Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: bio-impedance

10 Characterization of Graphene Oxide Coated Gold Electrodes for Bioimpedance Measurements

Authors: Fatma Gülden Şi̇mşek, Osman Meli̇h Can, Mehmet Yumak, Bora Gari̇pcan, Yekta Ülgen


In this study, the impedance spectroscopy is used as a detection tool in order to characterize surface coating with graphene oxide. Gold electrodes are produced by standard lithography procedures and then coated with graphene oxide using self-assembly method. The impedance of redox solution through bare gold electrodes and graphene oxide coated gold electrodes is measured in the low and high frequency range. The graphene oxide coating reduces the impedance value of the gold electrode and this reduction is distinguishable in the low-frequency range.

Keywords: bioimpedance, electrode characterization, graphene oxide, gold electrodes, impedance spectroscopy

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9 Body Composition Evaluation among High Intensity and Long Term Walking Distance Participants

Authors: Priscila Vitorino, Jeeziane Rezende, Edison Pereira, Adrielly Silva, Weimar Barroso


Body composition insight during physical activity is relevant to follow up sports income since it can be important and actuate in velocity, resistance, potency, and has an effect on force and agility. The purpose of this study was to identify anthropometric profile, evaluate and correlate body mass index and bioimpedance behavior during the days of Caminhada Ecológica de Goiás - Brasil. A longitudinal study was performed with 25 male participants, with an average age of 45.6±9.1 years. All patients were actives. Body composition was evaluated by body mass index (BMI) measurement and bioimpedance procedures. Both were collected 20 days before walking beginning (A0) and in the four days along the same (A1, A2, A3 e A4). Data were collected in the end of each walking day at athletes accommodations. Final distance during walking route was 308 km in five days, with an average of 62km/day and 7,6 km/hour, and an average temperature of 30°C. Data are represented with mean and standard deviation. ANOVA (Bonferroni pos test) was used to compare frequent measurements between the days. Pearson's correlation test was used to correlate BMI with lean mass, fat mass, and water. BMI decreased from A0 to A1, A2 and A3 (p < 0,01) and increased on A4 (p < 0,01). No changes were observed concerning fat percentage (p=0,60), lean mass (p=0,10) and body water composition (p=0,09). A positive and moderate correlation between BMI and fat percentage was observed; an inverse and moderate correlation between BMI, lean mass and body water composition occurred. Total body mass increased during high intensity and long term walking distance. However, the values of body fat, lean mass and water were maintained.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, body composition, metabolism, sports

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8 Developing Motorized Spectroscopy System for Tissue Scanning

Authors: Tuba Denkceken, Ayse Nur Sarı, Volkan Ihsan Tore, Mahmut Denkceken


The aim of the presented study was to develop a newly motorized spectroscopy system. Our system is composed of probe and motor parts. The probe part consists of bioimpedance and fiber optic components that include two platinum wires (each 25 micrometer in diameter) and two fiber cables (each 50 micrometers in diameter) respectively. Probe was examined on tissue phantom (polystyrene microspheres with different diameters). In the bioimpedance part of the probe current was transferred to the phantom and conductivity information was obtained. Adjacent two fiber cables were used in the fiber optic part of the system. Light was transferred to the phantom by fiber that was connected to the light source and backscattered light was collected with the other adjacent fiber for analysis. It is known that the nucleus expands and the nucleus-cytoplasm ratio increases during the cancer progression in the cell and this situation is one of the most important criteria for evaluating the tissue for pathologists. The sensitivity of the probe to particle (nucleus) size in phantom was tested during the study. Spectroscopic data obtained from our system on phantom was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. Thus the information about the particle size in the phantom was obtained. Bioimpedance and fiber optic experiments results which were obtained from polystyrene microspheres showed that the impedance value and the oscillation amplitude were increasing while the size of particle was enlarging. These results were compatible with the previous studies. In order to motorize the system within the motor part, three driver electronic circuits were designed primarily. In this part, supply capacitors were placed symmetrically near to the supply inputs which were used for balancing the oscillation. Female capacitors were connected to the control pin. Optic and mechanic switches were made. Drivers were structurally designed as they could command highly calibrated motors. It was considered important to keep the drivers’ dimension as small as we could (4.4x4.4x1.4 cm). Then three miniature step motors were connected to each other along with three drivers. Since spectroscopic techniques are quantitative methods, they yield more objective results than traditional ones. In the future part of this study, it is planning to get spectroscopic data that have optic and impedance information from the cell culture which is normal, low metastatic and high metastatic breast cancer. In case of getting high sensitivity in differentiated cells, it might be possible to scan large surface tissue areas in a short time with small steps. By means of motorize feature of the system, any region of the tissue will not be missed, in this manner we are going to be able to diagnose cancerous parts of the tissue meticulously. This work is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) through 3001 project (115E662).

Keywords: motorized spectroscopy, phantom, scanning system, tissue scanning

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7 Design and Construction of Temperature and Humidity Control Channel for a Bacteriological Incubator

Authors: Carlos R. Duharte Rodríguez, Ibrain Ceballo Acosta, Carmen B. Busoch Morlán, Angel Regueiro Gómez, Annet Martinez Hernández


This work shows the designing and characterization of a prototype of laboratory incubator as support of research in Microbiology, in particular during studies of bacterial growth in biological samples, with the help of optic methods (Turbidimetry) and electrometric measurements of bioimpedance. It shows the results of simulation and experimentation of the design proposed for the canals of measurement of the variables: temperature and humidity, with a high linearity from the adequate selection of sensors and analogue components of every channel, controlled with help of a microcontroller AT89C51 (ATMEL) with adequate benefits for this type of application.

Keywords: microbiology, bacterial growth, incubation station, microorganisms

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6 Screening Post-Menopausal Women for Osteoporosis by Complex Impedance Measurements of the Dominant Arm

Authors: Yekta Ülgen, Fırat Matur


Cole-Cole parameters of 40 post-menopausal women are compared with their DEXA bone mineral density measurements. Impedance characteristics of four extremities are compared; left and right extremities are statistically same, but lower extremities are statistically different than upper ones due to their different fat content. The correlation of Cole-Cole impedance parameters to bone mineral density (BMD) is observed to be higher for a dominant arm. With the post menopausal population, ANOVA tests of the dominant arm characteristic frequency, as a predictor for DEXA classified osteopenic and osteoporotic population around the lumbar spine, is statistically very significant. When used for total lumbar spine osteoporosis diagnosis, the area under the Receiver Operating Curve of the characteristic frequency is 0.875, suggesting that the Cole-Cole plot characteristic frequency could be a useful diagnostic parameter when integrated into standard screening methods for osteoporosis. Moreover, the characteristic frequency can be directly measured by monitoring frequency driven the angular behavior of the dominant arm without performing any complex calculation.

Keywords: bioimpedance spectroscopy, bone mineral density, osteoporosis, characteristic frequency, receiver operating curve

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5 Relationship Between Muscle Mass and Insulin Resistance in Cirrhotic Patients with Hepatitis B

Authors: Eyüp S. Akbas, Betul Ayaz, Beyza S. Haksever, Sema Basat


We aimed to evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance, muscle mass and muscle strength in patients with Hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. In our study, there were 65 patients with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis in Child A and B group and 65 healthy control individual. Control group was chosen between patients who admitted to the internal medicine clinic and had no pathological values in a routine examination. Muscle mass index was calculated with bioimpedance analysis for both groups to determine muscle strength and muscle mass. Handgrip strength, arm, and calf circumference were measured. In both groups, HOMA-IR was calculated to determine insulin resistance. Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) value was detected 3,47±3,80 in the study group and 1,83±1,20 in control group. There were significant differences between the two groups in arm circumference, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol parameters. The correlation coefficient between muscle mass and insulin resistance was statistically insignificant, especially in the study group. In healthy individuals group and all the groups, there wasn’t a correlation between muscle mass and insulin resistance. The upper limit for HOMA-IR was determined as 3,2. In control group, %78,9 of individuals were in HOMA-IR ( < 3.2) group and %21,1 of them were in ( ≥ 3,2) group. In study group, %68,3 of individuals were in HOMA-IR ( < 3,2) group and %31.7 were in HOMA-IR ( ≥ 3,2) group. In our study, we did not find a relationship between muscle mass and insulin resistance in patients with liver cirrhosis. In the study group, we detected a positive relationship between muscle mass, handgrip strength, and calf circumference. We did not find a relationship between insulin resistance and handgrip strength in our study.

Keywords: cirrhosis, hepatitis B, Insulin resistance, muscle mass

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4 Normal Weight Obesity among Female Students: BMI as a Non-Sufficient Tool for Obesity Assessment

Authors: Krzysztof Plesiewicz, Izabela Plesiewicz, Krzysztof Chiżyński, Marzenna Zielińska


Background: Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. There are several anthropometric parameters proposed to estimate the level of obesity, but until now there is no agreement which one is the best predictor of cardiometabolic risk. Scientists defined metabolically obese normal weight, who suffer from metabolic abnormalities, the same as obese individuals, and defined this syndrome as normal weight obesity (NWO). Aim of the study: The aim of our study was to determine the occurrence of overweight and obesity in a cohort of young, adult women, using standard and complementary methods of obesity assessment and to indicate those, who are at risk of obesity. The second aim of our study was to test additional methods of obesity assessment and proof that body mass index using alone is not sufficient parameter of obesity assessment. Materials and methods: 384 young women, aged 18-32, were enrolled into the study. Standard anthropometric parameters (waist to hips ratio (WTH), waist to height ratio (WTHR)) and two other methods of body fat percentage measurement (BFPM) were used in the study: electrical bioimpendance analysis (BIA) and skinfold measurement test by digital fat body mass clipper (SFM). Results: In the study group 5% and 7% of participants had waist to hips ratio and accordingly waist to height ratio values connected with visceral obesity. According to BMI 14% participants were overweight and obese. Using additional methods of body fat assessment, there were 54% and 43% of obese for BIA and SMF method. In the group of participants with normal BMI and underweight (not overweight, n =340) there were individuals with the level of BFPM above the upper limit, for the BIA 49% (n =164) and for the SFM 36 % (n=125). Statistical analysis revealed strong correlation between BIA and SFM methods. Conclusion: BMI using alone is not a sufficient parameter of obesity assessment. High percentage of young women with normal BMI values seem to be normal weight obese.

Keywords: electrical bioimpedance, normal weight obesity, skin-fold measurement test, women

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3 A Clinical Cutoff to Identify Metabolically Unhealthy Obese and Normal-Weight Phenotype in Young Adults

Authors: Lívia Pinheiro Carvalho, Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini, Rafael Luís Luporini, José Carlos Bonjorno Junior, Renata Pedrolongo Basso Vanelli, Manoel Carneiro de Oliveira Junior, Rodolfo de Paula Vieira, Renata Trimer, Renata G. Mendes, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Audrey Borghi-Silva


Rationale: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and functional capacity in young obese and normal-weight people are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, it remains unclear whether their metabolically healthy (MH) or at risk (AR) phenotype influences cardiorespiratory fitness in this vulnerable population such as obese adults but also in normal-weight people. HOMA insulin resistance index (HI) and leptin-adiponectin ratio (LA) are strong markers for characterizing those phenotypes that we hypothesized to be associated with physical fitness. We also hypothesized that an easy and feasible exercise test could identify a subpopulation at risk to develop metabolic and related disorders. Methods: Thirty-nine sedentary men and women (20-45y; 18.530 kg.m-2) underwent a clinical evaluation, including the six-minute step test (ST), a well-validated and reliable test for young people. Body composition assessment was done by a tetrapolar bioimpedance in a fasting state and in the folicular phase for women. A maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing, as well as the ST, evaluated the oxygen uptake at the peak of the test (VO2peak) by an ergospirometer Oxycon Mobile. Lipids, glucose, insulin were analysed and the ELISA method quantified the serum leptin and adiponectin from blood samples. Volunteers were divided in two groups: AR or MH according to a HI cutoff of 1.95, which was previously determined in the literature. T-test for comparison between groups, Pearson´s test to correlate main variables and ROC analysis for discriminating AR from up-and-down cycles in ST (SC) were applied (p<0.05). Results: Higher LA, fat mass (FM) and lower HDL, SC, leg lean mass (LM) and VO2peak were found in AR than in MH. Significant correlations were found between VO2peak and SC (r= 0.80) as well as between LA and FM (r=0.87), VO2peak (r=-0.73), and SC (r=-0.65). Area under de curve showed moderate accuracy (0.75) of SC <173 to discriminate AR phenotype. Conclusion: Our study found that at risk obese and normal-weight subjects showed an unhealthy metabolism as well as a poor CRF and functional daily activity capacity. Additionally, a simple and less costly functional test associated with above-mentioned aspects is able to identify ‘at risk’ subjects for primary intervention with important clinical and health implications.

Keywords: aerobic capacity, exercise, fitness, metabolism, obesity, 6MST

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2 Excess Body Fat as a Store Toxin Affecting the Glomerular Filtration and Excretory Function of the Liver in Patients after Renal Transplantation

Authors: Magdalena B. Kaziuk, Waldemar Kosiba, Marek J. Kuzniewski


Introduction: Adipose tissue is a typical place for storage water-insoluble toxins in the body. It's connective tissue, where the intercellular substance consist of fat, which level in people with low physical activity should be 18-25% for women and 13-18% for men. Due to the fat distribution in the body we distinquish two types of obesity: android (visceral, abdominal) and gynoidal (gluteal-femoral, peripheral). Abdominal obesity increases the risk of complications of the cardiovascular system diseases, and impaired renal and liver function. Through the influence on disorders of metabolism, lipid metabolism, diabetes and hypertension, leading to emergence of the metabolic syndrome. So thus, obesity will especially overload kidney function in patients after transplantation. Aim: An attempt was made to estimate the impact of amount fat tissue on transplanted kidney function and excretory function of the liver in patients after Ktx. Material and Methods: The study included 108 patients (50 females, 58 male, age 46.5 +/- 12.9 years) with active kidney transplant after more than 3 months from the transplantation. An analysis of body composition was done by using electrical bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometric measurements. Estimated basal metabolic rate (BMR), muscle mass, total body water content and the amount of body fat. Information about physical activity were obtained during clinical examination. Nutritional status, and type of obesity were determined by using indicators: Waist to Height Ratio (WHR) and Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR). Excretory functions of the transplanted kidney was rated by calculating the estimated renal glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the MDRD formula. Liver function was rated by total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase levels ALT concentration in serum. In our patients haemolitic uremic syndrome (HUS) was excluded. Results: In 19.44% of patients had underweight, 22.37% of the respondents were with normal weight, 11.11% had overweight, and the rest were with obese (49.08%). People with android stature have a lower eGFR compared with those with the gynoidal stature (p = 0.004). All patients with obesity had higher amount of body fat from a few to several percent. The higher amount of body fat percentage, the lower eGFR had patients (p <0.001). Elevated ALT levels significantly correlated with a high fat content (p <0.02). Conclusion: Increased amount of body fat, particularly in the case of android obesity can be a predictor of kidney and liver damage. Due to that obese patients should have more frequent control of diagnostic functions of these organs and the intensive dietary proceedings, pharmacological and regular physical activity adapted to the current physical condition of patients after transplantation.

Keywords: obesity, body fat, kidney transplantation, glomerular filtration rate, liver function

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1 Post-Exercise Recovery Tracking Based on Electrocardiography-Derived Features

Authors: Pavel Bulai, Taras Pitlik, Tatsiana Kulahava, Timofei Lipski


The method of Electrocardiography (ECG) interpretation for post-exercise recovery tracking was developed. Metabolic indices (aerobic and anaerobic) were designed using ECG-derived features. This study reports the associations between aerobic and anaerobic indices and classical parameters of the person’s physiological state, including blood biochemistry, glycogen concentration and VO2max changes. During the study 9 participants, healthy, physically active medium trained men and women, which trained 2-4 times per week for at least 9 weeks, fulfilled (i) ECG monitoring using Apple Watch Series 4 (AWS4); (ii) blood biochemical analysis; (iii) maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) test, (iv) bioimpedance analysis (BIA). ECG signals from a single-lead wrist-wearable device were processed with detection of QRS-complex. Aerobic index (AI) was derived as the normalized slope of QR segment. Anaerobic index (ANI) was derived as the normalized slope of SJ segment. Biochemical parameters, glycogen content and VO2max were evaluated eight times within 3-60 hours after training. ECGs were recorded 5 times per day, plus before and after training, cycloergometry and BIA. The negative correlation between AI and blood markers of the muscles functional status including creatine phosphokinase (r=-0.238, p < 0.008), aspartate aminotransferase (r=-0.249, p < 0.004) and uric acid (r = -0.293, p<0.004) were observed. ANI was also correlated with creatine phosphokinase (r= -0.265, p < 0.003), aspartate aminotransferase (r = -0.292, p < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (r = -0.190, p < 0.050). So, when the level of muscular enzymes increases during post-exercise fatigue, AI and ANI decrease. During recovery, the level of metabolites is restored, and metabolic indices rising is registered. It can be concluded that AI and ANI adequately reflect the physiology of the muscles during recovery. One of the markers of an athlete’s physiological state is the ratio between testosterone and cortisol (TCR). TCR provides a relative indication of anabolic-catabolic balance and is considered to be more sensitive to training stress than measuring testosterone and cortisol separately. AI shows a strong negative correlation with TCR (r=-0.437, p < 0.001) and correctly represents post-exercise physiology. In order to reveal the relation between the ECG-derived metabolic indices and the state of the cardiorespiratory system, direct measurements of VO2max were carried out at various time points after training sessions. The negative correlation between AI and VO2max (r = -0.342, p < 0.001) was obtained. These data testifying VO2max rising during fatigue are controversial. However, some studies have revealed increased stroke volume after training, that agrees with findings. It is important to note that post-exercise increase in VO2max does not mean an athlete’s readiness for the next training session, because the recovery of the cardiovascular system occurs over a substantially longer period. Negative correlations registered for ANI with glycogen (r = -0.303, p < 0.001), albumin (r = -0.205, p < 0.021) and creatinine (r = -0.268, p < 0.002) reflect the dehydration status of participants after training. Correlations between designed metabolic indices and physiological parameters revealed in this study can be considered as the sufficient evidence to use these indices for assessing the state of person’s aerobic and anaerobic metabolic systems after training during fatigue, recovery and supercompensation.

Keywords: aerobic index, anaerobic index, electrocardiography, supercompensation

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