Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 903

Search results for: pre-stack seismic inversion

903 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari


Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: density, p-impedance, s-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
902 Seismic Inversion to Improve the Reservoir Characterization: Case Study in Central Blue Nile Basin, Sudan

Authors: Safwat E. Musa, Nuha E. Mohamed, Nuha A. Bagi


In this study, several crossplots of the P-impedance with the lithology logs (gamma ray, neutron porosity, deep resistivity, water saturation and Vp/Vs curves) were made in three available wells, which were drilled in central part of the Blue Nile basin in depths varies from 1460 m to 1600 m. These crossplots were successful to discriminate between sand and shale when using P-Impedance values, and between the wet sand and the pay sand when using both P-impedance and Vp/Vs together. Also, some impedance sections were converted to porosity sections using linear formula to characterize the reservoir in terms of porosity. The used crossplots were created on log resolution, while the seismic resolution can identify only the reservoir, unless a 3D seismic angle stacks were available; then it would be easier to identify the pay sand with great confidence; through high resolution seismic inversion and geostatistical approach when using P-impedance and Vp/Vs volumes.

Keywords: basin, Blue Nile, inversion, seismic

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
901 Integration of Resistivity and Seismic Refraction Using Combine Inversion for Ancient River Findings at Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Malaysia

Authors: Rais Yusoh, Rosli Saad, Mokhtar Saidin, Fauzi Andika, Sabiu Bala Muhammad


Resistivity and seismic refraction profiling have become a common method in pre-investigations for visualizing subsurface structure. The integration of the methods could reduce an interpretation ambiguity. Both methods have their individual software packages for data inversion, but potential to combine certain geophysical methods are restricted; however, the research algorithms that have this functionality was existed and are evaluated personally. The interpretation of subsurface were improve by combining inversion data from both methods by influence each other models using closure coupling; thus, by implementing both methods to support each other which could improve the subsurface interpretation. These methods were applied on a field dataset from a pre-investigation for archeology in finding the ancient river. There were no major changes in the inverted model by combining data inversion for this archetype which probably due to complex geology. The combine data analysis provides an additional technique for interpretation such as an alluvium, which can have strong influence on the ancient river findings.

Keywords: ancient river, combine inversion, resistivity, seismic refraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
900 Kirchhoff’s Depth Migration over Heterogeneous Velocity Models with Ray Tracing Modeling Approach

Authors: Alok Kumar Routa, Priya Ranjan Mohanty


Complex seismic signatures are generated due to the complexity of the subsurface which is difficult to interpret. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model the complex subsurface using the Ray tracing modeling technique. Add to this, for the imaging of these geological features, Kirchhoff’s prestack depth migration is applied over the synthetic common shot gather dataset. It is found that the Kirchhoff’s migration technique in addition with the Ray tracing modeling concept has the flexibility towards the imaging of various complex geology which gives satisfactory results with proper delineation of the reflectors at their respective true depth position. The entire work has been carried out under the MATLAB environment.

Keywords: Kirchhoff's migration, Prestack depth migration, Ray tracing modelling, velocity model

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
899 Visco-Acoustic Full Wave Inversion in the Frequency Domain with Mixed Grids

Authors: Sheryl Avendaño, Miguel Ospina, Hebert Montegranario


Full Wave Inversion (FWI) is a variant of seismic tomography for obtaining velocity profiles by an optimization process that combine forward modelling (or solution of wave equation) with the misfit between synthetic and observed data. In this research we are modelling wave propagation in a visco-acoustic medium in the frequency domain. We apply finite differences for the numerical solution of the wave equation with a mix between usual and rotated grids, where density depends on velocity and there exists a damping function associated to a linear dissipative medium. The velocity profiles are obtained from an initial one and the data have been modeled for a frequency range 0-120 Hz. By an iterative procedure we obtain an estimated velocity profile in which are detailed the remarkable features of the velocity profile from which synthetic data were generated showing promising results for our method.

Keywords: seismic inversion, full wave inversion, visco acoustic wave equation, finite diffrence methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
898 Local Radial Basis Functions for Helmholtz Equation in Seismic Inversion

Authors: Hebert Montegranario, Mauricio Londoño


Solutions of Helmholtz equation are essential in seismic imaging methods like full wave inversion, which needs to solve many times the wave equation. Traditional methods like Finite Element Method (FEM) or Finite Differences (FD) have sparse matrices but may suffer the so called pollution effect in the numerical solutions of Helmholtz equation for large values of the wave number. On the other side, global radial basis functions have a better accuracy but produce full matrices that become unstable. In this research we combine the virtues of both approaches to find numerical solutions of Helmholtz equation, by applying a meshless method that produce sparse matrices by local radial basis functions. We solve the equation with absorbing boundary conditions of the kind Clayton-Enquist and PML (Perfect Matched Layers) and compared with results in standard literature, showing a promising performance by tackling both the pollution effect and matrix instability.

Keywords: Helmholtz equation, meshless methods, seismic imaging, wavefield inversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
897 The Implementation of Poisson Impedance Inversion to Improve Hydrocarbon Reservoir Characterization in Poseidon Field, Browse Basin, Australia

Authors: Riky Tri Hartagung, Mohammad Syamsu Rosid


The lithology prediction process, as well as the fluid content is the most important part in the reservoir characterization. One of the methods used in this process is the simultaneous seismic inversion method. In the Posseidon field, Browse Basin, Australia, the parameters generated through simultaneous seismic inversion are not able to characterize the reservoir accurately because of the overlapping impedance values between hydrocarbon sand, water sand, and shale, which causes a high level of ambiguity in the interpretation. The Poisson Impedance inversion provides a solution to this problem by rotating the impedance a few degrees, which is obtained through the coefficient c. Coefficient c is obtained through the Target Correlation Coefficient Analysis (TCCA) by finding the optimum correlation coefficient between Poisson Impedance and the target log, namely gamma ray, effective porosity, and resistivity. Correlation of each of these target logs will produce Lithology Impedance (LI) which is sensitive to lithology sand, Porosity Impedance (ϕI) which is sensitive to porous sand, and Fluid Impedance (FI) which is sensitive to fluid content. The results show that PI gives better results in separating hydrocarbon saturated reservoir zones. Based on the results of the LI-GR crossplot, the ϕI-effective porosity crossplot, and the FI-Sw crossplot with optimum correlations of 0.74, 0.91, and 0.82 respectively, it shows that the lithology of hidrocarbon-saturated porous sand is at the value of LI ≤ 2800 (m/s)(g *cc), ϕI ≤ 5500 (m/s)(g*cc), and FI ≤ 4000 (m/s)(g*cc). The presence of low values of LI, ϕI, and FI correlates accurately with the presence of hydrocarbons in the well. Each value of c is then applied to the seismic data. The results show that the PI inversion gives a good distribution of Hydrocarbon-saturated porous sand lithology. The distribution of hydrocarbon saturated porous sand on the seismic inversion section is seen in the northeast – southwest direction, which is estimated as the direction of gas distribution.

Keywords: reservoir characterization, poisson impedance, browse basin, poseidon field

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
896 Implementation of Integrated Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves and Waveform Inversion Techniques for Seismic Hazard Estimation with Emphasis on Associated Uncertainty: A Case Study at Zafarana Wind Turbine Towers Farm, Egypt

Authors: Abd El-Aziz Khairy Abd El-Aal, Yuji Yagi, Heba Kamal


In this study, an integrated multi-channel analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique is applied to explore the geotechnical parameters of subsurface layers at the Zafarana wind farm. Moreover, a seismic hazard procedure based on the extended deterministic technique is used to estimate the seismic hazard load for the investigated area. The study area includes many active fault systems along the Gulf of Suez that cause many moderate and large earthquakes. Overall, the seismic activity of the area has recently become better understood following the use of new waveform inversion methods and software to develop accurate focal mechanism solutions for recent recorded earthquakes around the studied area. These earthquakes resulted in major stress-drops in the Eastern desert and the Gulf of Suez area. These findings have helped to reshape the understanding of the seismotectonic environment of the Gulf of Suez area, which is a perplexing tectonic domain. Based on the collected new information and data, this study uses an extended deterministic approach to re-examine the seismic hazard for the Gulf of Suez region, particularly the wind turbine towers at Zafarana Wind Farm and its vicinity. Alternate seismic source and magnitude-frequency relationships were combined with various indigenous attenuation relationships, adapted within a logic tree formulation, to quantify and project the regional exposure on a set of hazard maps. We select two desired exceedance probabilities (10 and 20%) that any of the applied scenarios may exceed the largest median ground acceleration. The ground motion was calculated at 50th, 84th percentile levels.

Keywords: MASW, seismic hazard, wind turbine towers, Zafarana wind farm

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
895 Inversion of Electrical Resistivity Data: A Review

Authors: Shrey Sharma, Gunjan Kumar Verma


High density electrical prospecting has been widely used in groundwater investigation, civil engineering and environmental survey. For efficient inversion, the forward modeling routine, sensitivity calculation, and inversion algorithm must be efficient. This paper attempts to provide a brief summary of the past and ongoing developments of the method. It includes reviews of the procedures used for data acquisition, processing and inversion of electrical resistivity data based on compilation of academic literature. In recent times there had been a significant evolution in field survey designs and data inversion techniques for the resistivity method. In general 2-D inversion for resistivity data is carried out using the linearized least-square method with the local optimization technique .Multi-electrode and multi-channel systems have made it possible to conduct large 2-D, 3-D and even 4-D surveys efficiently to resolve complex geological structures that were not possible with traditional 1-D surveys. 3-D surveys play an increasingly important role in very complex areas where 2-D models suffer from artifacts due to off-line structures. Continued developments in computation technology, as well as fast data inversion techniques and software, have made it possible to use optimization techniques to obtain model parameters to a higher accuracy. A brief discussion on the limitations of the electrical resistivity method has also been presented.

Keywords: inversion, limitations, optimization, resistivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
894 Estimation of Source Parameters and Moment Tensor Solution through Waveform Modeling of 2013 Kishtwar Earthquake

Authors: Shveta Puri, Shiv Jyoti Pandey, G. M. Bhat, Neha Raina


TheJammu and Kashmir region of the Northwest Himalaya had witnessed many devastating earthquakes in the recent past and has remained unexplored for any kind of seismic investigations except scanty records of the earthquakes that occurred in this region in the past. In this study, we have used local seismic data of year 2013 that was recorded by the network of Broadband Seismographs in J&K. During this period, our seismic stations recorded about 207 earthquakes including two moderate events of Mw 5.7 on 1st May, 2013 and Mw 5.1 of 2nd August, 2013.We analyzed the events of Mw 3-4.6 and the main events only (for minimizing the error) for source parameters, b value and sense of movement through waveform modeling for understanding seismotectonic and seismic hazard of the region. It has been observed that most of the events are bounded between 32.9° N – 33.3° N latitude and 75.4° E – 76.1° E longitudes, Moment Magnitude (Mw) ranges from Mw 3 to 5.7, Source radius (r), from 0.21 to 3.5 km, stress drop, from 1.90 bars to 71.1 bars and Corner frequency, from 0.39 – 6.06 Hz. The b-value for this region was found to be 0.83±0 from these events which are lower than the normal value (b=1), indicating the area is under high stress. The travel time inversion and waveform inversion method suggest focal depth up to 10 km probably above the detachment depth of the Himalayan region. Moment tensor solution of the (Mw 5.1, 02:32:47 UTC) main event of 2ndAugust suggested that the source fault is striking at 295° with dip of 33° and rake value of 85°. It was found that these events form intense clustering of small to moderate events within a narrow zone between Panjal Thrust and Kishtwar Window. Moment tensor solution of the main events and their aftershocks indicating thrust type of movement is occurring in this region.

Keywords: b-value, moment tensor, seismotectonics, source parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
893 Sum Capacity with Regularized Channel Inversion in Multi-Antenna Downlink Systems under Equal Power Constraint

Authors: Attaullah Khawaja, Amna Shabbir


Channel inversion is one of the simplest techniques for multiuser downlink systems with single-antenna users. In this paper regularized channel inversion under equal power constraint in the multiuser multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) broadcast channels has been considered. Sum capacity with plain channel inversion also known as Zero Forcing Beam Forming (ZFBF) and optimum sum capacity using Dirty Paper Coding (DPC) has also been investigated. Analysis and simulations show that regularization enhances the system performance and empower linear growth in Sum Capacity and specially work well at low signal to noise ratio (SNRs) regime.

Keywords: broadcast channel, channel inversion, multiple antenna multiple-user wireless, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), regularization, dirty paper coding (DPC), sum capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
892 Using Inverted 4-D Seismic and Well Data to Characterise Reservoirs from Central Swamp Oil Field, Niger Delta

Authors: Emmanuel O. Ezim, Idowu A. Olayinka, Michael Oladunjoye, Izuchukwu I. Obiadi


Monitoring of reservoir properties prior to well placements and production is a requirement for optimisation and efficient oil and gas production. This is usually done using well log analyses and 3-D seismic, which are often prone to errors. However, 4-D (Time-lapse) seismic, incorporating numerous 3-D seismic surveys of the same field with the same acquisition parameters, which portrays the transient changes in the reservoir due to production effects over time, could be utilised because it generates better resolution. There is, however dearth of information on the applicability of this approach in the Niger Delta. This study was therefore designed to apply 4-D seismic, well-log and geologic data in monitoring of reservoirs in the EK field of the Niger Delta. It aimed at locating bypassed accumulations and ensuring effective reservoir management. The Field (EK) covers an area of about 1200km2 belonging to the early (18ma) Miocene. Data covering two 4-D vintages acquired over a fifteen-year interval were obtained from oil companies operating in the field. The data were analysed to determine the seismic structures, horizons, Well-to-Seismic Tie (WST), and wavelets. Well, logs and production history data from fifteen selected wells were also collected from the Oil companies. Formation evaluation, petrophysical analysis and inversion alongside geological data were undertaken using Petrel, Shell-nDi, Techlog and Jason Software. Well-to-seismic tie, formation evaluation and saturation monitoring using petrophysical and geological data and software were used to find bypassed hydrocarbon prospects. The seismic vintages were interpreted, and the amounts of change in the reservoir were defined by the differences in Acoustic Impedance (AI) inversions of the base and the monitor seismic. AI rock properties were estimated from all the seismic amplitudes using controlled sparse-spike inversion. The estimated rock properties were used to produce AI maps. The structural analysis showed the dominance of NW-SE trending rollover collapsed-crest anticlines in EK with hydrocarbons trapped northwards. There were good ties in wells EK 27, 39. Analysed wavelets revealed consistent amplitude and phase for the WST; hence, a good match between the inverted impedance and the good data. Evidence of large pay thickness, ranging from 2875ms (11420 TVDSS-ft) to about 2965ms, were found around EK 39 well with good yield properties. The comparison between the base of the AI and the current monitor and the generated AI maps revealed zones of untapped hydrocarbons as well as assisted in determining fluids movement. The inverted sections through EK 27, 39 (within 3101 m - 3695 m), indicated depletion in the reservoirs. The extent of the present non-uniform gas-oil contact and oil-water contact movements were from 3554 to 3575 m. The 4-D seismic approach led to better reservoir characterization, well development and the location of deeper and bypassed hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: reservoir monitoring, 4-D seismic, well placements, petrophysical analysis, Niger delta basin

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
891 Hybrid Gravity Gradient Inversion-Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Motion Planning of Mobile Robots

Authors: Meng Wu


Motion planning is a common task required to be fulfilled by robots. A strategy combining Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and gravity gradient inversion algorithm is proposed for motion planning of mobile robots. In this paper, in order to realize optimal motion planning strategy, the cost function in ACO is designed based on gravity gradient inversion algorithm. The obstacles around mobile robot can cause gravity gradient anomalies; the gradiometer is installed on the mobile robot to detect the gravity gradient anomalies. After obtaining the anomalies, gravity gradient inversion algorithm is employed to calculate relative distance and orientation between mobile robot and obstacles. The relative distance and orientation deduced from gravity gradient inversion algorithm is employed as cost function in ACO algorithm to realize motion planning. The proposed strategy is validated by the simulation and experiment results.

Keywords: motion planning, gravity gradient inversion algorithm, ant colony optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
890 Use of Quasi-3D Inversion of VES Data Based on Lateral Constraints to Characterize the Aquifer and Mining Sites of an Area Located in the North-East of Figuil, North Cameroon

Authors: Fofie Kokea Ariane Darolle, Gouet Daniel Hervé, Koumetio Fidèle, Yemele David


The electrical resistivity method is successfully used in this paper in order to have a clearer picture of the subsurface of the North-East ofFiguil in northern Cameroon. It is worth noting that this method is most often used when the objective of the study is to image the shallow subsoils by considering them as a set of stratified ground layers. The problem to be solved is very often environmental, and in this case, it is necessary to perform an inversion of the data in order to have a complete and accurate picture of the parameters of the said layers. In the case of this work, thirty-three (33) Schlumberger VES have been carried out on an irregular grid to investigate the subsurface of the study area. The 1D inversion applied as a preliminary modeling tool and in correlation with the mechanical drillings results indicates a complex subsurface lithology distribution mainly consisting of marbles and schists. Moreover, the quasi-3D inversion with lateral constraint shows that the misfit between the observed field data and the model response is quite good and acceptable with a value low than 10%. The method also reveals existence of two water bearing in the considered area. The first is the schist or weathering aquifer (unsuitable), and the other is the marble or the fracturing aquifer (suitable). The final quasi 3D inversion results and geological models indicate proper sites for groundwaters prospecting and for mining exploitation, thus allowing the economic development of the study area.

Keywords: electrical resistivity method, 1D inversion, quasi 3D inversion, groundwaters, mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
889 Kalman Filter Gain Elimination in Linear Estimation

Authors: Nicholas D. Assimakis


In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.

Keywords: discrete time, estimation, Kalman filter, Kalman filter gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
888 Seizure Effects of FP Bearings on the Seismic Reliability of Base-Isolated Systems

Authors: Paolo Castaldo, Bruno Palazzo, Laura Lodato


This study deals with the seizure effects of friction pendulum (FP) bearings on the seismic reliability of a 3D base-isolated nonlinear structural system, designed according to Italian seismic code (NTC08). The isolated system consists in a 3D reinforced concrete superstructure, a r.c. substructure and the FP devices, described by employing a velocity dependent model. The seismic input uncertainty is considered as a random variable relevant to the problem, by employing a set of natural seismic records selected in compliance with L’Aquila (Italy) seismic hazard as provided from NTC08. Several non-linear dynamic analyses considering the three components of each ground motion have been performed with the aim to evaluate the seismic reliability of the superstructure, substructure, and isolation level, also taking into account the seizure event of the isolation devices. Finally, a design solution aimed at increasing the seismic robustness of the base-isolated systems with FPS is analyzed.

Keywords: FP devices, seismic reliability, seismic robustness, seizure

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
887 Introduction of the Harmfulness of the Seismic Signal in the Assessment of the Performance of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures

Authors: Kahil Amar, Boukais Said, Kezmane Ali, Hannachi Naceur Eddine, Hamizi Mohand


The principle of the seismic performance evaluation methods is to provide a measure of capability for a building or set of buildings to be damaged by an earthquake. The common objective of many of these methods is to supply classification criteria. The purpose of this study is to present a method for assessing the seismic performance of structures, based on Pushover method, we are particularly interested in reinforced concrete frame structures, which represent a significant percentage of damaged structures after a seismic event. The work is based on the characterization of seismic movement of the various earthquake zones in terms of PGA and PGD that is obtained by means of SIMQK_GR and PRISM software and the correlation between the points of performance and the scalar characterizing the earthquakes will be developed.

Keywords: seismic performance, pushover method, characterization of seismic motion, harmfulness of the seismic

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
886 An Approach on Robust Multi Inversion of a Nonlinear Model for an Omni-Directional Mobile

Authors: Fernando P. Silva, Valter J. S. Leite, Erivelton G. Nepomuceno


In this paper, a nonlinear controller design for an omnidirectional mobile is presented. The robot controller consists of an inner-loop controller and an outer-loop controller, the first is designed using state feedback (robust allocation) and the second controller is designed based on Robust Multi Inversion (RMI) approach. The objective of RMI controller is rendering the robust inversion of the dynamic, when the model is affected by uncertainties. A model nonlinear MIMO of an omni-directional robot (small-league of Robocup) is used to simulate the RMI approach. The parameters of linear and nonlinear model are varied to cause modelling uncertainties among the model and the real model (real system) generating an error in inner-loop controller signal that must be compensated by RMI controller. The simulation test results show that the RMI is capable of compensating the uncertainties and keep the system stable and controlled under uncertainties.

Keywords: robust multi inversion, omni-directional robot, robocup, nonlinear control

Procedia PDF Downloads 472
885 Seismic Design Approach for Areas with Low Seismicity

Authors: Mogens Saberi


The following article focuses on a new seismic design approach for Denmark. Denmark is located in a low seismic zone and up till now a general and very simplified approach has been used to accommodate the effect of seismic loading. The current used method is presented and it is found that the approach is on the unsafe side for many building types in Denmark. The damages during time due to earth quake is presented and a seismic map for Denmark is developed and presented. Furthermore, a new design approach is suggested and compared to the existing one. The new approach is relatively simple but captures the effect of seismic loading more realistic than the existing one. The new approach is believed to the incorporated in the Danish Deign Code for building structures.

Keywords: low seismicity, new design approach, earthquakes, Denmark

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
884 Procedural Protocol for Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) Inversion

Authors: Rezvan Ravanfar Haghighi, S. Chatterjee, Pratik Kumar, V. C. Vani, Priya Jagia, Sanjiv Sharma, Susama Rani Mandal, R. Lakshmy


The dual energy computed tomography (DECT) aims at noting the HU(V) values for the sample at two different voltages V=V1, V2 and thus obtain the electron densities (ρe) and effective atomic number (Zeff) of the substance. In the present paper, we aim to obtain a numerical algorithm by which (ρe, Zeff) can be obtained from the HU(100) and HU(140) data, where V=100, 140 kVp. The idea is to use this inversion method to characterize and distinguish between the lipid and fibrous coronary artery plaques.With the idea to develop the inversion algorithm for low Zeff materials, as is the case with non calcified coronary artery plaque, we prepare aqueous samples whose calculated values of (ρe, Zeff) lie in the range (2.65×1023≤ ρe≤ 3.64×1023 per cc ) and (6.80≤ Zeff ≤ 8.90). We fill the phantom with these known samples and experimentally determine HU(100) and HU(140) for the same pixels. Knowing that the HU(V) values are related to the attenuation coefficient of the system, we present an algorithm by which the (ρe, Zeff) is calibrated with respect to (HU(100), HU(140)). The calibration is done with a known set of 20 samples; its accuracy is checked with a different set of 23 known samples. We find that the calibration gives the ρe with an accuracy of ± 4% while Zeff is found within ±1% of the actual value, the confidence being 95%.In this inversion method (ρe, Zeff) of the scanned sample can be found by eliminating the effects of the CT machine and also by ensuring that the determination of the two unknowns (ρe, Zeff) does not interfere with each other. It is found that this algorithm can be used for prediction of chemical characteristic (ρe, Zeff) of unknown scanned materials with 95% confidence level, by inversion of the DECT data.

Keywords: chemical composition, dual-energy computed tomography, inversion algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
883 Study on Seismic Response Feature of Multi-Span Bridges Crossing Fault

Authors: Yingxin Hui


Understanding seismic response feature of the bridges crossing fault is the basis of the seismic fortification. Taking a multi-span bridge crossing active fault under construction as an example, the seismic ground motions at bridge site were generated following hybrid simulation methodology. Multi-support excitations displacement input models and nonlinear time history analysis was used to calculate seismic response of structures, and the results were compared with bridge in the near-fault region. The results showed that the seismic response features of bridges crossing fault were different from the bridges in the near-fault region. The design according to the bridge in near-fault region would cause the calculation results with insecurity and non-reasonable if the effect of cross the fault was ignored. The design of seismic fortification should be based on seismic response feature, which could reduce the adverse effect caused by the structure damage.

Keywords: bridge engineering, seismic response feature, across faults, rupture directivity effect, fling step

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
882 Combined Seismic Methods for Near-Surface Characterization

Authors: Irena Gjorgjeska, Vlatko Sheshov, Kemal Edip, Julijana Bojadjieva


Surface seismic methods are among the most popular, widely accepted geophysical methods for near-surface characterization. The most practical and effective ways to perform in-situ measurements and processing using different seismic methods such as seismic refraction, seismic reflection and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method are presented in this paper. Each of the methods has some advantages and limitations, but their application in an integrated approach provides higher accuracy in subsurface modeling. The results of the surveys performed at two characteristic locations in R. North Macedonia are presented to show the efficiency of the combined methods approach.

Keywords: geophysical survey, integrated approach, seismic methods, site characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
881 Dependence of the Photoelectric Exponent on the Source Spectrum of the CT

Authors: Rezvan Ravanfar Haghighi, V. C. Vani, Suresh Perumal, Sabyasachi Chatterjee, Pratik Kumar


X-ray attenuation coefficient [µ(E)] of any substance, for energy (E), is a sum of the contributions from the Compton scattering [ μCom(E)] and photoelectric effect [µPh(E)]. In terms of the, electron density (ρe) and the effective atomic number (Zeff) we have µCom(E) is proportional to [(ρe)fKN(E)] while µPh(E) is proportional to [(ρeZeffx)/Ey] with fKN(E) being the Klein-Nishina formula, with x and y being the exponents for photoelectric effect. By taking the sample's HU at two different excitation voltages (V=V1, V2) of the CT machine, we can solve for X=ρe, Y=ρeZeffx from these two independent equations, as is attempted in DECT inversion. Since µCom(E) and µPh(E) are both energy dependent, the coefficients of inversion are also dependent on (a) the source spectrum S(E,V) and (b) the detector efficiency D(E) of the CT machine. In the present paper we tabulate these coefficients of inversion for different practical manifestations of S(E,V) and D(E). The HU(V) values from the CT follow: <µ(V)>=<µw(V)>[1+HU(V)/1000] where the subscript 'w' refers to water and the averaging process <….> accounts for the source spectrum S(E,V) and the detector efficiency D(E). Linearity of μ(E) with respect to X and Y implies that (a) <µ(V)> is a linear combination of X and Y and (b) for inversion, X and Y can be written as linear combinations of two independent observations <µ(V1)>, <µ(V2)> with V1≠V2. These coefficients of inversion would naturally depend upon S(E, V) and D(E). We numerically investigate this dependence for some practical cases, by taking V = 100 , 140 kVp, as are used for cardiological investigations. The S(E,V) are generated by using the Boone-Seibert source spectrum, being superposed on aluminium filters of different thickness lAl with 7mm≤lAl≤12mm and the D(E) is considered to be that of a typical Si[Li] solid state and GdOS scintilator detector. In the values of X and Y, found by using the calculated inversion coefficients, errors are below 2% for data with solutions of glycerol, sucrose and glucose. For low Zeff materials like propionic acid, Zeffx is overestimated by 20% with X being within1%. For high Zeffx materials like KOH the value of Zeffx is underestimated by 22% while the error in X is + 15%. These imply that the source may have additional filtering than the aluminium filter specified by the manufacturer. Also it is found that the difference in the values of the inversion coefficients for the two types of detectors is negligible. The type of the detector does not affect on the DECT inversion algorithm to find the unknown chemical characteristic of the scanned materials. The effect of the source should be considered as an important factor to calculate the coefficients of inversion.

Keywords: attenuation coefficient, computed tomography, photoelectric effect, source spectrum

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
880 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Existing Building Using Structural Information Modeling

Authors: Byungmin Cho, Dongchul Lee, Taejin Kim, Minhee Lee


The procedure for the seismic retrofit of existing buildings includes the seismic evaluation. In the evaluation step, it is assessed whether the buildings have satisfactory performance against seismic load. Based on the results of that, the buildings are upgraded. To evaluate seismic performance of the buildings, it usually goes through the model transformation from elastic analysis to inelastic analysis. However, when the data is not delivered through the interwork, engineers should manually input the data. In this process, since it leads to inaccuracy and loss of information, the results of the analysis become less accurate. Therefore, in this study, the process for the seismic evaluation of existing buildings using structural information modeling is suggested. This structural information modeling makes the work economic and accurate. To this end, it is determined which part of the process could be computerized through the investigation of the process for the seismic evaluation based on ASCE 41. The structural information modeling process is developed to apply to the seismic evaluation using Perform 3D program usually used for the nonlinear response history analysis. To validate this process, the seismic performance of an existing building is investigated.

Keywords: existing building, nonlinear analysis, seismic performance, structural information modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
879 Inversion of Gravity Data for Density Reconstruction

Authors: Arka Roy, Chandra Prakash Dubey


Inverse problem generally used for recovering hidden information from outside available data. Vertical component of gravity field we will be going to use for underneath density structure calculation. Ill-posing nature is main obstacle for any inverse problem. Linear regularization using Tikhonov formulation are used for appropriate choice of SVD and GSVD components. For real time data handle, signal to noise ratios should have to be less for reliable solution. In our study, 2D and 3D synthetic model with rectangular grid are used for gravity field calculation and its corresponding inversion for density reconstruction. Fine grid also we have considered to hold any irregular structure. Keeping in mind of algebraic ambiguity factor number of observation point should be more than that of number of data point. Picard plot is represented here for choosing appropriate or main controlling Eigenvalues for a regularized solution. Another important study is depth resolution plot (DRP). DRP are generally used for studying how the inversion is influenced by regularizing or discretizing. Our further study involves real time gravity data inversion of Vredeforte Dome South Africa. We apply our method to this data. The results include density structure is in good agreement with known formation in that region, which puts an additional support of our method.

Keywords: depth resolution plot, gravity inversion, Picard plot, SVD, Tikhonov formulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
878 Application of Seismic Isolators in Kutahya City Hospital Project Utilizing Double Friction Pendulum Type Devices

Authors: Kaan Yamanturk, Cihan Dogruoz


Seismic isolators have been utilized around the world to protect the structures, nonstructural components and contents from the damaging effects of earthquakes. In Structural Engineering, seismic isolation is used for protecting buildings and its vibration-sensitive contents from earthquakes. Seismic isolation is a passive control system that lowers effective earthquake forces by utilizing flexible bearings. One of the most significant isolation systems is seismic isolators. In this paper, double pendulum type Teflon coated seismic isolators utilized in a city hospital project by Guris Construction and Engineering Co. Inc, located in Kutahya, Turkey, have been investigated. Totally, 498 seismic isolators were applied in the project. These isolators are double friction pendulum type seismic isolation devices. The review of current practices is also examined in this study. The focus of this study is related to the application of passive seismic isolation systems for buildings as practiced in Kutahya City Hospital Project. Based on the study, the acceleration at the top floor will be 0.18 g and it will decrease 0.01 g in every floor. Therefore, seismic isolators are very important for buildings located in earthquake zones.

Keywords: maximum considered earthquake, moment resisting frame, seismic isolator, seismic design

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
877 Study on Seismic Assessment of Earthquake-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Fu-Pei Hsiao, Fung-Chung Tu, Chien-Kuo Chiu


In this work, to develop a method for detailed assesses of post-earthquake seismic performance for RC buildings in Taiwan, experimental data for several column specimens with various failure modes (flexural failure, flexural-shear failure, and shear failure) are used to derive reduction factors of seismic capacity for specified damage states. According to the damage states of RC columns and their corresponding seismic reduction factors suggested by experimental data, this work applies the detailed seismic performance assessment method to identify the seismic capacity of earthquake-damaged RC buildings. Additionally, a post-earthquake emergent assessment procedure is proposed that can provide the data needed for decision about earthquake-damaged buildings in a region with high seismic hazard. Finally, three actual earthquake-damaged school buildings in Taiwan are used as a case study to demonstrate application of the proposed assessment method.

Keywords: seismic assessment, seismic reduction factor, residual seismic ratio, post-earthquake, reinforced concrete, building

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
876 Abnormal Features of Two Quasiparticle Rotational Bands in Rare Earths

Authors: Kawalpreet Kalra, Alpana Goel


The behaviour of the rotational bands should be smooth but due to large amount of inertia and decreased pairing it is not so. Many experiments have been done in the last few decades, and a large amount of data is available for comprehensive study in this region. Peculiar features like signature dependence, signature inversion, and signature reversal are observed in many two quasiparticle rotational bands of doubly odd and doubly even nuclei. At high rotational frequencies, signature and parity are the only two good quantum numbers available to label a state. Signature quantum number is denoted by α. Even-angular momentum states of a rotational band have α =0, and the odd-angular momentum states have α =1. It has been observed that the odd-spin members lie lower in energy up to a certain spin Ic; the normal signature dependence is restored afterwards. This anomalous feature is termed as signature inversion. The systematic of signature inversion in high-j orbitals for doubly odd rare earth nuclei have been done. Many unusual features like signature dependence, signature inversion and signature reversal are observed in rotational bands of even-even/odd-odd nuclei. Attempts have been made to understand these phenomena using several models. These features have been analyzed within the framework of the Two Quasiparticle Plus Rotor Model (TQPRM).

Keywords: rotational bands, signature dependence, signature quantum number, two quasiparticle

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
875 Accurate Algorithm for Selecting Ground Motions Satisfying Code Criteria

Authors: S. J. Ha, S. J. Baik, T. O. Kim, S. W. Han


For computing the seismic responses of structures, current seismic design provisions permit response history analyses (RHA) that can be used without limitations in height, seismic design category, and building irregularity. In order to obtain accurate seismic responses using RHA, it is important to use adequate input ground motions. Current seismic design provisions provide criteria for selecting ground motions. In this study, the accurate and computationally efficient algorithm is proposed for accurately selecting ground motions that satisfy the requirements specified in current seismic design provisions. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is verified using single-degree-of-freedom systems with various natural periods and yield strengths. This study shows that the mean seismic responses obtained from RHA with seven and ten ground motions selected using the proposed algorithm produce errors within 20% and 13%, respectively.

Keywords: algorithm, ground motion, response history analysis, selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
874 The Necessity of Retrofitting for Masonry Buildings in Turkey

Authors: Soner Güler, Mustafa Gülen, Eylem Güzel


Masonry buildings constitute major part of building stock in Turkey. Masonry buildings were built up especially in rural areas and underdeveloped regions due to economic reasons. Almost all of these masonry buildings are not designed and detailed according to any design guidelines by designers. As a result of this, masonry buildings were totally collapsed or heavily damaged when subjected to destructive earthquake effects. Thus, these masonry buildings that were built up in our country must be retrofitted to improve their seismic performance. In this study, new seismic retrofitting techniques that is easy to apply and low-cost are summarized and the importance of seismic retrofitting is also emphasized for existing masonry buildings in Turkey.

Keywords: masonry buildings, earthquake effects, seismic retrofitting techniques, seismic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 239