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, genetic algorithm, coverage, connectivity

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616 Stability of Composite Struts Using the Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi


The aim of this paper is to examine the behavior of elastic stability of reinforced and composite concrete struts with axial loads. The objective of this study is to verify the ability of the Modified Newmark Method to include geometric non-linearity in addition to non-linearity due to cracking, and also to show the advantage of the established method to reconsider an ignored minor parameter in mathematical modeling, such as the effect of the cracking by extra geometric bending moment Ny on cross-section properties. The purpose of this investigation is not to present some new results for the instability of reinforced or composite concrete columns. Therefore, no kinds of non-linearity involved in the problem are considered here. Only as mentioned, it is a part of the verification of the new established method to solve two kinds of non-linearity P- δ effect and cracking together simultaneously. However, the Modified Newmark Method can be used to solve non-linearity of materials and time-dependent behavior of concrete. However, since it is out of the scope of this article, it is not considered.

Keywords: stability, buckling, modified newmark method, reinforced

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