Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: dielectrophoresis

8 Dielectrophoretic Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanowires for Biotechnology Application

Authors: Ahmad Sabry Mohamad, Kai F. Hoettges, Michael Pycraft Hughes


This study investigates nanowires using Dielectrophoresis (DEP) in non-aqueous suspension of Tin (IV) Oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles dispersed in N,N-dimenthylformamide (DMF). The self assembly of nanowires in DEP impedance spectroscopy can be determined. In this work, dielectrophoretic method was used to measure non-organic molecules for estimating the permittivity and conductivity characteristic of the nanowires. As in aqueous such as salt solution has been dominating the transport of SnO2, which are the wire growth threshold, depend on applied voltage. While DEP assembly of nanowires depend on applied frequency, the applications of dielectrophoretic collection are measured using impedance spectroscopy.

Keywords: dielectrophoresis, impedance spectroscopy, nanowires, N, N-dimenthylformamide, SnO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 534
7 Nanorods Based Dielectrophoresis for Protein Concentration and Immunoassay

Authors: Zhen Cao, Yu Zhu, Junxue Fu


Immunoassay, i.e., antigen-antibody reaction, is crucial for disease diagnostics. To achieve the adequate signal of the antigen protein detection, a large amount of sample and long incubation time is needed. However, the amount of protein is usually small at the early stage, which makes it difficult to detect. Unlike cells and DNAs, no valid chemical method exists for protein amplification. Thus, an alternative way to improve the signal is through particle manipulation techniques to concentrate proteins, among which dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an effective one. DEP is a technique that concentrates particles to the designated region through a force created by the gradient in a non-uniform electric field. Since DEP force is proportional to the cube of particle size and square of electric field gradient, it is relatively easy to capture larger particles such as cells. For smaller ones like proteins, a super high gradient is then required. In this work, three-dimensional Ag/SiO2 nanorods arrays, fabricated by an easy physical vapor deposition technique called as oblique angle deposition, have been integrated with a DEP device and created the field gradient as high as of 2.6×10²⁴ V²/m³. The nanorods based DEP device is able to enrich bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein by 1800-fold and the rate has reached 180-fold/s when only applying 5 V electric potential. Based on the above nanorods integrated DEP platform, an immunoassay of mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) proteins has been performed. Briefly, specific antibodies are immobilized onto nanorods, then IgG proteins are concentrated and captured, and finally, the signal from fluorescence-labelled antibodies are detected. The limit of detection (LoD) is measured as 275.3 fg/mL (~1.8 fM), which is a 20,000-fold enhancement compared with identical assays performed on blank glass plates. Further, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), which is a cancer biomarker for diagnosis of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy, is also quantified with a LoD as low as 2.6 pg/mL. The time to signal saturation has been significantly reduced to one minute. In summary, together with an easy nanorod fabrication and integration method, this nanorods based DEP platform has demonstrated highly sensitive immunoassay performance and thus poses great potentials in applications for early point-of-care diagnostics.

Keywords: dielectrophoresis, immunoassay, oblique angle deposition, protein concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
6 Multi-Size Continuous Particle Separation on a Dielectrophoresis-Based Microfluidics Chip

Authors: Arash Dalili, Hamed Tahmouressi, Mina Hoorfar


Advances in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices have led to significant advances in the manipulation, separation, and isolation of particles and cells. Among the different active and passive particle manipulation methods, dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been proven to be a versatile mechanism as it is label-free, cost-effective, simple to operate, and has high manipulation efficiency. DEP has been applied for a wide range of biological and environmental applications. A popular form of DEP devices is the continuous manipulation of particles by using co-planar slanted electrodes, which utilizes a sheath flow to focus the particles into one side of the microchannel. When particles enter the DEP manipulation zone, the negative DEP (nDEP) force generated by the slanted electrodes deflects the particles laterally towards the opposite side of the microchannel. The lateral displacement of the particles is dependent on multiple parameters including the geometry of the electrodes, the width, length and height of the microchannel, the size of the particles and the throughput. In this study, COMSOL Multiphysics® modeling along with experimental studies are used to investigate the effect of the aforementioned parameters. The electric field between the electrodes and the induced DEP force on the particles are modelled by COMSOL Multiphysics®. The simulation model is used to show the effect of the DEP force on the particles, and how the geometry of the electrodes (width of the electrodes and the gap between them) plays a role in the manipulation of polystyrene microparticles. The simulation results show that increasing the electrode width to a certain limit, which depends on the height of the channel, increases the induced DEP force. Also, decreasing the gap between the electrodes leads to a stronger DEP force. Based on these results, criteria for the fabrication of the electrodes were found, and soft lithography was used to fabricate interdigitated slanted electrodes and microchannels. Experimental studies were run to find the effect of the flow rate, geometrical parameters of the microchannel such as length, width, and height as well as the electrodes’ angle on the displacement of 5 um, 10 um and 15 um polystyrene particles. An empirical equation is developed to predict the displacement of the particles under different conditions. It is shown that the displacement of the particles is more for longer and lower height channels, lower flow rates, and bigger particles. On the other hand, the effect of the angle of the electrodes on the displacement of the particles was negligible. Based on the results, we have developed an optimum design (in terms of efficiency and throughput) for three size separation of particles.

Keywords: COMSOL Multiphysics, Dielectrophoresis, Microfluidics, Particle separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
5 Colloid-Based Biodetection at Aqueous Electrical Interfaces Using Fluidic Dielectrophoresis

Authors: Francesca Crivellari, Nicholas Mavrogiannis, Zachary Gagnon


Portable diagnostic methods have become increasingly important for a number of different purposes: point-of-care screening in developing nations, environmental contamination studies, bio/chemical warfare agent detection, and end-user use for commercial health monitoring. The cheapest and most portable methods currently available are paper-based – lateral flow and dipstick methods are widely available in drug stores for use in pregnancy detection and blood glucose monitoring. These tests are successful because they are cheap to produce, easy to use, and require minimally invasive sampling. While adequate for their intended uses, in the realm of blood-borne pathogens and numerous cancers, these paper-based methods become unreliable, as they lack the nM/pM sensitivity currently achieved by clinical diagnostic methods. Clinical diagnostics, however, utilize techniques involving surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), which are expensive and unfeasible in terms of portability. To develop a better, competitive biosensor, we must reduce the cost of one, or increase the sensitivity of the other. Electric fields are commonly utilized in microfluidic devices to manipulate particles, biomolecules, and cells. Applications in this area, however, are primarily limited to interfaces formed between immiscible interfaces. Miscible, liquid-liquid interfaces are common in microfluidic devices, and are easily reproduced with simple geometries. Here, we demonstrate the use of electrical fields at liquid-liquid electrical interfaces, known as fluidic dielectrophoresis, (fDEP) for biodetection in a microfluidic device. In this work, we apply an AC electric field across concurrent laminar streams with differing conductivities and permittivities to polarize the interface and induce a discernible, near-immediate, frequency-dependent interfacial tilt. We design this aqueous electrical interface, which becomes the biosensing “substrate,” to be intelligent – it “moves” only when a target of interest is present. This motion requires neither labels nor expensive electrical equipment, so the biosensor is inexpensive and portable, yet still capable of sensitive detection. Nanoparticles, due to their high surface-area-to-volume ratio, are often incorporated to enhance detection capabilities of schemes like SPR and fluorimetric assays. Most studies currently investigate binding at an immobilized solid-liquid or solid-gas interface, where particles are adsorbed onto a planar surface, functionalized with a receptor to create a reactive substrate, and subsequently flushed with a fluid or gas with the relevant analyte. These typically involve many preparation and rinsing steps, and are susceptible to surface fouling. Our microfluidic device is continuously flowing and renewing the “substrate,” and is thus not subject to fouling. In this work, we demonstrate the ability to electrokinetically detect biomolecules binding to functionalized nanoparticles at liquid-liquid interfaces using fDEP. In biotin-streptavidin experiments, we report binding detection limits on the order of 1-10 pM, without amplifying signals or concentrating samples. We also demonstrate the ability to detect this interfacial motion, and thus the presence of binding, using impedance spectroscopy, allowing this scheme to become non-optical, in addition to being label-free.

Keywords: biodetection, dielectrophoresis, microfluidics, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
4 Cell Elevator: A Novel Technique for Cell Sorting and Circulating Tumor Cell Detection and Discrimination

Authors: Kevin Zhao, Norman J. Horing


A methodology for cells sorting and circulating tumor cell detection and discrimination is presented in this paper. The technique is based on Dielectrophoresis and microfluidic device theory. Specifically, the sorting of the cells is realized by adjusting the relation among the sedimentation forces, the drag force provided by the fluid, and the Dielectrophortic force that is relevant to the bias voltage applied on the device. The relation leads to manipulation of the elevation of the cells of the same kind to a height by controlling the bias voltage. Once the cells have been lifted to a position next to the bottom of the cell collection channel, the buffer fluid flashes them into the cell collection channel. Repeated elevation of the cells leads to a complete sorting of the cells in the sample chamber. A proof-of-principle example is presented which verifies the feasibility of the methodology.

Keywords: cell sorter, CTC cell, detection and discrimination, dielectrophoresisords, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
3 Chemical and Biomolecular Detection at a Polarizable Electrical Interface

Authors: Nicholas Mavrogiannis, Francesca Crivellari, Zachary Gagnon


Development of low-cost, rapid, sensitive and portable biosensing systems are important for the detection and prevention of disease in developing countries, biowarfare/antiterrorism applications, environmental monitoring, point-of-care diagnostic testing and for basic biological research. Currently, the most established commercially available and widespread assays for portable point of care detection and disease testing are paper-based dipstick and lateral flow test strips. These paper-based devices are often small, cheap and simple to operate. The last three decades in particular have seen an emergence in these assays in diagnostic settings for detection of pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, blood glucose, Influenza, urinary protein, cardiovascular disease, respiratory infections and blood chemistries. Such assays are widely available largely because they are inexpensive, lightweight, and portable, are simple to operate, and a few platforms are capable of multiplexed detection for a small number of sample targets. However, there is a critical need for sensitive, quantitative and multiplexed detection capabilities for point-of-care diagnostics and for the detection and prevention of disease in the developing world that cannot be satisfied by current state-of-the-art paper-based assays. For example, applications including the detection of cardiac and cancer biomarkers and biothreat applications require sensitive multiplexed detection of analytes in the nM and pM range, and cannot currently be satisfied with current inexpensive portable platforms due to their lack of sensitivity, quantitative capabilities and often unreliable performance. In this talk, inexpensive label-free biomolecular detection at liquid interfaces using a newly discovered electrokinetic phenomenon known as fluidic dielectrophoresis (fDEP) is demonstrated. The electrokinetic approach involves exploiting the electrical mismatches between two aqueous liquid streams forced to flow side-by-side in a microfluidic T-channel. In this system, one fluid stream is engineered to have a higher conductivity relative to its neighbor which has a higher permittivity. When a “low” frequency (< 1 MHz) alternating current (AC) electrical field is applied normal to this fluidic electrical interface the fluid stream with high conductivity displaces into the low conductive stream. Conversely, when a “high” frequency (20MHz) AC electric field is applied, the high permittivity stream deflects across the microfluidic channel. There is, however, a critical frequency sensitive to the electrical differences between each fluid phase – the fDEP crossover frequency – between these two events where no fluid deflection is observed, and the interface remains fixed when exposed to an external field. To perform biomolecular detection, two streams flow side-by-side in a microfluidic T-channel: one fluid stream with an analyte of choice and an adjacent stream with a specific receptor to the chosen target. The two fluid streams merge and the fDEP crossover frequency is measured at different axial positions down the resulting liquid

Keywords: biodetection, fluidic dielectrophoresis, interfacial polarization, liquid interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
2 Controlled Growth of Charge Transfer Complex Nanowire by Physical Vapor Deposition Method Using Dielectrophoretic Force

Authors: Rabaya Basori, Arup K. Raychaudhuri


In recent years, a variety of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has been synthesized and used as basic building blocks for the development of electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been widely investigated as a scalable technique to trap and manipulate polarizable objects. This includes biological cells, nanoparticles, DNA molecules, organic or inorganic NWs and proteins using electric field gradients. In this article, we have used DEP force to localize nanowire growth by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method as well as control of NW diameter on field assisted growth of the NWs of CuTCNQ (Cu-tetracyanoquinodimethane); a metal-organic charge transfer complex material which is well known of resistive switching. We report a versatile analysis platform, based on a set of nanogap electrodes, for the controlled growth of nanowire. Non-uniform electric field and dielectrophoretic force is created in between two metal electrodes, patterned by electron beam lithography process. Suspended CuTCNQ nanowires have been grown laterally between two electrodes in the vicinity of electric field and dielectric force by applying external bias. Growth and diameter dependence of the nanowires on external bias has been investigated in the framework of these two forces by COMSOL Multiphysics simulation. This report will help successful in-situ nanodevice fabrication with constrained number of NW and diameter without any post treatment.

Keywords: nanowire, dielectrophoretic force, confined growth, controlled diameter, comsol multiphysics simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
1 Microfluidic Device for Real-Time Electrical Impedance Measurements of Biological Cells

Authors: Anil Koklu, Amin Mansoorifar, Ali Beskok


Dielectric spectroscopy (DS) is a noninvasive, label free technique for a long term real-time measurements of the impedance spectra of biological cells. DS enables characterization of cellular dielectric properties such as membrane capacitance and cytoplasmic conductivity. We have developed a lab-on-a-chip device that uses an electro-activated microwells array for loading, DS measurements, and unloading of biological cells. We utilized from dielectrophoresis (DEP) to capture target cells inside the wells and release them after DS measurement. DEP is a label-free technique that exploits differences among dielectric properties of the particles. In detail, DEP is the motion of polarizable particles suspended in an ionic solution and subjected to a spatially non-uniform external electric field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first microfluidic chip that combines DEP and DS to analyze biological cells using electro-activated wells. Device performance is tested using two different cell lines of prostate cancer cells (RV122, PC-3). Impedance measurements were conducted at 0.2 V in the 10 kHz to 40 MHz range with 6 s time resolution. An equivalent circuit model was developed to extract the cell membrane capacitance and cell cytoplasmic conductivity from the impedance spectra. We report the time course of the variations in dielectric properties of PC-3 and RV122 cells suspended in low conductivity medium (LCB), which enhances dielectrophoretic and impedance responses, and their response to sudden pH change from a pH of 7.3 to a pH of 5.8. It is shown that microfluidic chip allowed online measurements of dielectric properties of prostate cancer cells and the assessment of the cellular level variations under external stimuli such as different buffer conductivity and pH. Based on these data, we intend to deploy the current device for single cell measurements by fabricating separately addressable N × N electrode platforms. Such a device will allow time-dependent dielectric response measurements for individual cells with the ability of selectively releasing them using negative-DEP and pressure driven flow.

Keywords: microfluidic, microfabrication, lab on a chip, AC electrokinetics, dielectric spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 73