Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3598

Search results for: functional diversity

3598 Characteristics of Meiofaunal Communities in Intertidal Habitats Along Albanian Adriatic Sea Coast

Authors: Fundime Miri, Emanuela Sulaj

Abstract:

Benthic ecosystems constitute important ecological habitats, providing fundamental services for spawning, foraging, and sheltering aquatic organisms. Benthic faunal communities are characterized by a large biological diversity, supported by a great physical variety of benthic habitats. Until late, the study of meiobenthic communities in Albania has been neglectedthus excluding an important component of benthos. The present study aims to bring characteristics of distribution pattern of meiofaunal communities with further focus on nematode genus-based diversity from different intertidal habitats along Albanian Adriatic Sea Coast. The investigation area is extended from Shkodra to Vlora District, including six sandy sampling sites in beaches and areas near river estuaries. Sediment samples were collected manually in low intertidal zone by using a cylindrical corer, with an internal diameter of 5 cm. The richness onmeiofaunalmajor taxon level did not show any significant change between different sampling sites compare to significant changes in nematode diversity at genus level, with distinct nematode assemblages per sampling sites and presence of exclusive genera. All meiofaunal communities under study were dominated by nematodes. Further assessment of functional diversity on nematode assemblages exhibited changes as well on trophic groups and life strategies due to diverse feeding behaviors and c-p values of nematode genera. This study emphasize the need for lower level taxonomic identification of meiofaunal organisms and extending of ecological assessments on trophic diversity and life strategies to understanding functional consequences.

Keywords: benthos, meiofauna, nematode genus-based diversity, functional diversity, intertidal, albanian adriatic coast

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
3597 Diversity for Safety and Security of Autonomous Vehicles against Accidental and Deliberate Faults

Authors: Anil Ranjitbhai Patel, Clement John Shaji, Peter Liggesmeyer

Abstract:

Safety and security of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is a growing concern, first, due to the increased number of safety-critical functions taken over by automotive embedded systems; second, due to the increased exposure of the software-intensive systems to potential attackers; third, due to dynamic interaction in an uncertain and unknown environment at runtime which results in changed functional and non-functional properties of the system. Frequently occurring environmental uncertainties, random component failures, and compromise security of the AVs might result in hazardous events, sometimes even in an accident, if left undetected. Beyond these technical issues, we argue that the safety and security of AVs against accidental and deliberate faults are poorly understood and rarely implemented. One possible way to overcome this is through a well-known diversity approach. As an effective approach to increase safety and security, diversity has been widely used in the aviation, railway, and aerospace industries. Thus, the paper proposes fault-tolerance by diversity model takes into consideration the mitigation of accidental and deliberate faults by application of structure and variant redundancy. The model can be used to design the AVs with various types of diversity in hardware and software-based multi-version system. The paper evaluates the presented approach by employing an example from adaptive cruise control, followed by discussing the case study with initial findings.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, diversity, fault-tolerance, adaptive cruise control, safety, security

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3596 A Call for Transformative Learning Experiences to Facilitate Student Workforce Diversity Learning in the United States

Authors: Jeanetta D. Sims, Chaunda L. Scott, Hung-Lin Lai, Sarah Neese, Atoya Sims, Angelia Barrera-Medina

Abstract:

Given the call for increased transformative learning experiences and the demand for academia to prepare students to enter workforce diversity careers, this study explores the landscape of workforce diversity learning in the United States. Using a multi-disciplinary syllabi browsing process and a content analysis method, the most prevalent instructional activities being used in workforce-diversity related courses in the United States are identified. In addition, the instructional activities are evaluated based on transformative learning tenants.

Keywords: workforce diversity, workforce diversity learning, transformative learning, diversity education, U. S. workforce diversity, workforce diversity assignments

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
3595 The Effect of Diversity Sensitive Orientation on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of diversity sensitive orientation on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Diversity sensitive orientation is the attitude of the individual to respect and accommodate diversity. This is focused on an individual’s perception of diversity. Although being made from the most diversity related research team and organizational level, this study deals with diversity issues at the individual level. To test the proposed research model and hypothesis, the data were collected from 291 Korean employees. The study conducted a confirmatory factor analysis for the validity test. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the hypothesized relationship in the conceptual model. The results of this paper were as followings: First, diversity sensitive orientation was positively related to job satisfaction. Second, diversity sensitive orientation was negatively related to turnover intention. In other words, the positive influence of the diversity sensitive orientation has been verified. Based on the findings, this study suggested implications and directions for future research.

Keywords: diversity sensitive orientation, job satisfaction, turnover intention, perception, cognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
3594 Visibility as a Catalyst for Driving LGBT-Inclusive Growth in India: Rethinking the Diversity and Inclusion Model

Authors: Koel Chakraborty

Abstract:

This paper critically examines the role of ‘disclosure and visibility’ of sexual minorities in a heteronormative organizational setting. The paper wishes to comment on the importance of promoting ‘visibility’ as an important catalyst in increasing the efficacy of outreach programs as part of diversity management practices as well as increasing the efficacy of teams. The aim of the research is to assess the pitfalls of not bringing ‘one’s authentic or whole self’ to work. In doing so, it will address whether Inclusive Leadership at the top propels employees to come out. The paper finally discusses and recommends strategies that could be helpful toward attaining and improving the visibility factor at a cross-functional level. This is a qualitative research with interviews and surveys conducted in inclusive workplace environments across various private sector companies in India.

Keywords: LGBT, diversity, organisation, leadership

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3593 Managing Diversity in MNCS: A Literature Review of Existing Strategic Models for Managing Diversity and a Roadmap to Transfer Them to the Subsidiaries

Authors: Debora Gottardello, Mireia Valverde Aparicio, Juan Llopis Taverner

Abstract:

Globalization has given rise to a great diversity in the composition of people in organizations. Diversity management is therefore key to create growth in today’s competitive global marketplace. This work develops a literature review related to the existing models for managing diversity covering the period from 1980 until 2014. Furthermore, it identifies limitations in previous models. More specifically, the literature review reveals that there is a lack of information about how these models can be adapted from the headquarters to the subsidiaries. Therefore, the contribution of this paper is to suggest how the models should be adapted when they are directed to host countries. Our aim is to highlight the limitations of the developed models with regards to the translation of the diversity management practices to the subsidiaries. Accordingly, a model that will enable MNCs to ensure a global strategy is suggested. Taking advantage of the potential incorporated in a culturally diverse work team should be at the top of every international company’s aims. Executives from headquarters need to use different attitudes when transferring diversity practices towards their subsidiaries. Further studies should reassess local practices of diversity management to find out how this universal management model is translated.

Keywords: culture diversity, diversity management, human resources management, MNCs, subsidiaries, workforce diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
3592 The Taxonomic and Functional Diversity in Edaphic Microbial Communities from Antarctic Dry Valleys

Authors: Sean T. S. Wei, Joy D. Van Nostrand, Annapoorna Maitrayee Ganeshram, Stephen B. Pointing

Abstract:

McMurdo Dry Valleys are a largely ice-free polar desert protected by international treaty as an Antarctic special managed area. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soil with extensive rocky outcrops. Several environmental stresses: low temperature, lack of liquid water, UV exposure and oligotrophic substrates, restrict the major biotic component to microorganisms. The bacterial diversity and the putative physiological capacity of microbial communities of quartz rocks (hypoliths) and soil of a maritime-influenced Dry Valleys were interrogated by two metagenomic approaches: 454 pyro-sequencing and Geochp DNA microarray. The most abundant phylum in hypoliths was Cyanobacteria (46%), whereas in solils Actinobacteria (31%) were most abundant. The Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes were the only other phyla to comprise >10% of both communities. Carbon fixation was indicated by photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic pathways for both hypolith and soil communities. The fungi accounted for polymer carbon transformations, particularly for aromatic compounds. The complete nitrogen cycling was observed in both communities. The fungi in particular displayed pathways related to ammonification. Environmental stress response pathways were common among bacteria, whereas the nutrient stress response pathways were more widely present in bacteria, archaea and fungi. The diversity of bacterialphage was also surveyed by Geochip. Data suggested that different substrates supported different viral families: Leviviridae, Myoviridae, Podoviridae and Siphoviridiae were ubiquitous. However, Corticoviridae and Microviridae only occurred in wetter soils.

Keywords: Antarctica, hypolith, soil, dry valleys, geochip, functional diversity, stress response

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
3591 The Analysis of Cultural Diversity in EFL Textbook for Senior High School in Indonesia

Authors: Soni Ariawan

Abstract:

The study aims to explore the cultural diversity highlighted in EFL textbook for Senior High School grade 10 in Indonesia. The visual images are selected as the data and qualitatively analysed using content analysis. The reason to choose visual images because images are not always neutral and they might impact teaching and learning process. In the current study, cultural diversity aspects are focused on religion (Muslim, Protestant, Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian), gender (male, female, unclear), ethnic (Melanesian, Austronesian, Foreigner) and socioeconomic (low, middle, high, undetermined) diversity as the theoretical framework. The four aspects of cultural diversity are sufficiently representative to draw a conclusion in investigating Indonesian culture representation in EFL textbook. The finding shows that cultural diversity is not proportionally reflected in the textbook, particularly in the visual images.

Keywords: EFL textbook, cultural diversity, visual images, Indonesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
3590 The Influence of the Normative Gender Binary in Diversity Management: A Multi-Method Study on Gender Diversity of Diversity Management

Authors: Robin C. Ladwig

Abstract:

Diversity Management, as a substantial element of Human Resource Management, aims to secure the economic benefit that assumingly comes with a diverse workforce. Consequently, diversity managers focus on the protection of employees and securing equality measurements to assure organisational gender diversity. Gender diversity as one aspect of Diversity Management seems to adhere to gender binarism and cis-normativity. Workplaces are gendered spaces which are echoing the binary gender-normativity presented in Diversity Management, sold under the label of gender diversity. While the expectation of Diversity Management implies the inclusion of a multiplicity of marginalised groups, such as trans and gender diverse people, in current literature and practice, the reality is curated by gender binarism and cis-normativity. The qualitative multi-method research showed a lack of knowledge about trans and gender diverse matters within the profession of Diversity Management and Human Resources. The semi-structured interviews with trans and gender diverse individuals from various backgrounds and occupations in Australia exposed missing considerations of trans and gender diverse experiences in the inclusivity and gender equity of various workplaces. Even if practitioners consider trans and gender diverse matters under gender diversity, the practical execution is limited to gender binary structures and cis-normative actions as the photo-elicit questionnaire with diversity managers, human resource officers, and personnel management demonstrates. Diversity Management should approach a broader source of informed practice by extending their business focus to the knowledge of humanity studies. Humanity studies could include diversity, queer, or gender studies to increase the inclusivity of marginalised groups such as trans and gender diverse employees and people. Furthermore, the definition of gender diversity should be extended beyond the gender binary and cis-normative experience. People may lose trust in Diversity Management as a supportive ally of marginalised employees if the understanding of inclusivity is limited to a gender binary and cis-normativity value system that misrepresents the richness of gender diversity.

Keywords: cis-normativity, diversity management, gender binarism, trans and gender diversity

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3589 Coding and Decoding versus Space Diversity for ‎Rayleigh Fading Radio Frequency Channels ‎

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoud Ahmed Abouelmagd

Abstract:

The diversity is the usual remedy of the transmitted signal level variations (Fading phenomena) in radio frequency channels. Diversity techniques utilize two or more copies of a signal and combine those signals to combat fading. The basic concept of diversity is to transmit the signal via several independent diversity branches to get independent signal replicas via time – frequency - space - and polarization diversity domains. Coding and decoding processes can be an alternative remedy for fading phenomena, it cannot increase the channel capacity, but it can improve the error performance. In this paper we propose the use of replication decoding with BCH code class, and Viterbi decoding algorithm with convolution coding; as examples of coding and decoding processes. The results are compared to those obtained from two optimized selection space diversity techniques. The performance of Rayleigh fading channel, as the model considered for radio frequency channels, is evaluated for each case. The evaluation results show that the coding and decoding approaches, especially the BCH coding approach with replication decoding scheme, give better performance compared to that of selection space diversity optimization approaches. Also, an approach for combining the coding and decoding diversity as well as the space diversity is considered, the main disadvantage of this approach is its complexity but it yields good performance results.

Keywords: Rayleigh fading, diversity, BCH codes, Replication decoding, ‎convolution coding, viterbi decoding, space diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
3588 Bioinformatic Screening of Metagenomic Fosmid Libraries for Identification of Biosynthetic Pathways Derived from the Colombian Soils

Authors: María Fernanda Quiceno Vallejo, Patricia del Portillo, María Mercedes Zambrano, Jeisson Alejandro Triana, Dayana Calderon, Juan Manuel Anzola

Abstract:

Microorganisms from tropical ecosystems can be novel in terms of adaptations and conservation. Given the macrodiversity of Colombian ecosystems, it is possible that this diversity is also present in Colombian soils. Tropical soil bacteria could offer a potentially novel source of bioactive compounds. In this study we analyzed a metagenomic fosmid library constructed with tropical bacterial DNAs with the aim of understanding its underlying diversity and functional potential. 8640 clones from the fosmid library were sequenced by NANOPORE MiniOn technology, then analyzed with bioinformatic tools such as Prokka, AntiSMASH and Bagel4 in order to identify functional biosynthetic pathways in the sequences. The strains showed ample difference when it comes to biosynthetic pathways. In total we identified 4 pathways related to aryl polyene synthesis, 12 related to terpenes, 22 related to NRPs (Non ribosomal peptides), 11 related PKs (Polyketide synthases) and 7 related to RiPPs (bacteriocins). We designed primers for the metagenomic clones with the most BGCs (sample 6 and sample 2). Results show the biotechnological / pharmacological potential of tropical ecosystems. Overall, this work provides an overview of the genomic and functional potential of Colombian soil and sets the groundwork for additional exploration of tropical metagenomic sequencing.

Keywords: bioactives, biosyntethic pathways, bioinformatic, bacterial gene clusters, secondary metabolites

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
3587 Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Iranian Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.) Accessions Using ISSR Makers

Authors: Mehdi Mohebodini, Iman Khalili-Baseri, Mehdi Behnamian, Sara Dezhsetan

Abstract:

Diversity analysis at the molecular level using PCR-based markers is the efficient and rapid method of identifying the relationships and differences among the genotypes. In the present study, genetic diversity and relationships among 20 collected purslane accessions were evaluated using ISSR markers. The genotyping data were used to understand the relationships among the collected accessions and identify genetically diverse purslane accessions. The 25 primers gave a total of 92 bands, of which 62 were polymorphic (67.4%). The genetic diversity as estimated by Shannon’s information index was 0.55, revealing a quite high level of genetic diversity in the germplasm. The average number of an observed allele, effective allele, polymorphic information content (PIC) and Nei’s index were 2, 1.65, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively.

Keywords: Portulaca oleracea L., genetic diversity, ISSR, germplasm

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
3586 Software Development and Team Diversity

Authors: J. Congalton, K. Logan, B. Crump

Abstract:

Software is a critical aspect of modern life. However it is costly to develop and industry initiatives have focused on reducing costs and improving the productivity. Increasing, software is being developed in teams, and with greater globalization and migration, the teams are becoming more ethnically diverse. This study investigated whether diversity in terms of ethnicity impacted on the productivity of software development. Project managers of software development teams were interviewed. The study found that while some issues did exist due to language problems, when project managers created an environment of trust and friendliness, diversity made a positive contribution to productivity.

Keywords: diversity, project management, software development, team work

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
3585 Diversity Strands in Library and Information Science Graduate Curricula

Authors: Bibi Alajmi, Israa Alshammari

Abstract:

This study investigates diversity strands covered in courses offered by library and information sciences (LIS) graduate programs. It aims to identify the extent to which these programs prepare students to work in diverse communities. Information was collected from 17 ALA-accredited MLIS programs. Diversity-related topics were identified and categorized. The methodology consisted of content analysis of course syllabi. The findings show that coverage of diversity-related content in LIS graduate curricula is increasing at a slow but significant rate, and is often a low priority. Apart from LIS graduate courses for future librarians and information professionals in public libraries, school libraries, and museums providing services to young adults and children, there is not enough interest in the provision of services to diverse communities.

Keywords: diversity, multiculturalism, inclusion, equality, gender

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3584 Homogeneity among Diversity

Authors: Yu Guang

Abstract:

“Case studies are the preferred strategy when ‘how’ or ‘why’ questions are being posed.” Therefore, the study is based on two cases: strategy performed in JingNan War and by NIKE. The two samples are chosen as they are of comparability. Data are gathered and PEST and SWOT are used as analysis models to examine their strategic employment in order that the answer to brilliant strategies in variety is found. The niche strategy has been used in the past and present, in the battle fields and business. The homogeneity among diversity is the skill of performing strategies.

Keywords: challenger, homogeneity, managing diversity, niche strategy

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3583 Team Workforce Diversity and Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

Abstract:

This study was carried out a meta-analysis on team workforce diversity and team outcomes. Using data from 3,534 teams in 13 studies conducted in team-level settings, we examined whether contextual factors at research local and team-size, influenced team outcomes of team workforce diversity. This meta-analytic examines the team workforce diversity and team outcomes. 13 studies included in the analysis are studies published from 2009 to 2014. We first examined the correlations between all types of diversity and team performance, significant result (Fisher`s Z = .112, k = 32, 95% CI = 0.039 to 0.183). After the analysis was conducted to moderating effect of research local (Republic of Korea=1, other area=0) and team-size. As a result, research local moderating effect had a significant but team-size was not supported. Based on the above findings suggest implications and future research directions.

Keywords: team workforce diversity, team outcomes, meta- analytic, cross-cultural research

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
3582 Simulation-Based Diversity Management in Human-Robot Collaborative Scenarios

Authors: Titanilla Komenda, Viktorio Malisa

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of diversity-related factors on the design of collaborative scenarios is analysed. Based on the evaluation, a framework for simulating human-robot-collaboration is presented that considers both human factors as well as the overall system performance. The implementation of the model is shown on a real-life scenario from industry and validated in terms of traceability, safety and physical limitations. By comparing scenarios that consider diversity with those only meeting system performance, an overall understanding of individually adapted human-robot-collaborative workspaces is reached. A diversity-related guideline for human-robot-collaborations provides a summary of the research and aids in optimizing future applications. Finally, limitations and future amendments of the model are discussed.

Keywords: diversity, human-machine system, human-robot collaboration, simulation

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3581 Diversity of Bird Species and Conservation of Two Lacustrine Wetlands of the Upper Benue Basin, Adamawa, Nigeria

Authors: D. l. David, J. A. Wahedi, U. Buba, R. Zakariya

Abstract:

Between January, 2004 to December, 2005, studies were carried out on the bird species diversity and relative abundance of two lakes, Kiri and Gyawana near Numan using the “Timed Species Count (TSC)” method. 163 species in 53 bird families and 160 species in 55 bird families were recorded at Kiri and Gyawana lakes respectively. There was no significant difference in species diversity within bird families between the two lakes (p > 0.05), whereas in Gyawana Lake, one of the sites qualified as Ramsar site, none strongly qualified as an Important Bird Area (IBA). The significance of these findingsare also discussed.

Keywords: conservation, diversity, lacustrine, wetlands

Procedia PDF Downloads 596
3580 A Fundamental Functional Equation for Lie Algebras

Authors: Ih-Ching Hsu

Abstract:

Inspired by the so called Jacobi Identity (x y) z + (y z) x + (z x) y = 0, the following class of functional equations EQ I: F [F (x, y), z] + F [F (y, z), x] + F [F (z, x), y] = 0 is proposed, researched and generalized. Research methodologies begin with classical methods for functional equations, then evolve into discovering of any implicit algebraic structures. One of this paper’s major findings is that EQ I, under two additional conditions F (x, x) = 0 and F (x, y) + F (y, x) = 0, proves to be a fundamental functional equation for Lie Algebras. Existence of non-trivial solutions for EQ I can be proven by defining F (p, q) = [p q] = pq –qp, where p and q are quaternions, and pq is the quaternion product of p and q. EQ I can be generalized to the following class of functional equations EQ II: F [G (x, y), z] + F [G (y, z), x] + F [G (z, x), y] = 0. Concluding Statement: With a major finding proven, and non-trivial solutions derived, this research paper illustrates and provides a new functional equation scheme for studies in two major areas: (1) What underlying algebraic structures can be defined and/or derived from EQ I or EQ II? (2) What conditions can be imposed so that conditional general solutions to EQ I and EQ II can be found, investigated and applied?

Keywords: fundamental functional equation, generalized functional equations, Lie algebras, quaternions

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3579 Agroecological and Socioeconomic Determinants of Conserving Diversity On-Farm: The Case of Wheat Genetic Resources in Ethiopia

Authors: Bedilu Tafesse

Abstract:

Conservation of crop genetic resources presents a challenge of identifying specific determinants driving maintenance of diversity at farm and agroecosystems. The objectives of this study were to identify socioeconomic, market and agroecological determinants of farmers’ maintenance of wheat diversity at the household level and derive implications for policies in designing on-farm conservation programs. We assess wheat diversity at farm level using household survey data. A household decision making model is conceptualized using microeconomic theory to assess and identify factors influencing on-farm rice diversity. The model is then tested econometrically by using various factors affecting farmers’ variety choice and diversity decisions. The findings show that household-specific socioeconomic, agroecological and market factors are important in determining on-farm wheat diversity. The significant variables in explaining richness and evenness of wheat diversity include distance to the nearest market, subsistence ratio, modern variety sold, land types and adult labour working in agriculture. The statistical signs of the factors determining wheat diversity are consistent in explaining the richness, dominance and evenness among rice varieties. Finally, the study implies that the cost-effective means of promoting and sustaining on-farm conservation programmes is to target them in market isolated geographic locations of high crop diversity where farm households have more heterogeneity of agroecological conditions and more active family adult labour working on-farm.

Keywords: diversity indices, dominance, evenness, on-farm conservation, wheat diversity, richness

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3578 The Effects of Geographical and Functional Diversity of Collaborators on Quality of Knowledge Generated

Authors: Ajay Das, Sandip Basu

Abstract:

Introduction: There is increasing recognition that diverse streams of knowledge can often be recombined in novel ways to generate new knowledge. However, knowledge recombination theory has not been applied to examine the effects of collaborator diversity on the quality of knowledge such collaborators produce. This is surprising because one would expect that a collaborative team with certain aspects of diversity should be able to recombine process elements related to knowledge development, which are relatively tacit, but also complementary because of the collaborator’s varying backgrounds. Theory and Hypotheses: We propose to examine two aspects of diversity in the environments of collaborative teams to try and capture such potential recombinations of relatively tacit, process knowledge. The first aspect of diversity in team members’ environments is geographical. Collaborators with more geographical distance between them (perhaps working in different countries) often have more autonomy in the processes they adopt for knowledge development. In the absence of overt monitoring, such collaborators are likely to adopt differing approaches to knowledge development. The sharing of such varying approaches among collaborators is likely to result in greater quality of the common collaborative pursuit. The second aspect is diversity in the work backgrounds of team members. Such diversity can also increase the potential for knowledge recombination. For example, if one or more members are from a manufacturing center (versus all of them being from a purely R&D center), such members will provide unique perspectives on the implementation of innovative ideas. Again, knowledge that has been evaluated from these diverse perspectives is likely to be of a higher quality. In addition to the above aspects of environmental diversity among team members, we also plan to examine the extent to which individual collaborators are in different environments from the primary innovation center of their employing firms. Proposed Methods: We will test our model on a sample of firms in the semiconductor industry. Our level of analysis will be individual patents generated by these firms and the teams involved in the generation of these. Information on manufacturing activities of our sample firms will be obtained from SEMI, a proprietary database of the semiconductor industry, as well as company 10-K reports. Conclusion: We believe that our results will represent a preliminary attempt to understand how various forms of diversity in collaborative teams impact the knowledge development process. Our dependent variable of knowledge quality is important to study since higher values of this variable can not only drive firm performance but the broader development of regions and societies through spillover impacts on future innovation. The results of this study will, therefore, inform future research and practice in innovation, geographical location, and vertical integration.

Keywords: innovation, manufacturing strategy, knowledge, diversity

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3577 Butterfly Diversity along Urban-Rural Gradient in Kolkata, India

Authors: Sushmita Chaudhuri, Parthiba Basu

Abstract:

Urbanization leads to habitat degradation and is responsible for the fast disappearance of native butterfly species. Random sampling of rural, suburban and urban sites in an around Kolkata metropolis revealed the presence of 28 species of butterfly belonging to 5 different families in winter (February-March). Butterfly diversity, species richness and abundance decreased with increase in urbanization. Psyche (Leptosia nina of family Pieridae) was the most predominant butterfly species found everywhere in Kolkata during the winter period. The most dominant family was Nymphalidae (11species), followed by Pieridae (6 species), Lycaenidae (5 species), Papilionidae (4 species) and Hesperiidae (2 species). The rural and suburban sites had butterfly species that were unique to those sites. Vegetation cover and flowering shrub density were significantly related to butterfly diversity.

Keywords: butterfly, Kolkata metropolis, Shannon-Weiner diversity index, species diversity

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3576 A Study on Household Food Security and Dietary Diversity in Urban Centers of Thrissur

Authors: Sandra Thomas

Abstract:

This study tries to analyse the level of food security and dietary diversity among households of different socio-economic classes in the urban centers of Thrissur. The study revealed that there is no much difference in purchasing patterns of food articles among the socio-economic classes indicating a very high level of both physical and economic accessibility of food. On analysing the dietary diversity of the households none of the households scored below five and fifty-three per cent of the households scored eleven or twelve indicating higher diversity in diet. It was also found that income and education are the two important factors that influence the level of household food security.

Keywords: food security, dietary diversity, household level, socio-economic classes

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3575 Consumer Choice Determinants in Context of Functional Food

Authors: E. Grochowska-Niedworok, K. Brukało, M. Kardas

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The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the consumption of functional food by consumers by: age, sex, formal education level, place of residence and diagnosed diseases. The study employed an ad hoc questionnaire in a group of 300 inhabitants of Upper Silesia voivodship. Knowledge of functional food among the group covered in the study was far from satisfactory. The choice of functional food was of intuitive character. In addition, the group covered was more likely to choose pharmacotherapy instead of diet-related prevention then, which can be associated with presumption of too distant effects and a long period of treatment.

Keywords: consumer choice, functional food, healthy lifestyle, consumer knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
3574 Diversity and Quality of Food Consumption Compared to Nutritional Status in Ages 15–17 Years Old in Jakarta

Authors: Andra Vidyarini

Abstract:

Adolescence is a transition period in which various changes occur, both biologically, intellectually and psychosocially. Changes in adolescents, one of which is a change in food consumption patterns that make adolescents vulnerable to nutritional problems that can affect their growth and health in the future. Nutritional problems in adolescents have increased from year to year and one of the causes is the low diversity and quality of consumption. The diversity and quality of consumption can be seen through the Individual Dietary Diversity Score and the Healthy Eating Index. Currently, in Indonesia, data on the diversity and quality of food consumption, especially among adolescents, are still scarce. In general, the purpose of this study is to describe the diversity and quality of adolescent food consumption and the relationship between the diversity and quality of food consumption with nutritional status. This study is a cross-sectional study by looking at the diversity and quality of consumption of adolescents aged 15-17 years. The total number of subjects in this study amounted to 70 teenagers. This research was conducted online via a google form. Data analysis in this study was univariate and bivariate. The results showed that the diversity of the subject's food consumption was in the diverse and very diverse category with an average of 6. However, the quality was still not good, whereas it was still in the bad and moderate categories with an average of 12.93. The nutritional status of the majority of the subjects was in the normal category and overweight to obese. The implementation of blended learning where there are still limited face-to-face meetings at school can be the reason why teenagers' food consumption is more diverse than when they are face-to-face schools. In addition, changes in people's diet during the pandemic also influenced the results of the study. The change in pattern is a change in eating habits to three times a day with menu choices ranging from rice, meat, fish, bean and vegetables. Analysis of the relationship between the diversity and quality of food consumption shows that the diversity of consumption has a significant relationship with the quality of food consumption with a p-value of 0.002 (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the diversity and quality of food consumption have no significant relationship with nutritional status, with p values 0.777 and 0.251 (>0.05), respectively. This shows that the diversity of food consumption is directly proportional to the quality of consumption, where if you have a variety of food consumption, the quality or in terms of portions and weight are also sufficient in accordance with the recommendations of PGRS.

Keywords: healthy eating index (HEI), food diversity, quality of consumption, adolescent

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3573 Biodiversity Affects Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) Risk in Ethiopian Cattle: Prospects for Infectious Disease Control

Authors: Sintayehu W. Dejene, Ignas M. A. Heitkönig, Herbert H. T. Prins, Zewdu K. Tessema, Willem F. de Boer

Abstract:

Current theories on diversity-disease relationships describe host species diversity and species identity as important factors influencing disease risk, either diluting or amplifying disease prevalence in a community. Whereas the simple term ‘diversity’ embodies a set of animal community characteristics, it is not clear how different measures of species diversity are correlated with disease risk. We, therefore, tested the effects of species richness, Pielou’s evenness and Shannon’s diversity on bTB risk in cattle in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. We also analysed the identity effect of a particular species and the effect of host habitat use overlap on bTB risk. We used the comparative intradermal tuberculin test to assess the number of bTB infected cattle. Our results suggested a dilution effect through species evenness. We found that the identity effect of greater kudu - a maintenance host – confounded the dilution effect of species diversity on bTB risk. bTB infection was positively correlated with habitat use overlap between greater kudu and cattle. Different diversity indices have to be considered together for assessing diversity-disease relationships, for understanding the underlying causal mechanisms. We posit that unpacking diversity metrics is also relevant for formulating control strategies to manage cattle in ecosystems characterized by seasonally limited resources and intense wildlife-livestock interactions.

Keywords: evenness, diversity, greater kudu, identity effect, maintenance hosts, multi-host disease ecology, habitat use overlap

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3572 Racial Diversity in Founding Ownership Teams and Business Performance in New Firms

Authors: Cedric Herring, Loren Henderson, Hayward Derrick Horton, Melvin Thomas

Abstract:

This paper asks whether business startups benefit from having racially diverse founding ownership teams. Using nationally representative data from the Kauffman Firm Survey, the analysis examines the relationship between the racial diversity of the founding ownership teams of business startups and their net worth, revenue, debt, and profits. The analysis shows that, net of firm characteristics and human capital characteristics, startups with racially diverse founding teams have higher net worth, lower debt, and greater profits than their non-diverse counterparts. The racial diversity of ownership teams is not, however, related to startup firms’ revenues, net of other factors. The implications of these findings are explored.

Keywords: racial diversity, business startups, founding ownership teams, diversity and business performance

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3571 Prevention of Green Gentrification: The Case of the Sustainable Urban Policy in Paris

Authors: Elise Machline

Abstract:

In the late 1980’s, sustainable urban development emerged in Europe. Sustainable neighborhoods are one attempt to implement sustainable urban energy planning in the city. So, for twenty years, projects of sustainable neighborhoods (or ‘eco-neighborhoods’) have emerged in Europe. Debates about sustainability no longer restrict it to environmental concerns (to limit greenhouse gas emissions), but rather extend to the economic and social dimensions. A growing number of empirical studies demonstrate that sustainable urbanism yield rental/sale premia, as well as higher occupancy rates and thus higher asset values. For example, European eco neighborhood projects usually focus on the middle to upper classes, given the costs involved in renting or buying the dwellings built in such projects. As a result sustainable residential buildings are not affordable and their construction tends to have a gentrifying effect. An increasing number of countries are institutionalizing green strategies for affordable housing. In France, the sustainable neighborhoods ‘ecoquartier’ must meet environmental performance criteria, have a potential for economic development and, provide social and functional diversity. The issue of social diversity trough the provision of affordable housing has emerged as a dimension of public housing policies. Thus, the ecoquartier residential buildings must be both energy efficient and affordable. Through the Parisian example our study considers how the concept of social diversity and other elements of sustainability are illustrated in the ecoquartiers and whether the authorities have been able to avoid gentrification when implementing a sustainable urban policy.

Keywords: sustainable neighborhoods, social diversity, social housing policies, green buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
3570 The Molecular Bases of Δβ T-Cell Mediated Antigen Recognition

Authors: Eric Chabrol, Sidonia B.G. Eckle, Renate de Boer, James McCluskey, Jamie Rossjohn, Mirjam H.M. Heemskerk, Stephanie Gras

Abstract:

αβ and γδ T-cells are disparate T-cell lineages that, via their use of either αβ or γδ T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) respectively, can respond to distinct antigens. Here we characterise a new population of human T-cells, term δβ T-cells, that express TCRs comprising a TCR-δ variable gene fused to a Joining-α/Constant-α domain, paired with an array of TCR-β chains. We characterised the cellular, functional, biophysical and structural characteristic feature of this new T-cells population that reveal some new insight into TCR diversity. We provide molecular bases of how δβ T-cells can recognise viral peptide presented by Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) molecule. Our findings highlight how components from αβ and γδTCR gene loci can recombine to confer antigen specificity thus expanding our understanding of T-cell biology and TCR diversity.

Keywords: new delta-beta TCR, HLA, viral peptide, structural immunology

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3569 Features of the Functional and Spatial Organization of Railway Hubs as a Part of the Urban Nodal Area

Authors: Khayrullina Yulia Sergeevna, Tokareva Goulsine Shavkatovna

Abstract:

The article analyzes the modern major railway hubs as a main part of the Urban Nodal Area (UNA). The term was introduced into the theory of urban planning at the end of the XX century. Tokareva G.S. jointly with Gutnov A.E. investigated the structure-forming elements of the city. UNA is the basic unit, the "cell" of the city structure. Specialization is depending on the position in the frame or the fabric of the city. This is related to feature of its organization. Spatial and functional features of UNA proposed to investigate in this paper. The base object for researching are railway hubs as connective nodes of inner and extern-city communications. Research used a stratified sampling type with the selection of typical objects. Research is being conducted on the 14 railway hubs of the native and foreign experience of the largest cities with a population over 1 million people located in one and close to the Russian climate zones. Features of the organization identified in the complex research of functional and spatial characteristics based on the hypothesis of the existence of dual characteristics of the organization of urban nodes. According to the analysis, there is using the approximation method that enable general conclusions of a representative selection of the entire population of railway hubs and it development’s area. Results of the research show specific ratio of functional and spatial organization of UNA based on railway hubs. Based on it there proposed typology of spaces and urban nodal areas. Identification of spatial diversity and functional organization’s features of the greatest railway hubs and it development’s area gives an indication of the different evolutionary stages of formation approaches. It help to identify new patterns for the complex and effective design as a prediction of the native hub’s development direction.

Keywords: urban nodal area, railway hubs, features of structural, functional organization

Procedia PDF Downloads 310