Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 115

Search results for: biosensor

115 Effect of III-V Nitrides on Performance of Graphene-Gold SPR Biosensor

Authors: Bijaya Kumar Sahoo


The effect of III-V nitride semiconductors on performance of a graphene-on-gold surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor has been investigated theoretically. III-V nitrides (AlN, GaN and InN) have been grown between gold (Au) and graphene layers. The sensitivity and performance of the biosensor have been computed for with and without semiconductors. Due to superior electronic and optical properties, III-V nitrides demonstrate high sensitivity and performance over Si and Ge. The enhancement of evanescent electric field due to III-V nitrides have been computed and found highest for InN. The analysis shows that for a high-sensitive imaging biosensor the required optimal thickness of gold, InN and graphene are respectively 49 nm, 11 nm and 0.34 nm for the light of wavelength =633 nm (red He-Ne laser). This study suggests that InN would be a better choice for fabrication of new imaging SPR biosensors.

Keywords: SPR biosensor, optical properties, III-V nitrides, sensitivity, enhancement of electric field, performance of graphene gold SPR biosensor

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114 DNA-Based Gold Nanoprobe Biosensor to Detect Pork Contaminant

Authors: Rizka Ardhiyana, Liesbetini Haditjaroko, Sri Mulijani, Reki Ashadi Wicaksono, Raafqi Ranasasmita


Designing a sensitive, specific and easy to use method to detect pork contamination in the food industry remains a major challenge. In the current study, we developed a sensitive thiol-bond AuNP-Probe biosensor that will change color when detecting pork DNA in the Cytochrome B region. The interaction between the biosensors and DNA sample is measured by spectrophotometer at 540 nm. The biosensor is made by reducing gold with trisodium citrate to produce gold nanoparticle with 39.05 nm diameter. The AuNP-Probe biosensor (gold nanoprobe) achieved 16.04 ng DNA/µl limit of detection and 53.48 ng DNA/µl limit of quantification. The linearity (R2) between color absorbance changes and DNA concentration is 0.9916. The biosensor has a good specificty as it does not cross-react with DNA of chicken and beef. To verify specificity towards the target sequence, PCR was tested to the target sequence and reacted to the PCR product with the biosensor. The PCR DNA isolate resulted in a 2.7 fold higher absorbance compared to pork-DNA isolate alone (without PCR). The sensitivity and specificity of the method show the promising application of the thiol-bond AuNP biosensor in pork-detection.

Keywords: biosensor, DNA probe, gold nanoparticle (AuNP), pork meat, qPCR

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113 Eresa, Hospital General Universitario de Elche

Authors: Ashish Kumar Singh, Mehak Gulati, Neelam Verma


Arginine majorly acts as a substrate for the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for the production of nitric oxide, a strong vasodilator. Current study demonstrated a novel amperometric approach for estimation of arginine using nitric oxide synthase. The enzyme was co-immobilized in carbon paste electrode with NADP+, FAD and BH4 as cofactors. The detection principle of the biosensor is enzyme NOS catalyzes the conversion of arginine into nitric oxide. The developed biosensor could able to detect up to 10-9M of arginine. The oxidation peak of NO was observed at 0.65V. The developed arginine biosensor was used to monitor arginine content in fruit juices.

Keywords: arginine, biosensor, carbon paste elctrode, nitric oxide

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112 An Electrochemical DNA Biosensor Based on Oracet Blue as a Label for Detection of Helicobacter pylori

Authors: Saeedeh Hajihosseini, Zahra Aghili, Navid Nasirizadeh


An innovative method of a DNA electrochemical biosensor based on Oracet Blue (OB) as an electroactive label and gold electrode (AuE) for detection of Helicobacter pylori, was offered. A single–stranded DNA probe with a thiol modification was covalently immobilized on the surface of the AuE by forming an Au–S bond. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to monitor DNA hybridization by measuring the electrochemical signals of reduction of the OB binding to double– stranded DNA (ds–DNA). Our results showed that OB–based DNA biosensor has a decent potential for detection of single–base mismatch in target DNA. Selectivity of the proposed DNA biosensor was further confirmed in the presence of non–complementary and complementary DNA strands. Under optimum conditions, the electrochemical signal had a linear relationship with the concentration of the target DNA ranging from 0.3 nmol L-1 to 240.0 nmol L-1, and the detection limit was 0.17 nmol L-1, whit a promising reproducibility and repeatability.

Keywords: DNA biosensor, oracet blue, Helicobacter pylori, electrode (AuE)

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111 A Contactless Capacitive Biosensor for Muscle Activity Measurement

Authors: Charn Loong Ng, Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz


As elderly population grows globally, the percentage of people diagnosed with musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) increase proportionally. Electromyography (EMG) is an important biosignal that contributes to MSD’s clinical diagnose and recovery process. Conventional conductive electrode has many disadvantages in the continuous EMG measurement application. This research has design a new surface EMG biosensor based on the parallel-plate capacitive coupling principle. The biosensor is developed by using a double-sided PCB with having one side of the PCB use to construct high input impedance circuitry while the other side of the copper (CU) plate function as biosignal sensing metal plate. The metal plate is insulated using kapton tape for contactless application. The result implicates that capacitive biosensor is capable to constantly capture EMG signal without having galvanic contact to human skin surface. However, there are noticeable noise couple into the measured signal. Post signal processing is needed in order to present a clean and significant EMG signal. A complete design of single ended, non-contact, high input impedance, front end EMG biosensor is presented in this paper.

Keywords: contactless, capacitive, biosensor, electromyography

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110 Sensitivity Enhancement in Graphene Based Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Biosensor

Authors: Angad S. Kushwaha, Rajeev Kumar, Monika Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava


A lot of research work is going on in the field of graphene based SPR biosensor. In the conventional SPR based biosensor, graphene is used as a biomolecular recognition element. Graphene adsorbs biomolecules due to carbon based ring structure through sp2 hybridization. The proposed SPR based biosensor configuration will open a new avenue for efficient biosensing by taking the advantage of Graphene and its fascinating nanofabrication properties. In the present study, we have studied an SPR biosensor based on graphene mediated by Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Gold. In the proposed structure, prism (BK7) base is coated with Zinc Oxide followed by Gold and Graphene. Using the waveguide approach by transfer matrix method, the proposed structure has been investigated theoretically. We have analyzed the reflectance versus incidence angle curve using He-Ne laser of wavelength 632.8 nm. Angle, at which the reflectance is minimized, termed as SPR angle. The shift in SPR angle is responsible for biosensing. From the analysis of reflectivity curve, we have found that there is a shift in SPR angle as the biomolecules get attached on the graphene surface. This graphene layer also enhances the sensitivity of the SPR sensor as compare to the conventional sensor. The sensitivity also increases by increasing the no of graphene layer. So in our proposed biosensor we have found minimum possible reflectivity with optimum level of sensitivity.

Keywords: biosensor, sensitivity, surface plasmon resonance, transfer matrix method

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109 Simulation Model of Biosensor Based on Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Kholod Hajo


In this study COMSOL Multiphysics was used to design lateral flow biosensors (LFBs) which provide advantages in low cost, simplicity, rapidity, stability and portability thus making LFBs popular in biomedical, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This study was focused on simulation model of biosensor based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) designed using software package (COMSOL Multiphysics), the magnitude of the laminar velocity field in the flow cell, concentration distribution in the analyte stream and surface coverage of adsorbed species and average fractional surface coverage of adsorbed analyte were discussed from the model and couples of suggestion was given in order to functionalize GNPs and to increase the accuracy of the biosensor design, all above were obtained acceptable results.

Keywords: model, gold nanoparticles, biosensor, COMSOL Multiphysics

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108 Construction and Performance of Nanocomposite-Based Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Jianfang Wang, Xianzhe Chen, Zhuoliang Liu, Cheng-An Tao, Yujiao Li


Organophosphorus (OPs) pesticide used as insecticides are widely used in agricultural pest control, household and storage deworming. The detection of pesticides needs more simple and efficient methods. One of the best ways is to make electrochemical biosensors. In this paper, an electrochemical enzyme biosensor based on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) was constructed, and its sensing properties and sensing mechanisms were studied. Reduced graphene oxide-polydopamine complexes (RGO-PDA), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared firstly and composited with AChE and chitosan (CS), then fixed on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface to construct the biosensor GCE/RGO-PDA-AuNPs-AgNPs-AChE-CS by one-pot method. The results show that graphene oxide (GO) can be reduced by dopamine (DA) and dispersed well in RGO-PDA complexes. And the composites have a synergistic catalysis effect and can improve the surface resistance of GCE. The biosensor selectively can detect acetylcholine (ACh) and OPs pesticide with good linear range and high sensitivity. The performance of the biosensor is affected by the ratio and adding ways of AChE and the adding of AuNPs and AChE. And the biosensor can achieve a detection limit of 2.4 ng/L for methyl parathion and a wide linear detection range of 0.02 ng/L ~ 80 ng/L, and has excellent stability, good anti-interference ability, and excellent preservation performance, indicating that the sensor has practical value.

Keywords: acetylcholine esterase, electrochemical biosensor, nanoparticles, organophosphates, reduced graphene oxide

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107 Amperometric Biosensor for Glucose Determination Based on a Recombinant Mn Peroxidase from Corn Cross-linked to a Gold Electrode

Authors: Anahita Izadyar, My Ni Van, Kayleigh Amber Rodriguez, Ilwoo Seok, Elizabeth E. Hood


Using a recombinant enzyme derived from corn and a simple modification, we fabricated a facile, fast, and cost-beneficial biosensor to measure glucose. The Nafion/ Plant Produced Mn Peroxidase (PPMP)– glucose oxidase (GOx)- Bovine serum albumin (BSA) /Au electrode showed an excellent amperometric response to detect glucose. This biosensor is capable of responding to a wide range of glucose—20.0 µM−15.0 mM and has a lower detection limit (LOD) of 2.90µM. The reproducibility response using six electrodes is also very substantial and indicates the high capability of this biosensor to detect a wide range of 3.10±0.19µM to 13.2±1.8 mM glucose concentration. Selectivity of this electrode was investigated in an optimized experimental solution contains 10% diet green tea with citrus containing ascorbic acid (AA), and citric acid (CA) in a wide concentration of glucose at 0.02 to 14.0mM with an LOD of 3.10µM. Reproducibility was also investigated using 4 electrodes in this sample and shows notable results in the wide concentration range of 3.35±0.45µM to of 13.0 ± 0.81 mM. We also used other voltammetry methods to evaluate this biosensor. We applied linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and this technique shows a wide range of 0.10−15.0 mM to detect glucose with a lower detection limit of 19.5µM. The performance and strength of this enzyme biosensor were the simplicity, wide linear ranges, sensitivities, selectivity, and low limits of detection. We expect that the modified biosensor has the potential for monitoring various biofluids.

Keywords: plant-produced manganese peroxidase, enzyme-based biosensors, glucose, modified gold electrode, glucose oxidase

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106 Fiber Optic Asparagine Biosensor for Fruit Juices by Co-Immobilization of L-Asparaginase and Phenol Red

Authors: Mandeep Kataria, Ritu Narula, Navneet Kaur


Asparagine is vital amino acid which is required for the development of brain and it regulates the equilibrium of central nervous system. Asparagine is the chief amino acid that forms acrylamide in baked food by reacting with reducing sugars at high temperature ( Millard Reaction i.e. amino acids and sugars give new flavors at high temperature). It can also be a parameter of freshness in fruit juices because on storage of juices at 37°C caused an 87% loss in the total free amino acids and major decrease was recorded in asparagine contents. With this significance of monitoring asparagine, in the present work a biosensor for determining asparagine in fruit juices is developed. For the construction of biosensor L-asparaginase enzyme (0.5 IU) was co-immobilized with phenol red on TEOS chitosan sol-gel plastic disc and fixed on the fiber optic tip. Tip was immersed in a cell having 5ml of substrate and absorption was noted at response time of 5 min with 10-1 - 10-10 M concentrations of asparagine at 538 nm. L-asparaginase was extracted and from Solanum nigrum Asparagine biosensor was applied fruit juices on the monitoring asparagine contents. L-asparagine concentration found to be present in fruit juices like Guava Juice, Apple Juice, Mango Juice, Litchi juice, Strawberry juice, Pineapple juice Lemon juice, and Orange juice. Hence the developed biosensor has commercial aspects in quality insurance of fruit juices.

Keywords: fiber optic biosensor, chitosan, teos, l-asparaginase

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105 Urea Amperometric Biosensor Based on Entrapment Immobilization of Urease onto a Nanostructured Polypyrrol and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube

Authors: Hamide Amani, Afshin FarahBakhsh, Iman Farahbakhsh


In this paper, an amprometric biosensor based on surface modified polypyrrole (PPy) has been developed for the quantitative estimation of urea in aqueous solutions. The incorporation of urease (Urs) into a bipolymeric substrate consisting of PPy was performed by entrapment to the polymeric matrix, PPy acts as amperometric transducer in these biosensors. To increase the membrane conductivity, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were added to the PPy solution. The entrapped MWCNT in PPy film and the bipolymer layers were prepared for construction of Pt/PPy/MWCNT/Urs. Two different configurations of working electrodes were evaluated to investigate the potential use of the modified membranes in biosensors. The evaluation of two different configurations of working electrodes suggested that the second configuration, which was composed of an electrode-mediator-(pyrrole and multi-walled carbon nanotube) structure and enzyme, is the best candidate for biosensor applications.

Keywords: urea biosensor, polypyrrole, multi-walled carbon nanotube, urease

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104 A Sensitive Approach on Trace Analysis of Methylparaben in Wastewater and Cosmetic Products Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

Authors: Soukaina Motia, Nadia El Alami El Hassani, Alassane Diouf, Benachir Bouchikhi, Nezha El Bari


Parabens are the antimicrobial molecules largely used in cosmetic products as a preservative agent. Among them, the methylparaben (MP) is the most frequently used ingredient in cosmetic preparations. Nevertheless, their potential dangers led to the development of sensible and reliable methods for their determination in environmental samples. Firstly, a sensitive and selective molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) based on screen-printed gold electrode (Au-SPE), assembled on a polymeric layer of carboxylated poly(vinyl-chloride) (PVC-COOH), was developed. After the template removal, the obtained material was able to rebind MP and discriminate it among other interfering species such as glucose, sucrose, and citric acid. The behavior of molecular imprinted sensor was characterized by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Then, the biosensor was found to have a linear detection range from 0.1 pg.mL-1 to 1 ng.mL-1 and a low limit of detection of 0.12 fg.mL-1 and 5.18 pg.mL-1 by DPV and EIS, respectively. For applications, this biosensor was employed to determine MP content in four wastewaters in Meknes city and two cosmetic products (shower gel and shampoo). The operational reproducibility and stability of this biosensor were also studied. Secondly, another MIP biosensor based on tungsten trioxide (WO3) functionalized by gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) assembled on a polymeric layer of PVC-COOH was developed. The main goal was to increase the sensitivity of the biosensor. The developed MIP biosensor was successfully applied for the MP determination in wastewater samples and cosmetic products.

Keywords: cosmetic products, methylparaben, molecularly imprinted polymer, wastewater

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103 Direct Electrical Communication of Redox Enzyme Based on 3-Dimensional Crosslinked Redox Enzyme/Carbon Nanotube on a Thiol-Modified Au Surface

Authors: A. K. M. Kafi, S. N. Nina, Mashitah M. Yusoff


In this work, we have described a new 3-dimensional (3D) network of crosslinked Horseradish Peroxidase/Carbon Nanotube (HRP/CNT) on a thiol-modified Au surface in order to build up the effective electrical wiring of the enzyme units with the electrode. This was achieved by the electropolymerization of aniline-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 4-aminothiophenol -modified-HRP on a 4-aminothiophenol monolayer-modified Au electrode. The synthesized 3D HRP/CNT networks were characterized with cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, resulting the establishment direct electron transfer between the redox active unit of HRP and the Au surface. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the immobilized HRP exhibits high biological activity and stability and a quasi-reversible redox peak of the redox center of HRP was observed at about −0.355 and −0.275 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electron transfer rate constant, KS and electron transfer co-efficient were found to be 0.57 s-1 and 0.42, respectively. Based on the electrocatalytic process by direct electrochemistry of HRP, a biosensor for detecting H2O2 was developed. The developed biosensor exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2. The proposed biosensor modified with HRP/CNT 3D network displays a broader linear range and a lower detection limit for H2O2 determination. The linear range is from 1.0×10−7 to 1.2×10−4M with a detection limit of 2.2.0×10−8M at 3σ. Moreover, this biosensor exhibits very high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-time stability. In summary, ease of fabrication, a low cost, fast response and high sensitivity are the main advantages of the new biosensor proposed in this study. These obvious advantages would really help for the real analytical applicability of the proposed biosensor.

Keywords: biosensor, nanomaterials, redox enzyme, thiol-modified Au surface

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102 An Efficient Aptamer-Based Biosensor Developed via Irreversible Pi-Pi Functionalisation of Graphene/Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite

Authors: Sze Shin Low, Michelle T. T. Tan, Poi Sim Khiew, Hwei-San Loh


An efficient graphene/zinc oxide (PSE-G/ZnO) platform based on pi-pi stacking, non-covalent interactions for the development of aptamer-based biosensor was presented in this study. As a proof of concept, the DNA recognition capability of the as-developed PSE-G/ZnO enhanced aptamer-based biosensor was evaluated using Coconut Cadang-cadang viroid disease (CCCVd). The G/ZnO nanocomposite was synthesised via a simple, green and efficient approach. The pristine graphene was produced through a single step exfoliation of graphite in sonochemical alcohol-water treatment while the zinc nitrate hexahydrate was mixed with the graphene and subjected to low temperature hydrothermal growth. The developed facile, environmental friendly method provided safer synthesis procedure by eliminating the need of harsh reducing chemicals and high temperature. The as-prepared nanocomposite was characterised by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to evaluate its crystallinity, morphology and purity. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed for the detection of CCCVd sequence with the use of potassium ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN)6]). Recognition of the RNA analytes was achieved via the significant increase in resistivity for the double stranded DNA, as compared to single-stranded DNA. The PSE-G/ZnO enhanced aptamer-based biosensor exhibited higher sensitivity than the bare biosensor, attributing to the synergistic effect of high electrical conductivity of graphene and good electroactive property of ZnO.

Keywords: aptamer-based biosensor, graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite, green synthesis, screen printed carbon electrode

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101 Localized Detection of ᴅ-Serine by Using an Enzymatic Amperometric Biosensor and Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy

Authors: David Polcari, Samuel C. Perry, Loredano Pollegioni, Matthias Geissler, Janine Mauzeroll


ᴅ-serine acts as an endogenous co-agonist for N-methyl-ᴅ-aspartate receptors in neuronal synapses. This makes it a key component in the development and function of a healthy brain, especially given its role in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Despite such clear research motivations, the primary site and mechanism of ᴅ-serine release is still currently unclear. For this reason, we are developing a biosensor for the detection of ᴅ-serine utilizing a microelectrode in combination with a ᴅ-amino acid oxidase enzyme, which produces stoichiometric quantities of hydrogen peroxide in response to ᴅ-serine. For the fabrication of a biosensor with good selectivity, we use a permselective poly(meta-phenylenediamine) film to ensure only the target molecule is reacted, according to the size exclusion principle. In this work, we investigated the effect of the electrodeposition conditions used on the biosensor’s response time and selectivity. Careful optimization of the fabrication process allowed for enhanced biosensor response time. This allowed for the real time sensing of ᴅ-serine in a bulk solution, and also provided in means to map the efflux of ᴅ-serine in real time. This was done using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) with the optimized biosensor to measure localized release of ᴅ-serine from an agar filled glass capillary sealed in an epoxy puck, which acted as a model system. The SECM area scan simultaneously provided information regarding the rate of ᴅ-serine flux from the model substrate, as well as the size of the substrate itself. This SECM methodology, which provides high spatial and temporal resolution, could be useful to investigate the primary site and mechanism of ᴅ-serine release in other biological samples.

Keywords: ᴅ-serine, enzymatic biosensor, microelectrode, scanning electrochemical microscopy

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100 Development of Lectin-Based Biosensor for Glycoprofiling of Clinical Samples: Focus on Prostate Cancer

Authors: Dominika Pihikova, Stefan Belicky, Tomas Bertok, Roman Sokol, Petra Kubanikova, Jan Tkac


Since aberrant glycosylation is frequently accompanied by both physiological and pathological processes in a human body (cancer, AIDS, inflammatory diseases, etc.), the analysis of tumor-associated glycan patterns have a great potential for the development of novel diagnostic approaches. Moreover, altered glycoforms may assist as a suitable tool for the specificity and sensitivity enhancement in early-stage prostate cancer diagnosis. In this paper we discuss the construction and optimization of ultrasensitive sandwich biosensor platform employing lectin as glycan-binding protein. We focus on the immunoassay development, reduction of non-specific interactions and final glycoprofiling of human serum samples including both prostate cancer (PCa) patients and healthy controls. The fabricated biosensor was measured by label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with further lectin microarray verification. Furthermore, we analyzed different biosensor interfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in nanomechanical mapping mode showing a significant differences in the altitude. These preliminary results revealing an elevated content of α-2,3 linked sialic acid in PCa patients comparing with healthy controls. All these experiments are important step towards development of point-of-care devices and discovery of novel glyco-biomarkers applicable in cancer diagnosis.

Keywords: biosensor, glycan, lectin, prostate cancer

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99 Direct Electrical Communication of Redox Enzyme Based on 3-Dimensional Cross-Linked Redox Enzyme/Nanomaterials

Authors: A. K. M. Kafi, S. N. Nina, Mashitah M. Yusoff


In this work, we have described a new 3-dimensional (3D) network of cross-linked Horseradish Peroxidase/Carbon Nanotube (HRP/CNT) on a thiol-modified Au surface in order to build up the effective electrical wiring of the enzyme units with the electrode. This was achieved by the electropolymerization of aniline-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 4-aminothiophenol -modified-HRP on a 4-aminothiophenol monolayer-modified Au electrode. The synthesized 3D HRP/CNT networks were characterized with cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, resulting the establishment direct electron transfer between the redox active unit of HRP and the Au surface. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the immobilized HRP exhibits high biological activity and stability and a quasi-reversible redox peak of the redox center of HRP was observed at about −0.355 and −0.275 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electron transfer rate constant, KS and electron transfer co-efficient were found to be 0.57 s-1 and 0.42, respectively. Based on the electrocatalytic process by direct electrochemistry of HRP, a biosensor for detecting H2O2 was developed. The developed biosensor exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2. The proposed biosensor modified with HRP/CNT 3D network displays a broader linear range and a lower detection limit for H2O2 determination. The linear range is from 1.0×10−7 to 1.2×10−4M with a detection limit of 2.2.0×10−8M at 3σ. Moreover, this biosensor exhibits very high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-time stability. In summary, ease of fabrication, a low cost, fast response and high sensitivity are the main advantages of the new biosensor proposed in this study. These obvious advantages would really help for the real analytical applicability of the proposed biosensor.

Keywords: redox enzyme, nanomaterials, biosensors, electrical communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
98 Sensitivity Enhancement of Photonic Crystal Fiber Biosensor

Authors: Mohamed Farhat O. Hameed, Yasamin K. A. Alrayk, A. A Shaalan, S. S. A. Obayya


The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used due to its high sensitivity with molecular labels free. The commercial SPR sensors depend on the conventional prism-coupled configuration. However, this type of configuration suffers from miniaturization and integration. Therefore, the search for compact, portable and highly sensitive SPR sensors becomes mandatory.In this paper, sensitivity enhancement of a novel photonic crystal fiber biosensoris introduced and studied. The suggested design has microstructure of air holes in the core region surrounded by two large semicircular metallized channels filled with the analyte. The inner surfaces of the two channels are coated by a silver layer followed by a gold layer.The simulation results are obtained using full vectorial finite element methodwith perfect matched layer (PML) boundary conditions. The proposed design depends on bimetallic configuration to enhance the biosensor sensitivity. Additionally, the suggested biosensor can be used for multi-channel/multi-analyte sensing. In this study, the sensor geometrical parameters are studied to maximize the sensitivity for the two polarized modes. The numerical results show that high refractive index sensitivity of 4750 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and 4300 nm/RIU can be achieved for the quasi (transverse magnetic) TM and quasi (transverse electric) TE modes of the proposed biosensor, respectively. The reportedbiosensor has advantages of integration of microfluidics setup, waveguide and metallic layers into a single structure. As a result, compact biosensor with better integration compared to conventional optical fiber SPR biosensors can be obtained.

Keywords: photonic crystal fibers, gold, silver, surface plasmon, biosensor

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97 Modified Poly (Pyrrole) Film-Based Biosensors for Phenol Detection

Authors: S. Korkut, M. S. Kilic, E. Erhan


In order to detect and quantify the phenolic contents of a wastewater with biosensors, two working electrodes based on modified Poly (Pyrrole) films were fabricated. Enzyme horseradish peroxidase was used as biomolecule of the prepared electrodes. Various phenolics were tested at the biosensor. Phenol detection was realized by electrochemical reduction of quinones produced by enzymatic activity. Analytical parameters were calculated and the results were compared with each other.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, phenol biosensor, polypyrrole, poly (glutaraldehyde)

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96 Impedance Based Biosensor for Agricultural Pathogen Detection

Authors: Rhea Patel, Madhuri Vinchurkar, Rajul Patkar, Gopal Pranjale, Maryam Shojaei Baghini


One of the major limitations on food resources worldwide is the deterioration of plant products due to pathogenic infections. Early screening of plants for pathogenic infections can serve as a boon in the Agricultural sector. The standard microbiology techniques has not kept pace with the rapid enumeration and automated methods for bacteria detection. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) serves as a label free bio sensing technique to monitor pathogens in real time. The changes in the electrical impedance of a growing bacterial culture can be monitored to detect activity of microorganisms. In this study, we demonstrate development of a gold interdigitated electrode (gold IDE) based impedance biosensor to detect bacterial cells in real on-field crop samples. To calibrate our impedance measurement system, nutrient broth suspended Escherichia coli cells were used. We extended this calibrated protocol to identify the agricultural pathogens in real potato tuber samples. Distinct difference was seen in the impedance recorded for the healthy and infected potato samples. Our results support the potential application of this Impedance based biosensor in Agricultural pathogen detection.

Keywords: agriculture, biosensor, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, microelectrode, pathogen detection

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95 A DNA-Based Nano-biosensor for the Rapid Detection of the Dengue Virus in Mosquito

Authors: Lilia M. Fernando, Matthew K. Vasher, Evangelyn C. Alocilja


This paper describes the development of a DNA-based nanobiosensor to detect the dengue virus in mosquito using electrically active magnetic (EAM) nanoparticles as the concentrator and electrochemical transducer. The biosensor detection encompasses two sets of oligonucleotide probes that are specific to the dengue virus: the detector probe labeled with the EAM nanoparticles and the biotinylated capture probe. The DNA targets are double hybridized to the detector and the capture probes and concentrated from nonspecific DNA fragments by applying a magnetic field. Subsequently, the DNA sandwiched targets (EAM-detector probe–DNA target–capture probe-biotin) are captured on streptavidin modified screen printed carbon electrodes through the biotinylated capture probes. Detection is achieved electrochemically by measuring the oxidation–reduction signal of the EAM nanoparticles. Results indicate that the biosensor is able to detect the redox signal of the EAM nanoparticles at dengue DNA concentrations as low as 10 ng/ul.

Keywords: dengue, magnetic nanoparticles, mosquito, nanobiosensor

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94 Biosensors for Parathion Based on Au-Pd Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes

Authors: Tian-Fang Kang, Chao-Nan Ge, Rui Li


An electrochemical biosensor for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides was developed based on electrochemical co-deposition of Au and Pd nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was used for characterization of the surface structure. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) demonstrates that the films are uniform and the nanoclusters are homogeneously distributed on the GCE surface. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was immobilized on the Au and Pd nanoparticle modified electrode (Au-Pd/GCE) by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The electrochemical behavior of thiocholine at the biosensor (AChE/Au-Pd/GCE) was studied. The biosensors exhibited substantial electrocatalytic effect on the oxidation of thiocholine. The peak current of linear scan voltammetry (LSV) of thiocholine at the biosensor is proportional to the concentration of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) over the range of 2.5 × 10-6 to 2.5 × 10-4 M in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0). The percent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was proportional to the logarithm of parathion concentration in the range of 4.0 × 10-9 to 1.0 × 10-6 M. The detection limit of parathion was 2.6 × 10-9 M. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity and good reproducibility.

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, Au-Pd nanoparticles, electrochemical biosensors, parathion

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93 Peptide Aptasensor for Electrochemical Detection of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Shah Abbas


Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic, inflammatory autoimmune disease, affecting an overall 1% of the global population. Despite being tremendous efforts by scientists, early diagnosis of RA still has not been achieved. In the current study, a Graphene oxide (GO) based electrochemical sensor has been developed for early diagnosis of RA through Cyclic voltammetry. Chitosan (CHI), a CPnatural polymer has also been incorporated along with GO in order to enhance the biocompatibility and functionalization potential of the biosensor. CCPs are known antigens for Anti Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies (ACPAs) which can be detected in serum even 14 years before the appearance of symptoms, thus they are believed to be an ideal target for the early diagnosis of RA. This study has yielded some promising results regarding the binding and detection of ACPAs through changes in the electrochemical properties of biosensing material. The cyclic voltammogram of this biosensor reflects the binding of ACPAs to the biosensor surface, due to its shifts observed in the current flow (cathodic current) as compared to the when no ACPAs bind as it is absent in RA negative patients.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, peptide sensor, graphene oxide, anti citrullinated peptide antibodies, cyclic voltammetry

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92 Characterization of the Dispersion Phenomenon in an Optical Biosensor

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chin-Ting Kuo, Yung-Chun Yang, Wen-Hsin Hsieh, Chiang-Ho Cheng


Optical biosensors have become a powerful detection and analysis tool for wide-ranging applications in biomedical research, pharmaceuticals and environmental monitoring. This study carried out the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulations to explore the dispersion phenomenon in the microchannel of a optical biosensor. The predicted time sequences of concentration contours were utilized to better understand the dispersion development occurred in different geometric shapes of microchannels. The simulation results showed the surface concentrations at the sensing probe (with the best performance of a grating coupler) in respect of time to appraise the dispersion effect and therefore identify the design configurations resulting in minimum dispersion.

Keywords: CFD simulations, dispersion, microfluidic, optical waveguide sensors

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91 Fabrication of ZnO Nanorods Based Biosensor via Hydrothermal Method

Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Jafar Khan Kasi, Samiullah, Ajab Khan Kasi


Biosensors are playing vital role in industrial, clinical, and chemical analysis applications. Among other techniques, ZnO based biosensor is an easy approach due to its exceptional chemical and electrical properties. ZnO nanorods have positively charged isoelectric point which helps immobilize the negative charge glucose oxides (GOx). Here, we report ZnO nanorods based biosensors for the immobilization of GOx. The ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal method on indium tin oxide substrate (ITO). The fabrication of biosensors was carried through batch processing using conventional photolithography. The buffer solutions of GOx were prepared in phosphate with a pH value of around 7.3. The biosensors effectively immobilized the GOx and result was analyzed by calculation of voltage and current on nanostructures.

Keywords: hydrothermal growth, sol-gel, zinc dioxide, biosensors

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90 Comparison between Simulation and Experimentally Observed Interactions between Two Different Sized Magnetic Beads in a Fluidic System

Authors: Olayinka Oduwole, Steve Sheard


The magnetic separation of biological cells using super-magnetic beads has been used widely for various bioassays. These bioassays can further be integrated with other laboratory components to form a biosensor which can be used for cell sorting, mixing, purification, transport, manipulation etc. These bio-sensing applications have also been facilitated by the wide availability of magnetic beads which range in size and magnetic properties produced by different manufacturers. In order to improve the efficiency and separation capabilities of these biosensors, it is important to determine the magnetic force induced velocities and interaction of beads within the magnetic field; this will help biosensor users choose the desired magnetic bead for their specific application. This study presents for the first time the interaction between a pair of different sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in a static fluid moving within a uniform magnetic field using a modified finite-time-finite-difference scheme. A captured video was used to record the trajectory pattern and a good agreement was obtained between the simulated trajectories and the video data. The model is, therefore, a good approximation for predicting the velocities as well as the interaction between various magnetic particles which differ in size and magnetic properties for bio-sensing applications requiring a low concentration of magnetic beads.

Keywords: biosensor, magnetic field, magnetic separation, super-paramagnetic bead

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89 Smart Material for Bacterial Detection Based on Polydiacetylene/Polyvinyl Butyrate Fiber Composites

Authors: Pablo Vidal, Misael Martinez, Carlos Hernandez, Ananta R. Adhikari, Luis Materon, Yuanbing Mao, Karen Lozano


Conjugated polymers are smart materials that show tremendous practical applications in diverse subjects. Polydiacetylenes are conjugated polymers with special optical properties. In response to the environmental changes such as pH and molecular binding, it changes its color. Such an interesting chromic and emissive behavior of polydiacetylenes make them a highly popular polymer in wide areas, including biomedicine such as a biosensor. In this research, we used polyvinyl butyrate as a matrix to fibrillate polydiacetylenes. We initially prepared polyvinyl butyrate/diacetylene matrix using forcespinning technique. They were then polymerized to form polyvinyl butyrate/polydiacetylene (PVB/PDA). These matrices then studied for their bio-sensing response to gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The sensing ability of the PVB/PDA biosensor was observed as early as 30 min in the presence of bacteria at 37°C. Now our effort is to decrease this effective temperature to room temperature to make this device applicable in the general daily life. These chromic biosensors will find extensive application not only alert the infection but also find other promising applications such as wearable sensors and diagnostic systems.

Keywords: smart material, conjugated polymers, biosensor, polyvinyl butyrate/polydiacetylene

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88 An Electrochemical Enzymatic Biosensor Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Poly (3,4 Ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanocomposites for Organophosphate Detection

Authors: Navpreet Kaur, Himkusha Thakur, Nirmal Prabhakar


The most controversial issue in crop production is the use of Organophosphate insecticides. This is evident in many reports that Organophosphate (OP) insecticides, among the broad range of pesticides are mainly involved in acute and chronic poisoning cases. OPs detection is of crucial importance for health protection, food and environmental safety. In our study, a nanocomposite of poly (3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been deposited electrochemically onto the surface of fluorine doped tin oxide sheets (FTO) for the analysis of malathion OP. The -COOH functionalization of MWCNTs has been done for the covalent binding with amino groups of AChE enzyme. The use of PEDOT-MWCNT films exhibited an excellent conductivity, enables fast transfer kinetics and provided a favourable biocompatible microenvironment for AChE, for the significant malathion OP detection. The prepared biosensors were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electrochemical studies. Various optimization studies were done for different parameters including pH (7.5), AChE concentration (50 mU), substrate concentration (0.3 mM) and inhibition time (10 min). Substrate kinetics has been performed and studied for the determination of Michaelis Menten constant. The detection limit for malathion OP was calculated to be 1 fM within the linear range 1 fM to 1 µM. The activity of inhibited AChE enzyme was restored to 98% of its original value by 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide (2-PAM) (5 mM) treatment for 11 min. The oxime 2-PAM is able to remove malathion from the active site of AChE by means of trans-esterification reaction. The storage stability and reusability of the prepared biosensor is observed to be 30 days and seven times, respectively. The application of the developed biosensor has also been evaluated for spiked lettuce sample. Recoveries of malathion from the spiked lettuce sample ranged between 96-98%. The low detection limit obtained by the developed biosensor made them reliable, sensitive and a low cost process.

Keywords: PEDOT-MWCNT, malathion, organophosphates, acetylcholinesterase, biosensor, oxime (2-PAM)

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87 Low-Complex, High-Fidelity Two-Grades Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) Based Thermal Bonding Technique for Sealing a Thermoplastic Microfluidic Biosensor

Authors: Jorge Prada, Christina Cordes, Carsten Harms, Walter Lang


The development of microfluidic-based biosensors over the last years has shown an increasing employ of thermoplastic polymers as constitutive material. Their low-cost production, high replication fidelity, biocompatibility and optical-mechanical properties are sought after for the implementation of disposable albeit functional lab-on-chip solutions. Among the range of thermoplastic materials on use, the Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) stands out due to its optical transparency, which makes it a frequent choice as manufacturing material for fluorescence-based biosensors. Moreover, several processing techniques to complete a closed COC microfluidic biosensor have been discussed in the literature. The reported techniques differ however in their implementation, and therefore potentially add more or less complexity when using it in a mass production process. This work introduces and reports results on the application of a purely thermal bonding process between COC substrates, which were produced by the hot-embossing process, and COC foils containing screen-printed circuits. The proposed procedure takes advantage of the transition temperature difference between two COC grades foils to accomplish the sealing of the microfluidic channels. Patterned heat injection to the COC foil through the COC substrate is applied, resulting in consistent channel geometry uniformity. Measurements on bond strength and bursting pressure are shown, suggesting that this purely thermal bonding process potentially renders a technique which can be easily adapted into the thermoplastic microfluidic chip production workflow, while enables a low-cost as well as high-quality COC biosensor manufacturing process.

Keywords: biosensor, cyclo-olefin copolymer, hot embossing, thermal bonding, thermoplastics

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86 Biosensor: An Approach towards Sustainable Environment

Authors: Purnima Dhall, Rita Kumar


Introduction: River Yamuna, in the national capital territory (NCT), and also the primary source of drinking water for the city. Delhi discharges about 3,684 MLD of sewage through its 18 drains in to the Yamuna. Water quality monitoring is an important aspect of water management concerning to the pollution control. Public concern and legislation are now a day’s demanding better environmental control. Conventional method for estimating BOD5 has various drawbacks as they are expensive, time-consuming, and require the use of highly trained personnel. Stringent forthcoming regulations on the wastewater have necessitated the urge to develop analytical system, which contribute to greater process efficiency. Biosensors offer the possibility of real time analysis. Methodology: In the present study, a novel rapid method for the determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) has been developed. Using the developed method, the BOD of a sample can be determined within 2 hours as compared to 3-5 days with the standard BOD3-5day assay. Moreover, the test is based on specified consortia instead of undefined seeding material therefore it minimizes the variability among the results. The device is coupled to software which automatically calculates the dilution required, so, the prior dilution of the sample is not required before BOD estimation. The developed BOD-Biosensor makes use of immobilized microorganisms to sense the biochemical oxygen demand of industrial wastewaters having low–moderate–high biodegradability. The method is quick, robust, online and less time consuming. Findings: The results of extensive testing of the developed biosensor on drains demonstrate that the BOD values obtained by the device correlated with conventional BOD values the observed R2 value was 0.995. The reproducibility of the measurements with the BOD biosensor was within a percentage deviation of ±10%. Advantages of developed BOD biosensor • Determines the water pollution quickly in 2 hours of time; • Determines the water pollution of all types of waste water; • Has prolonged shelf life of more than 400 days; • Enhanced repeatability and reproducibility values; • Elimination of COD estimation. Distinctiveness of Technology: • Bio-component: can determine BOD load of all types of waste water; • Immobilization: increased shelf life > 400 days, extended stability and viability; • Software: Reduces manual errors, reduction in estimation time. Conclusion: BiosensorBOD can be used to measure the BOD value of the real wastewater samples. The BOD biosensor showed good reproducibility in the results. This technology is useful in deciding treatment strategies well ahead and so facilitating discharge of properly treated water to common water bodies. The developed technology has been transferred to M/s Forbes Marshall Pvt Ltd, Pune.

Keywords: biosensor, biochemical oxygen demand, immobilized, monitoring, Yamuna

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