Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3142

Search results for: the flexural strength of RPC

3142 Effect of Confinement on Flexural Tensile Strength of Concrete

Authors: M. Ahmed, Javed Mallick, Mohammad Abul Hasan


The flexural tensile strength of concrete is an important parameter for determining cracking behavior of concrete structure and to compute deflection under flexure. Many factors have been shown to influence the flexural tensile strength, particularly the level of concrete strength, size of member, age of concrete and confinement to flexure member etc. Empirical equations have been suggested to relate the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength. Limited literature is available for relationship between flexural tensile strength and compressive strength giving consideration to the factors affecting the flexural tensile strength specially the concrete confinement factor. The concrete member such as slabs, beams and columns critical locations are under confinement effects. The paper presents the experimental study to predict the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength empirical relations using statistical procedures considering the effect of confinement and age of concrete for wide range of concrete strength (from 35 to about 100 MPa). It is concluded from study that due consideration of confinement should be given in deriving the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength proportionality equations.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, modulus of rupture, statistical procedures, concrete confinement

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3141 Effect of Steel Fibers on Flexural Behavior of Normal and High Strength Concrete

Authors: K. M. Aldossari, W. A. Elsaigh, M. J. Shannag


An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of hooked-end steel fibers on the flexural behavior of normal and high strength concrete matrices. The fiber content appropriate for the concrete matrices investigated was also determined based on flexural tests on standard prisms. Parameters investigated include: Matrix compressive strength ranging from 45 MPa to 70 MPa, corresponding to normal and high strength concrete matrices respectively; Fiber volume fraction including 0, 0.5%, 0.76%, and 1%, equivalent to 0, 40, 60, and 80 kg/m3 of hooked-end steel fibers respectively. Test results indicated that flexural strength and toughness of normal and high strength concrete matrices were significantly improved with the increase in the fiber content added; Whereas a slight improvement in compressive strength was observed for the same matrices. Furthermore, the test results indicated that the effect of increasing the fiber content was more pronounced on increasing the flexural strength of high strength concrete than that of normal concrete.

Keywords: concrete, flexural strength, toughness, steel fibers

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3140 Flexural Strength Design of RC Beams with Consideration of Strain Gradient Effect

Authors: Mantai Chen, Johnny Ching Ming Ho


The stress-strain relationship of concrete under flexure is one of the essential parameters in assessing ultimate flexural strength capacity of RC beams. Currently, the concrete stress-strain curve in flexure is obtained by incorporating a constant scale-down factor of 0.85 in the uniaxial stress-strain curve. However, it was revealed that strain gradient would improve the maximum concrete stress under flexure and concrete stress-strain curve is strain gradient dependent. Based on the strain-gradient-dependent concrete stress-strain curve, the investigation of the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength on flexural strength of RC beams was extended to high strength concrete up to 100 MPa by theoretical analysis. As an extension and application of the authors’ previous study, a new flexural strength design method incorporating the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength is developed. A set of equivalent rectangular concrete stress block parameters is proposed and applied to produce a series of design charts showing that the flexural strength of RC beams are improved with strain gradient effect considered.

Keywords: beams, equivalent concrete stress block, flexural strength, strain gradient

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3139 Flexural Strength of Alkali Resistant Glass Textile Reinforced Concrete Beam with Prestressing

Authors: Jongho Park, Taekyun Kim, Jungbhin You, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park


Due to the aging of bridges, increasing of maintenance costs and decreasing of structural safety is occurred. The steel corrosion of reinforced concrete bridge is the most common problem and this phenomenon is accelerating due to abnormal weather and increasing CO2 concentration due to climate change. To solve these problems, composite members using textile have been studied. A textile reinforced concrete can reduce carbon emissions by reduced concrete and without steel bars, so a lot of structural behavior studies are needed. Therefore, in this study, textile reinforced concrete beam was made and flexural test was performed. Also, the change of flexural strength according to the prestressing was conducted. As a result, flexural strength of TRC with prestressing was increased compared and flexural behavior was shown as reinforced concrete.

Keywords: AR-glass, flexural strength, prestressing, textile reinforced concrete

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3138 Influence of Flexural Reinforcement on the Shear Strength of RC Beams Without Stirrups

Authors: Guray Arslan, Riza Secer Orkun Keskin


Numerical investigations were conducted to study the influence of flexural reinforcement ratio on the diagonal cracking strength and ultimate shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) beams without stirrups. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses (FEAs) of the beams with flexural reinforcement ratios ranging from 0.58% to 2.20% subjected to a mid-span concentrated load were carried out. It is observed that the load-deflection and load-strain curves obtained from the numerical analyses agree with those obtained from the experiments. It is concluded that flexural reinforcement ratio has a significant effect on the shear strength and deflection capacity of RC beams without stirrups. The predictions of the diagonal cracking strength and ultimate shear strength of beams obtained by using the equations defined by a number of codes and researchers are compared with each other and with the experimental values.

Keywords: finite element, flexural reinforcement, reinforced concrete beam, shear strength

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3137 The Flexural Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Cement Mortars Using UM Resin

Authors: Min Ho Kwon, Woo Young Jung, Hyun Su Seo


A Polymer Cement Mortar (PCM) has been widely used as the material of repair and restoration work for concrete structure; however a PCM usually induces an environmental pollutant. Therefore, there is a need to develop PCM which is less impact to environments. Usually, UM resin is known to be harmless to the environment. Accordingly, in this paper, the properties of the PCM using UM resin were studied. The general cement mortar and UM resin was mixed in the specified ratio. A certain percentage of PVA fibers, steel fibers and mixed fibers (PVA fiber and steel fiber) were added to enhance the flexural strength. The flexural tests were performed in order to investigate the flexural strength of each PCM. Experimental results showed that the strength of proposed PCM using UM resin is improved when they are compared with general cement mortar.

Keywords: polymer cement mortar, UM resin, compressive strength, PVA fiber, steel fiber

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3136 Design of Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement

Authors: O. Zarrin, M. Ramezan Shirazi


The quality of concrete is usually defined by compressive strength, but flexural strength is the most important characteristic of concrete in a pavement which control the mix design of concrete instead of compressive strength. Therefore, the aggregates which are selected for the pavements are affected by higher flexural strength. Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement (RCCP) is not a new construction method. The other characteristic of this method is no bleeding and less shrinkage due to the lower amount of water. For this purpose, a roller is needed for placing and compacting. The surface of RCCP is not smooth; therefore, the most common use of this pavement is in an industrial zone with slower traffic speed which requires durable and tough pavement. For preparing a smoother surface, it can be achieved by asphalt paver. RCCP decrease the finishing cost because there are no bars, formwork, and the lesser labor need for placing the concrete. In this paper, different aspect of RCCP such as mix design, flexural, compressive strength and focus on the different part of RCCP on detail have been investigated.

Keywords: flexural strength, compressive strength, pavement, asphalt

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3135 Improving Concrete Properties with Fibers Addition

Authors: E. Mello, C. Ribellato, E. Mohamedelhassan


This study investigated the improvement in concrete properties with addition of cellulose, steel, carbon and PET fibers. Each fiber was added at four percentages to the fresh concrete, which was moist-cured for 28-days and then tested for compressive, flexural and tensile strengths. Changes in strength and increases in cost were analyzed. Results showed that addition of cellulose caused a decrease between 9.8% and 16.4% in compressive strength. This range may be acceptable as cellulose fibers can significantly increase the concrete resistance to fire, and freezing and thawing cycles. Addition of steel fibers to concrete increased the compressive strength by up to 20%. Increases 121.5% and 80.7% were reported in tensile and flexural strengths respectively. Carbon fibers increased flexural and tensile strengths by up to 11% and 45%, respectively. Concrete strength properties decreased after the addition of PET fibers. Results showed that improvement in strength after addition of steel and carbon fibers may justify the extra cost of fibers.

Keywords: concrete, compressive strength, fibers, flexural strength, tensile strength

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3134 Experimental Studies on Reactive Powder Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Steel Fibre

Authors: A. J. Shah, Neeraj Kumar Sahu


Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is high performance and high strength concrete which composes of very fine powdered materials like cement, sand, silica fume and quartz powder. It also constitutes steel fibre (optional) and super-plasticizer. The present study investigates the performance of reactive powder concrete with fly ash as a replacement of cement under hot water and normal water curing conditions. The replacement of cement with fly ash is done at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. To compare the results of cement replaced RPC and traditional RPC, the performance of various mixes is evaluated by compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength and durability. The results show that with increasing percentage of fly ash, improvement in durability is observed and a slight decrease in compressive strength and flexural strength is also observed. It is observed that specimen under hot water curing showed 15 to 20 % more strength than specimens under normal water curing.

Keywords: high strength concrete, the flexural strength of RPC, compressive strength of RPC, durability

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3133 Durability of Lime Treated Soil Reinforced by Natural Fibre under Bending Force

Authors: Vivi Anggraini, Afshin Asadi, Bujang B. K. Huat


Earth structures constructed of marine clay soils have tendency to crack. In order to improve the flexural strength and brittleness, a technique of mixing short fibers is introduced to the soil lime mixture. Coir fiber was used in this study as reinforcing elements. An experimental investigation consisting primarily of flexural tensile tests was conducted to examine the influence of coir fibers on the flexural behaviour of the reinforced soils. The test results demonstrated that the coir fibers were effective in improving the flexural strength and young’s modulus of all soils were examined and ductility after peak strength for reinforced marine clay soil was treated by lime. 5% lime treated soil and 1% coir fiber reinforced soil specimen’s demonstrated good strength and durability when submerged in water and retained 45% of their air-cured strengths.

Keywords: flexural strength, durabilty, lime, coir fibers, bending force, ductility

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3132 High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Paver Blocks

Authors: Som Nath Sachdeva, Vanita Aggarwal, S. M. Gupta


Use of concrete paver blocks is becoming increasingly popular. They are used for paving of approaches, paths and parking areas including their application in pre-engineered buildings. This paper discusses the results of an experimental study conducted on Fly Ash Concrete with the aim to report its suitability for concrete paver blocks. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash, 20 % to 40 %, on compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied are M-30, M-35, M-40 and M-50. It is observed that all the fly ash based mixes are able to achieve the required compressive and flexural strengths. In comparison to control mixes, the compressive and flexural strengths of the fly ash based mixes are found to be slightly less at 7 days and 28 days and a little more at 90 days.

Keywords: fly ash concrete, paver blocks, compressive, flexural strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
3131 Enhancement of Cement Mortar Mechanical Properties with Replacement of Seashell Powder

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya


Many synthetic additives have been using for improve cement mortar and concrete characteristics, but natural additive is a friendly environment option. The quantity of (2% and 4%) seashell powder has been replaced in cement mortar, and compared with plain cement mortar in early age of 7 days. The strain gauges have been installed on beams and cube, for monitoring fluctuation of flexural and compressive strength. Main objective of this paper is to study effect of linear static force on flexural and compressive strength of modified cement mortar. The results have been indicated that the replacement of appropriate proportion of seashell powder enhances cement mortar mechanical properties. The replacement of 2% seashell causes improvement of deflection, time to failure and maximum load to failure on concrete beam and cube, the same occurs for compressive modulus elasticity. Increase replacement of seashell to 4% reduces all flexural strength, compressive strength and strain of cement mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural strength, compressive modulus elasticity, time to failure, deflection

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3130 Behavior of Polymeric Mortars: An Analysis from the Point of View of Application in Severe Conditions

Authors: J. P. Gorninski, J. M. L. Reis


This present work was aimed to develop polymeric mortars having as binder two polyester resins namely isophtalic and orthophtalic polyester. The inorganic phase was composed by medium-size river sand and fly ash fíller, a by-product of the burning of coal in power plants. The compositions in this study are high performance mortars and were assessed by mechanical properties, through compressive strength and flexural strength, by durability strength when exposed to the cyclical variation of temperature from -400C to +300C and by the chemical aggression test. The composites displayed good performance when exposed to cyclical temperature variations and chemical solutions. The mechanical strength values reached the 100 MPa, the flexural strength yielded values of about twenty percent of mechanical strength.

Keywords: polymer mortar, mechanical strength, cyclical temperatures, chemical strength, sustainability

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3129 The Effect of Surface Modifiers on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Waste Silicon Carbide Filled High-Density Polyethylene

Authors: R. Dangtungee, A. Rattanapan, S. Siengchin


Waste silicon carbide (waste SiC) filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with and without surface modifiers were studied. Two types of surface modifiers namely; high-density polyethylene-grafted-maleic anhydride (HDPE-g-MA) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane have been used in this study. The composites were produced using a two roll mill, extruder and shaped in a hydraulic compression molding machine. The mechanical properties of polymer composites such as flexural strength and modulus, impact strength, tensile strength, stiffness and hardness were investigated over a range of compositions. It was found that, flexural strength and modulus, tensile modulus and hardness increased, whereas impact strength and tensile strength decreased with the increasing in filler contents, compared to the neat HDPE. At similar filler content, the effect of both surface modifiers increased flexural modulus, impact strength, tensile strength and stiffness but reduced the flexural strength. Morphological investigation using SEM revealed that the improvement in mechanical properties was due to enhancement of the interfacial adhesion between waste SiC and HDPE.

Keywords: high-density polyethylene, HDPE-g-MA, mechanical properties, morphological properties, silicon carbide, waste silicon carbide

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3128 Effect of Nanofibers on the Behavior of Cement Mortar and Concrete

Authors: Mostafa Osman, Ata El-Kareim Shoeib


The main objective of this paper is study the influence of carbon nano-tubes fibers and nano silica fibers on the characteristic compressive strength and flexural strength on concrete and cement mortar. Twelve tested specimens were tested with square section its dimensions (40*40*160) mm, divided into four groups. The first and second group studied the effect of carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) fiber with different percentage equal to 0.0, 0.11 %, 0.22 %, and 0.33 % by weight of cement and effect of nano-silica (nS) fibers with different percentages equal to 0.0, 1.0 %, 2.0 %, and 3.0 % by weight of cement on the cement mortar. The third and fourth groups studied the effect of CNTs fiber with different percentage equal to 0.0 %, 0.11 %, and 0.22 % by weight of cement, and effect of nS fibers with different percentages were equal to 0.0 %, 1.0%, and 2.0 % by weight of cement on the concrete. The compressive strength and flexural strength at 7, 28, and 90 days is determined. From analysis of tested results concluded that the nano-fiber is more effective when used with cement mortar than that of used with concrete because of increasing the surface area, decreasing the pore and the collection of nano-fiber. And also by adding nano-fiber the improvement of flexural strength of concrete and cement mortar is more than improvement of compressive strength.

Keywords: carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) fibres, nano-silica (nS) fibres, compressive strength, flexural strength

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3127 Structural Properties of RC Beam with Progression of Corrosion Induced Delamination Cracking

Authors: Anupam Saxena, Achin Agrawal, Rishabh Shukla, S. Mandal


It is quite important that the properties of structural elements do not change significantly before and after cracking, and if they do, it adversely affects the structure. Corrosion in rebars causes cracking in concrete which can lead to the change in properties of beam. In the present study, two RC beams with same flexural strength but with different reinforcement arrangements are considered and modelling of cracks of RC beams has been done at different degrees of corrosion in the case of delamination using boundary conditions of Three Point Bending Test. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been done at different degree of corrosion to observe the variation of different parameters like modal frequency, Elasticity and Flexural strength in case of delamination. Also, the comparison between two different RC arrangements is made to conclude which one of them is more suitable.

Keywords: delamination, elasticity, FEA, flexural strength, modal frequency, RC beam

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3126 Evaluating Cement Brands in Southwestern Nigeria for Local Construction Industries

Authors: Olonade, K. A., Jaji, M. B., Rasak, S. A., Ojo, B. A., Adefuye, O. E.


Different brands of cement are used in Nigeria by local contractors for various works without prior knowledge of their performance. Qualities of common cement brands in Southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Elephant, Dangote, Gateway, Purechem, Burham and Five Star cements were selected for the study. Fineness, setting times, chemical composition, compressive and flexural strengths of each of the cement brands were determined. The results showed that all the cement brands contained major oxides in amount within the acceptable values except that the sulphite content of Gateway fell outside the range. Strength comparison indicated that Burham had highest flexural and compressive strength, followed by Elephant and then Dangote while Gateway had the lowest strength at 28 days. It was observed that Dangote cement set earlier than other cement brands. The study has shown that there were differences in performance of the selected cement brands and concluded that the choice of cement brand should be based on the expected performance.

Keywords: cement brand, compressive strength, flexural strength, local construction industries

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3125 Mechanical Study Material on Low Environmental Impact

Authors: Fetta Ait Ahsene-Aissat, Messaoud Hachemi, Yacine Moussaoui, Yacine Kerchiche


Our study focuses on two important aspects, environmental by using a sub industrial product (FAD), by economic incorporation as an addition to Portland cement, thus improving resistance to compression and bending with different proportions ADF % up to 40 additions. We studied the effect of different substitutions 0%, 10%, 20%, and 40% of additions to the mechanical effect of the mortar. We obtained a compressive strength of 61 MPa at 90 days for the cement mixture porthland FAD-40% against a resistance of 58MPa for porthland cement without addition. The flexural strength also showed a marked increase in the cement substitution. We also monitored the behavior of the mixed ash-cement by XRD analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: FAD, porthland, flexural strength, compressive strength, DRX

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3124 Effect of Size, Geometry and Tensile Strength of Fibers on the Flexure of Hooked Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Chuchai Sujivorakul


This research focused on the study of various parameters of fiber itself affecting on the flexure of hooked steel fiber reinforced concrete (HSFRC). The size of HSFRC beams was 150x150 mm in cross section and 550 mm in length, and the flexural test was carried out in accordance with EN-14651 standard. The test result was the relationship between centre-point load and crack-mount opening displacement (CMOD) at the centre notch. Controlled concrete had a compressive strength of 42 MPa. The investigated variables related to the hooked fiber itself were: (a) 3 levels of aspect ratio of fibers (65, 80 and 100); (b) 2 different fiber lengths (35 mm and 60 mm); (c) 2 different tensile strength of fibers (1100 MPa and 1500 MPa); and (d) 3 different fiber-end geometries (3D 4D and 5D fibers). The 3D hooked fibers have two plastic hinges at both ends, while the 4D and 5D hooked fibers are the newly developed steel fibers by Bekaert, and they have three and four plastic hinges at both ends, respectively. The hooked steel fibers were used in concrete with three different fiber contents, i.e., 20 30 and 40 kg/m³. From the study, it was found that all variables did not seem to affect the flexural strength at limit of proportionality (LOP) of HSFRC. However, they affected the residual flexural tensile strength (fR,j). It was observed that an increase in fiber lengths and the tensile strength the fibers would significantly increase in the fR,j of HSFRC, while the aspect ratio of the fiber would slightly effect the fR,j of HSFRC. Moreover, it was found that using 5D fibers would better enhance the fR,j and flexural behavior of HSFRC than 3D and 4D fibers, because they gave highest mechanical anchorage effect created by their hooked-end geometry.

Keywords: hooked steel fibers, fiber reinforced concrete, EN-14651, flexural test

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3123 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Powder Injection Molded Alumina Nano-Powder

Authors: Mostafa Rezaee Saraji, Ali Keshavarz Panahi


In this work, the processing steps for producing alumina parts using powder injection molding (PIM) technique and nano-powder were investigated and the thermal conductivity and flexural strength of samples were determined as a function of sintering temperature and holding time. In the first step, the feedstock with 58 vol. % of alumina nano-powder with average particle size of 100nm was prepared using Extrumixing method to obtain appropriate homogeneity. This feedstock was injection molded into the two cavity mold with rectangular shape. After injection molding step, thermal and solvent debinding methods were used for debinding of molded samples and then these debinded samples were sintered in different sintering temperatures and holding times. From the results, it was found that the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of samples increased by increasing sintering temperature and holding time; in sintering temperature of 1600ºC and holding time of 5h, the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of sintered samples reached to maximum values of 488MPa and 40.8 W/mK, respectively.

Keywords: alumina nano-powder, thermal conductivity, flexural strength, powder injection molding

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3122 Oil Palm Shell Ash: Cement Mortar Mixture and Modification of Mechanical Properties

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya


The waste agriculture materials cause environment pollution, recycle of these materials help sustainable development. This study focused on the impact of used oil palm shell ash on the compressive and flexural strengths of cement mortar. Two different cement mortar mixes have been designed to investigate the impact of oil palm shell ash on strengths of cement mortar. Quantity of 4% oil palm shell ash has been replaced in cement mortar. The main objective of this paper is, to modify mechanical properties of cement mortar by replacement of oil palm ash in it at early age of seven days. The results have been revealed optimum quantity of oil palm ash for replacement in cement mortar. The deflection, load to failure, time to failure of compressive strength and flexural strength of all specimens have significantly been improved. The stress-strain behavior has been indicated ability of modified cement mortar in control stress path and strain. The micro property of cement paste has not been investigated.

Keywords: minerals, additive, flexural strength, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity

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3121 Fracture Properties Investigation of Artocarpus odoratissimus Composite with Polypropylene (PP)

Authors: M. Kamal M. Shah, Al Fareez Bin Aslie, O. Irma Wani, J. Sahari


Wood plastic composites (WPC) were made using matrix of polypropylene (PP) thermoplastic resin with wood fiber from Artocarpus Odoratissimus as filler. The purpose of this project is to investigate the fracture properties of Artocarpus odoratissimus composite with PP. The WPC were manufactured by hot-press technique with varying formulations which are 10:0 (100% pure PP), 50:50 (40 g of wood fiber and 40 g of PP) and 60:40 (48 g of wood fiber and 32 g of PP). The mechanical properties were investigated. Tensile and flexural were carried out according to ASTM D 638 and ASTM D 790. The results were analysed to calculate the tensile strength. Tensile strength at break is ranged from 13.2 N/mm2 to 21.7 N/mm2 while, the flexural strength obtained is varying from 14.7 N/mm2 to 31.1 N/mm2. The results of the experiment showed that tensile and flexural properties of the composite were increased with the adding of wood fiber material. Finally, the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), have been done to study the fracture behavior of the WPC specimens.

Keywords: Artocarpus odoratissimus, polypropylene thermoplastic, wood fiber, WPC

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3120 Characterization of Cement Concrete Pavement

Authors: T. B. Anil Kumar, Mallikarjun Hiremath, V. Ramachandra


The present experimental investigation deals with the quality performance analysis of cement concrete with 0, 15 and 25% fly ash and 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% of polypropylene fibers by weight of cement. The various test parameters like workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength and abrasion resistance are detailed in the analysis. The compressive strength of M40 grade concrete attains higher value by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash and at 0.4% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. Higher flexural strength of concrete was observed by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash with 0.2% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. Similarly, split tensile strength value also increases and attains higher value by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash with 0.4% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. The percentage of wear gets reduced to 30 to 33% by the addition of fibers at 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% in cement concrete replaced by 15 and 25% fly ash. Hence, it is found that the pavement thickness gets reduced up to 20% when compared with plain concrete slab by the 15% fly ash treated with 0.2% PP fibers and also reduced up to 27% of surface course cost.

Keywords: cement, fly ash, polypropylene fiber, pavement design, cost analysis

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3119 Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Cellulose Fibers/HNT Reinforced Epoxy Nanocomposites

Authors: H. Alamri


Natural fiber reinforced composites have attracted researchers for their desirable properties of toughness, high modulus, low density, recyclability, and renewability. In fact, the use of natural fibers in polymer composites has the potential to produce materials with higher specific strength and specific modulus due of their low density. Likewise, polymer-nano-filler composites have been widely investigated for their unique and significant improvement in strength, modulus, impact strength, barrier properties, heat resistance and thermal stability. In this paper, The addition of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with three different weight percentages (1%, 3% and 5%) on enhancing barrier and flexural strength and modulus of cellulose-fiber (CF) /epoxy composites after water treatment for six months was studied. Results indicated that water uptake decreased as HNT content increased. The presence of HNT improved flexural strength and flexural modulus of CF/epoxy composites. SEM results showed damages in fiber-matrix interfacial bonding due to water absorption. The addition of HNTs was found to enhance to adhesion between fibers and matrix.

Keywords: mechanical properties, epoxy, nanocomposites, halloysite nanotubes

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3118 Recycled Plastic Fibers for Controlling the Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Concrete

Authors: B. S. Al-Tulaian, M. J. Al-Shannag, A. M. Al-Hozaimy


Manufacturing of fibers from industrial or postconsumer plastic waste is an attractive approach with such benefits as concrete performance enhancement, and reduced needs for land filling. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Plastic fibers obtained locally from recycled waste on plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete. The results indicate that recycled plastic RP fiber of 50 mm length is capable of controlling plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete to some extent, but are not as effective as polypropylene PP fibers when added at the same volume fraction. Furthermore, test results indicated that there was The increase in flexural strength of RP fibers and PP fibers concrete were 12.34% and 40.30%, respectively in comparison to plain concrete. RP fiber showed a substantial increase in toughness and a slight decrease in flexural strength of concrete at a fiber volume fraction of 1.00% compared to PP fibers at fiber volume fraction of 0.50%. RP fibers caused a significant increase in compressive strengths up to 13.02% compared to concrete without fiber reinforcement.

Keywords: concrete, plastic, shrinkage cracking, compressive strength, flexural strength, toughness, RF recycled fibers, polypropylene PP fibers

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3117 Tensile and Flexural Behavior of Particulate Filled/Polymer Matrix Composites

Authors: M. Alsaadi, A. Erkliğ, M. Bulut


This paper experimentally investigates the flexural and tensile properties of the industrial wastes sewage sludge ash (SSA) and fly ash (FA), and conventional ceramic powder silicon carbide (SiC) filled polyester composites. Four weight fractions (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) for each micro filler were used for production of composites. Then, test samples were produced according to ASTM. The resulting degree of particle dispersion in the polymer matrix was visualized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results from this study showed that the tensile strength increased up to its maximum value at filler content 5 wt% of SSA, FA and SiC. Flexural strength increased with addition of particulate filler up to its maximum value at filler content 5 wt% of SSA and FA while for SiC decreased for all weight fractions gradually. The addition of SSA, FA and SiC fillers resulted in increase of tensile and flexural modulus for all the particulate composites. Industrial waste SSA can be used as an additive with polymer to produce composite materials.

Keywords: particle-reinforcement, sewage sludge ash, polymer matrix composites, mechanical properties

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3116 Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling of Unbonded Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Fares Jnaid, Riyad Aboutaha


In this paper, a nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was carried out using ANSYS software to build a model able of predicting the behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams with unbonded reinforcement. The FEA model was compared to existing experimental data by other researchers. The existing experimental data consisted of 16 beams that varied from structurally sound beams to beams with unbonded reinforcement with different unbonded lengths and reinforcement ratios. The model was able to predict the ultimate flexural strength, load-deflection curve, and crack pattern of concrete beams with unbonded reinforcement. It was concluded that when the when the unbonded length is less than 45% of the span, there will be no decrease in the ultimate flexural strength due to the loss of bond between the steel reinforcement and the surrounding concrete regardless of the reinforcement ratio. Moreover, when the reinforcement ratio is relatively low, there will be no decrease in ultimate flexural strength regardless of the length of unbond.

Keywords: FEA, ANSYS, unbond, strain

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3115 Evaluating Residual Mechanical and Physical Properties of Concrete at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: S. Hachemi, A. Ounis, S. Chabi


This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the effects of elevated temperature on compressive and flexural strength of Normal Strength Concrete (NSC), High Strength Concrete (HSC) and High Performance Concrete (HPC). In addition, the specimen mass and volume were measured before and after heating in order to determine the loss of mass and volume during the test. In terms of non-destructive measurement, ultrasonic pulse velocity test was proposed as a promising initial inspection method for fire damaged concrete structure. 100 Cube specimens for three grades of concrete were prepared and heated at a rate of 3°C/min up to different temperatures (150, 250, 400, 600, and 900°C). The results show a loss of compressive and flexural strength for all the concretes heated to temperature exceeding 400°C. The results also revealed that mass and density of the specimen significantly reduced with an increase in temperature.

Keywords: high temperature, compressive strength, mass loss, ultrasonic pulse velocity

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3114 Analytical Study of Flexural Strength of Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Beams

Authors: Maru R., Singh V. P.


In this research, analytical study of the flexural strength of Concrete Filled Steel Tube (CFST) beams is carried out based on wide-range finite element models to obtain the better perspective for flexural strength achievement with the use of ABAQUS finite element program. This work adopts concrete damaged plasticity model to get the actual simulation of CFST under bending. To get the decent interaction between concrete and steel, normal and tangential surface interaction provided by ABAQUS is used with hard contact for normal surface interaction and for 0.65 friction coefficient for tangential surface interactions. In this study, rectangular and square CFST beam model cross-sections are adopted with its limits pertained to Eurocode specifications. To get the visualization for flexural strength of CFST beams, total of 74 rectangular CFST beams and 86 square CFST beams are used with four-point bending test setup and the length of the beam model as 1000mm. The grades of concrete and grades of steel are used as 30 MPa & 35MPa and 235 MPa and 275MPa respectively for both sections to get the confinement factor 0.583 to 2.833, steel ratio of 0.069 to 0.236 and length to depth ratio of 4.167 to 16.667. It was found based on this study that flexural strength of CFST beams falls around strain of 0.012. Eurocode provides the results harmonically with finite elemental results. It was also noted for square sections that reduction of steel ratio is not useful as compared to rectangular section although it increases moment capacity up to certain limits because for square sectional area similar to that of rectangular, it possesses lesser depth than rectangular sections. Also It can be said that effect of increment of grade of concrete can be achieved when thicker steel tube is present. It is observed that there is less increment in moment capacity initially but after D/b ratio 1.2, moment capacity of CFST beam rapidly.

Keywords: ABAQUS, CFST beams, flexural strength, four-point bending, rectangular and square sections

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3113 Shear Strength Evaluation of Ultra-High-Performance Concrete Flexural Members Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System

Authors: Minsu Kim, Hae-Chang Cho, Jae Hoon Chung, Inwook Heo, Kang Su Kim


For safe design of the UHPC flexural members, accurate estimations of their shear strengths are very important. However, since the shear strengths are significantly affected by various factors such as tensile strength of concrete, shear span to depth ratio, volume ratio of steel fiber, and steel fiber factor, the accurate estimations of their shear strengths are very challenging. In this study, therefore, the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System (ANFIS), which has been widely used to solve many complex problems in engineering fields, was introduced to estimate the shear strengths of UHPC flexural members. A total of 32 experimental results has been collected from previous studies for training of the ANFIS algorithm, and the well-trained ANFIS algorithm provided good estimations on the shear strengths of the UHPC test specimens. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning(NRF-2016R1A2B2010277).

Keywords: ultra-high-performance concrete, ANFIS, shear strength, flexural member

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