Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1363

Search results for: nematode genus-based diversity

1363 Characteristics of Meiofaunal Communities in Intertidal Habitats Along Albanian Adriatic Sea Coast

Authors: Fundime Miri, Emanuela Sulaj

Abstract:

Benthic ecosystems constitute important ecological habitats, providing fundamental services for spawning, foraging, and sheltering aquatic organisms. Benthic faunal communities are characterized by a large biological diversity, supported by a great physical variety of benthic habitats. Until late, the study of meiobenthic communities in Albania has been neglectedthus excluding an important component of benthos. The present study aims to bring characteristics of distribution pattern of meiofaunal communities with further focus on nematode genus-based diversity from different intertidal habitats along Albanian Adriatic Sea Coast. The investigation area is extended from Shkodra to Vlora District, including six sandy sampling sites in beaches and areas near river estuaries. Sediment samples were collected manually in low intertidal zone by using a cylindrical corer, with an internal diameter of 5 cm. The richness onmeiofaunalmajor taxon level did not show any significant change between different sampling sites compare to significant changes in nematode diversity at genus level, with distinct nematode assemblages per sampling sites and presence of exclusive genera. All meiofaunal communities under study were dominated by nematodes. Further assessment of functional diversity on nematode assemblages exhibited changes as well on trophic groups and life strategies due to diverse feeding behaviors and c-p values of nematode genera. This study emphasize the need for lower level taxonomic identification of meiofaunal organisms and extending of ecological assessments on trophic diversity and life strategies to understanding functional consequences.

Keywords: benthos, meiofauna, nematode genus-based diversity, functional diversity, intertidal, albanian adriatic coast

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1362 Applied Free Living Nematode as Bioindicator to Assess Environmental Impact of Dam Construction in Ba Lai Estuary, Vietnam

Authors: Ngo Xuan Quang, Tran Thanh Thai, Ann Vanreusel

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The Ba Lai dam construction was created in 2000 in the Ba Lai estuarine river, Ben Tre province, Vietnam to prevent marine water infiltration, drainage and de-acidification, and to build a reservoir of freshwater for land reclamation in the Ba Lai tributary. However, this dam is considered as an environmental failure for the originally connected estuarine and river ecosystem, especially to bad effect to benthic fauna distribution. This research aims to study applying free living nematode communities’ distribution in disturbance of dam construction as bioindicator to detect environmental impact. Nematode samples were collected together measuring physical–chemical environmental parameters such as chlorophyll, CPE, coliform, nutrient, grain size, salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, temperature in three stations within three replicates. Results showed that free living nematode communities at the dam construction was significantly low densities, low diversity (Hurlbert’s index, Hill diversity indices) and very low maturity index in comparison with two remaining stations. Strong correlation of nematode feeding types and communities’ structure was found in relation with sediment grain size and nutrient enrichment such nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and pigment concentration. Moreover, greatly negative link between nematode maturity index with nutrient parameters can serve as warning organic pollution of the Ba Lai river due to dam construction.

Keywords: Ba Lai, dam impact, nematode, environment

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1361 Monitoring of Potato Rot Nematode (Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945) in Southern Georgia Nematode Fauna Diversity of Rhizosphere

Authors: E. Tskitishvili, L. Jgenti, I. Eliava, T. Tskitishvili, N. Bagathuria, M. Gigolashvili

Abstract:

The nematode fauna of 20 agrocenosis (soil, tuber of potato, green parts of plant, roots) was studied in four regions in South Georgia (Akhaltsikhe, Aspindza, Akhalkalaki, Ninotsminda). In all, there were registered 173 forms of free-living and Phyto-parasitic nematodes, including 132 forms which were specified according to their species. A few exemplars of potato root nematode (Ditylenchus destructor) were identified in soil samples taken in Ninotsminda, Akhalkalaki and Aspinda stations, i.e. invasion is weak. Based on our data, potato Ditylenchus was not found in any of the researched tubers, while based on the data of previous years the most of tubers were infested. The cysts of 'golden nematodes' were not found during inspection of material for detection of Globoderosis

Keywords: ditylenchus, monitoring, nematoda, potato

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1360 Influence of Cucurbitacin-Containing Phytonematicides on Nematode Biocontrol Agent: Trichoderma harzianum

Authors: Jacqueline T. Madaure, Phatu W. Mashela

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Cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides consistently suppress root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematode population densities. However, the impact of these products on nematode biocontrol agents is not documented. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides on growth of Trichoderma harzianum under in vitro conditions. The two phytonematicides were separately prepared to concentrations of 3% and used in poison plate assays. After exposure at different times from 0 to 72 h, there was 100% mycelial growth of T. harzianum. In conclusion, at the recommended concentrations of phytonematicides used in managing nematode population densities, there was no evidence of suppressive effects on growth of T. harzianum by the two phytonematicides.

Keywords: botanicals, crude extracts, cucumis africanus, cucumis myriocarpus, cucurbitacin a, cucurbitacin b, ethnomedicinal plants

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1359 Meiobenthic Diversity off Pudimadaka, Bay of Bengal, East Coast of India with Special Reference to Free-Living Marine Nematodes

Authors: C. Annapurna, Rao M. Srinivasa, Bhanu C. H. Vijaya, M. Sivalakshmi, Rao P. V. Surya

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A study on the community structure of meiobenthic fauna was undertaken during three cruises (June 2008, October 2008 and March 2009). Ten stations at depth between 10 and 40 m off Pudimadaka in Visakhapatnam (Lat.17º29′12″N and Long. 83º00′09″), East coast of India were investigated. Ninety species representing 3 major (meiofaunal) taxa namely foraminifera (2), copepoda (9), nematoda (58) and polychaeta (21) were encountered. Overall, meiofaunal (mean) abundance ranged from 2 individuals to 63 ind. 10cm-² with an average of 24.3 ind.10cm-2. The meiobenthic biomass varied between 0.135 to 0.48 mg.10cm-2 with an average 0.27 ± 0.12. On the whole, nematodes constituted 73.62% of the meiofauna in terms of numerical abundance. Shannon –Wiener index values were 2.053 ± 0.64 (June, 2008), 2.477 ± 0.177 (October 2008) and 2.2815±0.24 (March 2009). Multivariate analyses were used to define the most important taxon in nematode assemblages. Three nematode associations could be recognized off Pudimadaka coast, namely Laimella longicaudata, Euchromodora vulgaris and Sabatieria elongata assemblage (June, 2008); Catanema sp. and Leptosomatum sp. assemblage (October 2008) assemblage; Sabatieria sp. and Setosabatieria sp. assemblage (March 2009). Canonical correspondence analysis showed that temperature, organic matter, silt and mean particle diameter were important in controlling nematode community structure.

Keywords: meiofauna, marine nematode, biodiversity, community structure, India

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1358 Interaction of Cucurbitacin-Containing Phytonematicides and Biocontrol Agents on Cultivated Tomato Plants and Nematode Numbers

Authors: Jacqueline T. Madaure, Phatu W. Mashela

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Interactive effects of cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides and biocontrol agents on growth and nematode suppression on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) had not been documented. The objective of this study was to determine the interactive effects of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide, Trichoderma harzianum and Steinernema feltiae on growth of tomato plants and suppression of root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes. A 2x2x2 trial was conducted using tomato cv. ‘HTX’ on a field infested with Meloidogyne species. The treatments were applied at commercial rates. At 56 days after treatments, interactions were significant (P ≤ 0.05) for selected plant variables, without significant interactions on nematode variables. In conclusion, results of the current study did not support the combination of the test products for nematode suppression, except that some combinations improved plant growth.

Keywords: cucumis africanus, cucurbitacin b, ethnobotanicals, entomopathogenic nematodes, natural enemies, plant extracts

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1357 Post-Application Effects of Selected Management Strategies to the Citrus Nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) Population Densities

Authors: Phatu William Mashela, Pontsho Edmund Tseke, Kgabo Martha Pofu

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‘Inconsistent results’ in nematode suppression post-application of botanical-based products created credibility concerns. Relative to untreated control, sampling for nematodes post-application of botanical-based products suggested significant increases in nematode population densities. ‘Inconsistent results’ were confirmed in Tylenchulus semipenetrans on Citrus jambhiri seedlings when sampling was carried out at 120 days post-application of a granular Nemarioc-AG phytonematicide. The objective of this study was to determine post-application effects of untreated control, Nemarioc-AG phytonematicide and aldicarb to T. semipenetrans population densities on C. jambhiri seedlings. Two hundred and ten seedlings were each inoculated with 10000 T. semipenetrans eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2) in plastic pots containing 2700 ml growing mixture. A week after inoculation, seedlings were equally split and subjected to once-off treatment of 2 g aldicarb, 2 g Nemarioc-AG phytonematicide and untreated control. Five seedlings from each group were randomly placed on greenhouse benches to serve as a sampling block, with a total of 14 blocks. The entire block was sampled weekly and assessed for final nematode population density (Pf). After the final assessment, post-regression of untreated Pf to increasing sampling intervals exhibited positive quadratic relations, with the model explaining 90% associations, with optimum Pf of 13804 eggs and J2 at six weeks post-application. In contrast, treated Pf and increasing sampling interval exhibited negative quadratic relations, with the model explaining 95% and 92% associations in phytonematicide and aldicarb, respectively. In the phytonematicide, Pf was 974 eggs and J2, whereas that in aldicarb was 2205 eggs and J2 at six weeks. In conclusion, temporal cyclic nematode population growth provided an empirically-based explanation of ‘inconsistent results’ in nematode suppression post-application of the two nematode management strategies.

Keywords: nematode management, residual effect, slow decline of citrus, the citrus nematode

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1356 The Prevalence of Citrus Specific Nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb 1913 on the Coast of the Black Sea in Georgia

Authors: E.Tskitisvili, L. Jgenti, I. Eliava, T. Tskitishvili, N. Bagathuria, M. Gigolashvili

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The fight against dangerous nematode diseases that have world economic importance requires accurate data about the prevalence of these pests. In the point of view of the International Convention on Biological Diversity, the identification of the plant invasion causing dangerous pathogen in the early stages of invasion on new territory is the most important part of the program, which aims to monitor the Bio-Agro Coenosis and Bio-Control. Citrus nematode-specific belongs to the pathogen species, which can cause epiphytotics particularly for large areas and cause irreparable damage to citrus plantations. This paper provides a brief tour of the spread of citrus nematodes on the Black Sea coast (Adjara and Abkhazia). Also the bio-ecological monitoring data to detect the potential sources of invasion for evaluating the current conditions of the citrus nematodes prevalence. Through 2006-2010, the material was gained by structural monitoring system during the citrus vegetation period on tangerines, lemon and oranges from nine points of the study area. Mature forms of Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb, 1913 were observed in almost all of the samples of the root system, the peak of larvae was observed in late spring and outumn. 92 forms of nematode has been detected in the rhizosphere belonging to 8 Orders: Areolaimida, Dorylaimida, Enoplida, Mononchida, Tylenshida, Monshysterida, Rhabditida, Aphelenchida, 23 families and 40 genera. 75 forms are identified as species. It is estimated the number of nematodes fauna and ecological groups. To detect possible sources of invasion we obtained additional materials in 2013-2014 from citrus plantations planted in 2011, where is planted tangerine trees introduced from Spain and Japan. The fauna of rhizosphere is identified and Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb, 1913 is not detected.

Keywords: Citrus nematodes, infection, bioecological monitoring, epiphytotics

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1355 A Call for Transformative Learning Experiences to Facilitate Student Workforce Diversity Learning in the United States

Authors: Jeanetta D. Sims, Chaunda L. Scott, Hung-Lin Lai, Sarah Neese, Atoya Sims, Angelia Barrera-Medina

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Given the call for increased transformative learning experiences and the demand for academia to prepare students to enter workforce diversity careers, this study explores the landscape of workforce diversity learning in the United States. Using a multi-disciplinary syllabi browsing process and a content analysis method, the most prevalent instructional activities being used in workforce-diversity related courses in the United States are identified. In addition, the instructional activities are evaluated based on transformative learning tenants.

Keywords: workforce diversity, workforce diversity learning, transformative learning, diversity education, U. S. workforce diversity, workforce diversity assignments

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1354 The Effect of Diversity Sensitive Orientation on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

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The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of diversity sensitive orientation on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Diversity sensitive orientation is the attitude of the individual to respect and accommodate diversity. This is focused on an individual’s perception of diversity. Although being made from the most diversity related research team and organizational level, this study deals with diversity issues at the individual level. To test the proposed research model and hypothesis, the data were collected from 291 Korean employees. The study conducted a confirmatory factor analysis for the validity test. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the hypothesized relationship in the conceptual model. The results of this paper were as followings: First, diversity sensitive orientation was positively related to job satisfaction. Second, diversity sensitive orientation was negatively related to turnover intention. In other words, the positive influence of the diversity sensitive orientation has been verified. Based on the findings, this study suggested implications and directions for future research.

Keywords: diversity sensitive orientation, job satisfaction, turnover intention, perception, cognition

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1353 Biocontrol Effectiveness of Indigenous Trichoderma Species against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici on Tomato

Authors: Hajji Lobna, Chattaoui Mayssa, Regaieg Hajer, M'Hamdi-Boughalleb Naima, Rhouma Ali, Horrigue-Raouani Najet

Abstract:

In this study, three local isolates of Trichoderma (Tr1: T. viride, Tr2: T. harzianum and Tr3: T. asperellum) were isolated and evaluated for their biocontrol effectiveness under in vitro conditions and in greenhouse. In vitro bioassay revealed a biopotential control against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici and Meloidogyne javanica (RKN) separately. All species of Trichoderma exhibited biocontrol performance and (Tr1) Trichoderma viride was the most efficient. In fact, growth rate inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL) was reached 75.5% with Tr1. Parasitism rate of root-knot nematode was 60% for juveniles and 75% for eggs with the same one. Pots experiment results showed that Tr1 and Tr2, compared to chemical treatment, enhanced the plant growth and exhibited better antagonism against root-knot nematode and root-rot fungi separated or combined. All Trichoderma isolates revealed a bioprotection potential against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici. When pathogen fungi inoculated alone, Fusarium wilt index and browning vascular rate were reduced significantly with Tr1 (0.91, 2.38%) and Tr2 (1.5, 5.5%), respectively. In the case of combined infection with Fusarium and nematode, the same isolate of Trichoderma Tr1 and Tr2 decreased Fusarium wilt index at 1.1 and 0.83 and reduced the browning vascular rate at 6.5% and 6%, respectively. Similarly, the isolate Tr1 and Tr2 caused maximum inhibition of nematode multiplication. Multiplication rate was declined at 4% with both isolates either tomato infected by nematode separately or concomitantly with Fusarium. The chemical treatment was moderate in activity against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici alone and combined.

Keywords: trichoderma spp., meloidogyne javanica, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.radicis lycopersici, biocontrol

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1352 Application of Metarhizium anisopliae against Meloidogyne javanica in Soil Amended with Oak Debris

Authors: Mohammad Abdollahi

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Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most popular, widely grown and the second most important vegetable crop, after potatoes. Nematodes have been identified as one of the major pests affecting tomato production throughout the world. The most destructive nematodes are the genus Meloidogyne. Most widespread and devastating species of this genus are M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria. These species can cause complete crop loss under adverse growing conditions. There are several potential methods for management of the root knot nematodes. Although the chemicals are widely used against the phytonematodes, because of hazardous effects of these compounds on non-target organisms and on the environment, there is a need to develop other control strategies. Nowadays, non-chemical measures are widely used to control the plant parasitic nematodes. Biocontrol of phytonematodes is an important method among environment-friendly measures of nematode management. There are some soil-inhabiting fungi that have biocontrol potential on phytonematodes, which can be used in nematode management program. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, originally is an entomopathogenic bioagent. Biocontrol potential of this fungus on some phytonematodes has been reported earlier. Recently, use of organic soil amendments as well as the use of bioagents is under special attention in sustainable agriculture. This research aimed to reduce the pesticide use in control of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in tomato. The effects of M. anisopliae IMI 330189 and different levels of oak tree debris on M. javanica were determined. The combination effect of the fungus as well as the different rates of soil amendments was determined. Pots were filled with steam pasteurized soil mixture and the six leaf tomato seedlings were inoculated with 3000 second stage larvae of M. javanica/kg of soil. After eight weeks, plant growth parameters and nematode reproduction factors were compared. Based on the results of our experiment, combination of M. anisopliae IMI 330189 and oak debris caused more than 90% reduction in reproduction factor of nematode, at the rates of 100 and 150 g/kg soil (P ≤ 0.05). As compared to control, the reduction in number of galls was 76%. It was 86% for nematode reproduction factor, showing the significance of combined effect of both tested agents. Our results showed that plant debris can increase the biological activity of the tested bioagent. It was also proved that there was no adverse effect of oak debris, which potentially has antimicrobial activity, on antagonistic power of applied bioagent.

Keywords: biological control, nematode management, organic soil, Quercus branti, root knot nematode, soil amendment

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1351 Evaluation of Nematicidal Action of Some Botanicals on Plant-Parasitic Nematode

Authors: Lakshmi, Yakshita Awasthi, Deepika, Lovleen Jha, Archna Kumar

Abstract:

From the back of centuries, plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) have been recognized as a major threat to agriculturalists globally. It causes 21.3% global food loss annually. The utilization of harmful chemical pesticides to minimize the nematode population may cause acute and delayed health hazards and harmful impacts on human health. In recent years, a variety of plants have been evaluated for their nematicidal properties and efficacy in the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Several Phyto-nematicides are available, but most of them are incapable of sustainable management of PPN, especially Meloidogyne spp. Thus, there is a great need for a new eco-friendly, highly efficient, sustainable control measure for this nematode species. Keeping all these facts and after reviewing the literature, aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus, Tagetes erecta, and Azadirachta indica were prepared by adding distilled water (1 g sample mixed with 10ml of water). In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacious nature of targeted botanicals against PPN Meloidogyne spp. The mortality status of PPN was recorded by counting the live and dead individuals after applying 100μl of selected extract. The impact was observed at different time durations, i.e., 24h and 48h. The result showed that the highest 100% mortality was at 48h in all three extracts. Thus, these extracts, with the addition of a suitable shelf-life enhancer, may be exploited in different nematode control programs as an economical, sustainable measure.

Keywords: Meloidogyne, Cymbopogon citratus, Tagetes erecta, Azadirachta indica, nematicidal

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1350 Managing Diversity in MNCS: A Literature Review of Existing Strategic Models for Managing Diversity and a Roadmap to Transfer Them to the Subsidiaries

Authors: Debora Gottardello, Mireia Valverde Aparicio, Juan Llopis Taverner

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Globalization has given rise to a great diversity in the composition of people in organizations. Diversity management is therefore key to create growth in today’s competitive global marketplace. This work develops a literature review related to the existing models for managing diversity covering the period from 1980 until 2014. Furthermore, it identifies limitations in previous models. More specifically, the literature review reveals that there is a lack of information about how these models can be adapted from the headquarters to the subsidiaries. Therefore, the contribution of this paper is to suggest how the models should be adapted when they are directed to host countries. Our aim is to highlight the limitations of the developed models with regards to the translation of the diversity management practices to the subsidiaries. Accordingly, a model that will enable MNCs to ensure a global strategy is suggested. Taking advantage of the potential incorporated in a culturally diverse work team should be at the top of every international company’s aims. Executives from headquarters need to use different attitudes when transferring diversity practices towards their subsidiaries. Further studies should reassess local practices of diversity management to find out how this universal management model is translated.

Keywords: culture diversity, diversity management, human resources management, MNCs, subsidiaries, workforce diversity

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1349 Effects of Green Walnut Husk and Olive Pomace Extracts on Growth of Tomato Plants and Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)

Authors: Yasemin Kavdir, Ugur Gozel

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This study was conducted to determine the nematicidal activity of green walnut husk (GWH) and olive pomace (OP) extracts against root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Aqueous extracts of GWH and OP were mixed with sandy loam soil at the rates of 0, 6,12,18,24, 60 and 120 ml kg-1. All pots were arranged in a randomized complete block design and replicated four times under controlled atmosphere conditions. Tomato seedlings were grown in sterilized soil then they were transplanted to pots. Inoculation was done by pouring the 20 ml suspension including 1000 M. incognita juvenile pot-1 into 3 cm deep hole made around the base of the plant root. Tomato root and shoot growth and nematode populations have been determined. In general, both GWH and OP extracts resulted in better growth parameters compared to the control plants. However, GWH extract was the most effective in improving growth parameters. Applications of 24 ml kg-1 OP extract enhanced plant growth compared to other OP treatments while 60 ml kg-1 application rate had the lowest nematode number and root galling. In this study, applications of GWH and OP extracts reduced the number of Meloidogyne incognita and root galling compared to control soils. Additionally GWH and OP extracts can be used safely for tomato growth. It could be concluded that OP and GWH extracts used as organic amendments showed promising nematicidal activity in the control of M. incognita. This research was supported by TUBİTAK Grant Number 214O422.

Keywords: olive pomace, green walnut husk, Meloidogyne incognita, tomato, soil, extract

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1348 Field Application of Trichoderma Harzianum for Biological Control of Root-Knot Nematodes in Summer Tomatoes

Authors: Baharullah Khattak, Saifullah

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To study the efficacy of the selected Trichoderma isolates, field trials were conducted in the root-knot nematode-infested areas of Dargai and Swat, Pakistan. Four isolates of T. harzianum viz, Th-1, Th-2, Th-9 and Th-15 were tested against root knot nematodes on summer tomatoes under field conditions. The T. harzianum isolates, grown on wheat grains substrate, were applied @ 8 g plant-1, either alone or in different combinations. Root weight of tomato plants was reduced Th-9 as compared to 26.37 g in untreated control. Isolate Th-1 was found to enhance shoot and root lengths to the maximum levels of 78.76 cm and 19.59 cm, respectively. Tomato shoot weight was significantly increased (65.36g) in Th-1-treated plots as compared to 49.66 g in control. Maximum (156) number of flowers plant-1 and highest (48.18%) fruit set plant-1 was observed in Th-1 treated plots, while there were 87 flowers and 35.50% fruit set in the untreated control. Maximum fruit weight (70.97 g) plant-1 and highest (17.99 t ha-1) marketable yield were recorded in the treatments where T. harzianum isolate Th-1 was used, in comparison to 51.33 g tomato fruit weight and 9.90 t ha-1 yield was noted in the control plots. It was observed that T. harzianum isolates significantly reduced the nematode populations. The fungus enhanced plant growth and yield in all the treated plots. Jabban isolate (Th-1) was found as the most effective in nematode suppression followed by Shamozai (Th-9) isolate. It was concluded from the present findings that T. harzianum has a potential bio control capability against root-knot nematodes.

Keywords: biological control, Trichoderma harzianum, root-knot nematode, meloidogyne

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1347 The Analysis of Cultural Diversity in EFL Textbook for Senior High School in Indonesia

Authors: Soni Ariawan

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The study aims to explore the cultural diversity highlighted in EFL textbook for Senior High School grade 10 in Indonesia. The visual images are selected as the data and qualitatively analysed using content analysis. The reason to choose visual images because images are not always neutral and they might impact teaching and learning process. In the current study, cultural diversity aspects are focused on religion (Muslim, Protestant, Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian), gender (male, female, unclear), ethnic (Melanesian, Austronesian, Foreigner) and socioeconomic (low, middle, high, undetermined) diversity as the theoretical framework. The four aspects of cultural diversity are sufficiently representative to draw a conclusion in investigating Indonesian culture representation in EFL textbook. The finding shows that cultural diversity is not proportionally reflected in the textbook, particularly in the visual images.

Keywords: EFL textbook, cultural diversity, visual images, Indonesia

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1346 Effect of Heavy Metals on the Life History Trait of Heterocephalobellus sp. and Cephalobus sp. (Nematode: Cephalobidae) Collected from a Small-Scale Mining Site, Davao de Oro, Philippines

Authors: Alissa Jane S. Mondejar, Florifern C. Paglinawan, Nanette Hope N. Sumaya, Joey Genevieve T. Martinez, Mylah Villacorte-Tabelin

Abstract:

Mining is associated with increased heavy metals in the environment, and heavy metal contamination disrupts the activities of soil fauna, such as nematodes, causing changes in the function of the soil ecosystem. Previous studies found that nematode community composition and diversity indices were strongly affected by heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Cu, and Zn). In this study, the influence of heavy metals on nematode survivability and reproduction were investigated. Life history analysis of the free-living nematodes, Heterocephalobellus sp. and Cephalobus sp. (Rhabditida: Cephalobidae) were assessed using the hanging drop technique, a technique often used in life history trait experiments. The nematodes were exposed to different temperatures, i.e.,20°C, 25°C, and 30°C, in different groups (control and heavy metal exposed) and fed with the same bacterial density of 1×109 Escherichia coli cells ml-1 for 30 days. Results showed that increasing temperature and exposure to heavy metals had a significant influence on the survivability and egg production of both species. Heterocephalobellus sp. and Cephalobus sp., when exposed to 20°C survived longer and produced few numbers of eggs but without subsequent hatching. Life history parameters of Heterocephalobellus sp. showed that the value of parameters was higher in the control group under net production rate (R0), fecundity (mx) which is also the same value for the total fertility rate (TFR), generation times (G0, G₁, and Gh) and Population doubling time (PDT). However, a lower rate of natural increase (rm) was observed since generation times were higher. Meanwhile, the life history parameters of Cephalobus sp. showed that the value of net production rate (R0) was higher in the exposed group. Fecundity (mx) which is also the same value for the TFR, G0, G1, Gh, and PDT, were higher in the control group. However, a lower rate of natural increase (rm) was observed since generation times were higher. In conclusion, temperature and exposure to heavy metals had a negative influence on the life history of the nematodes, however, further experiments should be considered.

Keywords: artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), hanging drop method, heavy metals, life history trait.

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1345 The Influence of the Normative Gender Binary in Diversity Management: A Multi-Method Study on Gender Diversity of Diversity Management

Authors: Robin C. Ladwig

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Diversity Management, as a substantial element of Human Resource Management, aims to secure the economic benefit that assumingly comes with a diverse workforce. Consequently, diversity managers focus on the protection of employees and securing equality measurements to assure organisational gender diversity. Gender diversity as one aspect of Diversity Management seems to adhere to gender binarism and cis-normativity. Workplaces are gendered spaces which are echoing the binary gender-normativity presented in Diversity Management, sold under the label of gender diversity. While the expectation of Diversity Management implies the inclusion of a multiplicity of marginalised groups, such as trans and gender diverse people, in current literature and practice, the reality is curated by gender binarism and cis-normativity. The qualitative multi-method research showed a lack of knowledge about trans and gender diverse matters within the profession of Diversity Management and Human Resources. The semi-structured interviews with trans and gender diverse individuals from various backgrounds and occupations in Australia exposed missing considerations of trans and gender diverse experiences in the inclusivity and gender equity of various workplaces. Even if practitioners consider trans and gender diverse matters under gender diversity, the practical execution is limited to gender binary structures and cis-normative actions as the photo-elicit questionnaire with diversity managers, human resource officers, and personnel management demonstrates. Diversity Management should approach a broader source of informed practice by extending their business focus to the knowledge of humanity studies. Humanity studies could include diversity, queer, or gender studies to increase the inclusivity of marginalised groups such as trans and gender diverse employees and people. Furthermore, the definition of gender diversity should be extended beyond the gender binary and cis-normative experience. People may lose trust in Diversity Management as a supportive ally of marginalised employees if the understanding of inclusivity is limited to a gender binary and cis-normativity value system that misrepresents the richness of gender diversity.

Keywords: cis-normativity, diversity management, gender binarism, trans and gender diversity

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1344 Potential of Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Control Woolly Apple Aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum)

Authors: Nomakholwa F. Stokwe, Antoinette P. Malan

Abstract:

Woolly apple aphid (WAA), Eriosoma lanigerum, is an important pest of apples worldwide. The aphid feeds above ground on buds and leaf axils and the roots of apple trees. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the two families, Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae, and their symbiotic bacteria have generated extensive interest as inundative applied biological control agents of insects. With the development of the resistance of WAA to chemicals, export restrictions, and the inability of parasitoids to control the aphid successfully early in the season, considering EPNs as an alternative biocontrol agent is important. Seven EPN species were tested for their pathogenicity against WAA. Laboratory bioassays identified S. yirgalemense and H. zealandica as being the most virulent against the subterranean stage of the WAA, with a mortality rate of 48% and 38%, respectively. Studies on the effect of WAA size showed that the last instar is most susceptible to infection, whereas smaller instars appear to be too small for nematode penetration and infection. Neither increasing the exposure period of the aphids nor increasing the nematode concentration affected the infection rate positively. The haemolymph of WAA showed an inhibitory effect on the development of the symbiotic bacteria, preventing the completion of the nematode’s life cycle.

Keywords: apples, biocontrol, entomopathogenic nematodes, woolly apple aphid

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1343 Rhizosphere Microbiome Involvement in the Natural Suppression of Soybean Cyst Nematode in Disease Suppressive Soil

Authors: M. Imran Hamid, Muzammil Hussain, Yunpeng Wu, Meichun Xiang, Xingzhong Liu

Abstract:

The rhizosphere microbiome elucidate multiple functioning in the soil suppressiveness against plant pathogens. Soybean rhizosphere microbial communities may involve in the natural suppression of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) populations in disease suppressive soils. To explore these ecological mechanisms of microbes, a long term monoculture suppressive soil were taken into account for further investigation to test the disease suppressive ability by using different treatments. The designed treatments are as, i) suppressive soil (S), ii) conducive soil (C), iii) conducive soil mixed with 10% (w/w) suppressive soil (CS), iv) suppressive soil treated at 80°C for 1 hr (S80), and v) suppressive soil treated with formalin (SF). By using an ultra-high-throughput sequencing approach, we identified the key bacterial and fungal taxa involved in SCN suppression. The Phylum-level investigation of bacteria revealed that Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria in the rhizosphere soil of soybean seedlings were more abundant in the suppressive soil than in the conducive soil. The phylum-level analysis of fungi in rhizosphere soil indicated that relative abundance of Ascomycota was higher in suppressive soil than in the conducive soil, where Basidiomycota was more abundant. Transferring suppressive soil to conducive soil increased the population of Ascomycota in the conducive soil by lowering the populations of Basidiomycota. The genera, such as, Pochonia, Purpureocillium, Fusarium, Stachybotrys that have been well documented as bio-control agents of plant nematodes were far more in the disease suppressive soils. Our results suggested that the plants engage a subset of functional microbial groups in the rhizosphere for initial defense upon nematode attack and protect the plant roots later on by nematodes to response for suppression of SCN in disease-suppressive soils.

Keywords: disease suppressive soil, high-throughput sequencing, rhizosphere microbiome, soybean cyst nematode

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1342 Coding and Decoding versus Space Diversity for ‎Rayleigh Fading Radio Frequency Channels ‎

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoud Ahmed Abouelmagd

Abstract:

The diversity is the usual remedy of the transmitted signal level variations (Fading phenomena) in radio frequency channels. Diversity techniques utilize two or more copies of a signal and combine those signals to combat fading. The basic concept of diversity is to transmit the signal via several independent diversity branches to get independent signal replicas via time – frequency - space - and polarization diversity domains. Coding and decoding processes can be an alternative remedy for fading phenomena, it cannot increase the channel capacity, but it can improve the error performance. In this paper we propose the use of replication decoding with BCH code class, and Viterbi decoding algorithm with convolution coding; as examples of coding and decoding processes. The results are compared to those obtained from two optimized selection space diversity techniques. The performance of Rayleigh fading channel, as the model considered for radio frequency channels, is evaluated for each case. The evaluation results show that the coding and decoding approaches, especially the BCH coding approach with replication decoding scheme, give better performance compared to that of selection space diversity optimization approaches. Also, an approach for combining the coding and decoding diversity as well as the space diversity is considered, the main disadvantage of this approach is its complexity but it yields good performance results.

Keywords: Rayleigh fading, diversity, BCH codes, Replication decoding, ‎convolution coding, viterbi decoding, space diversity

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1341 Resistance to the South African Root-Knot Nematode Population Densities in Artemisia annua: An Anti-Malaria Ethnomedicinal Plant

Authors: Kgabo Pofu, Hintsa Araya, Dean Oelofse, Sonja Venter, Christian Du Plooy, Phatu Mashela

Abstract:

Nematode resistance to the tropical root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes is one of the most preferred nematode management strategies in development of smallholder resource-poor farming systems. Due to its pharmacological and ethnomedicinal applications, Artemisia annua is one of the underutilised crops that have attracted attention of policy-makers in rural agrarian development in South Africa. However, the successful introduction of this crop in smallholder resource-poor farming systems could be upset by the widespread aggressive Meloidogyne species, which have limited management options. The objective of this study therefore was to determine the degree of nematode resistance to the South African M. incognita and M. javanica population densities on A. annua seedlings. Uniform three-week-old seedlings in pots containing pasteurised growing medium under greenhouse conditions were inoculated using a series of eggs and second-stage juveniles of two Meloidogyne species in separate trials. At 56 days after inoculation, treatments were highly significant on reproductive factor (RF) for M. incognita and M. javanica on A. annua, contributing 87 and 89% in total treatment variation of the variables, respectively. At all levels of inoculation, RF values for M. incognita (0.17-0.79) and M. javanica (0.02-0.29) were below unity, without any noticeable root galls. Infection of A. annua by both Meloidogyne species had no significant effects on growth variables. In conclusion, A. annua seedlings are resistant to the South African M. incognita and M. javanica population densities and could therefore be explored further for use in smallholder resource-poor farming systems.

Keywords: ethnomedicial plants, medicinal plants, underutilised crops, plant parasitic nematodes

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1340 Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Iranian Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.) Accessions Using ISSR Makers

Authors: Mehdi Mohebodini, Iman Khalili-Baseri, Mehdi Behnamian, Sara Dezhsetan

Abstract:

Diversity analysis at the molecular level using PCR-based markers is the efficient and rapid method of identifying the relationships and differences among the genotypes. In the present study, genetic diversity and relationships among 20 collected purslane accessions were evaluated using ISSR markers. The genotyping data were used to understand the relationships among the collected accessions and identify genetically diverse purslane accessions. The 25 primers gave a total of 92 bands, of which 62 were polymorphic (67.4%). The genetic diversity as estimated by Shannon’s information index was 0.55, revealing a quite high level of genetic diversity in the germplasm. The average number of an observed allele, effective allele, polymorphic information content (PIC) and Nei’s index were 2, 1.65, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively.

Keywords: Portulaca oleracea L., genetic diversity, ISSR, germplasm

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1339 Software Development and Team Diversity

Authors: J. Congalton, K. Logan, B. Crump

Abstract:

Software is a critical aspect of modern life. However it is costly to develop and industry initiatives have focused on reducing costs and improving the productivity. Increasing, software is being developed in teams, and with greater globalization and migration, the teams are becoming more ethnically diverse. This study investigated whether diversity in terms of ethnicity impacted on the productivity of software development. Project managers of software development teams were interviewed. The study found that while some issues did exist due to language problems, when project managers created an environment of trust and friendliness, diversity made a positive contribution to productivity.

Keywords: diversity, project management, software development, team work

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1338 Diversity Strands in Library and Information Science Graduate Curricula

Authors: Bibi Alajmi, Israa Alshammari

Abstract:

This study investigates diversity strands covered in courses offered by library and information sciences (LIS) graduate programs. It aims to identify the extent to which these programs prepare students to work in diverse communities. Information was collected from 17 ALA-accredited MLIS programs. Diversity-related topics were identified and categorized. The methodology consisted of content analysis of course syllabi. The findings show that coverage of diversity-related content in LIS graduate curricula is increasing at a slow but significant rate, and is often a low priority. Apart from LIS graduate courses for future librarians and information professionals in public libraries, school libraries, and museums providing services to young adults and children, there is not enough interest in the provision of services to diverse communities.

Keywords: diversity, multiculturalism, inclusion, equality, gender

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1337 Homogeneity among Diversity

Authors: Yu Guang

Abstract:

“Case studies are the preferred strategy when ‘how’ or ‘why’ questions are being posed.” Therefore, the study is based on two cases: strategy performed in JingNan War and by NIKE. The two samples are chosen as they are of comparability. Data are gathered and PEST and SWOT are used as analysis models to examine their strategic employment in order that the answer to brilliant strategies in variety is found. The niche strategy has been used in the past and present, in the battle fields and business. The homogeneity among diversity is the skill of performing strategies.

Keywords: challenger, homogeneity, managing diversity, niche strategy

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1336 Team Workforce Diversity and Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

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This study was carried out a meta-analysis on team workforce diversity and team outcomes. Using data from 3,534 teams in 13 studies conducted in team-level settings, we examined whether contextual factors at research local and team-size, influenced team outcomes of team workforce diversity. This meta-analytic examines the team workforce diversity and team outcomes. 13 studies included in the analysis are studies published from 2009 to 2014. We first examined the correlations between all types of diversity and team performance, significant result (Fisher`s Z = .112, k = 32, 95% CI = 0.039 to 0.183). After the analysis was conducted to moderating effect of research local (Republic of Korea=1, other area=0) and team-size. As a result, research local moderating effect had a significant but team-size was not supported. Based on the above findings suggest implications and future research directions.

Keywords: team workforce diversity, team outcomes, meta- analytic, cross-cultural research

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1335 Simulation-Based Diversity Management in Human-Robot Collaborative Scenarios

Authors: Titanilla Komenda, Viktorio Malisa

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of diversity-related factors on the design of collaborative scenarios is analysed. Based on the evaluation, a framework for simulating human-robot-collaboration is presented that considers both human factors as well as the overall system performance. The implementation of the model is shown on a real-life scenario from industry and validated in terms of traceability, safety and physical limitations. By comparing scenarios that consider diversity with those only meeting system performance, an overall understanding of individually adapted human-robot-collaborative workspaces is reached. A diversity-related guideline for human-robot-collaborations provides a summary of the research and aids in optimizing future applications. Finally, limitations and future amendments of the model are discussed.

Keywords: diversity, human-machine system, human-robot collaboration, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
1334 Diversity of Bird Species and Conservation of Two Lacustrine Wetlands of the Upper Benue Basin, Adamawa, Nigeria

Authors: D. l. David, J. A. Wahedi, U. Buba, R. Zakariya

Abstract:

Between January, 2004 to December, 2005, studies were carried out on the bird species diversity and relative abundance of two lakes, Kiri and Gyawana near Numan using the “Timed Species Count (TSC)” method. 163 species in 53 bird families and 160 species in 55 bird families were recorded at Kiri and Gyawana lakes respectively. There was no significant difference in species diversity within bird families between the two lakes (p > 0.05), whereas in Gyawana Lake, one of the sites qualified as Ramsar site, none strongly qualified as an Important Bird Area (IBA). The significance of these findingsare also discussed.

Keywords: conservation, diversity, lacustrine, wetlands

Procedia PDF Downloads 596