Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2428

Search results for: relay mal operation

2428 A Novel Solution to Restricted Earth Fault Low Impedance Relay Mal Operation

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, R. Ramaprabha, V. Rajini, V. Nagarajan


In this paper, the various methods of providing restricted earth fault protection are discussed. The proper operation of high and low impedance restricted earth fault (REF) protection for various applications has been discussed. The mal operation of a relay due to improper placement of CTs has been identified and a simple/unique solution has been proposed in this work with a case study. Moreover, it is found that the proper placement of CT in high impedance method will provide the same result with reduced CT. This methododlocy has been successfully implemented in Al Takreer refinery for a 2000 KVA transformer. The outcome of the paper may be included in IEEEC37.91 standard to give the proper guidance for protection engineers to sort out the problems related to mal functioning of REF relays.

Keywords: relay mal operation, transformer, low impedance REF, MATLAB, 64R, IEEE C37.91

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2427 Determination of Frequency Relay Setting during Distributed Generators Islanding

Authors: Tarek Kandil, Ameen Ali


Distributed generation (DG) has recently gained a lot of momentum in power industry due to market deregulation and environmental concerns. One of the most technical challenges facing DGs is islanding of distributed generators. The current industry practice is to disconnect all distributed generators immediately after the occurrence of islands within 200 to 350 ms after loss of main supply. To achieve such goal, each DG must be equipped with an islanding detection device. Frequency relays are one of the most commonly used loss of mains detection method. However, distribution utilities may be faced with concerns related to false operation of these frequency relays due to improper settings. The commercially available frequency relays are considering standard tight setting. This paper investigates some factors related to relays internal algorithm that contribute to their different operating responses. Further, the relay operation in the presence of multiple distributed at the same network is analyzed. Finally, the relay setting can be accurately determined based on these investigation and analysis.

Keywords: frequency relay, distributed generation, islanding detection, relay setting

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2426 Efficient Relay Selection Scheme Utilizing OVSF Code in Cooperative Communication System

Authors: Yeong-Seop Ahn, Myoung-Jin Kim, Young-Min Ko, Hyoung-Kyu Song


This paper proposes a relay selection scheme utilizing an orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) code in a cooperative communication. The relay selection scheme influences on the communication performance in the cooperative communication. Conventional relay selection schemes such as the best harmonic mean relay selection scheme or the threshold-based relay selection scheme should know information such as channel state information (CSI) in advance. The proposed relay selection scheme does not require information in advance by using a reference signal utilizing the OVSF code. The simulation result shows that bit error rate (BER) performance of proposed relay selection scheme is similar to the best harmonic mean relay selection scheme that is known as one of the optimal relay selection schemes.

Keywords: cooperative communication, relay selection, OFDM, OVSF code

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2425 Field-Programmable Gate Array Based Tester for Protective Relay

Authors: H. Bentarzi, A. Zitouni


The reliability of the power grid depends on the successful operation of thousands of protective relays. The failure of one relay to operate as intended may lead the entire power grid to blackout. In fact, major power system failures during transient disturbances may be caused by unnecessary protective relay tripping rather than by the failure of a relay to operate. Adequate relay testing provides a first defense against false trips of the relay and hence improves power grid stability and prevents catastrophic bulk power system failures. The goal of this research project is to design and enhance the relay tester using a technology such as Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) card NI 7851. A PC based tester framework has been developed using Simulink power system model for generating signals under different conditions (faults or transient disturbances) and LabVIEW for developing the graphical user interface and configuring the FPGA. Besides, the interface system has been developed for outputting and amplifying the signals without distortion. These signals should be like the generated ones by the real power system and large enough for testing the relay’s functionality. The signals generated that have been displayed on the scope are satisfactory. Furthermore, the proposed testing system can be used for improving the performance of protective relay.

Keywords: amplifier class D, field-programmable gate array (FPGA), protective relay, tester

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2424 Efficient Single Relay Selection Scheme for Cooperative Communication

Authors: Sung-Bok Choi, Hyun-Jun Shin, Hyoung-Kyu Song


This paper proposes a single relay selection scheme in cooperative communication. Decode and forward scheme is considered when a source node wants to cooperate with a single relay for data transmission. To use the proposed single relay selection scheme, the source node make a little different pattern signal which is not complex pattern and broadcasts it. The proposed scheme does not require the channel state information between the source node and candidates of the relay during the relay selection. Therefore, it is able to be used in many fields.

Keywords: relay selection, cooperative communication, df, channel codes

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2423 Adaptive Transmission Scheme Based on Channel State in Dual-Hop System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Yong-Jun Kim, Jung-In Baik, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In this paper, a dual-hop relay based on channel state is studied. In the conventional relay scheme, a relay uses the same modulation method without reference to channel state. But, a relay uses an adaptive modulation method with reference to channel state. If the channel state is poor, a relay eliminates latter 2 bits and uses Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation. If channel state is good, a relay modulates the received symbols with 16-QAM symbols by using 4 bits. The performance of the proposed scheme for Symbol Error Rate (SER) and throughput is analyzed.

Keywords: adaptive transmission, channel state, dual-hop, hierarchical modulation, relay

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2422 Omni-Relay (OR) Scheme-Aided LTE-A Communication Systems

Authors: Hassan Mahasneh, Abu Sesay


We propose the use of relay terminals at the cell edge of an LTE-based cellar system. Each relay terminal is equipped with an omni-directional antenna. We refer to this scheme as the Omni-Relay (OR) scheme. The OR scheme coordinates the inter-cell interference (ICI) stemming from adjacent cells and increases the desired signal level at cell-edge regions. To validate the performance of the OR scheme, we derive the average signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) and the average capacity and compare it with the conventional universal frequency reuse factor (UFRF). The results show that the proposed OR scheme provides higher average SINR and average capacity compared to the UFRF due to the assistance of the distributed relay nodes.

Keywords: the UFRF scheme, the OR scheme, ICI, relay terminals, SINR, spectral efficiency

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2421 Application of Optimization Techniques in Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review

Authors: Syed Auon Raza, Tahir Mahmood, Syed Basit Ali Bukhari


In power system properly coordinated protection scheme is designed to make sure that only the faulty part of the system will be isolated when abnormal operating condition of the system will reach. The complexity of the system as well as the increased user demand and the deregulated environment enforce the utilities to improve system reliability by using a properly coordinated protection scheme. This paper presents overview of over current relay coordination techniques. Different techniques such as Deterministic Techniques, Meta Heuristic Optimization techniques, Hybrid Optimization Techniques, and Trial and Error Optimization Techniques have been reviewed in terms of method of their implementation, operation modes, nature of distribution system, and finally their advantages as well as the disadvantages.

Keywords: distribution system, relay coordination, optimization, Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM)

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2420 Node Pair Selection Scheme in Relay-Aided Communication Based on Stable Marriage Problem

Authors: Tetsuki Taniguchi, Yoshio Karasawa


This paper describes a node pair selection scheme in relay-aided multiple source multiple destination communication system based on stable marriage problem. A general case is assumed in which all of source, relay and destination nodes are equipped with multiantenna and carry out multistream transmission. Based on several metrics introduced from inter-node channel condition, the preference order is determined about all source-relay and relay-destination relations, and then the node pairs are determined using Gale-Shapley algorithm. The computer simulations show that the effectiveness of node pair selection is larger in multihop communication. Some additional aspects which are different from relay-less case are also investigated.

Keywords: relay, multiple input multiple output (MIMO), multiuser, amplify and forward, stable marriage problem, Gale-Shapley algorithm

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2419 A Novel Microcontroller Based Islanding Protection of Distributed Generation Systems

Authors: Saeid Jalilzadeh, Majid Pakdel


The customer demand for better power quality and higher reliability has forced the power industry to use distributed generations (DGs) such as wind power and photo voltaic arrays. Islanding is a phenomenon occurs when a power grid becomes electrically isolated from the power system and the distribution system is energized by distributed generators. It is necessary to disconnect all distributed generators immediately after islanding occurrence. Therefore a DG system should have the capability to detect islanding phenomena. In this paper, a novel micro controller based relay for anti-islanding protection of a typical DG system is proposed. The simulation results using Proteus software verify the proper operation and effectiveness of the proposed protective relay.

Keywords: islanding, distributed generation (DG), protective relay, micro controller, proteus software

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2418 Transformer Life Enhancement Using Dynamic Switching of Second Harmonic Feature in IEDs

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, P. K. Gargava


Energization of a transformer results in sudden flow of current which is an effect of core magnetization. This current will be dominated by the presence of second harmonic, which in turn is used to segregate fault and inrush current, thus guaranteeing proper operation of the relay. This additional security in the relay sometimes obstructs or delays differential protection in a specific scenario, when the 2nd harmonic content was present during a genuine fault. This kind of scenario can result in isolation of the transformer by Buchholz and pressure release valve (PRV) protection, which is acted when fault creates more damage in transformer. Such delays involve a huge impact on the insulation failure, and chances of repairing or rectifying fault of problem at site become very dismal. Sometimes this delay can cause fire in the transformer, and this situation becomes havoc for a sub-station. Such occurrences have been observed in field also when differential relay operation was delayed by 10-15 ms by second harmonic blocking in some specific conditions. These incidences have led to the need for an alternative solution to eradicate such unwarranted delay in operation in future. Modern numerical relay, called as intelligent electronic device (IED), is embedded with advanced protection features which permit higher flexibility and better provisions for tuning of protection logic and settings. Such flexibility in transformer protection IEDs, enables incorporation of alternative methods such as dynamic switching of second harmonic feature for blocking the differential protection with additional security. The analysis and precautionary measures carried out in this case, have been simulated and discussed in this paper to ensure that similar solutions can be adopted to inhibit analogous issues in future.

Keywords: differential protection, intelligent electronic device (IED), 2nd harmonic inhibit, inrush inhibit

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2417 Distance Protection Performance Analysis

Authors: Abdelsalam Omar


This paper presents simulation-based case study that indicate the need for accurate dynamic modeling of distance protection relay. In many cases, a static analysis based on current and voltage phasors may be sufficient to assess the performance of distance protection. There are several circumstances under which such a simplified study does not provide the depth of analysis necessary to obtain accurate results, however. This letter present study of the influences of magnetizing inrush and power swing on the performance of distance protection relay. One type of numerical distance protection relay has been investigated: 7SA511. The study has been performed in order to demonstrate the relay response when dynamic model of distance relay is utilized.

Keywords: distance protection, magnitizing inrush, power swing, dynamic model of protection relays, simulatio

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2416 Cooperative AF Scheme for Multi Source and Terminal in Edge of Cell Coverage

Authors: Myoung-Jin Kim, Chang-Bin Ha, Yeong-Seop Ahn, Hyoung-Kyu Song


This paper proposes a cooperative communication scheme for improve wireless communication performance. When the receiver is located in the edge of coverage, the signal from the transmitter is distorted for various reasons such as inter-cell interference (ICI), power reduction, incorrect channel estimation. In order to improve communication performance, the proposed scheme adds the relay. By the relay, the receiver has diversity gain. In this paper, two base stations, one relay and one destination are considered. The two base stations transmit same time to relay and destination. The relay forwarding to destination and the destination detects signals.

Keywords: cooperative communication, diversity gain, OFDM, MMSE

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2415 Improved Cooperative Communication Scheme in the Edge of Cell Coverage

Authors: Myoung-Jin Kim, Yeong-Seop Ahn, Hyun-Jee Yang, Hyoung-Kyu Song


This paper proposes the new cooperative communication scheme for the wireless communication system. When the receiver is located in the edge of coverage, the signal from the transmitter is distorted by the inter-cell interference (ICI) and power reduction by distance. In order to improve communication performance, the proposed scheme adds the relay. By using the relay, the receiver receives the signal from the transmitter and relay at the same time. Therefore, the new cooperative communication scheme obtains diversity gain and is improved by the relay.

Keywords: cooperative communication, diversity gain, OFDM, MIMO

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2414 Data Rate Based Grouping Scheme for Cooperative Communications in Wireless LANs

Authors: Sunmyeng Kim


IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards provide multiple transmission rates, which can be changed dynamically according to the channel condition.Cooperative communications we reintroduced to improve the overallperformance of wireless LANs with the help of relay nodes with higher transmission rates. The cooperative communications are based on the fact that the transmission is much faster when sending data packets to a destination node through a relay node with higher transmission rate, rather than sending data directly to the destination node at low transmission rate. To apply the cooperative communications in wireless LAN, several MAC protocols have been proposed. Some of them can result in collisions among relay nodes in a dense network. In order to solve this problem, we propose a new protocol. Relay nodes are grouped based on their transmission rates. And then, relay nodes only in the highest group try to get channel access. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and shows that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the previous protocol in terms of throughput and collision probability.

Keywords: cooperative communications, MAC protocol, relay node, WLAN

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2413 Realistic Testing Procedure of Power Swing Blocking Function in Distance Relay

Authors: Farzad Razavi, Behrooz Taheri, Mohammad Parpaei, Mehdi Mohammadi Ghalesefidi, Siamak Zarei


As one of the major problems in protecting large-dimension power systems, power swing and its effect on distance have caused a lot of damages to energy transfer systems in many parts of the world. Therefore, power swing has gained attentions of many researchers, which has led to invention of different methods for power swing detection. Power swing detection algorithm is highly important in distance relay, but protection relays should have general requirements such as correct fault detection, response rate, and minimization of disturbances in a power system. To ensure meeting the requirements, protection relays need different tests during development, setup, maintenance, configuration, and troubleshooting steps. This paper covers power swing scheme of the modern numerical relay protection, 7sa522 to address the effect of the different fault types on the function of the power swing blocking. In this study, it was shown that the different fault types during power swing cause different time for unblocking distance relay.

Keywords: power swing, distance relay, power system protection, relay test, transient in power system

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2412 Simulation and Optimization of Hybrid Energy System Autonomous PV-Diesel-Wind Power with Battery Storage for Relay Antenna Telecommunication

Authors: Tahri Toufik, Bouchachia Mohamed, Braikia Oussama


The objective of this work is the design and optimization of a hybrid PV-Diesel-Wind power system with storage in order to power a relay antenna telecommunication isolated in Chlef region. The aim of the simulation of this hybrid system by the HOMER software is to determine the size and the number of each element of the system and to determine the optimal technical and economic configuration using monthly average values per year for a fixed charge antenna relay telecommunication of 22kWh/d.

Keywords: HOMER, hybrid, PV-diesel-wind system, relay antenna telecommunication

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2411 Relay Node Selection Algorithm for Cooperative Communications in Wireless Networks

Authors: Sunmyeng Kim


IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards support multiple transmission rates. Even though the use of multiple transmission rates increase the WLAN capacity, this feature leads to the performance anomaly problem. Cooperative communication was introduced to relieve the performance anomaly problem. Data packets are delivered to the destination much faster through a relay node with high rate than through direct transmission to the destination at low rate. In the legacy cooperative protocols, a source node chooses a relay node only based on the transmission rate. Therefore, they are not so feasible in multi-flow environments since they do not consider the effect of other flows. To alleviate the effect, we propose a new relay node selection algorithm based on the transmission rate and channel contention level. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and shows that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the previous protocol in terms of throughput and delay.

Keywords: cooperative communications, MAC protocol, relay node, WLAN

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2410 The Analysis of Loss-of-Excitation Algorithm for Synchronous Generators

Authors: Pavle Dakić, Dimitrije Kotur, Zoran Stojanović


This paper presents the results of the study in which the excitation system fault of synchronous generator is simulated. In a case of excitation system fault (loss of field), distance relay is used to prevent further damage. Loss-of-field relay calculates complex impedance using measured voltage and current at the generator terminals. In order to obtain phasors from sampled measured values, discrete Fourier transform is used. All simulations are conducted using Matlab and Simulink software package. The analysis is conducted on the two machine system which supplies equivalent load. While simulating loss of excitation on one generator in different conditions (at idle operation, weakly loaded, and fully loaded), diagrams of active power, reactive power, and measured impedance are analyzed and monitored. Moreover, in the simulations, the effect of generator load on relay tripping time is investigated. In conclusion, the performed tests confirm that the fault in the excitation system can be detected by measuring the impedance.

Keywords: loss-of-excitation, synchronous generator, distance protection, Fourier transformation

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2409 Cognitive Relaying in Interference Limited Spectrum Sharing Environment: Outage Probability and Outage Capacity

Authors: Md Fazlul Kader, Soo Young Shin


In this paper, we consider a cognitive relay network (CRN) in which the primary receiver (PR) is protected by peak transmit power $\bar{P}_{ST}$ and/or peak interference power Q constraints. In addition, the interference effect from the primary transmitter (PT) is considered to show its impact on the performance of the CRN. We investigate the outage probability (OP) and outage capacity (OC) of the CRN by deriving closed-form expressions over Rayleigh fading channel. Results show that both the OP and OC improve by increasing the cooperative relay nodes as well as when the PT is far away from the SR.

Keywords: cognitive relay, outage, interference limited, decode-and-forward (DF)

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2408 Authorization of Commercial Communication Satellite Grounds for Promoting Turkish Data Relay System

Authors: Celal Dudak, Aslı Utku, Burak Yağlioğlu


Uninterrupted and continuous satellite communication through the whole orbit time is becoming more indispensable every day. Data relay systems are developed and built for various high/low data rate information exchanges like TDRSS of USA and EDRSS of Europe. In these missions, a couple of task-dedicated communication satellites exist. In this regard, for Turkey a data relay system is attempted to be defined exchanging low data rate information (i.e. TTC) for Earth-observing LEO satellites appointing commercial GEO communication satellites all over the world. First, justification of this attempt is given, demonstrating duration enhancements in the link. Discussion of preference of RF communication is, also, given instead of laser communication. Then, preferred communication GEOs – including TURKSAT4A already belonging to Turkey- are given, together with the coverage enhancements through STK simulations and the corresponding link budget. Also, a block diagram of the communication system is given on the LEO satellite.

Keywords: communication, GEO satellite, data relay system, coverage

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2407 Solving Directional Overcurrent Relay Coordination Problem Using Artificial Bees Colony

Authors: M. H. Hussain, I. Musirin, A. F. Abidin, S. R. A. Rahim


This paper presents the implementation of Artificial Bees Colony (ABC) algorithm in solving Directional OverCurrent Relays (DOCRs) coordination problem for near-end faults occurring in fixed network topology. The coordination optimization of DOCRs is formulated as linear programming (LP) problem. The objective function is introduced to minimize the operating time of the associated relay which depends on the time multiplier setting. The proposed technique is to taken as a technique for comparison purpose in order to highlight its superiority. The proposed algorithms have been tested successfully on 8 bus test system. The simulation results demonstrated that the ABC algorithm which has been proved to have good search ability is capable in dealing with constraint optimization problems.

Keywords: artificial bees colony, directional overcurrent relay coordination problem, relay settings, time multiplier setting

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2406 Mobility-Aware Relay Selection in Two Hop Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Network

Authors: Tayyaba Hussain, Sobia Jangsher, Saqib Ali, Saqib Ejaz


Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAV’s) have gained great popularity due to their remoteness, ease of deployment and high maneuverability in different applications like real-time surveillance, image capturing, weather atmospheric studies, disaster site monitoring and mapping. These applications can involve a real-time communication with the ground station. However, altitude and mobility possess a few challenges for the communication. UAV’s at high altitude usually require more transmit power. One possible solution can be with the use of multi hops (UAV’s acting as relays) and exploiting the mobility pattern of the UAV’s. In this paper, we studied a relay (UAV’s acting as relays) selection for a reliable transmission to a destination UAV. We exploit the mobility information of the UAV’s to propose a Mobility-Aware Relay Selection (MARS) algorithm with the objective of giving improved data rates. The results are compared with Non Mobility-Aware relay selection scheme and optimal values. Numerical results show that our proposed MARS algorithm gives 6% better achievable data rates for the mobile UAV’s as compared with Non MobilityAware relay selection scheme. On average a decrease of 20.2% in data rate is achieved with MARS as compared with SDP solver in Yalmip.

Keywords: mobility aware, relay selection, time division multiple acess, unmanned aerial vehicle

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2405 A Cooperative Signaling Scheme for Global Navigation Satellite Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon


Recently, the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) such as Galileo and GPS is employing more satellites to provide a higher degree of accuracy for the location service, thus calling for a more efficient signaling scheme among the satellites used in the overall GNSS network. In that the network throughput is improved, the spatial diversity can be one of the efficient signaling schemes; however, it requires multiple antenna that could cause a significant increase in the complexity of the GNSS. Thus, a diversity scheme called the cooperative signaling was proposed, where the virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signaling is realized with using only a single antenna in the transmit satellite of interest and with modeling the neighboring satellites as relay nodes. The main drawback of the cooperative signaling is that the relay nodes receive the transmitted signal at different time instants, i.e., they operate in an asynchronous way, and thus, the overall performance of the GNSS network could degrade severely. To tackle the problem, several modified cooperative signaling schemes were proposed; however, all of them are difficult to implement due to a signal decoding at the relay nodes. Although the implementation at the relay nodes could be simpler to some degree by employing the time-reversal and conjugation operations instead of the signal decoding, it would be more efficient if we could implement the operations of the relay nodes at the source node having more resources than the relay nodes. So, in this paper, we propose a novel cooperative signaling scheme, where the data signals are combined in a unique way at the source node, thus obviating the need of the complex operations such as signal decoding, time-reversal and conjugation at the relay nodes. The numerical results confirm that the proposed scheme provides the same performance in the cooperative diversity and the bit error rate (BER) as the conventional scheme, while reducing the complexity at the relay nodes significantly. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the National GNSS Research Center program of Defense Acquisition Program Administration and Agency for Defense Development.

Keywords: global navigation satellite network, cooperative signaling, data combining, nodes

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2404 Decode and Forward Cooperative Protocol Enhancement Using Interference Cancellation

Authors: Siddeeq Y. Ameen, Mohammed K. Yousif


Cooperative communication systems are considered to be a promising technology to improve the system capacity, reliability and performances over fading wireless channels. Cooperative relaying system with a single antenna will be able to reach the advantages of multiple antenna communication systems. It is ideally suitable for the distributed communication systems; the relays can cooperate and form virtual MIMO systems. Thus the paper will aim to investigate the possible enhancement of cooperated system using decode and forward protocol. On decode and forward an attempt to cancel or at least reduce the interference instead of increasing the SNR values is achieved. The latter can be achieved via the use group of relays depending on the channel status from source to relay and relay to destination respectively. In the proposed system, the transmission time has been divided into two phases to be used by decode and forward protocol. The first phase has been allocated for the source to transmit its data whereas the relays and destination nodes are in receiving mode. On the other hand, the second phase is allocated for the first and second groups of relay nodes to relay the data to the destination node. Simulations results have shown an improvement in performance is achieved compared to the conventional decode and forward in terms of BER and transmission rate.

Keywords: cooperative systems, decode and forward, interference cancellation, virtual MIMO

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2403 Design and Implementation of LabVIEW Based Relay Autotuning Controller for Level Setup

Authors: Manoj M. Sarode, Sharad P. Jadhav, Mukesh D. Patil, Pushparaj S. Suryawanshi


Even though the PID controller is widely used in industrial process, tuning of PID parameters are not easy. It is a time consuming and requires expert people. Another drawback of PID controller is that process dynamics might change over time. This can happen due to variation of the process load, normal wear and tear etc. To compensate for process behavior change over time, expert users are required to recalibrate the PID gains. Implementation of model based controllers usually needs a process model. Identification of process model is time consuming job and no guaranty of model accuracy. If the identified model is not accurate, performance of the controller may degrade. Model based controllers are quite expensive and the whole procedure for the implementation is sometimes tedious. To eliminate such issues Autotuning PID controller becomes vital element. Software based Relay Feedback Autotuning Controller proves to be efficient, upgradable and maintenance free controller. In Relay Feedback Autotune controller PID parameters can be achieved with a very short span of time. This paper presents the real time implementation of LabVIEW based Relay Feedback Autotuning PID controller. It is successfully developed and implemented to control level of a laboratory setup. Its performance is analyzed for different setpoints and found satisfactorily.

Keywords: autotuning, PID, liquid level control, recalibrate, labview, controller

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2402 Mitigation of Cascading Power Outage Caused Power Swing Disturbance Using Real-time DLR Applications

Authors: Dejenie Birile Gemeda, Wilhelm Stork


The power system is one of the most important systems in modern society. The existing power system is approaching the critical operating limits as views of several power system operators. With the increase of load demand, high capacity and long transmission networks are widely used to meet the requirement. With the integration of renewable energies such as wind and solar, the uncertainty, intermittence bring bigger challenges to the operation of power systems. These dynamic uncertainties in the power system lead to power disturbances. The disturbances in a heavily stressed power system cause distance relays to mal-operation or false alarms during post fault power oscillations. This unintended operation of these relays may propagate and trigger cascaded trappings leading to total power system blackout. This is due to relays inability to take an appropriate tripping decision based on ensuing power swing. According to the N-1 criterion, electric power systems are generally designed to withstand a single failure without causing the violation of any operating limit. As a result, some overloaded components such as overhead transmission lines can still work for several hours under overload conditions. However, when a large power swing happens in the power system, the settings of the distance relay of zone 3 may trip the transmission line with a short time delay, and they will be acting so quickly that the system operator has no time to respond and stop the cascading. Misfiring of relays in absence of fault due to power swing may have a significant loss in economic performance, thus a loss in revenue for power companies. This research paper proposes a method to distinguish stable power swing from unstable using dynamic line rating (DLR) in response to power swing or disturbances. As opposed to static line rating (SLR), dynamic line rating support effective mitigation actions against propagating cascading outages in a power grid. Effective utilization of existing transmission lines capacity using machine learning DLR predictions will improve the operating point of distance relay protection, thus reducing unintended power outages due to power swing.

Keywords: blackout, cascading outages, dynamic line rating, power swing, overhead transmission lines

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2401 A Cooperative Space-Time Transmission Scheme Based On Symbol Combinations

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon


This paper proposes a cooperative Alamouti space time transmission scheme with low relay complexity for the cooperative communication systems. In the proposed scheme, the source node combines the data symbols to construct the Alamouti-coded form at the destination node, while the conventional scheme performs the corresponding operations at the relay nodes. In simulation results, it is shown that the proposed scheme achieves the second order cooperative diversity while maintaining the same bit error rate (BER) performance as that of the conventional scheme.

Keywords: Space-time transmission, cooperative communication system, MIMO.

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2400 Wireless Transmission of Big Data Using Novel Secure Algorithm

Authors: K. Thiagarajan, K. Saranya, A. Veeraiah, B. Sudha


This paper presents a novel algorithm for secure, reliable and flexible transmission of big data in two hop wireless networks using cooperative jamming scheme. Two hop wireless networks consist of source, relay and destination nodes. Big data has to transmit from source to relay and from relay to destination by deploying security in physical layer. Cooperative jamming scheme determines transmission of big data in more secure manner by protecting it from eavesdroppers and malicious nodes of unknown location. The novel algorithm that ensures secure and energy balance transmission of big data, includes selection of data transmitting region, segmenting the selected region, determining probability ratio for each node (capture node, non-capture and eavesdropper node) in every segment, evaluating the probability using binary based evaluation. If it is secure transmission resume with the two- hop transmission of big data, otherwise prevent the attackers by cooperative jamming scheme and transmit the data in two-hop transmission.

Keywords: big data, two-hop transmission, physical layer wireless security, cooperative jamming, energy balance

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2399 Exploring the Connectedness of Ad Hoc Mesh Networks in Rural Areas

Authors: Ibrahim Obeidat


Reaching a fully-connected network of mobile nodes in rural areas got a great attention between network researchers. This attention rose due to the complexity and high costs while setting up the needed infrastructures for these networks, in addition to the low transmission range these nodes has. Terranet technology, as an example, employs ad-hoc mesh network where each node has a transmission range not exceed one kilometer, this means that every two nodes are able to communicate with each other if they are just one kilometer far from each other, otherwise a third-party will play the role of the “relay”. In Terranet, and as an idea to reduce network setup cost, every node in the network will be considered as a router that is responsible of forwarding data between other nodes which result in a decentralized collaborative environment. Most researches on Terranet presents the idea of how to encourage mobile nodes to become more cooperative by letting their devices in “ON” state as long as possible while accepting to play the role of relay (router). This research presents the issue of finding the percentage of nodes in ad-hoc mesh network within rural areas that should play the role of relay at every time slot, relating to what is the actual area coverage of nodes in order to have the network reach the fully-connectivity. Far from our knowledge, till now there is no current researches discussed this issue. The research is done by making an implementation that depends on building adjacency matrix as an indicator to the connectivity between network members. This matrix is continually updated until each value in it refers to the number of hubs that should be followed to reach from one node to another. After repeating the algorithm on different area sizes, different coverage percentages for each size, and different relay percentages for several times, results extracted shows that for area coverage less than 5% we need to have 40% of the nodes to be relays, where 10% percentage is enough for areas with node coverage greater than 5%.

Keywords: ad-hoc mesh networks, network connectivity, mobile ad-hoc networks, Terranet, adjacency matrix, simulator, wireless sensor networks, peer to peer networks, vehicular Ad hoc networks, relay

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