Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 186

Search results for: homogeneity

186 Homogeneity among Diversity

Authors: Yu Guang

Abstract:

“Case studies are the preferred strategy when ‘how’ or ‘why’ questions are being posed.” Therefore, the study is based on two cases: strategy performed in JingNan War and by NIKE. The two samples are chosen as they are of comparability. Data are gathered and PEST and SWOT are used as analysis models to examine their strategic employment in order that the answer to brilliant strategies in variety is found. The niche strategy has been used in the past and present, in the battle fields and business. The homogeneity among diversity is the skill of performing strategies.

Keywords: challenger, homogeneity, managing diversity, niche strategy

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185 Competing Risks Modeling Using within Node Homogeneity Classification Tree

Authors: Kazeem Adesina Dauda, Waheed Babatunde Yahya

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To design a tree that maximizes within-node homogeneity, there is a need for a homogeneity measure that is appropriate for event history data with multiple risks. We consider the use of Deviance and Modified Cox-Snell residuals as a measure of impurity in Classification Regression Tree (CART) and compare our results with the results of Fiona (2008) in which homogeneity measures were based on Martingale Residual. Data structure approach was used to validate the performance of our proposed techniques via simulation and real life data. The results of univariate competing risk revealed that: using Deviance and Cox-Snell residuals as a response in within node homogeneity classification tree perform better than using other residuals irrespective of performance techniques. Bone marrow transplant data and double-blinded randomized clinical trial, conducted in other to compare two treatments for patients with prostate cancer were used to demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed method vis-à-vis the existing ones. Results from empirical studies of the bone marrow transplant data showed that the proposed model with Cox-Snell residual (Deviance=16.6498) performs better than both the Martingale residual (deviance=160.3592) and Deviance residual (Deviance=556.8822) in both event of interest and competing risks. Additionally, results from prostate cancer also reveal the performance of proposed model over the existing one in both causes, interestingly, Cox-Snell residual (MSE=0.01783563) outfit both the Martingale residual (MSE=0.1853148) and Deviance residual (MSE=0.8043366). Moreover, these results validate those obtained from the Monte-Carlo studies.

Keywords: within-node homogeneity, Martingale residual, modified Cox-Snell residual, classification and regression tree

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184 Psychological Compatibility of Football Players According to Success Achievement and Failure Avoidance Motivation

Authors: Konstantin A. Bochaver, Alexandra O. Savinkina

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The study analyzed the relationship between the homogeneity-heterogeneity of players in a football team and their efficiency. Compatible players were examined in terms of level of socio-psychological development of the team for which they act. It was shown that in teams of high level of socio-psychological development more compatible were athletes with different levels of failure avoidance motivation. But in low-level teams – bucking the trend. The homogeneity of success achievement motivation was not a factor in the effectiveness of the football team.

Keywords: compatibility, failure avoidance motivation, football, heterogeneity, homogeneity, soccer, sport team, success achievement motivation

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183 Effect of Anisotropy and Heterogeneity on Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations

Authors: S. A. Naeini, A. Mahigir

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Naturally occurring cohesive soil deposits are inherently anisotropic with respect to different properties amongst which is the shear strength. The anisotropy is primary due to the process of sedimentation followed by predominantly one-dimensional consolidation. However, most soils in their natural states exhibit some anisotropy with respect to shear strength and some non-homogeneity with respect to depth. In this paper the standard Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion was modified to consider the anisotropic shear strength properties. The term non-homogeneity used in this paper refers to only the cohesion intercept which is assumed to vary linearly with depth. The effect of both anisotropy and deterministic non-homogeneity on bearing capacity of shallow foundation was investigated using finite difference method. Result of numerical analysis indicates that the cohesion anisotropy has a significant effect on bearing capacity of shallow foundation. Furthermore, the linear and bilinear heterogeneity affects the bearing capacity in a similar way although the anisotropy issue emerges to be more important as far as shallow foundations are considered.

Keywords: anisotropic ratio, finite difference analysis, bearing capacity, heterogeneity

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
182 Transverse Vibration of Non-Homogeneous Rectangular Plates of Variable Thickness Using GDQ

Authors: R. Saini, R. Lal

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The effect of non-homogeneity on the free transverse vibration of thin rectangular plates of bilinearly varying thickness has been analyzed using generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. The non-homogeneity of the plate material is assumed to arise due to linear variations in Young’s modulus and density of the plate material with the in-plane coordinates x and y. Numerical results have been computed for fully clamped and fully simply supported boundary conditions. The solution procedure by means of GDQ method has been implemented in a MATLAB code. The effect of various plate parameters has been investigated for the first three modes of vibration. A comparison of results with those available in literature has been presented.

Keywords: rectangular, non-homogeneous, bilinear thickness, generalized differential quadrature (GDQ)

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181 Assessing Influence of End-Boundary Conditions on Stability and Second-Order Lateral Stiffness of Beam-Column Elements Embedded in Non-Homogeneous Soil

Authors: Carlos A. Vega-Posada, Jeisson Alejandro Higuita-Villa, Julio C. Saldarriaga-Molina

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This paper presents a simplified analytical approach to conduct elastic stability and second-order lateral stiffness analyses of beam-column elements (i.e., piles) with generalized end-boundary conditions embedded on a homogeneous or non-homogeneous Pasternak foundation. The solution is derived using the well-known Differential Transformation Method (DTM), and it consists simply of solving a system of two linear algebraic equations. Using other conventional approaches to solve the governing differential equation of the proposed element can be cumbersome and the solution challenging to implement, especially when the non-homogeneity of the soil is considered. The proposed formulation includes the effects of i) any rotational or lateral transverse spring at the ends of the pile, ii) any external transverse load acting along the pile, iii) soil non-homogeneity, and iv) the second-parameter of the elastic foundation (i.e., shear layer connecting the springs at the top). A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effects of different modulus of subgrade reactions, degrees of non-homogeneities, and intermediate end-boundary conditions on the pile response. The same set of equations can be used to conduct both elastic stability and static analyses. Comprehensive examples are presented to show the simplicity and practicability of the proposed method.

Keywords: elastic stability, second-order lateral stiffness, soil-non-homogeneity, pile analysis

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180 Spatiotemporal Variability in Rainfall Trends over Sinai Peninsula Using Nonparametric Methods and Discrete Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Mosaad Khadr

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Knowledge of the temporal and spatial variability of rainfall trends has been of great concern for efficient water resource planning, management. In this study annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall trends over the Sinai Peninsula were analyzed by using absolute homogeneity tests, nonparametric Mann–Kendall (MK) test and Sen’s slope estimator methods. The homogeneity of rainfall time-series was examined using four absolute homogeneity tests namely, the Pettitt test, standard normal homogeneity test, Buishand range test, and von Neumann ratio test. Further, the sequential change in the trend of annual and seasonal rainfalls is conducted using sequential MK (SQMK) method. Then the trend analysis based on discrete wavelet transform technique (DWT) in conjunction with SQMK method is performed. The spatial patterns of the detected rainfall trends were investigated using a geostatistical and deterministic spatial interpolation technique. The results achieved from the Mann–Kendall test to the data series (using the 5% significance level) highlighted that rainfall was generally decreasing in January, February, March, November, December, wet season, and annual rainfall. A significant decreasing trend in the winter and annual rainfall with significant levels were inferred based on the Mann-Kendall rank statistics and linear trend. Further, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) analysis reveal that in general, intra- and inter-annual events (up to 4 years) are more influential in affecting the observed trends. The nature of the trend captured by both methods is similar for all of the cases. On the basis of spatial trend analysis, significant rainfall decreases were also noted in the investigated stations. Overall, significant downward trends in winter and annual rainfall over the Sinai Peninsula was observed during the study period.

Keywords: trend analysis, rainfall, Mann–Kendall test, discrete wavelet transform, Sinai Peninsula

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179 Statistical Analysis of Rainfall Change over the Blue Nile Basin

Authors: Hany Mustafa, Mahmoud Roushdi, Khaled Kheireldin

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Rainfall variability is an important feature of semi-arid climates. Climate change is very likely to increase the frequency, magnitude, and variability of extreme weather events such as droughts, floods, and storms. The Blue Nile Basin is facing extreme climate change-related events such as floods and droughts and its possible impacts on ecosystem, livelihood, agriculture, livestock, and biodiversity are expected. Rainfall variability is a threat to food production in the Blue Nile Basin countries. This study investigates the long-term variations and trends of seasonal and annual precipitation over the Blue Nile Basin for 102-year period (1901-2002). Six statistical trend analysis of precipitation was performed with nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator. On the other hands, four statistical absolute homogeneity tests: Standard Normal Homogeneity Test, Buishand Range test, Pettitt test and the Von Neumann ratio test were applied to test the homogeneity of the rainfall data, using XLSTAT software, which results of p-valueless than alpha=0.05, were significant. The percentages of significant trends obtained for each parameter in the different seasons are presented. The study recommends adaptation strategies to be streamlined to relevant policies, enhancing local farmers’ adaptive capacity for facing future climate change effects.

Keywords: Blue Nile basin, climate change, Mann-Kendall test, trend analysis

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178 Influence of Composite Adherents Properties on the Dynamic Behavior of Double Lap Bonded Joint

Authors: P. Saleh, G. Challita, R. Hazimeh, K. Khalil

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In this paper 3D FEM analysis was carried out on double lap bonded joint with composite adherents subjected to dynamic shear. The adherents are made of Carbon/Epoxy while the adhesive is epoxy Araldite 2031. The maximum average shear stress and the stress homogeneity in the adhesive layer were examined. Three fibers textures were considered: UD; 2.5D and 3D with same volume fiber then a parametric study based on changing the thickness and the type of fibers texture in 2.5D was accomplished. Moreover, adherents’ dissimilarity was also investigated. It was found that the main parameter influencing the behavior is the longitudinal stiffness of the adherents. An increase in the adherents’ longitudinal stiffness induces an increase in the maximum average shear stress in the adhesive layer and an improvement in the shear stress homogeneity within the joint. No remarkable improvement was observed for dissimilar adherents.

Keywords: adhesive, composite adherents, impact shear, finite element

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177 Heterogeneity, Asymmetry and Extreme Risk Perception; Dynamic Evolution Detection From Implied Risk Neutral Density

Authors: Abderrahmen Aloulou, Younes Boujelbene

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The current paper displays a new method of extracting information content from options prices by eliminating biases caused by daily variation of contract maturity. Based on Kernel regression tool, this non-parametric technique serves to obtain a spectrum of interpolated options with constant maturity horizons from negotiated optional contracts on the S&P TSX 60 index. This method makes it plausible to compare daily risk neutral densities from which extracting time continuous indicators allows the detection traders attitudes’ evolution, such as, belief homogeneity, asymmetry and extreme Risk Perception. Our findings indicate that the applied method contribute to develop effective trading strategies and to adjust monetary policies through controlling trader’s reactions to economic and monetary news.

Keywords: risk neutral densities, kernel, constant maturity horizons, homogeneity, asymmetry and extreme risk perception

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176 Homogeneity and Trend Analyses of Temperature Indices: The Case Study of Umbria Region (Italy) in the Mediterranean Area

Authors: R. Morbidelli, C. Saltalippi, A. Flammini, A. Garcia-Marin, J. L. Ayuso-Munoz

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The climate change, mainly due to greenhouse gas emissions associated to human activities, has been modifying hydrologic processes with a direct effect on air surface temperature that has significantly increased in the last century at global scale. In this context the Mediterranean area is considered to be particularly sensitive to the climate change impacts on temperature indices. An analysis finalized to study the evolution of temperature indices and to check the existence of significant trends in the Umbria Region (Italy) is presented. Temperature data were obtained by seven meteorological stations uniformly distributed in the study area and characterized by very long series of temperature observations (at least 60 years) spanning the 1924-2015 period. A set of 39 temperature indices represented by monthly and annual mean, average maximum and average minimum temperatures, has been derived. The trend analysis was realized by applying the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test, while the non-parametric Pettit test and the parametric Standard Normal Homogeneity test (SNHT) were used to check the presence of breakpoints or in-homogeneities due to environmental changes/anthropic activity or climate change effects. The Umbria region, in agreement with other recent studies exploring the temperature behavior in Italy, shows a general increase in all temperature indices, with the only exception of Gubbio site that exhibits very light negative trends or absence of trend. The presence of break points and in-homogeneity was widely explored through the selected tests and the results were checked on the basis of the well-known metadata of the meteorological stations.

Keywords: reception theory, reading, literary translation, horizons of expectation, reader

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175 FTIR and AFM Properties of Doubly Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

Authors: Bahattin Duzgun, Adem Kocyigit, Demet Tatar, Ahmet Battal

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Tin oxide thin films are semiconductor materials highly transparent and with high mechanical and chemical stability, except for their interactions with oxygen atoms at high temperature. Many dopants, such as antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), fluorine (F), indium (In), molybdenum and (Mo) etc. have been used to improve the electrical properties of tin oxide films. Among these, Sb and F are found to be the most commonly used dopants for solar cell layers. Also Tin oxide tin films investigated and characterized by researchers different film deposition and analysis method. In this study, tin oxide thin films are deposited on glass substrate by spin coating technique and characterized by FTIR and AFM. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that all films have O-Sn-O and Sn-OH vibration bonds not changing with layer effect. AFM analysis indicates that all films are homogeneity and uniform. It can be seen that all films have needle shape structure in their surfaces. Uniformity and homogeneity of the films generally increased for increasing layers. The results found in present study showed that doubly doped SnO2 thin films is a good candidate for solar cells and other optoelectronic and technological applications.

Keywords: doubly doped, spin coating, FTIR analysis, AFM analysis

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174 A Monopole Intravascular Antenna with Three Parasitic Elements Optimized for Higher Tesla MRI Systems

Authors: Mohammad Mohammadzadeh, Alireza Ghasempour

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In this paper, a new design of monopole antenna has been proposed that increases the contrast of intravascular magnetic resonance images through increasing the homogeneity of the intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (ISNR) distribution around the antenna. The antenna is made of a coaxial cable with three parasitic elements. Lengths and positions of the elements are optimized by the improved genetic algorithm (IGA) for 1.5, 3, 4.7, and 7Tesla MRI systems based on a defined cost function. Simulations were also conducted to verify the performance of the designed antenna. Our simulation results show that each time IGA is executed different values for the parasitic elements are obtained so that the cost functions of those antennas are high. According to the obtained results, IGA can also find the best values for the parasitic elements (regarding cost function) in the next executions. Additionally, two dimensional and one-dimensional maps of ISNR were drawn for the proposed antenna and compared to the previously published monopole antenna with one parasitic element at the frequency of 64MHz inside a saline phantom. Results verified that in spite of ISNR decreasing, there is a considerable improvement in the homogeneity of ISNR distribution of the proposed antenna so that their multiplication increases.

Keywords: intravascular MR antenna, monopole antenna, parasitic elements, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), genetic algorithm

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173 Price Heterogeneity in Establishing Real Estate Composite Price Index as Underlying Asset for Property Derivatives in Russia

Authors: Andrey Matyukhin

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Russian official statistics have been showing a steady decline in residential real estate prices for several consecutive years. Price risk in real estate markets is thus affecting various groups of economic agents, namely, individuals, construction companies and financial institutions. Potential use of property derivatives might help mitigate adverse consequences of negative price dynamics. Unless a sustainable price indicator is developed, settlement of such instruments imposes constraints on counterparties involved while imposing restrictions on real estate market development. The study addresses geographical and classification heterogeneity in real estate prices by means of variance analysis in various groups of real estate properties. In conclusion, we determine optimal sample structure of representative real estate assets with sufficient level of price homogeneity. The composite price indicator based on the sample would have a higher level of robustness and reliability and hence improving liquidity in the market for property derivatives through underlying standardization. Unlike the majority of existing real estate price indices, calculated on country-wide basis, the optimal indices for Russian market shall be constructed on the city-level.

Keywords: price homogeneity, property derivatives, real estate price index, real estate price risk

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172 Comparison of Automated Zone Design Census Output Areas with Existing Output Areas in South Africa

Authors: T. Mokhele, O. Mutanga, F. Ahmed

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South Africa is one of the few countries that have stopped using the same Enumeration Areas (EAs) for census enumeration and dissemination. The advantage of this change is that confidentiality issue could be addressed for census dissemination as the design of geographic unit for collection is mainly to ensure that this unit is covered by one enumerator. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the performance of automated zone design output areas against non-zone design developed geographies using the 2001 census data, and 2011 census to some extent, as the main input. The comparison of the Automated Zone-design Tool (AZTool) census output areas with the Small Area Layers (SALs) and SubPlaces based on confidentiality limit, population distribution, and degree of homogeneity, as well as shape compactness, was undertaken. Further, SPSS was employed for validation of the AZTool output results. The results showed that AZTool developed output areas out-perform the existing official SAL and SubPlaces with regard to minimum population threshold, population distribution and to some extent to homogeneity. Therefore, it was concluded that AZTool program provides a new alternative to the creation of optimised census output areas for dissemination of population census data in South Africa.

Keywords: AZTool, enumeration areas, small areal layers, South Africa

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171 Dosimetric Comparison of Conventional Plans versus Three Dimensional Conformal Simultaneously Integrated Boost Plans

Authors: Shoukat Ali, Amjad Hussain, Latif-ur-Rehman, Sehrish Inam

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Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of cancer patients. Approximately 50% of the cancer patients receive radiotherapy at one point or another during the course of treatment. The entire radiotherapy treatment of curative intent is divided into different phases, depending on the histology of the tumor. The established protocols are useful in deciding the total dose, fraction size, and numbers of phases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric differences between the conventional treatment protocols and the three-dimensional conformal simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) plans for three different tumors sites (i.e. bladder, breast, and brain). A total of 30 patients with brain, breast and bladder cancers were selected in this retrospective study. All the patients were CT simulated initially. The primary physician contoured PTV1 and PTV2 in the axial slices. The conventional doses prescribed for brain and breast is 60Gy/30 fractions, and 64.8Gy/36 fractions for bladder treatment. For the SIB plans biological effective doses (BED) were calculated for 25 fractions. The two conventional (Phase I and Phase II) and a single SIB plan for each patient were generated on Eclipse™ treatment planning system. Treatment plans were compared and analyzed for coverage index, conformity index, homogeneity index, dose gradient and organs at risk doses.In both plans 95% of PTV volume received a minimum of 95% of the prescribe dose. Dose deviation in the optic chiasm was found to be less than 0.5%. There is no significant difference in lung V20 and heart V30 in the breast plans. In the rectum plans V75%, V50% and V25% were found to be less than 1.2% different. Deviation in the tumor coverage, conformity and homogeneity indices were found to be less than 1%. SIB plans with three dimensional conformal radiotherapy technique reduce the overall treatment time without compromising the target coverage and without increasing dose to the organs at risk. The higher dose per fraction may increase the late effects to some extent. Further studies are required to evaluate the late effects with the intention of standardizing the SIB technique for practical implementation.

Keywords: coverage index, conformity index, dose gradient, homogeneity index, simultaneously integrated boost

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170 Evaluation of Two Earliness Cotton Genotypes in Three Ecological Regions

Authors: Gholamhossein Hosseini

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Two earliness cotton genotypes I and II, which had been developed by hybridization and backcross methods between sindise-80 as an early maturing gene parent and two other lines i.e. Red leaf and Bulgare-557 as a second parent, are subjected to different environmental conditions. The early maturing genotypes with coded names of I and II were compared with four native cotton cultivars in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications in three ecological regions of Iran from 2016-2017. Two early maturing genotypes along with four native cultivars viz. Varamin, Oltan, Sahel and Arya were planted in Agricultural Research Station of Varamin, Moghan and Kashmar for evaluation. Earliness data were collected for six treatments during two years in the three regions except missing data for the second year of Kashmar. Therefore, missed data were estimated and imputed. For testing the homogeneity of error variances, each experiment at a given location or year is analyzed separately using Hartley and Bartlett’s Chi-square tests and both tests confirmed homogeneity of variance. Combined analysis of variance showed that genotypes I and II were superior in Varamin, Moghan and Kashmar regions. Earliness means and their interaction effects were compared with Duncan’s multiple range tests. Finally combined analysis of variance showed that genotypes I and II were superior in Varamin, Moghan and Kashmar regions. Earliness means and their interaction effects are compared with Duncan’s multiple range tests.

Keywords: cotton, combined, analysis, earliness

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169 Spatial Indeterminacy: Destabilization of Dichotomies in Modern and Contemporary Architecture

Authors: Adrian Lo

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Since the beginning of modern architecture, ideas of free plan and transparency have proliferated well into current trends of building design, from houses to highrise office buildings. The movement’s notion of a spatially homogeneous, open, and limitless ‘free plan’ stands opposite to the spatially heterogeneous ‘separation of rooms’ defined by load-bearing walls, which in turn triggered new notions of transparency achieved by vast expanses of glazed walls. Similarly, transparency was also dichotomized as something that was physical or optical, as well as something conceptual, akin to spatial organization. As opposed to merely accepting the duality and possible incompatibility of these dichotomies, this paper seeks to ask how can space be both literally and phenomenally transparent, as well as display both homogeneous and heterogeneous qualities? This paper explores this potential destabilization or blurring of spatial phenomena by dissecting the transparent layers and volumes of a series of selected case studies to investigate how different architects have devised strategies of spatial ambivalence, ambiguity, and interpenetration. Projects by Peter Eisenman, Sou Fujimoto, and SANAA will be discussed and analyzed to show how the superimposition of geometries and spaces achieve different conditions of layering, transparency, and interstitiality. Their particular buildings will be explored to reveal various innovative kinds of spatial interpenetration produced through the articulate relations of the elements of architecture, which challenge conventional perceptions of interior and exterior whereby visual homogeneity blurs with spatial heterogeneity. The results show how spatial conceptions such as interpenetration and transparency have the ability to subvert not only inside-outside dialectics but could also produce multiple degrees of interiority within complex and indeterminate spatial dimensions in constant flux as well as present alternative forms of social interaction.

Keywords: interpenetration, literal and phenomenal transparency, spatial heterogeneity, visual homogeneity

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168 Preparation of Novel Silicone/Graphene-based Nanostructured Surfaces as Fouling Release Coatings

Authors: Mohamed S. Selim, Nesreen A. Fatthallah, Shimaa A. Higazy, Zhifeng Hao, Ping Jing Mo

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As marine fouling-release (FR) surfaces, two new superhydrophobic nanocomposite series of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) loaded with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and graphene oxide/boehmite nanorods (GO-γ-AlOOH) nanofillers were created. The self-cleaning and antifouling capabilities were modified by controlling the nanofillers' shapes and distribution in the silicone matrix. With an average diameter of 10-20 nm and a length of 200 nm, γ-AlOOH nanorods showed a single crystallinity. RGO was made using a hydrothermal process, whereas GO-γ-AlOOH nanocomposites were made using a chemical deposition method for use as fouling-release coating materials. These nanofillers were disseminated in the silicone matrix using the solution casting method to explore the synergetic effects of graphene-based materials on the surface, mechanical, and FR characteristics. Water contact angle (WCA), scanning electron, and atomic force microscopes were used to investigate the surface's hydrophobicity and antifouling capabilities (SEM and AFM). The roughness, superhydrophobicity, and surface mechanical characteristics of coatings all increased the homogeneity of the nanocomposite dispersion. To examine the antifouling effects of the coating systems, laboratory tests were conducted for 30 days using specified bacteria.PDMS/GO-γ-AlOOH nanorod composite demonstrated superior antibacterial efficacy against several bacterial strains than PDMS/RGO nanocomposite. The high surface area and stabilizing effects of the GO-γ-AlOOH hybrid nanofillers are to blame for this. The biodegradability percentage of the PDMS/GO-γ-AlOOH nanorod composite (3 wt.%) was the lowest (1.6%), while the microbial endurability percentages for gram-positive, gram-negative, and fungi were 86.42%, 97.94%, and 85.97%, respectively. The homogeneity of the GO-γ-AlOOH (3 wt.%) dispersion, which had a WCA of 151° and a rough surface, was the most profound superhydrophobic antifouling nanostructured coating.

Keywords: superhydrophobic nanocomposite, fouling release, nanofillers, surface coating

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167 Assessing the Roles Languages Education Plays in Nation Building in Nigeria

Authors: Edith Lotachukwu Ochege

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Nations stay together when citizens share enough values and preferences and can communicate with each other. Homogeneity among people can be built with education, teaching a common language to facilitate communication, infrastructure for easier travel, but also by brute force such as prohibiting local cultures. This paper discusses the role of language education in nation building. It defines education, highlights the functions of language. Furthermore, it expresses socialization agents that aid culture which are all embodied in language, problems of nation building.

Keywords: nation building, language education, function of language, socialization

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166 Electrical Properties of CVD-Graphene on SiC

Authors: Bilal Jabakhanji, Dimitris Kazazis, Adrien Michon, Christophe Consejo, Wilfried Desrat, Benoit Jouault

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In this paper, we investigate the electrical properties of graphene grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on the Si face of SiC substrates. Depending on the growth condition, hole or electron doping can be achieved, down to a few 1011cm−2. The high homogeneity of the graphene and the low intrinsic carrier concentration, allow the remarkable observation of the Half Integer Quantum Hall Effect, typical of graphene, at the centimeter scale.

Keywords: graphene, quantum hall effect, chemical vapor, deposition, silicon carbide

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165 Preparation of Silver and Silver-Gold, Universal and Repeatable, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Platforms from SERSitive

Authors: Pawel Albrycht, Monika Ksiezopolska-Gocalska, Robert Holyst

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Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a technique of growing importance not only in purely scientific research related to analytical chemistry. It finds more and more applications in broadly understood testing - medical, forensic, pharmaceutical, food - and everywhere works perfectly, on one condition that SERS substrates used for testing give adequate enhancement, repeatability, and homogeneity of SERS signal. This is a problem that has existed since the invention of this technique. Some laboratories use as SERS amplifiers colloids with silver or gold nanoparticles, others form rough silver or gold surfaces, but results are generally either weak or unrepeatable. Furthermore, these structures are very often highly specific - they amplify the signal only of a small group of compounds. It means that they work with some kinds of analytes but only with those which were used at a developer’s laboratory. When it comes to research on different compounds, completely new SERS 'substrates' are required. That underlay our decision to develop universal substrates for the SERS spectroscopy. Generally, each compound has different affinity for both silver and gold, which have the best SERS properties, and that's what depends on what signal we get in the SERS spectrum. Our task was to create the platform that gives a characteristic 'fingerprint' of the largest number of compounds with very high repeatability - even at the expense of the intensity of the enhancement factor (EF) (possibility to repeat research results is of the uttermost importance). As specified above SERS substrates are offered by SERSitive company. Applied method is based on cyclic potentiodynamic electrodeposition of silver or silver-gold nanoparticles on the conductive surface of ITO-coated glass at controlled temperature of the reaction solution. Silver nanoparticles are supplied in the form of silver nitrate (AgNO₃, 10 mM), gold nanoparticles are derived from tetrachloroauric acid (10 mM) while sodium sulfite (Na₂O₃, 5 mM) is used as a reductor. To limit and standardize the size of the SERS surface on which nanoparticles are deposited, photolithography is used. We secure the desired ITO-coated glass surface, and then etch the unprotected ITO layer which prevents nanoparticles from settling at these sites. On the prepared surface, we carry out the process described above, obtaining SERS surface with nanoparticles of sizes 50-400 nm. The SERSitive platforms present highly sensitivity (EF = 10⁵-10⁶), homogeneity and repeatability (70-80%).

Keywords: electrodeposition, nanoparticles, Raman spectroscopy, SERS, SERSitive, SERS platforms, SERS substrates

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164 An Analysis of the Relation between Need for Psychological Help and Psychological Symptoms

Authors: İsmail Ay

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In this study, it was aimed to determine the relations between need for psychological help and psychological symptoms. The sample of the study consists of 530 university students getting educated in University of Atatürk in 2015-2016 academic years. Need for Psychological Help Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory were used to collect data in the study. In data analysis, correlation analysis and structural equation model with latent variables were used. Normality and homogeneity analyses were used to analyze the basic conditions of parametric tests. The findings obtained from the study show that as the psychological symptoms increase, need for psychological help also increases. The findings obtained through the study were approached according to the literature.

Keywords: psychological symptoms, need for psychological help, structural equation model, correlation

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163 Personality Composition in Senior Management Teams: The Importance of Homogeneity in Dynamic Managerial Capabilities

Authors: Shelley Harrington

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As a result of increasingly dynamic business environments, the creation and fostering of dynamic capabilities, [those capabilities that enable sustained competitive success despite of dynamism through the awareness and reconfiguration of internal and external competencies], supported by organisational learning [a dynamic capability] has gained increased and prevalent momentum in the research arena. Presenting findings funded by the Economic Social Research Council, this paper investigates the extent to which Senior Management Team (SMT) personality (at the trait and facet level) is associated with the creation of dynamic managerial capabilities at the team level, and effective organisational learning/knowledge sharing within the firm. In doing so, this research highlights the importance of micro-foundations in organisational psychology and specifically dynamic capabilities, a field which to date has largely ignored the importance of psychology in understanding these important and necessary capabilities. Using a direct measure of personality (NEO PI-3) at the trait and facet level across 32 high technology and finance firms in the UK, their CEOs (N=32) and their complete SMTs [N=212], a new measure of dynamic managerial capabilities at the team level was created and statistically validated for use within the work. A quantitative methodology was employed with regression and gap analysis being used to show the empirical foundations of personality being positioned as a micro-foundation of dynamic capabilities. The results of this study found that personality homogeneity within the SMT was required to strengthen the dynamic managerial capabilities of sensing, seizing and transforming, something which was required to reflect strong organisational learning at middle management level [N=533]. In particular, it was found that the greater the difference [t-score gaps] between the personality profiles of a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and their complete, collective SMT, the lower the resulting self-reported nature of dynamic managerial capabilities. For example; the larger the difference between a CEOs level of dutifulness, a facet contributing to the definition of conscientiousness, and their SMT’s level of dutifulness, the lower the reported level of transforming, a capability fundamental to strategic change in a dynamic business environment. This in turn directly questions recent trends, particularly in upper echelons research highlighting the need for heterogeneity within teams. In doing so, it successfully positions personality as a micro-foundation of dynamic capabilities, thus contributing to recent discussions from within the strategic management field calling for the need to empirically explore dynamic capabilities at such a level.

Keywords: dynamic managerial capabilities, senior management teams, personality, dynamism

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162 Uniform and Controlled Cooling of a Steel Block by Multiple Jet Impingement and Airflow

Authors: E. K. K. Agyeman, P. Mousseau, A. Sarda, D. Edelin

Abstract:

During the cooling of hot metals by the circulation of water in canals formed by boring holes in the metal, the rapid phase change of the water due to the high initial temperature of the metal leads to a non homogenous distribution of the phases within the canals. The liquid phase dominates towards the entrance of the canal while the gaseous phase dominates towards the exit. As a result of the different thermal properties of both phases, the metal is not uniformly cooled. This poses a problem during the cooling of moulds, where a uniform temperature distribution is needed in order to ensure the integrity of the part being formed. In this study, the simultaneous use of multiple water jets and an airflow for the uniform and controlled cooling of a steel block is investigated. A circular hole is bored at the centre of the steel block along its length and a perforated steel pipe is inserted along the central axis of the hole. Water jets that impact the internal surface of the steel block are generated from the perforations in the steel pipe when the water within it is put under pressure. These jets are oriented in the opposite direction to that of gravity. An intermittent airflow is imposed in the annular space between the steel pipe and the surface of hole bored in the steel block. The evolution of the temperature with respect to time of the external surface of the block is measured with the help of thermocouples and an infrared camera. Due to the high initial temperature of the steel block (350 °C), the water changes phase when it impacts the internal surface of the block. This leads to high heat fluxes. The strategy used to control the cooling speed of the block is the intermittent impingement of its internal surface by the jets. The intervals of impingement and of non impingement are varied in order to achieve the desired result. An airflow is used during the non impingement periods as an additional regulator of the cooling speed and to improve the temperature homogeneity of the impinged surface. After testing different jet positions, jet speeds and impingement intervals, it’s observed that the external surface of the steel block has a uniform temperature distribution along its length. However, the temperature distribution along its width isn’t uniform with the maximum temperature difference being between the centre of the block and its edge. Changing the positions of the jets has no significant effect on the temperature distribution on the external surface of the steel block. It’s also observed that reducing the jet impingement interval and increasing the non impingement interval slows down the cooling of the block and improves upon the temperature homogeneity of its external surface while increasing the duration of jet impingement speeds up the cooling process.

Keywords: cooling speed, homogenous cooling, jet impingement, phase change

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161 Electrochemical Layer by Layer Assembly

Authors: Mao Li, Yuguang Ma, Katsuhiko Ariga

Abstract:

The performance of functional materials is governed by their ability to interact with surrounding environments in a well-defined and controlled manner. Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly is one of the most widely used technologies for coating both planar and particulate substrates in a diverse range of fields, including optics, energy, catalysis, separations, and biomedicine. Herein, we introduce electrochemical-coupling layer-by-layer assembly as a novel fabrication methodology for preparing layered thin films. This assembly method not only determines the process properties (such as the time, scalability, and manual intervention) but also directly control the physicochemical properties of the films (such as the thickness, homogeneity, and inter- and intra-layer film organization), with both sets of properties linked to application-specific performance.

Keywords: layer by layer assembly, electropolymerization, carbazole, optical thin film, electronics

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160 K-Pop Fandom: A Sub-Cultural Influencer on K-Pop Brand Attitude

Authors: Patricia P. M. C. Lourenco, Sang Yong Kim, Anaisa D. A. De Sena

Abstract:

K-Pop fandom is a paradoxical dichotomy of two conceptual contexts: the Korean single fandom and the international fandom; both strongly influence K-Pop brand attitude. Collectivist, South Korea’s fans showcase their undivided support to one artist comeback towards earning a triple-crown in domestic music charts. In contrast, individualist international fans collectively ship a plethora of artists and collaborate amongst themselves to the continuous expansion of K-Pop into a mainstream cultural glocalization in international music charts. The distinct idiosyncrasies between the two groups creates a heterogeneous K-Pop brand attitude that is challenging to tackle marketing wise for lack of homogeneity in the sub-cultural K-Pop fandom.

Keywords: K-Pop fandom, single-fandom, multi-fandom, individualism, collectivism, brand attitude, sub-culture

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159 Identifying Common Behavioural Traits of Lone-Wolves in Recent Terrorist Attacks in Europe

Authors: Khaled M. Khan, Armstrong Nhlabatsi

Abstract:

This article attempts to analyse behavioural traits of lone-wolves who struck and killed innocents in six different attacks in Europe in last nine months. The main objective of this study is to develop a profiling template in order to capture commonality of characteristics of these attackers. This study tries to understand the homogeneity of lone-wolves in terms of their social background and state of mind. The commonality among them can possibly be used to build a profiling template that could help detecting vulnerable persons who are prone to be self-radicalised or radicalised by someone else. The result of this study provides us an understanding of their commonality in terms of their state of mind and social characteristics.

Keywords: behavioral pattern, terrorism, profiling, commonality

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158 A Semi-Analytical Method for Analysis of the Axially Symmetric Problem on Indentation of a Hot Circular Punch into an Arbitrarily Nonhomogeneous Halfspace

Authors: S. Aizikovich, L. Krenev, Y. Tokovyy, Y. C. Wang

Abstract:

An approximate analytical-numerical solution to the axisymmetric problem on thermo-mechanical indentation of a flat cylindrical punch into an arbitrarily non-homogeneous elastic half-space is constructed by making use of the bilateral asymptotic method. The key point of this method lies in evaluation of the ker¬nels in the obtained integral equations by making use of a numerical technique. Once the structure of the kernel is defined, it then is approximated by an analytical expression of special kind so that the solution of the integral equation can be achieved analytically. This fact allows for construction of the solution in an analytical form, which is convenient for analysis of the mechanical effects concerned with arbitrarily presumed non-homogeneity of the material.

Keywords: contact problem, circular punch, arbitrarily-nonhomogeneous halfspace

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157 Additive Manufacturing with Ceramic Filler

Authors: Irsa Wolfram, Boruch Lorenz

Abstract:

Innovative solutions with additive manufacturing applying material extrusion for functional parts necessitate innovative filaments with persistent quality. Uniform homogeneity and a consistent dispersion of particles embedded in filaments generally require multiple cycles of extrusion or well-prepared primal matter by injection molding, kneader machines, or mixing equipment. These technologies commit to dedicated equipment that is rarely at the disposal in production laboratories unfamiliar with research in polymer materials. This stands in contrast to laboratories that investigate complex material topics and technology science to leverage the potential of 3-D printing. Consequently, scientific studies in labs are often constrained to compositions and concentrations of fillersofferedfrom the market. Therefore, we introduce a prototypal laboratory methodology scalable to tailoredprimal matter for extruding ceramic composite filaments with fused filament fabrication (FFF) technology. - A desktop single-screw extruder serves as a core device for the experiments. Custom-made filaments encapsulate the ceramic fillers and serve with polylactide (PLA), which is a thermoplastic polyester, as primal matter and is processed in the melting area of the extruder, preserving the defined concentration of the fillers. Validated results demonstrate that this approach enables continuously produced and uniform composite filaments with consistent homogeneity. Itis 3-D printable with controllable dimensions, which is a prerequisite for any scalable application. Additionally, digital microscopy confirms the steady dispersion of the ceramic particles in the composite filament. - This permits a 2D reconstruction of the planar distribution of the embedded ceramic particles in the PLA matrices. The innovation of the introduced method lies in the smart simplicity of preparing the composite primal matter. It circumvents the inconvenience of numerous extrusion operations and expensive laboratory equipment. Nevertheless, it deliversconsistent filaments of controlled, predictable, and reproducible filler concentration, which is the prerequisite for any industrial application. The introduced prototypal laboratory methodology seems capable for other polymer matrices and suitable to further utilitarian particle types beyond and above ceramic fillers. This inaugurates a roadmap for supplementary laboratory development of peculiar composite filaments, providing value for industries and societies. This low-threshold entry of sophisticated preparation of composite filaments - enabling businesses to create their own dedicated filaments - will support the mutual efforts for establishing 3D printing to new functional devices.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, ceramic composites, complex filament, industrial application

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