Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: V. Nagarajan

14 Secured Transmission and Reserving Space in Images Before Encryption to Embed Data

Authors: G. R. Navaneesh, E. Nagarajan, C. H. Rajam Raju

Abstract:

Nowadays the multimedia data are used to store some secure information. All previous methods allocate a space in image for data embedding purpose after encryption. In this paper, we propose a novel method by reserving space in image with a boundary surrounded before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, which makes it easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted images. The proposed method can achieve real time performance, that is, data extraction and image recovery are free of any error. A secure transmission process is also discussed in this paper, which improves the efficiency by ten times compared to other processes as discussed.

Keywords: secure communication, reserving room before encryption, least significant bits, image encryption, reversible data hiding

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13 A Novel Solution to Restricted Earth Fault Low Impedance Relay Mal Operation

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, R. Ramaprabha, V. Rajini, V. Nagarajan

Abstract:

In this paper, the various methods of providing restricted earth fault protection are discussed. The proper operation of high and low impedance restricted earth fault (REF) protection for various applications has been discussed. The mal operation of a relay due to improper placement of CTs has been identified and a simple/unique solution has been proposed in this work with a case study. Moreover, it is found that the proper placement of CT in high impedance method will provide the same result with reduced CT. This methododlocy has been successfully implemented in Al Takreer refinery for a 2000 KVA transformer. The outcome of the paper may be included in IEEEC37.91 standard to give the proper guidance for protection engineers to sort out the problems related to mal functioning of REF relays.

Keywords: relay mal operation, transformer, low impedance REF, MATLAB, 64R, IEEE C37.91

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12 The Effect of H2S on Crystal Structure

Authors: C. Venkataraman B. E., J. Nagarajan B. E., V. Srinivasan M. Tech

Abstract:

For a better understanding on sulfide stress corrosion cracking, a theoretical approach based on crystal structure, molecule behavior, flow of electrons and electrochemical reaction is developed. Its impact on different materials such as carbon steel, low alloy, alloy for sour (H2S) environments is studied. This paper describes the theories on various disaster and failures occurred in the industry by Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). Parameters such as pH of process fluid, partial pressure of CO2, O2, Chlorine, effect of internal pressure (crystal structure deformation by stress), and external environment condition are considered. An analytical line graph is then created for process fluid parameter verses time, temperature, induced/residual stress due to local pressure build-up. By comparison with the load test result of NACE and ASTM, it is possible to predict and simplify the control of SCC by use of materials like ferritic, Austenitic material in the oil and gas & petroleum industries.

Keywords: crystal structure deformation, failure assessment, alloy-environment combination, H2S

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11 Constructability Driven Engineering in Oil and Gas Projects

Authors: Srikanth Nagarajan, P. Parthasarathy, Frits Lagers

Abstract:

Lower crude oil prices increased the pressure on oil and gas projects. Being competitive becomes very important and critical for the success in any industry. Increase in size of the project multiplies the magnitude of the issue. Timely completion of projects within the budget and schedule is very important for any project to succeed. A simple idea makes a larger impact on the total cost of the plant. In this robust world, the phases of engineering right from licensing technology, feed, different phases of detail engineering, procurement and construction has been so much compressed that they overlap with each other. Hence constructability techniques have become very important. Here in this paper, the focus will be on how these techniques can be implemented and reduce cost with the help of a case study. Constructability is a process driven by the need to impact project’s construction phase resulting in improved project delivery, costs and schedule. In construction phase of one of our fast-track mega project, it was noticed that there was an opportunity to reduce significant amount of cost and schedule by implementing Constructability study processes. In this case study, the actual methodology adopted during engineering and construction and the way for doing it better by implementing Constructability techniques with collaborative engineering efforts will be explained.

Keywords: being competitive, collaborative engineering, constructability, cost reduction

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10 Lab Bench for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging System

Authors: Karthiyayini Nagarajan, P. V. Ramakrishna

Abstract:

Radar Imaging techniques provides extensive applications in the field of remote sensing, majorly Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that provide high resolution target images. This paper work puts forward the effective and realizable signal generation and processing for SAR images. The major units in the system include camera, signal generation unit, signal processing unit and display screen. The real radio channel is replaced by its mathematical model based on optical image to calculate a reflected signal model in real time. Signal generation realizes the algorithm and forms the radar reflection model. Signal processing unit provides range and azimuth resolution through matched filtering and spectrum analysis procedure to form radar image on the display screen. The restored image has the same quality as that of the optical image. This SAR imaging system has been designed and implemented using MATLAB and Quartus II tools on Stratix III device as a System (Lab Bench) that works in real time to study/investigate on radar imaging rudiments and signal processing scheme for educational and research purposes.

Keywords: synthetic aperture radar, radio reflection model, lab bench, imaging engineering

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9 Design and Implementation of a Lab Bench for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging System

Authors: Karthiyayini Nagarajan, P. V. RamaKrishna

Abstract:

Radar Imaging techniques provides extensive applications in the field of remote sensing, majorly Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) that provide high resolution target images. This paper work puts forward the effective and realizable signal generation and processing for SAR images. The major units in the system include camera, signal generation unit, signal processing unit and display screen. The real radio channel is replaced by its mathematical model based on optical image to calculate a reflected signal model in real time. Signal generation realizes the algorithm and forms the radar reflection model. Signal processing unit provides range and azimuth resolution through matched filtering and spectrum analysis procedure to form radar image on the display screen. The restored image has the same quality as that of the optical image. This SAR imaging system has been designed and implemented using MATLAB and Quartus II tools on Stratix III device as a System(lab bench) that works in real time to study/investigate on radar imaging rudiments and signal processing scheme for educational and research purposes.

Keywords: synthetic aperture radar, radio reflection model, lab bench

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8 A Hybrid Combustion Chamber Design for Diesel Engines

Authors: R. Gopakumar, G. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Both DI and IDI systems possess inherent advantages as well as disadvantages. The objective of the present work is to obtain maximum advantages of both systems by implementing a hybrid design. A hybrid combustion chamber design consists of two combustion chambers viz., the main combustion chamber and an auxiliary combustion chamber. A fuel injector supplies major quantity of fuel to the auxiliary chamber. Due to the increased swirl motion in auxiliary chamber, mixing becomes more efficient which contributes to reduction in soot/particulate emissions. Also, by increasing the fuel injection pressure, NOx emissions can be reduced. The main objective of the hybrid combustion chamber design is to merge the positive features of both DI and IDI combustion chamber designs, which provides increased swirl motion and improved thermal efficiency. Due to the efficient utilization of fuel, low specific fuel consumption can be ensured. This system also aids in increasing the power output for same compression ratio and injection timing as compared with the conventional combustion chamber designs. The present system also reduces heat transfer and fluid dynamic losses which are encountered in IDI diesel engines. Since the losses are reduced, overall efficiency of the engine increases. It also minimizes the combustion noise and NOx emissions in conventional DI diesel engines.

Keywords: DI, IDI, hybrid combustion, diesel engines

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7 A Comparison of South East Asian Face Emotion Classification based on Optimized Ellipse Data Using Clustering Technique

Authors: M. Karthigayan, M. Rizon, Sazali Yaacob, R. Nagarajan, M. Muthukumaran, Thinaharan Ramachandran, Sargunam Thirugnanam

Abstract:

In this paper, using a set of irregular and regular ellipse fitting equations using Genetic algorithm (GA) are applied to the lip and eye features to classify the human emotions. Two South East Asian (SEA) faces are considered in this work for the emotion classification. There are six emotions and one neutral are considered as the output. Each subject shows unique characteristic of the lip and eye features for various emotions. GA is adopted to optimize irregular ellipse characteristics of the lip and eye features in each emotion. That is, the top portion of lip configuration is a part of one ellipse and the bottom of different ellipse. Two ellipse based fitness equations are proposed for the lip configuration and relevant parameters that define the emotions are listed. The GA method has achieved reasonably successful classification of emotion. In some emotions classification, optimized data values of one emotion are messed or overlapped to other emotion ranges. In order to overcome the overlapping problem between the emotion optimized values and at the same time to improve the classification, a fuzzy clustering method (FCM) of approach has been implemented to offer better classification. The GA-FCM approach offers a reasonably good classification within the ranges of clusters and it had been proven by applying to two SEA subjects and have improved the classification rate.

Keywords: ellipse fitness function, genetic algorithm, emotion recognition, fuzzy clustering

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6 The Potential Effect of Climate Changes on Food and Water Associated Infections

Authors: Mohammed A. Alhoot, Rathika A/P Nagarajan

Abstract:

Climate change and variability are affecting human health and diseases direct or indirectly through many mechanisms. Change in rain pattern, an increase of temperature and humidity are showing an increased trend in Malaysia. This will affect the biological, physical and chemical component of water through different pathways and will enhance the risk of waterborne diseases. Besides, the warm temperature and humid climate provide very suitable conditions for the growth of pathogenic bacteria. This study is intended to highlight the relationship between the climate changes and the incidence food and water associated infections. Incidences of food and water associated infection and climate data were collected from Malaysian Ministry of health and Malaysian Metrological Department respectively. Maximum and minimum temperature showed high correlation with incidence of typhoid, hepatitis A, dysentery, food poisoning (P value <0.05 significant with 2 tailed / 0.5<[r]). Heavy rainfall does not associated with any outbreaks. Climate change brings out new challenges in controlling food and water associated infections. Adaptation strategies should involve all key stakeholders with a strong regional cooperation to prevent and deal with cross-boundary health crises. Moreover, the role of health care personnel at local, state and national levels is important to ensure the success of these programmes. As has been shown herein, climate variability is an important element influencing the food and water associated epidemiology in Malaysia. The results of this study are crucial to implementing climate changes as a factor to reduce any future outbreaks.

Keywords: climate change, typhoid, hepatitis A, dysentery, food poisoning

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5 Cleaning Performance of High-Frequency, High-Intensity 360 kHz Frequency Operating in Thickness Mode Transducers

Authors: R. Vetrimurugan, Terry Lim, M. J. Goodson, R. Nagarajan

Abstract:

This study investigates the cleaning performance of high intensity 360 kHz frequency on the removal of nano-dimensional and sub-micron particles from various surfaces, uniformity of the cleaning tank and run to run variation of cleaning process. The uniformity of the cleaning tank was measured by two different methods i.e 1. ppbTM meter and 2. Liquid Particle Counting (LPC) technique. In the second method, aluminium metal spacer components was placed at various locations of the cleaning tank (such as centre, top left corner, bottom left corner, top right corner, bottom right corner) and the resultant particles removed by 360 kHz frequency was measured. The result indicates that the energy was distributed more uniformly throughout the entire cleaning vessel even at the corners and edges of the tank when megasonic sweeping technology is applied. The result also shows that rinsing the parts with 360 kHz frequency at final rinse gives lower particle counts, hence higher cleaning efficiency as compared to other frequencies. When megasonic sweeping technology is applied each piezoelectric transducers will operate at their optimum resonant frequency and generates stronger acoustic cavitational force and higher acoustic streaming velocity. These combined forces are helping to enhance the particle removal and at the same time improve the overall cleaning performance. The multiple extractions study was also carried out for various frequencies to measure the cleaning potential and asymptote value.

Keywords: power distribution, megasonic sweeping, cavitation intensity, particle removal, laser particle counting, nano, submicron

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4 Performance of Bored Pile on Alluvial Deposit

Authors: K. Raja Rajan, D. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Bored cast in-situ pile is a popular choice amongst consultant and contractor due to the ability to adjust the pile length suitably in case if any variation found in the actual geological strata. Bangladesh geological strata are dominated by silt content. Design is normally based on field test such as Standard Penetration test N-values. Initially, pile capacity estimated through static formula with co-relation of N-value and angle of internal friction. Initial pile load test was conducted in order to validate the geotechnical parameters assumed in design. Initial pile load test was conducted on 1.5m diameter bored cast in-situ pile. Kentledge method is used to load the pile for 2.5 times of its working load. Initially, safe working load of pile has been estimated as 570T, so test load is fixed to 1425T. Max load applied is 777T for which the settlement reached around 155mm which is more than 10% of diameter of piles. Pile load test results was not satisfactory and compelled to increase the pile length approximately 20% of its total length. Due to unpredictable geotechnical parameters, length of each pile has been increased which is having a major impact on the project cost and as well as in project schedule. Extra bore holes have been planned along with lab test results in order to redefine the assumed geotechnical parameters. This article presents detailed design assumptions of geotechnical parameters in the design stage and the results of pile load test which made to redefine the assumed geotechnical properties.

Keywords: end bearing, pile load test, settlement, shaft friction

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3 Gradient Boosted Trees on Spark Platform for Supervised Learning in Health Care Big Data

Authors: Gayathri Nagarajan, L. D. Dhinesh Babu

Abstract:

Health care is one of the prominent industries that generate voluminous data thereby finding the need of machine learning techniques with big data solutions for efficient processing and prediction. Missing data, incomplete data, real time streaming data, sensitive data, privacy, heterogeneity are few of the common challenges to be addressed for efficient processing and mining of health care data. In comparison with other applications, accuracy and fast processing are of higher importance for health care applications as they are related to the human life directly. Though there are many machine learning techniques and big data solutions used for efficient processing and prediction in health care data, different techniques and different frameworks are proved to be effective for different applications largely depending on the characteristics of the datasets. In this paper, we present a framework that uses ensemble machine learning technique gradient boosted trees for data classification in health care big data. The framework is built on Spark platform which is fast in comparison with other traditional frameworks. Unlike other works that focus on a single technique, our work presents a comparison of six different machine learning techniques along with gradient boosted trees on datasets of different characteristics. Five benchmark health care datasets are considered for experimentation, and the results of different machine learning techniques are discussed in comparison with gradient boosted trees. The metric chosen for comparison is misclassification error rate and the run time of the algorithms. The goal of this paper is to i) Compare the performance of gradient boosted trees with other machine learning techniques in Spark platform specifically for health care big data and ii) Discuss the results from the experiments conducted on datasets of different characteristics thereby drawing inference and conclusion. The experimental results show that the accuracy is largely dependent on the characteristics of the datasets for other machine learning techniques whereas gradient boosting trees yields reasonably stable results in terms of accuracy without largely depending on the dataset characteristics.

Keywords: big data analytics, ensemble machine learning, gradient boosted trees, Spark platform

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2 Evaluation of Water Management Options to Improve the Crop Yield and Water Productivity for Semi-Arid Watershed in Southern India Using AquaCrop Model

Authors: V. S. Manivasagam, R. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Modeling the soil, water and crop growth interactions are attaining major importance, considering the future climate change and water availability for agriculture to meet the growing food demand. Progress in understanding the crop growth response during water stress period through crop modeling approach provides an opportunity for improving and sustaining the future agriculture water use efficiency. An attempt has been made to evaluate the potential use of crop modeling approach for assessing the minimal supplementary irrigation requirement for crop growth during water limited condition and its practical significance in sustainable improvement of crop yield and water productivity. Among the numerous crop models, water driven-AquaCrop model has been chosen for the present study considering the modeling approach and water stress impact on yield simulation. The study has been evaluated in rainfed maize grown area of semi-arid Shanmuganadi watershed (a tributary of the Cauvery river system) located in southern India during the rabi cropping season (October-February). In addition to actual rainfed maize growth simulation, irrigated maize scenarios were simulated for assessing the supplementary irrigation requirement during water shortage condition for the period 2012-2015. The simulation results for rainfed maize have shown that the average maize yield of 0.5-2 t ha-1 was observed during deficit monsoon season (<350 mm) whereas 5.3 t ha-1 was noticed during sufficient monsoonal period (>350 mm). Scenario results for irrigated maize simulation during deficit monsoonal period has revealed that 150-200 mm of supplementary irrigation has ensured the 5.8 t ha-1 of irrigated maize yield. Thus, study results clearly portrayed that minimal application of supplementary irrigation during the critical growth period along with the deficit rainfall has increased the crop water productivity from 1.07 to 2.59 kg m-3 for major soil types. Overall, AquaCrop is found to be very effective for the sustainable irrigation assessment considering the model simplicity and minimal inputs requirement.

Keywords: AquaCrop, crop modeling, rainfed maize, water stress

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1 Re-interpreting Ruskin with Respect to the Wall

Authors: Anjali Sadanand, R. V. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Architecture morphs with advances in technology and the roof, wall, and floor as basic elements of a building, follow in redefining themselves over time. Their contribution is bound by time and held by design principles that deal with function, sturdiness, and beauty. Architecture engages with people to give joy through its form, material, design structure, and spatial qualities. This paper attempts to re-interpret John Ruskin’s “Seven lamps of Architecture” in the context of the architecture of the modern and present period. The paper focuses on the “wall” as an element of study in this context. Four of Ruskin’s seven lamps will be discussed, namely beauty, truth, life, and memory, through examples of architecture ranging from modernism to contemporary architecture of today. The study will focus on the relevance of Ruskin’s principles to the “wall” in specific, in buildings of different materials and over a range of typologies from all parts of the world. Two examples will be analyzed for each lamp. It will be shown that in each case, there is relevance to the significance of Ruskin’s lamps in modern and contemporary architecture. Nature to which Ruskin alludes to for his lamp of “beauty” is found in the different expressions of interpretation used by Corbusier in his Villa Stein façade based on proportion found in nature and in the direct expression of Toyo Ito in his translation of an understanding of the structure of trees into his façade design of the showroom for a Japanese bag boutique. “Truth” is shown in Mies van der Rohe’s Crown Hall building with its clarity of material and structure and Studio Mumbai’s Palmyra House, which celebrates the use of natural materials and local craftsmanship. “Life” is reviewed with a sustainable house in Kerala by Ashrams Ravi and Alvar Aalto’s summer house, which illustrate walls as repositories of intellectual thought and craft. “Memory” is discussed with Charles Correa’s Jawahar Kala Kendra and Venturi’s Vana Venturi house and discloses facades as text in the context of its materiality and iconography. Beauty is reviewed in Villa Stein and Toyo Ito’s Branded Retail building in Tokyo. The paper thus concludes that Ruskin’s Lamps can be interpreted in today’s context and add richness to meaning to the understanding of architecture.

Keywords: beauty, design, facade, modernism

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