Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 127

Search results for: wearable

127 Product Design and Development of Wearable Assistant Device

Authors: Hao-Jun Hong, Jung-Tang Huang


The world is gradually becoming an aging society, and with the lack of laboring forces, this phenomenon is affecting the nation’s economy growth. Although nursing centers are booming in recent years, the lack of medical resources are yet to be resolved, thus creating an innovative wearable medical device could be a vital solution. This research is focused on the design and development of a wearable device which obtains a more precise heart failure measurement than products on the market. The method used by the device is based on the sensor fusion and big data algorithm. From the test result, the modified structure of wearable device can significantly decrease the MA (Motion Artifact) and provide users a more cozy and accurate physical monitor experience.

Keywords: big data, heart failure, motion artifact, sensor fusion, wearable medical device

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
126 On the Design of Wearable Fractal Antenna

Authors: Amar Partap Singh Pharwaha, Shweta Rani


This paper is aimed at proposing a rhombus shaped wearable fractal antenna for wireless communication systems. The geometrical descriptors of the antenna have been obtained using bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) for wide band operation. The method of moment based IE3D software has been used to simulate the antenna and observed that miniaturization of 13.08% has been achieved without degrading the resonating properties of the proposed antenna. An analysis with different substrates has also been done in order to evaluate the effectiveness of electrical permittivity on the presented structure. The proposed antenna has low profile, light weight and has successfully demonstrated wideband and multiband characteristics for wearable electronic applications.

Keywords: BFO, bandwidth, electrical permittivity, fractals, wearable antenna

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
125 Integrating Wearable Devices in Real-Time Computer Applications of Petrochemical Systems

Authors: Paul B Stone, Subhashini Ganapathy, Mary E. Fendley, Layla Akilan


As notifications become more common through mobile devices, it is important to understand the impact of wearable devices on the improved user experience of man-machine interfaces. This study examined the use of a wearable device for a real-time system using a computer-simulated petrochemical system. The key research question was to determine how using the information provided by the wearable device can improve human performance through measures of situational awareness and decision making. Results indicate that there was a reduction in response time when using the watch, and there was no difference in situational awareness. Perception of using the watch was positive, with 83% of users finding value in using the watch and receiving haptic feedback.

Keywords: computer applications, haptic feedback, petrochemical systems, situational awareness, wearable technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
124 The Integration of Patient Health Record Generated from Wearable and Internet of Things Devices into Health Information Exchanges

Authors: Dalvin D. Hill, Hector M. Castro Garcia


A growing number of individuals utilize wearable devices on a daily basis. The usage and functionality of these wearable devices vary from user to user. One popular usage of said devices is to track health-related activities that are typically stored on a device’s memory or uploaded to an account in the cloud; based on the current trend, the data accumulated from the wearable device are stored in a standalone location. In many of these cases, this health related datum is not a factor when considering the holistic view of a user’s health lifestyle or record. This health-related data generated from wearable and Internet of Things (IoT) devices can serve as empirical information to a medical provider, as the standalone data can add value to the holistic health record of a patient. This paper proposes a solution to incorporate the data gathered from these wearable and IoT devices, with that a patient’s Personal Health Record (PHR) stored within the confines of a Health Information Exchange (HIE).

Keywords: electronic health record, health information exchanges, internet of things, personal health records, wearable devices, wearables

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
123 Textile Based Physical Wearable Sensors for Healthcare Monitoring in Medical and Protective Garments

Authors: Sejuti Malakar


Textile sensors have gained a lot of interest in recent years as it is instrumental in monitoring physiological and environmental changes, for a better diagnosis that can be useful in various fields like medical textiles, sports textiles, protective textiles, agro textiles, and geo-textiles. Moreover, with the development of flexible textile-based wearable sensors, the functionality of smart clothing is augmented for a more improved user experience when it comes to technical textiles. In this context, conductive textiles using new composites and nanomaterials are being developed while considering its compatibility with the textile manufacturing processes. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and detailed overview of the contemporary advancements in textile-based wearable physical sensors, used in the field of medical, security, surveillance, and protection, from a global perspective. The methodology used is through analysing various examples of integration of wearable textile-based sensors with clothing for daily use, keeping in mind the technological advances in the same. By comparing various case studies, we come across various challenges textile sensors, in terms of stability, the comfort of movement, and reliable sensing components to enable accurate measurements, in spite of progress in the engineering of the wearable. Addressing such concerns is critical for the future success of wearable sensors.

Keywords: flexible textile-based wearable sensors, contemporary advancements, conductive textiles, body conformal design

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
122 A Compact Wearable Slot Antenna for LTE and WLAN Applications

Authors: Haider K. Raad


In this paper, a compact wide-band, ultra-thin and flexible slot antenna intended for wearable applications is presented. The presented antenna is designed to provide Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) connectivity. The presented design exhibits a relatively wide bandwidth (1600-3500 MHz below -6 dB impedance bandwidth limit). The antenna is positioned on a 33 mm x 30 mm flexible substrate with a thickness of 50 µm. Antenna properties, such as the far-field radiation patterns, scattering parameter S11 are provided. The presented compact, thin and flexible design along with excellent radiation characteristics are deemed suitable for integration into flexible and wearable devices.

Keywords: wearable electronics, slot Antenna, LTE, WLAN

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
121 Cortex-M3 Based Virtual Platform Implementation for Software Development

Authors: Jun Young Moon, Hyeonggeon Lee, Jong Tae Kim


In this paper, we present Cortex-M3 based virtual platform which can virtualize wearable hardware platform and evaluate hardware performance. Cortex-M3 is very popular microcontroller in wearable devices, hardware sensors and display devices. This platform can be used to implement software layer for specific hardware architecture. By using the proposed platform the software development process can be parallelized with hardware development process. We present internal mechanism to implement the proposed virtual platform and describe how to use the proposed platform to develop software by using case study which is low cost wearable device that uses Cortex-M3.

Keywords: electronic system level design, software development, virtual platform, wearable device

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120 Using Wearable Technology to Monitor Workers’ Stress for Construction Safety: A Conceptual Framework

Authors: Namhun Lee, Seong Jin Kim


The construction industry represents one of the largest industries in the United States, yet it continues to face several occupational health and safety challenges. Many workers on construction sites are suffering from extended exposure to stressful situations such as poor and hazardous work environments and task complexity. Stress can be commonly defined as a feeling of emotional or physical tension, which can easily impact construction safety and result in a higher rate of job-related injuries in the construction industry. Physiological signals transmitted from wearable biosensors can be used to detect excessive stress. Therefore, workers’ stress should be detected and mitigated to prevent any type of serious incident or accident proactively. By doing this, construction productivity, as well as job satisfaction, would also be improved in the construction industry. To establish a foundation in this field of research, a conceptual framework for using wearable technology for construction safety has been developed for continuous and automatic monitoring of worker’s stress. The conceptual framework will serve as a foothold in future studies on the application of wearable technology for construction safety.

Keywords: construction safety, occupational stress, stress monitoring, wearable biosensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
119 Designing for Wearable Interactions: Exploring Care Design for Design Anthropology and Participatory Design

Authors: Wei-Chen Chang, Yu-Cheng Pei


This research examines wearable interaction design to mediate the design anthropology and participatory design found in technology and fashion. We will discuss the principles of design anthropology and participatory design using a wearable and fashion product process to transmit the ‘people-situation-reason-object’ method and analyze five sense applied examples that provide new thinking for designers engaged in future industry. Design anthropology and Participatory Design attempt to engage physiological and psychological design through technology-function, meaning-form and fashion aesthetics to achieve cognition between user and environment. The wearable interaction provides technological characteristics and semantic ideas transmitted to craft-cultural, collective, cheerful and creative performance. It is more confident and innovative attempt, that is able to achieve a joyful, fundamental interface. This study takes two directions for cultural thinking as the basis to establish a set of life-craft designs with interactive experience objects by users that assist designers in examining the sensual feelings to initiate a new lifestyle value.

Keywords: design anthropology, wearable design, design communication, participatory design

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
118 Octagon Shaped Wearable Antenna for Band at 4GHz

Authors: M. Khazini, M.Damou, Z. Souar


In this paper, octagon antenna ultra wideband (UWB) low band wearable antenna designs have been proposed for in-body to on-body communication channel of wireless. Single element antenna, dual elements, are designed and compared in free space and in body proximity. Conformal design has been focused. Liquid crystal polymer (LCP) is a material that has gained attention as a potential high-performance microwave substrate and packaging material. This investigation uses several methods to determine the electrical properties of LCP for millimeter-wave frequencies.

Keywords: ultra wideband, wearable antenna, slot antenna, liquid crystal polymer (LCP), CST studio

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
117 Achieving Shear Wave Elastography by a Three-element Probe for Wearable Human-machine Interface

Authors: Jipeng Yan, Xingchen Yang, Xiaowei Zhou, Mengxing Tang, Honghai Liu


Shear elastic modulus of skeletal muscles can be obtained by shear wave elastography (SWE) and has been linearly related to muscle force. However, SWE is currently implemented using array probes. Price and volumes of these probes and their driving equipment prevent SWE from being used in wearable human-machine interfaces (HMI). Moreover, beamforming processing for array probes reduces the real-time performance. To achieve SWE by wearable HMIs, a customized three-element probe is adopted in this work, with one element for acoustic radiation force generation and the others for shear wave tracking. In-phase quadrature demodulation and 2D autocorrelation are adopted to estimate velocities of tissues on the sound beams of the latter two elements. Shear wave speeds are calculated by phase shift between the tissue velocities. Three agar phantoms with different elasticities were made by changing the weights of agar. Values of the shear elastic modulus of the phantoms were measured as 8.98, 23.06 and 36.74 kPa at a depth of 7.5 mm respectively. This work verifies the feasibility of measuring shear elastic modulus by wearable devices.

Keywords: shear elastic modulus, skeletal muscle, ultrasound, wearable human-machine interface

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116 Developement of a New Wearable Device for Automatic Guidance Service

Authors: Dawei Cai


In this paper, we present a new wearable device that provide an automatic guidance servie for visitors. By combining the position information from NFC and the orientation information from a 6 axis acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensor, the head's direction can be calculated. We developed an algorithm to calculate the device orientation based on the data from acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensor. If visitors want to know some explanation about an exhibit in front of him, what he has to do is just lift up his mobile device. The identification program will automatically identify the status based on the information from NFC and MEMS, and start playing explanation content for him. This service may be convenient for old people or disables or children.

Keywords: wearable device, ubiquitous computing, guide sysem, MEMS sensor, NFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
115 Wearable Heart Rate Sensor Based on Wireless System for Heart Health Monitoring

Authors: Murtadha Kareem, Oliver Faust


Wearable biosensor systems can be designed and developed for health monitoring. There is much interest in both scientific and industrial communities established since 2007. Fundamentally, the cost of healthcare has increased dramatically and the world population is aging. That creates the need to harvest technological improvements with small bio-sensing devices, wireless-communication, microelectronics and smart textiles, that leads to non-stop developments of wearable sensor based systems. There has been a significant demand to monitor patient's health status while the patient leaves the hospital in his/her personal environment. To address this need, there are numerous system prototypes which has been launched in the medical market recently, the aim of that is to provide real time information feedback about patient's health status, either to the patient himself/herself or direct to the supervising medical centre station, while being capable to give a notification for the patient in case of possible imminent health threatening conditions. Furthermore, wearable health monitoring systems comprise new techniques to address the problem of managing and monitoring chronic heart diseases for elderly people. Wearable sensor systems for health monitoring include various types of miniature sensors, either wearable or implantable. To be specific, our proposed system able to measure essential physiological parameter, such as heart rate signal which could be transmitted through Bluetooth to the cloud server in order to store, process, analysis and visualise the data acquisition. The acquired measurements are connected through internet of things to a central node, for instance an android smart phone or tablet used for visualising the collected information on application or transmit it to a medical centre.

Keywords: Wearable sensor, Heart rate, Internet of things, Chronic heart disease

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114 Realization of Wearable Inertial Measurement Units-Sensor-Fusion Harness to Control Therapeutic Smartphone Applications

Authors: Svilen Dimitrov, Manthan Pancholi, Norbert Schmitz, Didier Stricker


This paper presents the end-to-end development of a wearable motion sensing harness consisting of computational unit and four inertial measurement units to control three smartphone therapeutic games for children. The inertial data is processed in real time to obtain lower body motion information like knee raises, feet taps and squads. By providing a Wi-Fi connection interface the sensor harness acts wireless remote control for smartphone applications. By performing various lower body movements the users provoke corresponding game state changes. In contrary to the current similar offers, like Nintendo Wii Remote, Xbox Kinect and Playstation Move, this product, consisting of the sensor harness and the applications on top of it, are fully wearable, which means they do not rely on the user to be bound to concrete soft- or hardwareequipped space.

Keywords: wearable harness, inertial measurement units, smartphone therapeutic games, motion tracking, lower-body activity monitoring

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113 Design and Implementation of a Wearable Artificial Kidney Prototype for Home Dialysis

Authors: R. A. Qawasma, F. M. Haddad, H. O. Salhab


Hemodialysis is a life-preserving treatment for a number of patients with kidney failure. The standard procedure of hemodialysis is three times a week during the hemodialysis procedure, the patient usually suffering from many inconvenient, exhausting feeling and effect on the heart and cardiovascular system are the most common signs. This paper provides a solution to reduce the previous problems by designing a wearable artificial kidney (WAK) taking in consideration a minimization the size of the dialysis machine. The WAK system consists of two circuits: blood circuit and dialysate circuit. The blood from the patient is filtered in the dialyzer before returning back to the patient. Several parameters using an advanced microcontroller and array of sensors. WAK equipped with visible and audible alarm system to aware the patients if there is any problem.

Keywords: artificial kidney, home dialysis, renal failure, wearable kidney

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
112 Wearable Music: Generation of Costumes from Music and Generative Art and Wearing Them by 3-Way Projectors

Authors: Noriki Amano


The final goal of this study is to create another way in which people enjoy music through the performance of 'Wearable Music'. Concretely speaking, we generate colorful costumes in real- time from music and to realize their dressing by projecting them to a person. For this purpose, we propose three methods in this study. First, a method of giving color to music in a three-dimensionally way. Second, a method of generating images of costumes from music. Third, a method of wearing the images of music. In particular, this study stands out from other related work in that we generate images of unique costumes from music and realize to wear them. In this study, we use the technique of generative arts to generate images of unique costumes and project the images to the fog generated around a person from 3-way using projectors. From this study, we can get how to enjoy music as 'wearable'. Furthermore, we are also able to have the prospect of unconventional entertainment based on the fusion between music and costumes.

Keywords: entertainment computing, costumes, music, generative programming

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
111 Investigating Activity Recognition Using 9-Axis Sensors and Filters in Wearable Devices

Authors: Jun Gil Ahn, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim


In this paper, we analyze major components of activity recognition (AR) in wearable device with 9-axis sensors and sensor fusion filters. 9-axis sensors commonly include 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope and 3-axis magnetometer. We chose sensor fusion filters as Kalman filter and Direction Cosine Matrix (DCM) filter. We also construct sensor fusion data from each activity sensor data and perform classification by accuracy of AR using Naïve Bayes and SVM. According to the classification results, we observed that the DCM filter and the specific combination of the sensing axes are more effective for AR in wearable devices while classifying walking, running, ascending and descending.

Keywords: accelerometer, activity recognition, directiona cosine matrix filter, gyroscope, Kalman filter, magnetometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
110 Earphone Style Wearable Device for Automatic Guidance Service with Position Sensing

Authors: Dawei Cai


This paper describes a design of earphone style wearable device that may provide an automatic guidance service for visitors. With both position information and orientation information obtained from NFC and terrestrial magnetism sensor, a high level automatic guide service may be realized. To realize the service, a algorithm for position detection using the packet from NFC tags, and developed an algorithm to calculate the device orientation based on the data from acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensors called as MEMS. If visitors want to know some explanation about an exhibit in front of him, what he has to do is only move to the object and stands for a moment. The identification program will automatically recognize the status based on the information from NFC and MEMS, and start playing explanation content about the exhibit. This service should be useful for improving the understanding of the exhibition items and bring more satisfactory visiting experience without less burden.

Keywords: wearable device, MEMS sensor, ubiquitous computing, NFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
109 Wearable Interface for Telepresence in Robotics

Authors: Uriel Martinez-Hernandez, Luke W. Boorman, Hamideh Kerdegari, Tony J. Prescott


In this paper, we present architecture for the study of telepresence, immersion and human-robot interaction. The architecture is built around a wearable interface, developed here, that provides the human with visual, audio and tactile feedback from a remote location. We have chosen to interface the system with the iCub humanoid robot, as it mimics many human sensory modalities, such as vision, with gaze control and tactile feedback. This allows for a straightforward integration of multiple sensory modalities, but also offers a more complete immersion experience for the human. These systems are integrated, controlled and synchronised by an architecture developed for telepresence and human-robot interaction. Our wearable interface allows human participants to observe and explore a remote location, while also being able to communicate verbally with humans located in the remote environment. Our approach has been tested from local, domestic and business venues, using wired, wireless and Internet based connections. This has involved the implementation of data compression to maintain data quality to improve the immersion experience. Initial testing has shown the wearable interface to be robust. The system will endow humans with the ability to explore and interact with other humans at remote locations using multiple sensing modalities.

Keywords: telepresence, telerobotics, human-robot interaction, virtual reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
108 Fabrication of Wearable Antennas through Thermal Deposition

Authors: Jeff Letcher, Dennis Tierney, Haider Raad


Antennas are devices for transmitting and/or receiving signals which make them a necessary component of any wireless system. In this paper, a thermal deposition technique is utilized as a method to fabricate antenna structures on substrates. Thin-film deposition is achieved by evaporating a source material (metals in our case) in a vacuum which allows vapor particles to travel directly to the target substrate which is encased with a mask that outlines the desired structure. The material then condenses back to solid state. This method is used in comparison to screen printing, chemical etching, and ink jet printing to indicate advantages and disadvantages to the method. The antenna created undergoes various testing of frequency ranges, conductivity, and a series of flexing to indicate the effectiveness of the thermal deposition technique. A single band antenna that is operated at 2.45 GHz intended for wearable and flexible applications was successfully fabricated through this method and tested. It is concluded that thermal deposition presents a feasible technique of producing such antennas.

Keywords: thermal deposition, wearable antennas, bluetooth technology, flexible electronics

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
107 Effects of Wearable Garments on Postural Regulation in Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults

Authors: Mei Teng Woo, Keith Davids, Jarmo Liukkonen, Jia Yi Chow, Timo Jaakkola


Wearable garments such as tapes, compression garments, and braces could improve proprioception and reduced postural sway. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of wearable garments on postural regulation in a sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals, aged 65 years. It was hypothesized that wearable garments such as socks would provide stimulation to lower leg mechanoreceptors, and help participants achieve better postural regulation. Participants (N=63) performed a 30-s Romberg balance test protocol under four conditions (barefoot; wearing commercial socks; wearing clinical compression socks; wearing non-clinical compression socks), in a counterbalanced order, with four levels of performance difficulty: (1) standing on a stable surface with open eyes (SO); (2) a stable surface with closed eyes (SC); (3) a foam surface with open eyes (FO); and (4) a foam surface with closed eyes (FC). Centre of pressure (CoP) measurements included postural sway area (C90 area), trace length (TL) and sway velocity. Thirty-five participants (55.6%) showed positive effects of wearing the socks (responded group). In the responded group, it was revealed that socks showed significant differences in SO, SC and FO conditions for the two CoP measurements - TL and sway velocity (p < 0.05). In contrast, in the non-responded group, barefoot condition significantly decreased the TL and velocity in the SO condition. From the positive effects observed in the responded group, it is possible that wearable garments provide sensory cues that could interact with a biological cueing system to enhance performance in the postural regulation system. This study suggests that individuals respond to the socks treatments differently and future research should be undertaken to examine the factors that benefited the responded group of participants.

Keywords: community-dwelling, elderly adults, postural regulation, wearable garments

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106 An Inflatable and Foldable Knee Exosuit Based on Intelligent Management of Biomechanical Energy

Authors: Jing Fang, Yao Cui, Mingming Wang, Shengli She, Jianping Yuan


Wearable robotics is a potential solution in aiding gait rehabilitation of lower limbs dyskinesia patients, such as knee osteoarthritis or stroke afflicted patients. Many wearable robots have been developed in the form of rigid exoskeletons, but their bulk devices, high cost and control complexity hinder their popularity in the field of gait rehabilitation. Thus, the development of a portable, compliant and low-cost wearable robot for gait rehabilitation is necessary. Inspired by Chinese traditional folding fans and balloon inflators, the authors present an inflatable, foldable and variable stiffness knee exosuit (IFVSKE) in this paper. The pneumatic actuator of IFVSKE was fabricated in the shape of folding fans by using thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) fabric materials. The geometric and mechanical properties of IFVSKE were characterized with experimental methods. To assist the knee joint smartly, an intelligent control profile for IFVSKE was proposed based on the concept of full-cycle energy management of the biomechanical energy during human movement. The biomechanical energy of knee joints in a walking gait cycle of patients could be collected and released to assist the joint motion just by adjusting the inner pressure of IFVSKE. Finally, a healthy subject was involved to walk with and without the IFVSKE to evaluate the assisting effects.

Keywords: biomechanical energy management, knee exosuit, gait rehabilitation, wearable robotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
105 Using Wearable Technology to Monitor Perinatal Health: Perspectives of Community Health Workers and Potential Use by Underserved Perinatal Women in California

Authors: Tamara Jimah, Priscilla Kehoe, Pamela Pimentel, Amir Rahmani, Nikil Dutt, Yuqing Guo


Ensuring equitable access to maternal health care is critical for public health. Particularly for underserved women, community health workers (CHWs) have been invaluable in providing support through health education and strategies for improved maternal self-care management. Our research aimed to assess the acceptance of technology by CHWs and perinatal women to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum wellness. This pilot study was conducted at a local community organization in Orange County, California, where CHWs play an important role in supporting low-income women through home visitations. Questionnaires were administered to 14 CHWs and 114 pregnant and postpartum women, literate in English and/or Spanish. CHWs tested two wearable devices (Galaxy watch and Oura ring) and shared their user experience, including potential reception by the perinatal women they served. In addition, perinatal women provided information on access to a smart phone and the internet, as well as their interest in using wearable devices to self-monitor personal health with guidance from a CHW. Over 85% of CHWs agreed that it was useful to track pregnancy with the smart watch and ring. The majority of perinatal women owned a smartphone (97.4%), had access to the internet (80%) and unlimited data plans (78%), expressed interest in using the smart wearable devices to self-monitor health, and were open to receiving guidance from a CHW (87%). Community health workers and perinatal women embraced the use of wearable technology to monitor maternal health. These preliminary findings have formed the basis of an ongoing research study that integrates CHW guidance and technology (i.e., smart watch, smart ring, and a mobile phone app) to promote self-efficacy and self-management among underserved perinatal women.

Keywords: community health workers, health promotion and education, health equity, maternal and child health, technology

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104 Ubiquitous Life People Informatics Engine (U-Life PIE): Wearable Health Promotion System

Authors: Yi-Ping Lo, Shi-Yao Wei, Chih-Chun Ma


Since Google launched Google Glass in 2012, numbers of commercial wearable devices were released, such as smart belt, smart band, smart shoes, smart clothes ... etc. However, most of these devices perform as sensors to show the readings of measurements and few of them provide the interactive feedback to the user. Furthermore, these devices are single task devices which are not able to communicate with each other. In this paper a new health promotion system, Ubiquitous Life People Informatics Engine (U-Life PIE), will be presented. This engine consists of People Informatics Engine (PIE) and the interactive user interface. PIE collects all the data from the compatible devices, analyzes this data comprehensively and communicates between devices via various application programming interfaces. All the data and informations are stored on the PIE unit, therefore, the user is able to view the instant and historical data on their mobile devices any time. It also provides the real-time hands-free feedback and instructions through the user interface visually, acoustically and tactilely. These feedback and instructions suggest the user to adjust their posture or habits in order to avoid the physical injuries and prevent illness.

Keywords: machine learning, wearable devices, user interface, user experience, internet of things

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
103 Carbon Based Wearable Patch Devices for Real-Time Electrocardiography Monitoring

Authors: Hachul Jung, Ahee Kim, Sanghoon Lee, Dahye Kwon, Songwoo Yoon, Jinhee Moon


We fabricated a wearable patch device including novel patch type flexible dry electrode based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and silicone-based elastomer (MED 6215) for real-time ECG monitoring. There are many methods to make flexible conductive polymer by mixing metal or carbon-based nanoparticles. In this study, CNFs are selected for conductive nanoparticles because carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are difficult to disperse uniformly in elastomer compare with CNFs and silver nanowires are relatively high cost and easily oxidized in the air. Wearable patch is composed of 2 parts that dry electrode parts for recording bio signal and sticky patch parts for mounting on the skin. Dry electrode parts were made by vortexer and baking in prepared mold. To optimize electrical performance and diffusion degree of uniformity, we developed unique mixing and baking process. Secondly, sticky patch parts were made by patterning and detaching from smooth surface substrate after spin-coating soft skin adhesive. In this process, attachable and detachable strengths of sticky patch are measured and optimized for them, using a monitoring system. Assembled patch is flexible, stretchable, easily skin mountable and connectable directly with the system. To evaluate the performance of electrical characteristics and ECG (Electrocardiography) recording, wearable patch was tested by changing concentrations of CNFs and thickness of the dry electrode. In these results, the CNF concentration and thickness of dry electrodes were important variables to obtain high-quality ECG signals without incidental distractions. Cytotoxicity test is conducted to prove biocompatibility, and long-term wearing test showed no skin reactions such as itching or erythema. To minimize noises from motion artifacts and line noise, we make the customized wireless, light-weight data acquisition system. Measured ECG Signals from this system are stable and successfully monitored simultaneously. To sum up, we could fully utilize fabricated wearable patch devices for real-time ECG monitoring easily.

Keywords: carbon nanofibers, ECG monitoring, flexible dry electrode, wearable patch

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
102 Cardiokey: A Binary and Multi-Class Machine Learning Approach to Identify Individuals Using Electrocardiographic Signals on Wearable Devices

Authors: S. Chami, J. Chauvin, T. Demarest, Stan Ng, M. Straus, W. Jahner


Biometrics tools such as fingerprint and iris are widely used in industry to protect critical assets. However, their vulnerability and lack of robustness raise several worries about the protection of highly critical assets. Biometrics based on Electrocardiographic (ECG) signals is a robust identification tool. However, most of the state-of-the-art techniques have worked on clinical signals, which are of high quality and less noisy, extracted from wearable devices like a smartwatch. In this paper, we are presenting a complete machine learning pipeline that identifies people using ECG extracted from an off-person device. An off-person device is a wearable device that is not used in a medical context such as a smartwatch. In addition, one of the main challenges of ECG biometrics is the variability of the ECG of different persons and different situations. To solve this issue, we proposed two different approaches: per person classifier, and one-for-all classifier. The first approach suggests making binary classifier to distinguish one person from others. The second approach suggests a multi-classifier that distinguishes the selected set of individuals from non-selected individuals (others). The preliminary results, the binary classifier obtained a performance 90% in terms of accuracy within a balanced data. The second approach has reported a log loss of 0.05 as a multi-class score.

Keywords: biometrics, electrocardiographic, machine learning, signals processing

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101 Developing Wearable EMG Sensor Designed for Parkinson's Disease (PD) Monitoring, and Treatment

Authors: Bulcha Belay Etana


Electromyography is used to measure the electrical activity of muscles for various health monitoring applications using surface electrodes or needle electrodes. Recent developments in electromyogram signal acquisition using textile electrodes open the door for wearable health monitoring which enables patients to monitor and control their health issues outside of traditional healthcare facilities. The aim of this research is therefore to develop and analyze wearable textile electrodes for the acquisition of electromyography signals for Parkinson’s patients and apply an appropriate thermal stimulus to relieve muscle cramping. In order to achieve this, textile electrodes are sewn with a silver-coated thread in an overlapping zigzag pattern into an inextensible fabric, and stainless steel knitted textile electrodes attached to a sleeve were prepared and its electrical characteristics including signal to noise ratio were compared with traditional electrodes. To relieve muscle cramping, a heating element using stainless steel conductive yarn Sewn onto a cotton fabric, coupled with a vibration system were developed. The system was integrated using a microcontroller and a Myoware muscle sensor so that when muscle cramping occurs, measured by the system activates the heating elements and vibration motors. The optimum temperature considered for treatment was 35.50c, so a Temperature measurement system was incorporated to deactivate the heating system when the temperature reaches this threshold, and the signals indicating muscle cramping have subsided. The textile electrode exhibited a signal to noise ratio of 6.38dB while the signal to noise ratio of the traditional electrode was 7.05dB. The rise time of the developed heating element was about 6 minutes to reach the optimum temperature using a 9volt power supply. The treatment of muscle cramping in Parkinson's patients using heat and muscle vibration simultaneously with a wearable electromyography signal acquisition system will improve patients’ livelihoods and enable better chronic pain management.

Keywords: electromyography, heating textile, vibration therapy, parkinson’s disease, wearable electronic textile

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100 Low Power CMOS Amplifier Design for Wearable Electrocardiogram Sensor

Authors: Ow Tze Weng, Suhaila Isaak, Yusmeeraz Yusof


The trend of health care screening devices in the world is increasingly towards the favor of portability and wearability, especially in the most common electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system. This is because these wearable screening devices are not restricting the patient’s freedom and daily activities. While the demand of low power and low cost biomedical system on chip (SoC) is increasing in exponential way, the front end ECG sensors are still suffering from flicker noise for low frequency cardiac signal acquisition, 50 Hz power line electromagnetic interference, and the large unstable input offsets due to the electrode-skin interface is not attached properly. In this paper, a high performance CMOS amplifier for ECG sensors that suitable for low power wearable cardiac screening is proposed. The amplifier adopts the highly stable folded cascode topology and later being implemented into RC feedback circuit for low frequency DC offset cancellation. By using 0.13 µm CMOS technology from Silterra, the simulation results show that this front end circuit can achieve a very low input referred noise of 1 pV/√Hz and high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of 174.05 dB. It also gives voltage gain of 75.45 dB with good power supply rejection ratio (PSSR) of 92.12 dB. The total power consumption is only 3 µW and thus suitable to be implemented with further signal processing and classification back end for low power biomedical SoC.

Keywords: CMOS, ECG, amplifier, low power

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99 Introduction of Integrated Image Deep Learning Solution and How It Brought Laboratorial Level Heart Rate and Blood Oxygen Results to Everyone

Authors: Zhuang Hou, Xiaolei Cao


The general public and medical professionals recognized the importance of accurately measuring and storing blood oxygen levels and heart rate during the COVID-19 pandemic. The demand for accurate contactless devices was motivated by the need for cross-infection reduction and the shortage of conventional oximeters, partially due to the global supply chain issue. This paper evaluated a contactless mini program HealthyPai’s heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurements compared with other wearable devices. In the HR study of 185 samples (81 in the laboratory environment, 104 in the real-life environment), the mean absolute error (MAE) ± standard deviation was 1.4827 ± 1.7452 in the lab, 6.9231 ± 5.6426 in the real-life setting. In the SpO2 study of 24 samples, the MAE ± standard deviation of the measurement was 1.0375 ± 0.7745. Our results validated that HealthyPai utilizing the Integrated Image Deep Learning Solution (IIDLS) framework, can accurately measure HR and SpO2, providing the test quality at least comparable to other FDA-approved wearable devices in the market and surpassing the consumer-grade and research-grade wearable standards.

Keywords: remote photoplethysmography, heart rate, oxygen saturation, contactless measurement, mini program

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98 Directionally-Sensitive Personal Wearable Radiation Dosimeter

Authors: Hai Huu Le, Paul Junor, Moshi Geso, Graeme O’Keefe


In this paper, the authors propose a personal wearable directionally-sensitive radiation dosimeter using multiple semiconductor CdZnTe detectors. The proposed dosimeter not only measures the real-time dose rate but also provide the direction of the radioactive source. A linear relationship between radioactive source direction and the radiation intensity measured by each detectors is established and an equation to determine the source direction is derived by the authors. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed dosimeter is verified by simulation using Geant4 package. Results have indicated that in a measurement duration of about 7 seconds, the proposed dosimeter was able to estimate the direction of a 10μCi 137/55Cs radioactive source to within 2 degrees.

Keywords: dose rate, Geant4 package, radiation dosimeter, radioactive source direction

Procedia PDF Downloads 249