Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3166

Search results for: compressive strength of RPC

3166 The Effect of Cassava Starch on Compressive Strength and Tear Strength of Alginate Impression Material

Authors: Mirna Febriani


Statement of problem. Alginate impression material is an imported material and a dentist always used this material to make impression of teeth and oral cavity tissues. Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare about compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material and alginate impression material combined with cassava. Material and methods.Property measured included compressive strength and tear strength. Results.The compressive strength and tear strength of the impression materials tested of a comparable ANSI/ADA standard no.18.The compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material combined with cassava have lower than the compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material. The alginate impression material combined with cassava has more water and silica content more decrease than alginate impression material. Conclusions.We concluded that compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material combined with cassava has lower than alginate impression material without cassava starch.

Keywords: compressive strength, tear strength, Cassava starch, alginate

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3165 Effect of Concrete Waste Quality on the Compressive Strength of Recycled Concrete

Authors: Kebaili Bachir


The reuse of concrete waste as a secondary aggregate could be an efficient solution for sustainable development and long-term environmental protection. The variable nature of waste concrete, with various compressive strengths, can have a negative effect on the final compressive strength of recycled concrete. Accordingly, an experimental test programme was developed to evaluate the effect of parent concrete qualities on the performance of recycled concrete. Three grades with different compressive strengths 10MPa, 20MPa, and 30MPa were considered in the study; moreover, an unknown compressive strength was introduced as well. The trial mixes used 40% secondary aggregates (both course and fine) and 60% of natural aggregates. The compressive strength of the test concrete decrease between 15 and 25% compared to normal concrete with no secondary aggregates. This work proves that the strength properties of the parent concrete have a limited effect on the compressive strength of recycled concrete. Low compressive strength parent concrete when crushed generate a high percentage of recycled coarse aggregates with the less attached mortar and give the same compressive strength as an excellent parent concrete. However, the decrease in compressive strength can be mitigated by increasing the cement content 4% by weight of recycled aggregates used.

Keywords: compressive, concrete, quality, recycled, strength

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3164 Prediction of Compressive Strength in Geopolymer Composites by Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System

Authors: Mehrzad Mohabbi Yadollahi, Ramazan Demirboğa, Majid Atashafrazeh


Geopolymers are highly complex materials which involve many variables which makes modeling its properties very difficult. There is no systematic approach in mix design for Geopolymers. Since the amounts of silica modulus, Na2O content, w/b ratios and curing time have a great influence on the compressive strength an ANFIS (Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) method has been established for predicting compressive strength of ground pumice based Geopolymers and the possibilities of ANFIS for predicting the compressive strength has been studied. Consequently, ANFIS can be used for geopolymer compressive strength prediction with acceptable accuracy.

Keywords: geopolymer, ANFIS, compressive strength, mix design

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3163 Compressive Strength of Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Fuat Korkut


Synthetic fibers are commonly used in many civil engineering applications because of its some superior characteristics such as non-corrosive and cheapness. This study presents the results of experimental study on compressive strength of synthetic fiber reinforced concretes. Two types of polyamide (PA) synthetic fiber with the length of 12 and 54 mm are used for this study. The fiber volume ratio is kept as 0.25%, 0.75%, and 0.75% in all mixes. The plain concrete compressive strength is 36.2 MPa. The test results clearly show that the increase in compressive strength for synthetic fiber reinforced concretes is significant. The greatest increase in compressive strength is 23% for PA synthetic fiber reinforced concretes with 0.75% fiber volume.

Keywords: synthetic fibers, polyamide fibers, fiber volume, compressive strength

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3162 Effect of Confinement on Flexural Tensile Strength of Concrete

Authors: M. Ahmed, Javed Mallick, Mohammad Abul Hasan


The flexural tensile strength of concrete is an important parameter for determining cracking behavior of concrete structure and to compute deflection under flexure. Many factors have been shown to influence the flexural tensile strength, particularly the level of concrete strength, size of member, age of concrete and confinement to flexure member etc. Empirical equations have been suggested to relate the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength. Limited literature is available for relationship between flexural tensile strength and compressive strength giving consideration to the factors affecting the flexural tensile strength specially the concrete confinement factor. The concrete member such as slabs, beams and columns critical locations are under confinement effects. The paper presents the experimental study to predict the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength empirical relations using statistical procedures considering the effect of confinement and age of concrete for wide range of concrete strength (from 35 to about 100 MPa). It is concluded from study that due consideration of confinement should be given in deriving the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength proportionality equations.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, modulus of rupture, statistical procedures, concrete confinement

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3161 Residual Compressive Strength of Drilled Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites

Authors: Navid Zarif Karimi, Giangiacomo Minak, Parnian Kianfar


Drilling is one of the most frequently used machining process for glass fiber reinforced polymer composites due to the need for structural joining. In drilling of composite laminates, interlaminar cracking, or delamination, has a detrimental effect on the compressive strength of these materials. The delamination can be controlled by adopting proper drilling condition. In this paper, the effect of feed rate, cutting speed and drill point angle on delamination and residual compressive strength of drilled GFRPs is studied. The objective is to find optimal conditions for maximum residual compressive strength.

Keywords: composite material, delamination, drilling, residual compressive strength

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3160 Generalized Model Estimating Strength of Bauxite Residue-Lime Mix

Authors: Sujeet Kumar, Arun Prasad


The present work investigates the effect of multiple parameters on the unconfined compressive strength of the bauxite residue-lime mix. A number of unconfined compressive strength tests considering various curing time, lime content, dry density and moisture content were carried out. The results show that an empirical correlation may be successfully developed using volumetric lime content, porosity, moisture content, curing time unconfined compressive strength for the range of the bauxite residue-lime mix studied. The proposed empirical correlations efficiently predict the strength of bauxite residue-lime mix, and it can be used as a generalized empirical equation to estimate unconfined compressive strength.

Keywords: bauxite residue, curing time, porosity/volumetric lime ratio, unconfined compressive strength

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3159 Influence of Metakaolin and Cements Types on Compressive Strength and Transport Properties of Self-Consolidating Concrete

Authors: Kianoosh Samimi, Farhad Estakhr, Mahdi Mahdikhani, Faramaz Moodi


The self-consolidating concrete (SCC) performance over ordinary concrete is generally related to the ingredients used. The metakaolin can modify various properties of concrete, due to high pozzolanic reactions and also makes a denser microstructure. The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of three types of Portland cement and metakaolin on compressive strength and transport properties of SCC at early ages and up to 90 days. Six concrete mixtures were prepared with three types of different cements and substitution of 15% metakaolin. The results show that the highest value of compressive strength was achieved for Portland Slag Cement (PSC) and without any metakaolin at age of 90 days. Conversely, the lowest level of compressive strength at all ages of conservation was obtained for Pozzolanic Portland Cement (PPC) and containing 15% metakaolin. As can be seen in the results, compressive strength in SCC containing Portland cement type II with metakaolin is higher compared to that relative to SCC without metakaolin from 28 days of age. On the other hand, the samples containing PSC and PPC with metakaolin had a lower compressive strength than the plain samples. Therefore, it can be concluded that metakaolin has a negative effect on the compressive strength of SCC containing PSC and PPC. In addition, results show that metakaolin has enhanced chloride durability of SCCs and reduced capillary water absorption at 28, 90 days.

Keywords: SCC, metakaolin, cement type, compressive strength, chloride diffusion

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3158 Predictive Models for Compressive Strength of High Performance Fly Ash Cement Concrete for Pavements

Authors: S. M. Gupta, Vanita Aggarwal, Som Nath Sachdeva


The work reported through this paper is an experimental work conducted on High Performance Concrete (HPC) with super plasticizer with the aim to develop some models suitable for prediction of compressive strength of HPC mixes. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash (0% to 50% at 10% increment) on compressive strength of high performance concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied were M30, M40 and M50 to compare the effect of fly ash addition on the properties of these concrete mixes. In all eighteen concrete mixes have been designed, three as conventional concretes for three grades under discussion and fifteen as HPC with fly ash with varying percentages of fly ash. The concrete mix designing has been done in accordance with Indian standard recommended guidelines i.e. IS: 10262. All the concrete mixes have been studied in terms of compressive strength at 7 days, 28 days, 90 days and 365 days. All the materials used have been kept same throughout the study to get a perfect comparison of values of results. The models for compressive strength prediction have been developed using Linear Regression method (LR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Leave One Out Validation (LOOV) methods.

Keywords: high performance concrete, fly ash, concrete mixes, compressive strength, strength prediction models, linear regression, ANN

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3157 Effect of Pulverised Burnt Clay Waste Fineness on the Compressive Strength of Concrete

Authors: Emmanuel Onaivi Ajayi, Adewumi John Babafemi


The use of supplementary cementitious materials as partial replacement for cement is steadily increasing in the construction industry. Concrete produced with these materials has shown significant improvement in durability compared to conventional concrete. However, blended cement concretes produced using these supplementary materials typically gain compressive strength at later ages beyond the 28-day, and this does not favour its use when early age strength is required. Improving the fineness of the supplementary materials could be a way to improving the strength performance of its blended cement concrete. In this paper, the effect of pulverised burnt clay waste fineness on the compressive strength of concrete has been investigated. Two different fineness of pulverised burnt clay waste classified as coarse and fine portions were obtained by sieving the original pulverised burnt clay waste portion through sieve sizes No. 100 (150 µm) and No. 200 (75 µm), respectively. Pulverised burnt clay waste dosages of 0% (control), 10% and 20% by weight of binder were used in producing the concrete mixtures. It is found that the compressive strength of the concrete depends on the fineness and proportion of pulverised burnt clay waste. The result shows improvement in compressive strength at all curing ages with the fine portion pulverised burnt clay waste having the highest strength and improved early age compressive strength.

Keywords: pulverized burnt clay waste, supplementary cementitious materials, compressive strength, pozzolans, fineness

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3156 Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Strength and Durability of High Strength High Performance Concrete

Authors: H. B. Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Y. W. Yee, Y. T. Yeap


This paper reports the strength and durability properties of high strength high performance concrete incorporating rice husk ash (RHA) having high silica, low carbon content and appropriate fineness. In this study concrete containing 10%, 15% and 20% RHA as cement replacement and water to binder ratio of 0.25 were investigated. The results show that increasing amount of RHA increases the dosage of superplasticizer to maintain similar workability. Partial replacement of cement with RHA did not increase the early age compressive strength of concrete. However, concrete containing RHA showed higher compressive strength at later ages. The results showed that compressive strength of concrete in the 90-115 MPa range can be obtained at 28 curing days and the durability properties of RHA concrete performed better than that of control concrete. The water absorption of concrete incorporating 15% RHA exhibited the lowest value. The porosity of concrete is consistent with water absorption whereby higher replacement of RHA decreased the porosity of concrete. There is a positive correlation between reducing porosity and increasing compressive strength of high strength high performance concrete. The results also indicate that up to 20% of RHA incorporation could be advantageously blended with cement without adversely affecting the strength and durability properties of concrete.

Keywords: compressive strength, durability, high performance concrete, rice husk ash

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3155 Enhancement of Cement Mortar Mechanical Properties with Replacement of Seashell Powder

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya


Many synthetic additives have been using for improve cement mortar and concrete characteristics, but natural additive is a friendly environment option. The quantity of (2% and 4%) seashell powder has been replaced in cement mortar, and compared with plain cement mortar in early age of 7 days. The strain gauges have been installed on beams and cube, for monitoring fluctuation of flexural and compressive strength. Main objective of this paper is to study effect of linear static force on flexural and compressive strength of modified cement mortar. The results have been indicated that the replacement of appropriate proportion of seashell powder enhances cement mortar mechanical properties. The replacement of 2% seashell causes improvement of deflection, time to failure and maximum load to failure on concrete beam and cube, the same occurs for compressive modulus elasticity. Increase replacement of seashell to 4% reduces all flexural strength, compressive strength and strain of cement mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural strength, compressive modulus elasticity, time to failure, deflection

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3154 Investigating Geopolymerization Process of Aluminosilicates and its Impact on the Compressive Strength of the Produced Geopolymers

Authors: Heba Fouad, Tarek M. Madkour, Safwan A. Khedr


This paper investigates multiple factors that impact the formation of geopolymers and their compressive strength to be utilized in construction as an environmentally-friendly material. Bentonite and Kaolinite were thermally calcinated at 750 °C to obtain Metabentonite and Metakaolinite with higher reactivity. Both source materials were activated using a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Thereafter, samples were cured at different temperatures. The samples were analyzed chemically using a host of spectroscopic techniques. The bulk density and compressive strength of the produced Geopolymer pastes were studied. Findings indicate that the ratio of NaOH solution to source material affects the compressive strength, being optimal at 0.54. Moreover, controlled heat curing was proven effective to improve compressive strength. The existence of characteristic Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) peaks at approximately 1020 cm-1 and 460 cm-1 which corresponds to the asymmetric stretching vibration of Si-O-T and bending vibration of Si-O-Si, hence, confirming the formation of the target geopolymer.

Keywords: calcination of metakaolinite, compressive strength, FTIR analysis, geopolymer, green cement

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3153 Eco-Friendly Preservative Treated Bamboo Culm: Compressive Strength Analysis

Authors: Perminder JitKaur, Santosh Satya, K. K. Pant, S. N. Naik


Bamboo is extensively used in construction industry. Low durability of bamboo due to fungus infestation and termites attack under storage puts certain constrains for it usage as modern structural material. Looking at many chemical formulations for bamboo treatment leading to severe harmful environment effects, research on eco-friendly preservatives for bamboo treatment has been initiated world-over. In the present studies, eco-friendly preservative for bamboo treatment has been developed. To validate its application for structural purposes, investigation of effect of treatment on compressive strength has been investigated. Neem oil(25%) integrated with copper naphthenate (0.3%) on dilution with kerosene oil impregnated into bamboo culm at 2 bar pressure, has shown weight loss of only 3.15% in soil block analysis method. The results of compressive strength analysis using The results from compressive strength analysis using HEICO Automatic Compression Testing Machine, reveal that preservative treatment has not altered the structural properties of bamboo culms. Compressive strength of control (11.72 N/mm2) and above treated samples (11.71 N/mm2) was found to be comparable.

Keywords: D. strictus, bamboo, neem oil, presure treatment, compressive strength

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3152 Application of Gene Expression Programming (GEP) in Predicting Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Pyroclastic Rocks

Authors: İsmail İnce, Mustafa Fener, Sair Kahraman


The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of rocks is an important input parameter for the design of rock engineering project. Compressive strength can be determined in the laboratory using the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) test. Although the test is relatively simple, the method is time consuming and expensive. Therefore many researchers have tried to assess the uniaxial compressive strength values of rocks via relatively simple and indirect tests (e.g. point load strength test, Schmidt Hammer hardness rebound test, P-wave velocity test, etc.). Pyroclastic rocks are widely exposed in the various regions of the world. Cappadocia region located in the Central Anatolia is one of the most spectacular cite of these regions. It is important to determine the mechanical behaviour of the pyroclastic rocks due to their ease of carving, heat insulation properties and building some civil engineering constructions in them. The purpose of this study is to estimate a widely varying uniaxial strength of pyroclastic rocks from Cappadocia region by means of point load strength, porosity, dry density and saturated density tests utilizing gene expression programming.

Keywords: pyroclastic rocks, uniaxial compressive strength, gene expression programming (GEP, Cappadocia region

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3151 The Effect of Air Entraining Agents on Compressive Strength

Authors: Demet Yavuz


Freeze-thaw cycles are one of the greatest threats to concrete durability. Lately, protection against this threat excites scientists’ attention. Air-entraining admixtures have been widely used to produce freeze-thaw resistant at concretes. The use of air-entraining agents (AEAs) enhances not only freeze-thaw endurance but also the properties of fresh concrete such as segregation, bleeding and flow ability. This paper examines the effects of air-entraining on compressive strength of concrete. Air-entraining is used between 0.05% and 0.4% by weight of cement. One control and four fiber reinforced concrete mixes are prepared and three specimens are tested for each mix. It is concluded from the test results that when air entraining is increased the compressive strength of concrete reduces for all mixes with AEAs.

Keywords: concrete, air-entraining, compressive strength, mechanical properties

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3150 Effect of Rice Husk Ash and Metakaolin on the Compressive Strengths of Ternary Cement Mortars

Authors: Olubajo Olumide Olu


This paper studies the effect of Metakaolin (MK) and Rice husk ash (RHA) on the compressive strength of ternary cement mortar at replacement level up to 30%. The compressive strength test of the blended cement mortars were conducted using Tonic Technic compression and machine. Nineteen ternary cement mortars were prepared comprising of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Rice husk ash (RHA) and Metakaolin (MK) at different proportion. Ternary mortar prisms in which Portland cement was replaced by up to 30% were tested at various age; 2, 7, 28 and 60 days. Result showed that the compressive strength of the cement mortars increased as the curing days were lengthened for both OPC and the blended cement samples. The ternary cement’s compressive strengths showed significant improvement compared with the control especially beyond 28 days. This can be attributed to the slow pozzolanic reaction resulting from the formation of additional CSH from the interaction of the residual CH content and the silica available in the Metakaolin and Rice husk ash, thus providing significant strength gain at later age. Results indicated that the addition of metakaolin with rice husk ash kept constant was found to lead to an increment in the compressive strength. This can either be attributed to the high silica/alumina contribution to the matrix or the C/S ratio in the cement matrix. Whereas, increment in the rice husk ash content while metakaolin was held constant led to an increment in the compressive strength, which could be attributed to the reactivity of the rice husk ash followed by decrement owing to the presence of unburnt carbon in the RHA matrix. The best compressive strength results were obtained at 10% cement replacement (5% RHA, 5% MK); 15% cement replacement (10% MK and 5% RHA); 20% cement replacement (15% MK and 5% RHA); 25% cement replacement (20% MK and 5% RHA); 30% cement replacement (10%/20% MK and 20%/10% RHA). With the optimal combination of either 15% and 20% MK with 5% RHA giving the best compressive strength of 40.5MPa.

Keywords: metakaolin, rice husk ash, compressive strength, ternary mortar, curing days

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3149 Compressive Strength Development of Normal Concrete and Self-Consolidating Concrete Incorporated with GGBS

Authors: M. Nili, S. Tavasoli, A. R. Yazdandoost


In this paper, an experimental investigation on the effect of Isfahan Ground Granulate Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) on the compressive strength development of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and normal concrete (NC) was performed. For this purpose, Portland cement type I was replaced with GGBS in various Portions. For NC and SCC Mixes, 10*10*10 cubic cm specimens were tested in 7, 28 and 91 days. It must be stated that in this research water to cement ratio was 0.44, cement used in cubic meter was 418 Kg/m³ and Superplasticizer (SP) Type III used in SCC based on Poly-Carboxylic acid. The results of experiments have shown that increasing GGBS Percentages in both types of concrete reduce Compressive strength in early ages.

Keywords: compressive strength, GGBS, normal concrete, self-consolidating concrete

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3148 An Investigation on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Refik Burak Taymuş, Fuat Korkut


Because of the easy applying and not costing too much, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is one of the most used non-destructive techniques to determine concrete characteristics along with impact-echo, Schmidt rebound hammer (SRH) and pulse-echo. This article investigates the relationship between UPV and compressive strength of hybrid fiber reinforced concretes. Water/cement ratio (w/c) was kept at 0.4 for all concrete mixes. Compressive strength of concrete was targeted at 35 MPa. UPV testing and compressive strength tests were carried out at the curing age of 28 days. The UPV of concrete containing steel fibers has been found to be higher than plain concrete for all the testing groups. It is decided that there is not a certain relationship between fiber addition and strength.

Keywords: ultrasonic pulse velocity, hybrid fiber, compressive strength, fiber

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3147 Design of Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement

Authors: O. Zarrin, M. Ramezan Shirazi


The quality of concrete is usually defined by compressive strength, but flexural strength is the most important characteristic of concrete in a pavement which control the mix design of concrete instead of compressive strength. Therefore, the aggregates which are selected for the pavements are affected by higher flexural strength. Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement (RCCP) is not a new construction method. The other characteristic of this method is no bleeding and less shrinkage due to the lower amount of water. For this purpose, a roller is needed for placing and compacting. The surface of RCCP is not smooth; therefore, the most common use of this pavement is in an industrial zone with slower traffic speed which requires durable and tough pavement. For preparing a smoother surface, it can be achieved by asphalt paver. RCCP decrease the finishing cost because there are no bars, formwork, and the lesser labor need for placing the concrete. In this paper, different aspect of RCCP such as mix design, flexural, compressive strength and focus on the different part of RCCP on detail have been investigated.

Keywords: flexural strength, compressive strength, pavement, asphalt

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3146 Minimum Ratio of Flexural Reinforcement for High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Azad A. Mohammed, Dunyazad K. Assi, Alan S. Abdulrahman


Current ACI 318 Code provides two limits for minimum steel ratio for concrete beams. When concrete compressive strength be larger than 31 MPa the limit of √(fc')/4fy usually governs. In this paper shortcomings related to using this limit was fairly discussed and showed that the limit is based on 90% safety factor and was derived based on modulus of rupture equation suitable for concretes of compressive strength lower than 31 MPa. Accordingly, the limit is nor suitable and critical for concretes of higher compressive strength. An alternative equation was proposed for minimum steel ratio of rectangular beams and was found that the proposed limit is accurate for beams of wide range of concrete compressive strength. Shortcomings of the current ACI 318 Code equation and accuracy of the proposed equation were supported by test data obtained from testing six reinforced concrete beams.

Keywords: concrete beam, compressive strength, minimum steel ratio, modulus of rupture

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3145 Influence of Random Fibre Packing on the Compressive Strength of Fibre Reinforced Plastic

Authors: Y. Wang, S. Zhang, X. Chen


The longitudinal compressive strength of fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) possess a large stochastic variability, which limits efficient application of composite structures. This study aims to address how the random fibre packing affects the uncertainty of FRP compressive strength. An novel approach is proposed to generate random fibre packing status by a combination of Latin hypercube sampling and random sequential expansion. 3D nonlinear finite element model is built which incorporates both the matrix plasticity and fibre geometrical instability. The matrix is modeled by isotropic ideal elasto-plastic solid elements, and the fibres are modeled by linear-elastic rebar elements. Composite with a series of different nominal fibre volume fractions are studied. Premature fibre waviness at different magnitude and direction is introduced in the finite element model. Compressive tests on uni-directional CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced plastic) are conducted following the ASTM D6641. By a comparison of 3D FE models and compressive tests, it is clearly shown that the stochastic variation of compressive strength is partly caused by the random fibre packing, and normal or lognormal distribution tends to be a good fit the probabilistic compressive strength. Furthermore, it is also observed that different random fibre packing could trigger two different fibre micro-buckling modes while subjected to longitudinal compression: out-of-plane buckling and twisted buckling. The out-of-plane buckling mode results much larger compressive strength, and this is the major reason why the random fibre packing results a large uncertainty in the FRP compressive strength. This study would contribute to new approaches to the quality control of FRP considering higher compressive strength or lower uncertainty.

Keywords: compressive strength, FRP, micro-buckling, random fibre packing

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3144 Influence of Locally Made Effective Microorganisms on the Compressive Strength of Concrete

Authors: Muhammad Nura Isa, Magaji Muhammad Garba, Dauda Dahiru Danwata


A lot of research was carried out to improve the technology of concrete, some of which include the introduction of new admixture in concrete production such as effective microorganisms. Researches carried out in Japan and Malaysia indicated that the Effective Microorganisms improve the strength and durability of concrete. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to assess the effect of the locally made effective microorganisms on the compressive strength of concrete in Nigeria. The effective microorganisms were produced locally. The locally made effective microorganism was added in 3%, 5%, 10% and 15% to replace the mixing water required. The results of the tests indicated that the concrete specimens with 3% content of locally made EM-A possessed the highest compressive strength, this proved the 3% to be the optimum dosage of locally made EM-A in the concrete.

Keywords: locally made effective microorganisms, compressive strength, admixture, fruits and vegetable wastes

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3143 Experiments on Residual Compressive Strength After Fatigue of Carbon Fiber Fabric Composites in Hydrothermal Environment

Authors: Xuan Sun, Mingbo Tong


In order to study the effect of hydrothermal environment on the fatigue properties of carbon fiber fabric composites, the experiments on fatigue and residual compressive strength with the center-hole laminates were carried out. For the experiments on fatigue in hydrothermal environment, an environmental chamber used for hydrothermal environment was designed, and the FLUENT was used to simulate the field of temperature in the environmental chamber, it proved that the design met the test requirements. In accordance with ASTM standard, the fatigue test fixture and compression test fixture were designed and produced. Then the tension-compression fatigue tests were carried out in conditions of standard environment (temperature of 23+2℃, relative humidity of 50+/-5%RH) and hydrothermal environment (temperature of 70 +2℃, relative humidity of 85+/-5%RH). After that, the residual compressive strength tests were carried out, respectively. The residual compressive strength after fatigue in condition of standard environment was set as a reference value, compared with the value in condition of hydrothermal environment, calculating the difference between them. According to the result of residual compressive strength tests, it shows that the residual compressive strength after fatigue in condition of hydrothermal environment was decreased by 13.5%,so the hydrothermal environment has little effect on the residual compressive strength of carbon fiber fabric composites laminates after fatigue under load spectrum in this research.

Keywords: carbon fiber, hydrothermal environment, fatigue, residual compressive strength

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3142 Improving Concrete Properties with Fibers Addition

Authors: E. Mello, C. Ribellato, E. Mohamedelhassan


This study investigated the improvement in concrete properties with addition of cellulose, steel, carbon and PET fibers. Each fiber was added at four percentages to the fresh concrete, which was moist-cured for 28-days and then tested for compressive, flexural and tensile strengths. Changes in strength and increases in cost were analyzed. Results showed that addition of cellulose caused a decrease between 9.8% and 16.4% in compressive strength. This range may be acceptable as cellulose fibers can significantly increase the concrete resistance to fire, and freezing and thawing cycles. Addition of steel fibers to concrete increased the compressive strength by up to 20%. Increases 121.5% and 80.7% were reported in tensile and flexural strengths respectively. Carbon fibers increased flexural and tensile strengths by up to 11% and 45%, respectively. Concrete strength properties decreased after the addition of PET fibers. Results showed that improvement in strength after addition of steel and carbon fibers may justify the extra cost of fibers.

Keywords: concrete, compressive strength, fibers, flexural strength, tensile strength

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3141 Convergence Analysis of a Gibbs Sampling Based Mix Design Optimization Approach for High Compressive Strength Pervious Concrete

Authors: Jiaqi Huang, Lu Jin


Pervious concrete features with high water permeability rate. However, due to the lack of fine aggregates, the compressive strength is usually lower than other conventional concrete products. Optimization of pervious concrete mix design has long been recognized as an effective mechanism to achieve high compressive strength while maintaining desired permeability rate. In this paper, a Gibbs Sampling based algorithm is proposed to approximate the optimal mix design to achieve a high compressive strength of pervious concrete. We prove that the proposed algorithm efficiently converges to the set of global optimal solutions. The convergence rate and accuracy depend on a control parameter employed in the proposed algorithm. The simulation results show that, by using the proposed approach, the system converges to the optimal solution quickly and the derived optimal mix design achieves the maximum compressive strength while maintaining the desired permeability rate.

Keywords: convergence, Gibbs Sampling, high compressive strength, optimal mix design, pervious concrete

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3140 Experimental Studies on Reactive Powder Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Steel Fibre

Authors: A. J. Shah, Neeraj Kumar Sahu


Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is high performance and high strength concrete which composes of very fine powdered materials like cement, sand, silica fume and quartz powder. It also constitutes steel fibre (optional) and super-plasticizer. The present study investigates the performance of reactive powder concrete with fly ash as a replacement of cement under hot water and normal water curing conditions. The replacement of cement with fly ash is done at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. To compare the results of cement replaced RPC and traditional RPC, the performance of various mixes is evaluated by compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength and durability. The results show that with increasing percentage of fly ash, improvement in durability is observed and a slight decrease in compressive strength and flexural strength is also observed. It is observed that specimen under hot water curing showed 15 to 20 % more strength than specimens under normal water curing.

Keywords: high strength concrete, the flexural strength of RPC, compressive strength of RPC, durability

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3139 Prediction of Compressive Strength Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Vijay Pal Singh, Yogesh Chandra Kotiyal


Structures are a combination of various load carrying members which transfer the loads to the foundation from the superstructure safely. At the design stage, the loading of the structure is defined and appropriate material choices are made based upon their properties, mainly related to strength. The strength of materials kept on reducing with time because of many factors like environmental exposure and deformation caused by unpredictable external loads. Hence, to predict the strength of materials used in structures, various techniques are used. Among these techniques, Non-Destructive Techniques (NDT) are the one that can be used to predict the strength without damaging the structure. In the present study, the compressive strength of concrete has been predicted using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The predicted strength was compared with the experimentally obtained actual compressive strength of concrete and equations were developed for different models. A good co-relation has been obtained between the predicted strength by these models and experimental values. Further, the co-relation has been developed using two NDT techniques for prediction of strength by regression analysis. It was found that the percentage error has been reduced between the predicted strength by using combined techniques in place of single techniques.

Keywords: rebound, ultra-sonic pulse, penetration, ANN, NDT, regression

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3138 Hysteresis Behaviour of Mass Concrete Mixed with Plastic Fibre under Compression

Authors: A. A. Okeola, T. I. Sijuade


Unreinforced concrete is a comparatively brittle substance when exposed to tensile stresses, the required tensile strength is provided by the introduction of steel which is used as reinforcement. The strength of concrete may be improved tremendously by the addition of fibre. This study focused on investigating the compressive strength of mass concrete mixed with different percentage of plastic fibre. Twelve samples of concrete cubes with varied percentage of plastic fibre at 7, 14 and 28 days of water submerged curing were tested under compression loading. The result shows that the compressive strength of plastic fibre reinforced concrete increased with rise in curing age. The strength increases for all percentage dosage of fibre used for the concrete. The density of the Plastic Fibre Reinforced Concrete (PFRC) also increases with curing age, which implies that during curing, concrete absorbs water which aids its hydration. The least compressive strength obtained with the introduction of plastic fibre is more than the targeted 20 N/mm2 recommended for construction work showing that PFRC can be used where significant loading is expected.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, curing, density, plastic fibre

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
3137 High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Paver Blocks

Authors: Som Nath Sachdeva, Vanita Aggarwal, S. M. Gupta


Use of concrete paver blocks is becoming increasingly popular. They are used for paving of approaches, paths and parking areas including their application in pre-engineered buildings. This paper discusses the results of an experimental study conducted on Fly Ash Concrete with the aim to report its suitability for concrete paver blocks. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash, 20 % to 40 %, on compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied are M-30, M-35, M-40 and M-50. It is observed that all the fly ash based mixes are able to achieve the required compressive and flexural strengths. In comparison to control mixes, the compressive and flexural strengths of the fly ash based mixes are found to be slightly less at 7 days and 28 days and a little more at 90 days.

Keywords: fly ash concrete, paver blocks, compressive, flexural strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 277