Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1420

Search results for: steel

1420 Hybrid Stainless Steel Girder for Bridge Construction

Authors: Tetsuya Yabuki, Yasunori Arizumi, Tetsuhiro Shimozato, Samy Guezouli, Hiroaki Matsusita, Masayuki Tai

Abstract:

The main object of this paper is to present the research results of the development of a hybrid stainless steel girder system for bridge construction undertaken at University of Ryukyu. In order to prevent the corrosion damage and reduce the fabrication costs, a hybrid stainless steel girder in bridge construction is developed, the stainless steel girder of which is stiffened and braced by structural carbon steel materials. It is verified analytically and experimentally that the ultimate strength of the hybrid stainless steel girder is equal to or greater than that of conventional carbon steel girder. The benefit of the life-cycle cost of the hybrid stainless steel girder is also shown.

Keywords: smart structure, hybrid stainless steel members, ultimate strength, steel bridge, corrosion prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
1419 A Range of Steel Production in Japan towards 2050

Authors: Reina Kawase

Abstract:

Japan set the goal of 80% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. To consider countermeasures for reducing GHG emission, the production estimation of energy intensive materials, such as steel, is essential. About 50% of steel production is exported in Japan, so it is necessary to consider steel production including export. Steel productions from 2005-2050 in Japan were estimated under various global assumptions based on combination of scenarios such as goods trade scenarios and steel making process selection scenarios. Process selection scenarios decide volume of steel production by process (basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace) with considering steel consumption projection, supply-demand balance of steel, and scrap surplus. The range of steel production by process was analyzed. Maximum steel production was estimated under the scenario which consumes scrap in domestic steel production at maximum level. In 2035, steel production reaches 149 million ton because of increase in electric arc furnace steel. However, it decreases towards 2050 and amounts to 120 million ton, which is almost same as a current level. Minimum steel production is under the scenario which assumes technology progress in steel making and supply-demand balance consideration in each region. Steel production decreases from base year and is 44 million ton in 2050.

Keywords: goods trade scenario, steel making process selection scenario, steel production, global warming

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
1418 Structural Performance of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed S. Sarhan

Abstract:

This study presents the performance of concrete beams reinforced with steel plates as a technique of reinforcement. Three reinforced concrete beams with the dimensions of 200 mm x 300 mm x 4000 mm (width x height x length, respectively) were experimentally investigated under flexural loading. The deformed steel bars were used as the main reinforcement for the first beam. A steel plate placed horizontally was used as the main reinforcement for the second beam. The bond between the steel plate and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using steel bolts (with a diameter of 20 mm and length of 100 mm) welded to the steel plate at a regular distance of 200 mm. A pair of steel plates placed vertically was used as the main reinforcement for the third beam. The bond between the pair steel plates and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using 4 equal steel angles (with the dimensions of 75 mm x 75 mm and the thickness of 8 mm) for each vertical steel plate. Two steel angles were welded at each end of the steel plate. The outcomes revealed that the bending stiffness of the beams reinforced with steel plates was higher than that reinforced with deformed steel bars. Also, the flexural ductile behavior of the second beam was much higher than the rest beams.

Keywords: concrete beam, deflection, ductility, plate

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1417 Ultimate Stress of the Steel Tube in Circular Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Stub Columns Subjected to Axial Compression

Authors: Siqi Lin, Yangang Zhao

Abstract:

Concrete-filled steel tube column achieves the excellent performance of high strength, stiffness, and ductility due to the confinement from the steel tube. Well understanding the stress of the steel tube is important to make clear the confinement effect. In this paper, the ultimate stress of the steel tube in circular concrete-filled steel tube columns subjected to axial compression was studied. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the effects of the parameters, including concrete strength, steel strength, and D/t ratio, on the ultimate stress of the steel tube. The stress of the steel tube was determined by employing the Prandtl-Reuss flow rule associated with isotropic strain hardening. Results indicate that the stress of steel tube was influenced by the parameters. Specimen with higher strength ratio fy/fc and smaller D/t ratio generally leads to a higher utilization efficiency of the steel tube.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube, axial compression, ultimate stress, utilization efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
1416 Architectural Strategies for Designing Durable Steel Structural Systems

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi

Abstract:

Nowadays, steel structures are used for not only common buildings but also high-rise construction and wide span covering. The advanced methods of construction as well as the advanced structural connections have a great effect on architecture. However a better use of steel structural systems will be achieved with the deep understanding of steel structures specifications and their substantial advantages. On the other hand, the steel structures face to the different environmental factors such as air flow which cause erosion and corrosion. With the time passing, the amount of these steel mass damages and also the imposed stress will be increased. In other words, the position of erosion in steel structures related to existing stresses indicates that effective environmental conditions will gradually decrease the structural resistance of steel components and result in decreasing the durability of steel components. In this paper, the durability of different steel structural components is evaluated and on the basis of these stress, architectural strategies for designing the system and the components of steel structures is recognized in order to achieve an optimum life cycle.

Keywords: durability, bending stress, erosion in steel structure, life cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
1415 Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of SA 210 Gr. C Pipes Welded by Tungsten Inert Gas

Authors: H. Demirtaş, İ. H. Kara, H. Ahlatcı

Abstract:

Welding failures of steel pipes in power plants usually occur in weld zones. This is similar for the economizer, water walls and superheaters in the power plants where SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes are used. Although these steel pipes have very good welding properties, the welding parameters are also important for the welding life. Welding processes of this pipes are carried out by TIG and SMA techniques. In this study SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes were welded by TIG method and investigated how PWHT affected the welding properties. The results show that this steel does not require post weld heat treatment.

Keywords: SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes, TIG welding, HAZ region, Widmanstatten ferrite

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1414 Behaviour of Beam Reinforced with Longitudinal Steel-CFRP Composite Reinforcement under Static Load

Authors: Faris A. Uriayer, Mehtab Alam

Abstract:

The concept of using a hybrid composite by combining two or more different materials to produce bilinear stress–strain behaviour has become a subject of interest. Having studied the mechanical properties of steel-CFRP specimens (CFRP Laminate Sandwiched between Mild Steel Strips), full size steel-CFRP composite reinforcement were fabricated and used as a new reinforcing material inside beams in lieu of traditional steel bars. Four beams, three beams reinforced with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement and one beam reinforced with traditional steel bars were cast, cured and tested under quasi-static loading. The flexural test results of the beams reinforced with this composite reinforcement showed that the beams with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement had comparable flexural strength and flexural ductility with beams reinforced with traditional steel bars.

Keywords: CFRP laminate, steel strip, flexural behaviour, modified model, concrete beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 521
1413 Investigation of the Corroded Steel Beam

Authors: Hesamaddin Khoshnoodi, Ahmad Rahbar Ranji

Abstract:

Corrosion in steel structures is one of the most important issues that should be considered in designing and constructing. Corrosion reduces the cross section and load capacity of element and leads to costly damage of structures. In this paper, the corrosion has been modeled for moment stresses. Moreover, the steel beam has been modeled using ABAQUS advanced finite element software. The conclusions of this study demonstrated that the displacement of the analyzed composite steel girder bridge might increase.

Keywords: Abaqus, Corrosion, deformation, Steel Beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
1412 Using Recyclable Steel Material in Tall Buildings

Authors: O. Eren, L. Zakar

Abstract:

Recycling steel building components is key to the sustainability of a structure’s end-of-life, as it is the most economical solution. In this paper the effects of usage of recycled steel material in tall buildings aspects are investigated.

Keywords: building, recycled material, steel, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
1411 Bond Strength of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed Sarhan Sarhan

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental study of the bond behaviour of confined concrete beams reinforced with a chequer steel plate or a deformed steel bar by using the beam-bending pullout test. A total of three beams of 225 mm width, 300 mm height, and 600 mm length were cast and tested. All the beams had the same details of compression reinforcement and stirrups; two plain steel bars of 10 mm diameter (R10) were used for the compression reinforcement, and plain steel bars (R10) at a distance of 80 mm centre to centre were used for the stirrups. The first beam was reinforced with a deformed steel bar while the remaining beams were reinforced with horizontal or vertical chequer steel plates. The results showed no significant difference in the bond force between the beams reinforced with a deformed steel bar or a horizontal steel plate. The beam reinforced with a vertical steel plate considerably presented a bond force higher than the beam reinforced with a horizontal steel plate.

Keywords: bond, pullout, reinforced concrete, steel plate

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1410 Estimation of World Steel Production by Process

Authors: Reina Kawase

Abstract:

World GHG emissions should be reduced 50% by 2050 compared with 1990 level. CO2 emission reduction from steel sector, an energy-intensive sector, is essential. To estimate CO2 emission from steel sector in the world, estimation of steel production is required. The world steel production by process is estimated during the period of 2005-2050. The world is divided into aggregated 35 regions. For a steel making process, two kinds of processes are considered; basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and electric arc furnace (EAF). Steel production by process in each region is decided based on a current production capacity, supply-demand balance of steel and scrap, technology innovation of steel making, steel consumption projection, and goods trade. World steel production under moderate countermeasure scenario in 2050 increases by 1.3 times compared with that in 2012. When domestic scrap recycling is promoted, steel production in developed regions increases about 1.5 times. The share in developed regions changes from 34 %(2012) to about 40%(2050). This is because developed regions are main suppliers of scrap. 48-57% of world steel production is produced by EAF. Under the scenario which thinks much of supply-demand balance of steel, steel production in developing regions increases is 1.4 times and is larger than that in developed regions. The share in developing regions, however, is not so different from current level. The increase in steel production by EAF is the largest under the scenario in which supply-demand balance of steel is an important factor. The share reaches 65%.

Keywords: global steel production, production distribution scenario, steel making process, supply-demand balance

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
1409 Effect of Demineralized Water Purity on the Corrosion Behavior of Steel Alloys

Authors: A. M. El-Aziz, M. Elsehamy, H. Hussein

Abstract:

Steel or stainless steel have reasonable corrosion behavior in water, their corrosion resistance is significantly dependent on the water purity. It was not expected that demineralized water has an aggressive effect on steel alloys, in this study, the effect of water with different purity on steel X52 and stainless steel 316L was investigated. Weight loss and electrochemical measurements were employed to measure the corrosion behavior. Samples were microscopically investigated after test. It was observed that the higher the water purity the more reactive it is. Comparative analysis of the potentiodynamic curves for different water purity showed the aggressiveness of the demineralised water (conductivity of 0.05 microSiemens per cm) over the distilled water. Whereas, the corrosion rates of stainless steel 858 and 623 nm/y for demi and distilled water respectively. On the other hand, the corrosion rates of carbon steel x52 were estimated about 4.8 and 3.6 µm/y for demi and distilled water, respectively. Open circuit potential (OCP) recorded more positive potentials in case of stainless steel than carbon steel in different water purities. Generally, stainless steel illustrated high pitting resistance than carbon steel alloy, the surface film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This behavior was explained based on that demi and distilled water might be considered as ‘hungry water’ in which it wants to be in equilibrium and will pull ions out of the surrounding metals trying to satisfy its ‘hunger’.

Keywords: corrosion, demineralized water, distilled water, steel alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
1408 Calculating Quantity of Steel Bar Placed in Mesh Form in a Circular Slab or Dome

Authors: Karam Chand Gupta

Abstract:

When steel reinforcement is placed in mesh form in circular concrete slab at base or domes at top in case of over head service reservoir or any other structure, it is difficult to estimate/measure the total quantity of steel that would be needed or placed. For the purpose of calculating the total length of the steel bars, at present, the practice is – the length of each bar is measured and then added up. This is tiresome and time consuming process. I have derived a mathematics formula with the help of which we can calculate in one line the quantity of total steel that will be needed. This will not only make it easy and time saving but also avoids any error in making entries and calculations.

Keywords: dome, mesh, slab, steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
1407 Seismic Response of Braced Steel Frames with Shape Memory Alloy and Mega Bracing Systems

Authors: Mohamed Omar

Abstract:

Steel bracing members are widely used in steel structures to reduce lateral displacement and dissipate energy during earthquake motions. Concentric steel bracing provide an excellent approach for strengthening and stiffening steel buildings. Using these braces the designer can hardly adjust the stiffness together with ductility as needed because of buckling of braces in compression. In this study the use of SMA bracing and steel bracing (Mega) utilized in steel frames are investigated. The effectiveness of these two systems in rehabilitating a mid-rise eight-storey steel frames were examined using time-history nonlinear analysis utilizing Seismo-Struct software. Results show that both systems improve the strength and stiffness of the original structure but due to excellent behavior of SMA in nonlinear phase and under compressive forces this system shows much better performance than the rehabilitation system of Mega bracing.

Keywords: finite element analysis, seismic response, shapes memory alloy, steel frame, mega bracing

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
1406 Behaviour of Hybrid Steel Fibre Reinforced High Strength Concrete

Authors: Emdad K. Z. Balanji, M. Neaz Sheikh, Muhammad N. S. Hadi

Abstract:

This paper presents results of an experimental investigation on the behaviour of Hybrid Steel Fibre Reinforced High Strength Concrete (HSFR-HSC) cylinder specimens (150 mm x 300 mm) under uniaxial compression. Three different combinations of HSFR-HSC specimens and reference specimens without steel fibres were prepared. The first combination of HSFR-HSC included 1.5% Micro Steel (MS) fibre and 1% Deformed Steel (DS) fibre. The second combination included 1.5% MS fibre and 1.5% Hooked-end Steel (HS) fibre. The third combination included 1% DS fibre and 1.5% HS fibre. The experimental results showed that the addition of hybrid steel fibres improved the ductility of high strength concrete. The combination of MS fibre and HS fibre in high strength concrete mixes showed best stress-strain behaviour compared to the other combinations and the reference specimens.

Keywords: high strength concrete, micro steel fibre (MS), deformed steel fibre (DS), hooked-end steel fibre (HS), hybrid steel fibre

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
1405 Effect of Heating Rate on Microstructural Developments in Cold Heading Quality Steel Used for Automotive Applications

Authors: Shahid Hussain Abro, F. Mufadi, A. Boodi

Abstract:

Microstructural study and phase transformation in steels is a basic and important step during the design of structural steel. There are huge efforts and study has been done so far on phase transformations, due to so many steel grades available commercially the phase development in steel has different consequences. In the present work an effort has been made to study the effect of heating rate on microstructural features of cold heading quality steel. The SEM, optical microscopy, and heat treatment techniques have been applied to observe the microstructural features in the experimental steel. It was observed that heating rate has the strong influence on phase transformation of CHQ steel under investigation. Heating rate increases the austenite formation kinetics with respect to holding time, and this austenite has been transformed to martensite upon cooling. Heating rate also plays a vital role on nucleation sites of austenite formation in the experimental steel.

Keywords: CHQ steel, austenite formation, heating rate, nucleation

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
1404 Emissivity Analysis of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel in Fire

Authors: Christian Gaigl, Martin Mensinger

Abstract:

Once a fire resistance rating is necessary, it has to be proofed that the load bearing behavior of a steel construction under the exposure of fire still fits the static demands. High costs of passive fire protection, which satisfies the requirements, frequently result in a concrete solution. To optimize these expenses, one method is to determine the critical temperature according to the Eurocode DIN EN 1993-1-2. For this purpose, positive effects of hot-dip galvanized surface layers on the temperature development of steel members in the accidental situation of fire exposure has been investigated. The test results show a significant better heating behavior of hot-dip galvanized steel components compared to normal steel specimen. This leads in many cases to a R30 (30 minutes of ISO-fire) fire protection requirement of unprotected steel members and therefore to an economic added value.

Keywords: fire resistance, hot-dip galvanizing, steel constructions, R30 requirement, emissivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
1403 Behavior of Double Skin Circular Tubular Steel-Concrete-Composite Column

Authors: Usha Sivasankaran, Seetha Raman

Abstract:

Experimental work on Double skin Concrete Filled tubes (DSCFT) are a variation of CFT (Concrete- filled steel tubular) with a hollow core formed by two concentric steel tubes in – filled with concrete. Six Specimens with three different volume fractions of steel fibres are cast and tested. Experiments on circular steel tubes in – filled with steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) and normal concrete have been performed to investigate the contribution of steel fibres to the load bearing capacity of Short Composite Columns. The main Variable considered in the test study is the percentage of steel fibres added to the in –filled concrete. All the specimens were tested under axial compression until failure state realisation. This project presents the percentage Variation in the compression strengths of the 3 types of Composite members taken under Study. The results show that 1.5% SFRC in filled steel columns exhibit enhanced ultimate load carrying capacity.

Keywords: composite columns, optimization of steel, double skin, DSCFT

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
1402 Investigation of Steel Infill Panels under Blast Impulsive Loading

Authors: Seyed M. Zahrai, Saeid Lotfi

Abstract:

If an infill panel does not have enough ductility against the loading, it breaks and gets damaged before depreciation and load transfer. As steel infill panel has appropriate ductility before fracture, it can be used as an alternative to typical infill panels under blast loading. Concerning enough ductility of out-of-plane behavior the infill panel, the impact force enters the horizontal diaphragm and is distributed among the lateral elements which can be made from steel infill panels. This article investigates the behavior of steel infill panels with different thickness and stiffeners using finite element analysis with geometric and material nonlinearities for optimization of the steel plate thickness and stiffeners arrangement to obtain more efficient design for its out-of-plane behavior.

Keywords: blast loading, ductility, maximum displacement, steel infill panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
1401 Modelling of Composite Steel and Concrete Beam with the Lightweight Concrete Slab

Authors: Veronika Přivřelová

Abstract:

Well-designed composite steel and concrete structures highlight the good material properties and lower the deficiencies of steel and concrete, in particular they make use of high tensile strength of steel and high stiffness of concrete. The most common composite steel and concrete structure is a simply supported beam, which concrete slab transferring the slab load to a beam is connected to the steel cross-section. The aim of this paper is to find the most adequate numerical model of a simply supported composite beam with the cross-sectional and material parameters based on the results of a processed parametric study and numerical analysis. The paper also evaluates the suitability of using compact concrete with the lightweight aggregates for composite steel and concrete beams. The most adequate numerical model will be used in the resent future to compare the results of laboratory tests.

Keywords: composite beams, high-performance concrete, high-strength steel, lightweight concrete slab, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
1400 Cold Formed Steel Sections: Analysis, Design and Applications

Authors: A. Saha Chaudhuri, D. Sarkar

Abstract:

In steel construction, there are two families of structural members. One is hot rolled steel and another is cold formed steel. Cold formed steel section includes steel sheet, strip, plate or flat bar. Cold formed steel section is manufactured in roll forming machine by press brake or bending operation. Cold formed steel (CFS), also known as Light Gauge Steel (LGS). As cold formed steel is a sustainable material, it is widely used in green building. Cold formed steel can be recycled and reused with no degradation in structural properties. Cold formed steel structures can earn credits for green building ratings such as LEED and similar programs. Cold formed steel construction satisfies international demand for better, more efficient and affordable buildings. Cold formed steel sections are used in building, car body, railway coach, various types of equipment, storage rack, grain bin, highway product, transmission tower, transmission pole, drainage facility, bridge construction etc. Various shapes of cold formed steel sections are available, such as C section, Z section, I section, T section, angle section, hat section, box section, square hollow section (SHS), rectangular hollow section (RHS), circular hollow section (CHS) etc. In building construction cold formed steel is used as eave strut, purlin, girt, stud, header, floor joist, brace, diaphragm and covering for roof, wall and floor. Cold formed steel has high strength to weight ratio and high stiffness. Cold formed steel is non shrinking and non creeping at ambient temperature, it is termite proof and rot proof. CFS is durable, dimensionally stable and non combustible material. CFS is economical in transportation and handling. At present days cold formed steel becomes a competitive building material. In this paper all these applications related present research work are described and how the CFS can be used as blast resistant structural system that is examined.

Keywords: cold form steel sections, applications, present research review, blast resistant design

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
1399 High Strength Steel thin-walled cold-Formed Profiles manufactured for Automated Rack Supported Warehouses

Authors: A. Natali, F.V. Lippi, F. Morelli, W. Salvatore, J. H. M. De Paula Filho, P. Pol

Abstract:

Automated Rack Supported Warehouses (ARSWs) are storage buildings whose load-bearing structure is made of the same steel racks where goods are stocked. These racks are made of cold formed elements, and the main supporting structure is repeated several times along the length of the building, resulting in a huge quantity of steel. The possibility of using high strength steel to manufacture the traditional cold-formed profiles used for ARSWs is numerically investigated, with the aim of reducing the necessary steel quantity but guaranteeing optimal structural performance levels.

Keywords: steel racks, automated rack supported warehouse, thin-walled cold-formed elements, high strength steel, structural optimization

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1398 Simplified Analysis on Steel Frame Infill with FRP Composite Panel

Authors: HyunSu Seo, HoYoung Son, Sungjin Kim, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

In order to understand the seismic behavior of steel frame structure with infill FRP composite panel, simple models for simulation on the steel frame with the panel systems were developed in this study. To achieve the simple design method of the steel framed structure with the damping panel system, 2-D finite element analysis with the springs and dashpots models was conducted in ABAQUS. Under various applied spring stiffness and dashpot coefficient, the expected hysteretic energy responses of the steel frame with damping panel systems we re investigated. Using the proposed simple design method which decides the stiffness and the damping, it is possible to decide the FRP and damping materials on a steel frame system.

Keywords: numerical analysis, FEM, infill, GFRP, damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
1397 Comparison between FEM Simulation and Experiment of Temperature Rise in Power Transformer Inner Steel Plate

Authors: Byung hyun Bae

Abstract:

In power transformer, leakage magnetic flux generate temperature rise of inner steel plate. Sometimes, this temperature rise can be serious problem. If temperature of steel plate is over critical point, harmful gas will be generated in the tank. And this gas can be a reason of fire, explosion and life decrease. So, temperature rise forecasting of steel plate is very important at the design stage of power transformer. To improve accuracy of forecasting of temperature rise, comparison between simulation and experiment achieved in this paper.

Keywords: power transformer, steel plate, temperature rise, experiment, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
1396 Experimental Investigation on Residual Stresses in Welded Medium-Walled I-shaped Sections Fabricated from Q460GJ Structural Steel Plates

Authors: Qian Zhu, Shidong Nie, Bo Yang, Gang Xiong, Guoxin Dai

Abstract:

GJ steel is a new type of high-performance structural steel which has been increasingly adopted in practical engineering. Q460GJ structural steel has a nominal yield strength of 460 MPa, which does not decrease significantly with the increase of steel plate thickness like normal structural steel. Thus, Q460GJ structural steel is normally used in medium-walled welded sections. However, research works on the residual stress in GJ steel members are few though it is one of the vital factors that can affect the member and structural behavior. This article aims to investigate the residual stresses in welded I-shaped sections fabricated from Q460GJ structural steel plates by experimental tests. A total of four full scale welded medium-walled I-shaped sections were tested by sectioning method. Both circular curve correction method and straightening measurement method were adopted in this study to obtain the final magnitude and distribution of the longitudinal residual stresses. In addition, this paper also explores the interaction between flanges and webs. And based on the statistical evaluation of the experimental data, a multilayer residual stress model is proposed.

Keywords: Q460GJ structural steel, residual stresses, sectioning method, welded medium-walled I-shaped sections

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
1395 The Influence of Basalt and Steel Fibers on the Flexural Behavior of RC Beams

Authors: Yasmin Z. Murad, Haneen M. Abdl-Jabbar

Abstract:

An experimental program is conducted in this research to investigate the influence of basalt fibers and steel fibers on the flexural behavior of RC beams. Reinforced concrete beams are constructed using steel fiber concrete and basalt fiber concrete. Steel and basalt fibers are included in a percentage of 15% and 2.5% of the total cement weight, respectively. Test results have shown that basalt fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 30% and the maximum deflection to almost 2.4 times that measured in the control specimen. It has also shown that steel fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 47% and the ultimate deflection is almost duplicated compared to the control beam. Steel and basalt fibers have increased the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams.

Keywords: basalt fiber, steel fiber, reinforced concrete beams, flexural behavior

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1394 Development of a Testing Rig for a Cold Formed-Hot Rolled Steel Hybrid Wall Panel System

Authors: Mina Mortazavi, Hamid Ronagh, Pezhman Sharafi

Abstract:

The new concept of a cold formed-hot rolled hybrid steel wall panel system is introduced to overcome the deficiency in lateral load resisting capacity of cold-formed steel structures. The hybrid system is composed of a cold-formed steel part laterally connected to hot rolled part. The hot rolled steel part is responsible for carrying the whole lateral load; while the cold formed steel part is only required to transfer the lateral load to the hot rolled part without any local failure. The vertical load is beared by both hot rolled, and cold formed steel part, proportionally. In order to investigate the lateral performance of the proposed system, it should be tested under simultaneous lateral and vertical load. The main concern is to deliver the loads to each part during the test to simulate the real load distribution in the structure. In this paper, a detailed description of the proposed wall panel system and the designed testing rig is provided.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, hybrid system, wall panel system, testing rig design

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
1393 Joining of Aluminum and Steel in Car Body Manufacturing

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Mohammadi

Abstract:

Zinc-coated steel sheets have been joined with aluminum samples in an overlapping as well as in a butt-joint configuration. A bi-metal-wire composed from aluminum and steel was used for additional welding experiments. An advantage of the laser-assisted bi-metal-wire welding is that the welding process is simplified since the primary joint between aluminium and steel exists already and laser welding occurs only between similar materials. FEM-simulations of the process were chosen to determine the ideal dimensions with respect to the formability of the bi-metal-wire. A prototype demonstrated the feasibility of the process.

Keywords: car body, steel sheets, formability of bi-metal-wire, laser-assisted bi-metal-wire

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
1392 Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Steel Plates

Authors: Ghusen al-Kafri, Mohammed Ali Abdallah Elsageer, Ahmed Mohamed Hadya Alsdaai, Abdeimanam Salhien Salih Khalifa

Abstract:

In this paper, external reinforcement to enhance a reinforced concrete structure performance has been done using externally bonded steel plate. This technique has been reported effective in enhancing the strength of reinforced concrete beam, a study to determine the effectiveness of steel plate as an external reinforcement was carried out. A total of two groups of beams and one group content five beams, each 750 mm long, 150 mm wide, and 150 mm deep were cast, strengthened and tested till failure under two point loads. One beam was act as a control beam without strengthening and other four beams were strengthened with steel plate at a different arrangement. Other group beams were strengthened with steel plate in shear zone and also strengthened at bottom as first group. The behaviours of the strengthened beams were studied through their load-deflection characteristic upon bending, cracking and mode of failure. The results confirmed that all steel plate arrangements enhanced the strength of the reinforced concrete beam, the positioning of the steel plate affect the moment carrying capacity of the beam.

Keywords: beams, bending, beflection, steel plates

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1391 Study on Buckling and Yielding Behaviors of Low Yield Point Steel Plates

Authors: David Boyajian, Tadeh Zirakian

Abstract:

Stability and performance of steel plates are characterized by geometrical buckling and material yielding. In this paper, the geometrical buckling and material yielding behaviors of low yield point (LYP) steel plates are studied from the point of view of their application in steel plate shear wall (SPSW) systems. Use of LYP steel facilitates the design and application of web plates with improved buckling and energy absorption capacities in SPSW systems. LYP steel infill plates may yield first and then undergo inelastic buckling. Hence, accurate determination of the limiting plate thickness corresponding to simultaneous buckling and yielding can be effective in seismic design of such lateral force-resisting and energy dissipating systems. The limiting thicknesses of plates with different loading and support conditions are determined theoretically and verified through detailed numerical simulations. Effects of use of LYP steel and plate aspect ratio parameter on the limiting plate thickness are investigated as well. In addition, detailed studies are performed on determination of the limiting web-plate thickness in code-designed SPSWs. Some practical recommendations are accordingly provided for efficient seismic design of SPSW systems with LYP steel infill plates.

Keywords: buckling, low yield point steel, plates, steel plate shear walls, yielding

Procedia PDF Downloads 269