Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10459

Search results for: improved Howland current pump

10459 Load Characteristics of Improved Howland Current Pump for Bio-Impedance Measurement

Authors: Zhao Weijie, Lin Xinjian, Liu Xiaojuan, Li Lihua

Abstract:

The Howland current pump is widely used in bio-impedance measurement. Much attention has been focused on the output impedance of the Howland circuit. Here we focus on the maximum load of the Howland source and discuss the relationship between the circuit parameters at maximum load. We conclude that the signal input terminal of the feedback resistor should be as large as possible, but that the current-limiting resistor should be smaller. The op-amp saturation voltage should also be high. The bandwidth of the circuit is proportional to the bandwidth of the op-amp. The Howland current pump was simulated using multisim12. When the AD8066AR was selected as the op-amp, the maximum load was 11.5 kΩ, and the Howland current pump had a stable output ipp to 2mAp up to 200 kHz. However, with an OPA847 op-amp and a load of 6.3 kΩ, the output current was also stable, and the frequency was as high as 3 MHz.

Keywords: bio-impedance, improved Howland current pump, load characteristics, bioengineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
10458 Design of Low-Maintenance Sewer Pump Stations with High-Security Measures for Municipal Applications

Authors: H. V. Smit, V. H. J. de Wet

Abstract:

South African municipalities are dealing with aging and dilapidated infrastructure while faced with challenges in the form of expanding informal settlements, vandalism, theft, and a lack of maintenance which place even more pressure on existing infrastructure. The existing infrastructure was never designed to cater to these challenges, and this becomes evident when evaluating the current state of many municipal sewer pump stations. A need has thus arisen to develop a sewer pump station design concept that will address these challenges and allow for a long-term sustainable solution. This article deals with the design concepts which have been developed for sewer pump stations for an effective reduction in maintenance, improved grit handling, improvement to the operation and maintenance working conditions, and the adoption of high-security design philosophy.

Keywords: high security, low maintenance, municipal application, sewer pump station

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10457 Reduction of Peak Input Currents during Charge Pump Boosting in Monolithically Integrated High-Voltage Generators

Authors: Jan Doutreloigne

Abstract:

This paper describes two methods for the reduction of the peak input current during the boosting of Dickson charge pumps. Both methods are implemented in the fully integrated Dickson charge pumps of a high-voltage display driver chip for smart-card applications. Experimental results reveal good correspondence with Spice simulations and show a reduction of the peak input current by a factor of 6 during boosting

Keywords: bi-stable display driver, Dickson charge pump, high-voltage generator, peak current reduction, sub-pump boosting, variable frequency boosting

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
10456 Energy Efficiency Improvement of Excavator with Independent Metering Valve by Continuous Mode Changing Considering Engine Fuel Consumption

Authors: Sang-Wook Lee, So-Yeon Jeon, Min-Gi Cho, Dae-Young Shin, Sung-Ho Hwang

Abstract:

Hydraulic system of excavator gets working energy from hydraulic pump which is connected to output shaft of engine. Recently, main control valve (MCV) which is composed of several independent metering valve (IMV) has been introduced for better energy efficiency of the hydraulic system so that fuel efficiency of the excavator can be improved. Excavator with IMV has 5 operating modes depending on the quantity of regeneration flow. In this system, the hydraulic pump is controlled to supply demanded flow which is needed to operate each mode. Because the regenerated flow supply energy to actuators, the hydraulic pump consumes less energy to make same motion than one that does not regenerate flow. The horse power control is applied to the hydraulic pump of excavator for maintaining engine start under a heavy load and this control makes the flow of hydraulic pump reduced. When excavator is in complex operation such as loading or unloading soil, the hydraulic pump discharges small quantity of working fluid in high pressure. At this operation, the engine of excavator does not run at optimal operating line (OOL). The engine needs to be operated on OOL to improve fuel efficiency and by controlling hydraulic pump the engine can drive on OOL. By continuous mode changing of IMV, the hydraulic pump is controlled to make engine runs on OOL. The simulation result of this study shows that fuel efficiency of excavator with IMV can be improved by considering engine OOL and continuous mode changing algorithm.

Keywords: continuous mode changing, engine fuel consumption, excavator, fuel efficiency, IMV

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
10455 Towards the Integration of a Micro Pump in μTAS

Authors: Y. Haik

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to present a micro mechanical pump that was fabricated using SwIFT™ microfabrication surface micromachining process and to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating such micro pump into a micro analysis system. The micropump circulates the bio-sample and magnetic nanoparticles through different compartments to separate and purify the targeted bio-sample. This article reports the flow characteristics in the microchannels and in a crescent micro pump.

Keywords: crescent micropumps, microanalysis, nanoparticles, MEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
10454 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Impeller Trimming on Fluid Flow inside a Centrifugal Pump

Authors: Rouhollah Torabi, Ashkan Chavoshi, Sheyda Almasi, Shima Almasi

Abstract:

In this paper the effect of impeller trim on centrifugal pump performance is studied and the most important effect which is decreasing the flow rate, differential head and efficiency is analyzed. For this case a low specific speed centrifugal pump is simulated with CFD. Total flow inside the pump including the secondary flow in sidewall gap which form internal leakage is modeled simultaneously in CFX software. The flow field in different area of pumps such as inside impeller, volute, balance holes and leakage through wear rings are studied. To validate the results experimental tests are done for various impeller diameters. Results also compared with analytic equations which predict pump performance with trimmed impeller.

Keywords: centrifugal pump, CFD, impeller, trim

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
10453 A Study on Changing of Energy-Saving Performance of GHP Air Conditioning System with Time-Series Variation

Authors: Ying Xin, Shigeki Kametani

Abstract:

This paper deals the energy saving performance of GHP (Gas engine heat pump) air conditioning system has improved with time-series variation. There are two types of air conditioning systems, VRF (Variable refrigerant flow) and central cooling and heating system. VRF is classified as EHP (Electric driven heat pump) and GHP. EHP drives the compressor with electric motor. GHP drives the compressor with the gas engine. The electric consumption of GHP is less than one tenth of EHP does. In this study, the energy consumption data of GHP installed the junior high schools was collected. An annual and monthly energy consumption per rated thermal output power of each apparatus was calculated, and then their energy efficiency was analyzed. From these data, we investigated improvement of the energy saving of the GHP air conditioning system by the change in the generation.

Keywords: energy-saving, variable refrigerant flow, gas engine heat pump, electric driven heat pump, air conditioning system

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
10452 The Modification of the Mixed Flow Pump with Respect to Stability of the Head Curve

Authors: Roman Klas, František Pochylý, Pavel Rudolf

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the CFD simulation of the radiaxial pump (i.e. mixed flow pump) with the aim to detect the reasons of Y-Q characteristic instability. The main reasons of pressure pulsations were detected by means of the analysis of velocity and pressure fields within the pump combined with the theoretical approach. Consequently, the modifications of spiral case and pump suction area were made based on the knowledge of flow conditions and the shape of dissipation function. The primary design of pump geometry was created as the base model serving for the comparison of individual modification influences. The basic experimental data are available for this geometry. This approach replaced the more complicated and with respect to convergence of all computational tasks more difficult calculation for the compressible liquid flow. The modification of primary pump consisted in inserting the three fins types. Subsequently, the evaluation of pressure pulsations, specific energy curves and visualization of velocity fields were chosen as the criterion for successful design.

Keywords: CFD, radiaxial pump, spiral case, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
10451 Energy Efficiency Analysis of Electrical Submersible Pump on Mature Oil Field Offshore Java Sea

Authors: Marda Vidrianto, Tania Surya Utami

Abstract:

Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) is an artificial lift of choice to produce oil on Offshore Java Sea. It is selected based on the production rate capacity and running life expectation. ESP performance in a mature field is highly affected by oil well conditions. The presence of sand, scale, gas, and low influx will create unstable ESP operation hence lowering the run life expectation and system efficiency. This paper reviews the current energy usage and efficiency on every part of the ESP system. The hydraulic and electrical losses, as well as system efficiency for each well, are calculated to identify energy losses and the possibility for improvement. It is shown that high back pressure on the system and low-efficiency pump are the major contributors to energy losses. It was found that optimized production rate and the use of advanced technology on pump and motor unit could improve energy efficiency.

Keywords: advance technology, energy efficiency, ESP, mature field, production rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
10450 Root Cause Analysis of Excessive Vibration in a Feeder Pump of a Large Thermal Electric Power Plant: A Simulation Approach

Authors: Kavindan Balakrishnan

Abstract:

Root cause Identification of the Vibration phenomenon in a feedwater pumping station was the main objective of this research. First, the mode shapes of the pumping structure were investigated using numerical and analytical methods. Then the flow pressure and streamline distribution in the pump sump were examined using C.F.D. simulation, which was hypothesized can be a cause of vibration in the pumping station. As the problem specification of this research states, the vibration phenomenon in the pumping station, with four parallel pumps operating at the same time and heavy vibration recorded even after several maintenance steps. They also specified that a relatively large amplitude of vibration exited by pumps 1 and 4 while others remain normal. As a result, the focus of this research was on determining the cause of such a mode of vibration in the pump station with the assistance of Finite Element Analysis tools and Analytical methods. Major outcomes were observed in structural behavior which is favorable to the vibration pattern phenomenon in the pumping structure as a result of this research. Behaviors of the numerical and analytical models of the pump structure have similar characteristics in their mode shapes, particularly in their 2nd mode shape, which is considerably related to the exact cause of the research problem statement. Since this study reveals several possible points of flow visualization in the pump sump model that can be a favorable cause of vibration in the system, there is more room for improved investigation on flow conditions relating to pump vibrations.

Keywords: vibration, simulation, analysis, Ansys, Matlab, mode shapes, pressure distribution, structure

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10449 Reliability Verification of the Performance Evaluation of Multiphase Pump

Authors: Joon-Hyung Kim, Him-Chan Lee, Jin-Hyuk Kim, Yong-Kab Lee, Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

The crude oil in an oil well exists in various phases such as gas, seawater, and sand, as well as oil. Therefore, a phase separator is needed at the front of a single-phase pump for pressurization and transfer. On the other hand, the application of a multiphase pump can provide such advantages as simplification of the equipment structure and cost savings, because there is no need for a phase separation process. Therefore, the crude oil transfer method using a multiphase pump is being applied to recently developed oil wells. Due to this increase in demand, technical demands for the development of multiphase pumps are sharply increasing, but the progress of research into related technologies is insufficient, due to the nature of multiphase pumps that require high levels of skills. This study was conducted to verify the reliability of pump performance evaluation using numerical analysis, which is the basis of the development of a multiphase pump. For this study, a model was designed by selecting the specifications of the pump under study. The performance of the designed model was evaluated through numerical analysis and experiment, and the results of the performance evaluation were compared to verify the reliability of the result using numerical analysis.

Keywords: multiphase pump, numerical analysis, experiment, performance evaluation, reliability verification

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
10448 Numerical Simulation of Erosion Control in Slurry Pump Casing by Geometrical Flow Pattern Modification Analysis

Authors: A. R. Momeninezhad

Abstract:

Erosion of Slurry Pumps in Related Industries, is one of the major costs in their production process. Many factories in extractive industries try to find ways to diminish this cost. In this paper, we consider the flow pattern modifications by geometric variations made of numerical simulation of flow inside pump casing, which is one of the most important parts analyzed for erosion. The mentioned pump is a cyclone centrifugal slurry pump, which is operating in Sarcheshmeh Copper Industries in Kerman-Iran, named and tagged as HM600 cyclone pump. Simulation shows many improvements in local wear information and situations for better and more qualified design of casing shape and impeller position, before and after geometric corrections. By theory of liquid-solid two-phase flow, the local wear defeats are analyzed and omitted.

Keywords: flow pattern, slurry pump, simulation, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
10447 Performance of the Hybrid Loop Heat Pipe

Authors: Nandy Putra, Imansyah Ibnu Hakim, Iwan Setyawan, Muhammad Zayd A.I

Abstract:

A two-phase cooling technology of passive system sometimes can no longer meet the cooling needs of an increasingly challenging due to the inherent limitations of the capillary pumping for example in terms of the heat flux that can lead to dry out. In this study, intended to overcome the dry out with the addition of a diaphragm, they pump to accelerate the fluid transportation from the condenser to the evaporator. Diaphragm pump installed on the bypass line. When it did not happen dry out then the hybrid loop heat pipe will be work passively using a capillary pressure of wick. Meanwhile, when necessary, hybrid loop heat pipe will be work actively, using diaphragm pump with temperature control installed on the evaporator. From the results, it can be said that the pump has been successfully overcome dry out and can distribute working fluid from the condenser to the evaporator and reduce the temperature of the evaporator from 143°C to 100°C as a temperature controlled where the pump start actively at set point 100°C.

Keywords: hybrid, heat pipe, dry out, assisted, pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
10446 Simulation of Internal Flow Field of Pitot-Tube Jet Pump

Authors: Iqra Noor, Ihtzaz Qamar

Abstract:

Pitot-tube Jet pump, single-stage pump with low flow rate and high head, consists of a radial impeller that feeds water to rotating cavity. Water then enters stationary pitot-tube collector (diffuser), which discharges to the outside. By means of ANSYS Fluent 15.0, the internal flow characteristics for Pitot-tube Jet pump with standard pitot and curved pitot are studied. Under design condition, realizable k-e turbulence model and SIMPLEC algorithm are used to calculate 3D flow field inside both pumps. The simulation results reveal that energy is imparted to the flow by impeller and inside the rotor, forced vortex type flow is observed. Total pressure decreases inside pitot-tube whereas static pressure increases. Changing pitot-tube from standard to curved shape results in minimum flow circulation inside pitot-tube and leads to a higher pump performance.

Keywords: CFD, flow circulation, high pressure pump, impeller, internal flow, pickup tube pump, rectangle channels, rotating casing, turbulence

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
10445 Measuring Investigation and Computational Simulation of Cavitation Phenomenon Effects on the Industrial Centrifugal Pump Vibration

Authors: Mahdi Hamzehei, Homan Alimoradzadeh, Mahdi Shahriyari

Abstract:

In this paper, vibration of the industrial centrifugal pumps studied by measuring analysis and computational simulation. Effects of different parameters on pump vibration were investigated. Also, simulation of cavitation in the centrifugal pump was down. First, via CF-TURBO software, the pump impeller and the fluid passing through the pump is modelled and finally, the phenomenon of cavitation in the impeller has been modelled by Ansys software. Also, the effects of changes in the amount of NPSH and bubbles generation in the pump impeller were investigated. By simulation of piping with pipe flow software, effect of fluid velocity and pressure on hydraulics and vibration were studied computationally by applying Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) techniques, fluent software and experimentally. Furthermore, this comparison showed that the model can predict hydraulics and vibration behaviour.

Keywords: cavitation, vibration, centrifugal pumps, performance curves, NPSH

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
10444 Modelling the Photovoltaic Pump Output Using Empirical Data from Local Conditions in the Vhembe District

Authors: C. Matasane, C. Dwarika, R. Naidoo

Abstract:

The mathematical analysis on radiation obtained and the development of the solar photovoltaic (PV) array groundwater pumping is needed in the rural areas of Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province for sizing and power performance subject to the climate conditions within the area. A simple methodology approach is developed for the directed coupled solar, controller and submersible ground water pump system. The system consists of a PV array, pump controller and submerged pump, battery backup and charger controller. For this reason, the theoretical solar radiation obtained for optimal predictions and system performance in order to achieve different design and operating parameters. Here the examination of the PV schematic module in a Direct Current (DC) application is used for obtainable maximum solar power energy for water pumping. In this paper, a simple efficient photovoltaic water pumping system is presented with its theoretical studies and mathematical modeling of photovoltaics (PV) system.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, solar groundwater pumping, theoretical and mathematical analysis of photovoltaic (PV) system, theoretical solar radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
10443 Modal Dynamic Analysis of a Mechanism with Deformable Elements from an Oil Pump Unit Structure

Authors: N. Dumitru, S. Dumitru, C. Copilusi, N. Ploscaru

Abstract:

On this research, experimental analyses have been performed in order to determine the oil pump mechanism dynamics and stability from an oil unit mechanical structure. The experimental tests were focused on the vibrations which occur inside of the rod element during functionality of the oil pump unit. The oil pump mechanism dynamic parameters were measured and also determined through numerical computations. Entire research is based on the oil pump unit mechanical system virtual prototyping. For a complete analysis of the mechanism, the frequency dynamic response was identified, mainly for the mechanism driven element, based on two methods: processing and virtual simulations with MSC Adams aid and experimental analysis. In fact, through this research, a complete methodology is presented where numerical simulations of a mechanism with deformed elements are developed on a dynamic mode and these can be correlated with experimental tests.

Keywords: modal dynamic analysis, oil pump, vibrations, flexible elements, frequency response

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
10442 Flow Field Analysis of a Liquid Ejector Pump Using Embedded Large Eddy Simulation Methodology

Authors: Qasim Zaheer, Jehanzeb Masud

Abstract:

The understanding of entrainment and mixing phenomenon in the ejector pump is of pivotal importance for designing and performance estimation. In this paper, the existence of turbulent vortical structures due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the free surface between the motive and the entrained fluids streams are simulated using Embedded LES methodology. The efficacy of Embedded LES for simulation of complex flow field of ejector pump is evaluated using ANSYS Fluent®. The enhanced mixing and entrainment process due to breaking down of larger eddies into smaller ones as a consequence of Vortex Stretching phenomenon is captured in this study. Moreover, the flow field characteristics of ejector pump like pressure velocity fields and mass flow rates are analyzed and validated against the experimental results.

Keywords: Kelvin Helmholtz instability, embedded LES, complex flow field, ejector pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
10441 Clean Sky 2 – Project PALACE: Aeration’s Experimental Sound Velocity Investigations for High-Speed Gerotor Simulations

Authors: Benoît Mary, Thibaut Gras, Gaëtan Fagot, Yvon Goth, Ilyes Mnassri-Cetim

Abstract:

A Gerotor pump is composed of an external and internal gear with conjugate cycloidal profiles. From suction to delivery ports, the fluid is transported inside cavities formed by teeth and driven by the shaft. From a geometric and conceptional side it is worth to note that the internal gear has one tooth less than the external one. Simcenter Amesim v.16 includes a new submodel for modelling the hydraulic Gerotor pumps behavior (THCDGP0). This submodel considers leakages between teeth tips using Poiseuille and Couette flows contributions. From the 3D CAD model of the studied pump, the “CAD import” tool takes out the main geometrical characteristics and the submodel THCDGP0 computes the evolution of each cavity volume and their relative position according to the suction or delivery areas. This module, based on international publications, presents robust results up to 6 000 rpm for pressure greater than atmospheric level. For higher rotational speeds or lower pressures, oil aeration and cavitation effects are significant and highly drop the pump’s performance. The liquid used in hydraulic systems always contains some gas, which is dissolved in the liquid at high pressure and tends to be released in a free form (i.e. undissolved as bubbles) when pressure drops. In addition to gas release and dissolution, the liquid itself may vaporize due to cavitation. To model the relative density of the equivalent fluid, modified Henry’s law is applied in Simcenter Amesim v.16 to predict the fraction of undissolved gas or vapor. Three parietal pressure sensors have been set up upstream from the pump to estimate the sound speed in the oil. Analytical models have been compared with the experimental sound speed to estimate the occluded gas content. Simcenter Amesim v.16 model was supplied by these previous analyses marks which have successfully improved the simulations results up to 14 000 rpm. This work provides a sound foundation for designing the next Gerotor pump generation reaching high rotation range more than 25 000 rpm. This improved module results will be compared to tests on this new pump demonstrator.

Keywords: gerotor pump, high speed, numerical simulations, aeronautic, aeration, cavitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
10440 Numerical Investigation of Flow Characteristics inside the External Gear Pump Using Urea Liquid Medium

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

In selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, the injection system is provided with unique dosing pump to govern the urea injection phenomenon. The urea based operating liquid from the AdBlue tank links up directly with the dosing pump unit to furnish appropriate high pressure for examining the flow characteristics inside the liquid pump. This work aims in demonstrating the importance of external gear pump to provide pertinent high pressure and respective mass flow rate for each rotation. Numerical simulations are conducted using immersed solid method technique for better understanding of unsteady flow characteristics within the pump. Parametric analyses have been carried out for the gear speed and mass flow rate to find the behavior of pressure fluctuations. In the simulation results, the outlet pressure achieves maximum magnitude with the increase in rotational speed and the fluctuations grow higher.

Keywords: AdBlue tank, external gear pump, immersed solid method, selective catalytic reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
10439 An Excel-Based Educational Platform for Design Analyses of Pump-Pipe Systems

Authors: Mohamed M. El-Awad

Abstract:

This paper describes an educational platform for design analyses of pump-pipe systems by using Microsoft Excel, its Solver add-in, and the associated VBA programming language. The paper demonstrates the capabilities of the Excel-based platform that suits the iterative nature of the design process better than the use of design charts and data tables. While VBA is used for the development of a user-defined function for determining the standard pipe diameter, Solver is used for optimising the pipe diameter of the pipeline and for determining the operating point of the selected pump.

Keywords: design analyses, pump-pipe systems, Excel, solver, VBA

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
10438 Roller Pump-Induced Tubing Rupture during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: W. G. Kim, C. H. Jo

Abstract:

We analyzed the effects of variations in the diameter of silicone rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubings on the likelihood of tubing rupture during modeling of accidental arterial line clamping in cardiopulmonary bypass with a roller pump. A closed CPB circuit constructed with a roller pump was tested with both PVC and silicone rubber tubings of 1/2, 3/8, and 1/4 inch internal diameter. Arterial line pressure was monitored, and an occlusive clamp was placed across the tubing distal to the pressure monitor site to model an accidental arterial line occlusion. A CCD camera with 512(H) x 492(V) pixels was installed above the roller pump to measure tubing diameters at pump outlet, where the maximum deformations (distension) of the tubings occurred. Quantitative measurement of the changes of tubing diameters with the change of arterial line pressure was performed using computerized image processing techniques. A visible change of tubing diameter was generally noticeable by around 250 psi of arterial line pressure, which was already very high. By 1500 psi, the PVC tubings showed an increase of diameter of between 5-10 %, while the silicone rubber tubings showed an increase between 20-25 %. Silicone rubber tubings of all sizes showed greater distensibility than PVC tubings of equivalent size. In conclusion, although roller-pump induced tubing rupture remains a theoretical problem during cardiopulmonary bypass in terms of the inherent mechanism of the pump, in reality such an occurrence is impossible in real clinical conditions.

Keywords: roller pump, tubing rupture, cardiopulmonary bypass, arterial line

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
10437 Study of a Photovoltaic System Using MPPT Buck-Boost Converter

Authors: A. Bouchakour, L. Zaghba, M. Brahami, A. Borni

Abstract:

The work presented in this paper present the design and the simulation of a centrifugal pump coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) generator via a MPPT controller. The PV system operating is just done in sunny period by using water storage instead of electric energy storage. The process concerns the modelling, identification and simulation of a photovoltaic pumping system, the centrifugal pump is driven by an asynchronous three-phase voltage inverter sine triangle PWM motor through. Two configurations were simulated. For the first, it is about the alimentation of the motor pump group from electrical power supply. For the second, the pump unit is connected directly to the photovoltaic panels by integration of a MPPT control. A code of simulation of the solar pumping system was initiated under the Matlab-Simulink environment. Very convivial and flexible graphic interfaces allow an easy use of the code and knowledge of the effects of change of the sunning and temperature on the pumping system.

Keywords: photovoltaic generator, chopper, electrical motor, centrifugal pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
10436 A Soft Switching PWM DC-DC Boost Converter with Increased Efficiency by Using ZVT-ZCT Techniques

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

In this paper, an improved active snubber cell is proposed on account of soft switching (SS) family of pulse width modulation (PWM) DC-DC converters. The improved snubber cell provides zero-voltage transition (ZVT) turn on and zero-current transition (ZCT) turn off for main switch. The snubber cell decreases EMI noise and operates with SS in a wide range of line and load voltages. Besides, all of the semiconductor devices in the converter operate with SS. There is no additional voltage and current stress on the main devices. Additionally, extra voltage stress does not occur on the auxiliary switch and its current stress is acceptable value. The improved converter has a low cost and simple structure. The theoretical analysis of converter is clarified and the operating states are given in detail. The experimental results of converter are obtained by prototype of 500 W and 100 kHz. It is observed that the experimental results and theoretical analysis of converter are suitable with each other perfectly.

Keywords: active snubber cells, DC-DC converters, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
10435 Very First Synthesis of Carbazole Conjugates with Efflux Pump Inhibitor as Dual Action Hybrids

Authors: Ghazala Yaqub, Zubi Sadiq, Almas Hamid, Saira Iqbal

Abstract:

This paper is the very first report of three dual action hybrids synthesized by covalent linkage of carbazole based novel antibacterial compounds with efflux pump inhibitors i.e., indole acetic acid/gallic acid. Novel carbazole based antibacterial compounds were prepared first and then these were covalently linked with efflux pump inhibitors which leads to the successful formation of hybrids. All prepared compounds were evaluated for their bacterial cell killing capability against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida and Bacillus subtilis. Compound were effective against all tested bacterial strains at different concentrations. But when these compounds were linked with efflux pump inhibitors they showed dramatic enhancement in their bacterial cell killing potential and minimum inhibitory concentration of all hybrids ranges from 7.250 µg/mL to 0.0283 µg/mL.

Keywords: antimicrobial assay, carbazole, dual action hybrids, efflux pump inhibitors

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
10434 Improved Small-Signal Characteristics of Infrared 850 nm Top-Emitting Vertical-Cavity Lasers

Authors: Ahmad Al-Omari, Osama Khreis, Ahmad M. K. Dagamseh, Abdullah Ababneh, Kevin Lear

Abstract:

High-speed infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with Cu-plated heat sinks were fabricated and tested. VCSELs with 10 mm aperture diameter and 4 mm of electroplated copper demonstrated a -3dB modulation bandwidth (f-3dB) of 14 GHz and a resonance frequency (fR) of 9.5 GHz at a bias current density (Jbias) of only 4.3 kA/cm2, which corresponds to an improved f-3dB2/Jbias ratio of 44 GHz2/kA/cm2. At higher and lower bias current densities, the f-3dB2/ Jbias ratio decreased to about 30 GHz2/kA/cm2 and 18 GHz2/kA/cm2, respectively. Examination of the analogue modulation response demonstrated that the presented VCSELs displayed a steady f-3dB/ fR ratio of 1.41±10% over the whole range of the bias current (1.3Ith to 6.2Ith). The devices also demonstrated a maximum modulation bandwidth (f-3dB max) of more than 16 GHz at a bias current less than the industrial bias current standard for reliability by 25%.

Keywords: current density, high-speed VCSELs, modulation bandwidth, small-signal characteristics, thermal impedance, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
10433 Influence of the Flow Rate Ratio in a Jet Pump on the Size of Air Bubbles

Authors: L. Grinis, N. Lubashevsky, Y. Ostrovski

Abstract:

In waste water treatment processes, aeration introduces air into a liquid. In these systems, air is introduced by different devices submerged in the waste water. Smaller bubbles result in more bubble surface area per unit of volume and higher oxygen transfer efficiency. Jet pumps are devices that use air bubbles and are widely used in waste water treatment processes. The principle of jet pumps is their ability to transfer energy of one fluid, called primary or motive, into a secondary fluid or gas. These pumps have no moving parts and are able to work in remote areas under extreme conditions. The objective of this work is to study experimentally the characteristics of the jet pump and the size of air bubbles in the laboratory water tank. The effect of flow rate ratio on pump performance is investigated in order to have a better understanding about pump behavior under various conditions, in order to determine the efficiency of receiving air bubbles different sizes. The experiments show that we should take care when increasing the flow rate ratio while seeking to decrease bubble size in the outlet flow. This study will help improve and extend the use of the jet pump in many practical applications.

Keywords: jet pump, air bubbles size, retention time, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
10432 Investigating Constructions and Operation of Internal Combustion Engine Water Pumps

Authors: Michał Gęca, Konrad Pietrykowski, Grzegorz Barański

Abstract:

The water pump in the compression-ignition internal combustion engine transports a hot coolant along a system of ducts from the engine block to the radiator where coolant temperature is lowered. This part needs to maintain a constant volumetric flow rate. Its power should be regulated to avoid a significant drop in pressure if a coolant flow decreases. The internal combustion engine cooling system uses centrifugal pumps for suction. The paper investigates 4 constructions of engine pumps. The pumps are from diesel engine of a maximum power of 75 kW. Each of them has a different rotor shape, diameter and width. The test stand was created and the geometry inside the all 4 engine blocks was mapped. For a given pump speed on the inverter of the electric engine motor, the valve position was changed and volumetric flow rate, pressure, and power were recorded. Pump speed was regulated from 1200 RPM to 7000 RPM every 300 RPM. The volumetric flow rates and pressure drops for the pump speeds and efficiencies were specified. Accordingly, the operations of each pump were mapped. Our research was to select a pump for the aircraft compression-ignition engine. There was calculated a pressure drop at a given flow on the block and radiator of the designed aircraft engine. The water pump should be lightweight and have a low power demand. This fact shall affect the shape of a rotor and bearings. The pump volumetric flow rate was assumed as 3 kg/s (previous AVL BOOST research model) where the temperature difference was 5°C between the inlet (90°C) and outlet (95°C). Increasing pump speed above the boundary flow power defined by pressure and volumetric flow rate does not increase it but pump efficiency decreases. The maximum total pump efficiency (PCC) is 45-50%. When the pump is driven by low speeds with a 90% closed valve, its overall efficiency drops to 15-20%. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: aircraft engine, diesel engine, flow, water pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
10431 Improved Blood Glucose-Insulin Monitoring with Dual-Layer Predictive Control Design

Authors: Vahid Nademi

Abstract:

In response to widely used wearable medical devices equipped with a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and insulin pump, the advanced control methods are still demanding to get the full benefit of these devices. Unlike costly clinical trials, implementing effective insulin-glucose control strategies can provide significant contributions to the patients suffering from chronic diseases such as diabetes. This study deals with a key role of two-layer insulin-glucose regulator based on model-predictive-control (MPC) scheme so that the patient’s predicted glucose profile is in compliance with the insulin level injected through insulin pump automatically. It is achieved by iterative optimization algorithm which is called an integrated perturbation analysis and sequential quadratic programming (IPA-SQP) solver for handling uncertainties due to unexpected variations in glucose-insulin values and body’s characteristics. The feasibility evaluation of the discussed control approach is also studied by means of numerical simulations of two case scenarios via measured data. The obtained results are presented to verify the superior and reliable performance of the proposed control scheme with no negative impact on patient safety.

Keywords: blood glucose monitoring, insulin pump, predictive control, optimization

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10430 Design Considerations for Solar Energy Application to Fish Pond Recirculating System

Authors: A. O. Ogunlela, T. O. Ayodele

Abstract:

A fish pond recirculating system was designed and constructed. The system consists of three plastic culture tanks (1000 litres each, filled up to 850 litres). It also consists of a sedimentation tank where the water filtration was carried out and a pump tank where the treated water partially settled before being pumped to the culture tanks. A pump of ½ hp capacity was selected to pump water round the system to enhance water recirculation. Following the design of the solar array that was done, a grid support of tilt angle 36.640 was constructed to offer the system an optimum, all-year-round, intense solar energy reception, which is specific to the location of the project.

Keywords: solar energy, fish pond, recirculation system, pump tank

Procedia PDF Downloads 296