Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4010

Search results for: cultural diversity

4010 The Analysis of Cultural Diversity in EFL Textbook for Senior High School in Indonesia

Authors: Soni Ariawan

Abstract:

The study aims to explore the cultural diversity highlighted in EFL textbook for Senior High School grade 10 in Indonesia. The visual images are selected as the data and qualitatively analysed using content analysis. The reason to choose visual images because images are not always neutral and they might impact teaching and learning process. In the current study, cultural diversity aspects are focused on religion (Muslim, Protestant, Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian), gender (male, female, unclear), ethnic (Melanesian, Austronesian, Foreigner) and socioeconomic (low, middle, high, undetermined) diversity as the theoretical framework. The four aspects of cultural diversity are sufficiently representative to draw a conclusion in investigating Indonesian culture representation in EFL textbook. The finding shows that cultural diversity is not proportionally reflected in the textbook, particularly in the visual images.

Keywords: EFL textbook, cultural diversity, visual images, Indonesia

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4009 Fostering Multiculturalism on University Campuses: A Global Perspective

Authors: Ashok Chaskar

Abstract:

The present paper aims at fostering multiculturalism on the university campuses as each university campus now a day is crowded with variety of students representing different countries and cultures. The students of different countries and communities have to respect cultural diversity and promote the idea of inclusion. Multiculturalism has defining promotional values and functions, which establish cultural contacts, exchanges cultural ideologies and promotes the value of harmonious coexistence of many cultures. Living together on university campuses is a life-long experience to the students coming from various backgrounds, therefore multiculturalism can teach them the value of appreciation of interdependence, understanding cultural differences, spirit of respect, mutual understanding, peaceful coexistence, spirit of solidarity and help them in managing conflicts. By fostering multiculturalism on the university campuses, the students can learn new things; they can share their new experiences and contribute innovative ideas with each other. However, religious and ethnic diversity enrich the educational experiences of the students of various backgrounds.

Keywords: culture, cultural pluralism, cultural diversity, ethnic diversity, ethnic groups, egalitarianism, autonomy, socio-cultural harmony, tolerance, harmonious coexistence

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4008 Cultural Heritage Management and Tourism in Kosovo

Authors: Valon Shkodra

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In our paper, we will give an overview of the cultural heritage and tourism in Kosovo. Kosovo has a history, culture, tradition and architecture that are different from those of other countries in the region, and each country has its own characteristics and peculiarities. In this paper, we will mainly present the situation of cultural heritage and its interpretation. The research is based on fieldwork and the aim of the research is to live the situation of cultural heritage and tourism. The reason why we chose this topic is that cultural heritage and tourism are now the most important industry developing many countries in the world. Besides the benefits that tourism brings, it also has an impact on the preservation, protection and promotion of culture in general. Kosovo, with its cultural diversity and very good geographical location, is also very well suited to develop these two areas as a bridge to each other. The cultural heritage holds traces from the earliest eras and shows a diversity of different civilizations that have just begun to be explored and presented.

Keywords: cultural heritage, economy, tourism, development, institutions, protection

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4007 From Cultural Diversity to Cultural Diplomacy: The Practice of Normative Power Europe

Authors: Tzuli Lin

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This paper aims to explore that the EU and Member State (UK) converges on cultural diplomacy to constitute an influential European external relations. It will address the development of EU cultural diplomacy and practice at Member state level. It also discusses the EU and Member States suffering in cultural resource overlapped. In contrast to the literature on the EU external relations, studies of the cultural dimension are rare. Thus, this paper will utilise the broad policy papers to explore how the cultural diversity among the Member States and the EU has a constructive progress at European level but not at Member State level. It can be argued that cultural component is the pivotal strategy for the stagnated EU external relations since the Euro crisis. The EU recognises that if it wants to promote the trade relations from the inside of Europe to outside, it requires the broad culture context among its traditional diplomacy, which brings the cultural component into a significant role. Even though in the area of Member State level, they share the fundamental value and idea, it does not elaborate Member States regarding the EU as a representative of European cultural diplomacy. In theory and practice, the discourse of Normative Power Europe (NPE) can be the analytic framework to construct the research of cultural diplomacy in Europe. NPE is an idea of the EU’s global role and spreading its norms to others. Moreover, Member States’ national interest has supreme priority rather than the EU. Therefore, this paper will utilise the UK as a case study to explore that cultural diplomacy shows fragmentation at European level. In the result, this paper will illustrate that the EU and the UK have mutual recognised each other as a partner not a leader.

Keywords: EU cultural diplomacy, cultural policy, cultural diversity, normative power

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4006 Cultural Snapshot: A Reflection on Project-Based Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding in Teaching and Learning

Authors: Kunto Nurcahyoko

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The fundamental perception used in this study is that teaching and learning activities in Indonesian classroom have potentially generated individual’s sensitivity on cross-cultural understanding. This study aims at investigating Indonesian university students’ perception on cross-cultural understanding after doing Cultural Snapshot Project. The data was critically analyzed through multicultural ideology and diversity theories. The subjects were 30 EFL college students in one of colleges in Indonesia. Each student was assigned to capture a photo which depicted the existence of any cultural manifestation in their surrounding such as discrimination, prejudice and stereotype. Students were then requested asked to reflect on the picture by writing a short description on the picture and make an exhibition using their pictures. In the end of the project, students were instructed to fill in questionnaires to show their perception before and after the project. The result reveals that Cultural Snapshot Project has given the opportunity for the students to better realize cross-cultural understanding in their environment. In conclusion, the study shows that Cultural Snapshot Project has specifically enhanced students’ perception of multiculturalism in three major areas: cultural sensitivity and empathy, social tolerance, and understanding of diversity.

Keywords: cultural snapshot, cross-cultural understanding, students’ perception, multiculturalism

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4005 Analyzing the Influence of Principals’ Cultural Intelligence on Teachers’ Perceived Diversity Climate

Authors: Meghry Nazarian, Ibrahim Duyar

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Effective management of a diverse workforce in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) presents peculiar importance as two-thirds of residents are expatriates who have diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Like any other organization in the country, UAE schools have become upmost diverse settings in the world. The purpose of this study was to examine whether principals’ cultural intelligence has direct and indirect (moderating) influences on teachers’ perceived diversity climate. A quantitative causal-comparative research design was employed to analyze the data. Participants included random samples of principals and teachers working in the private and charter schools in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. The data-gathering online questionnaires included previously developed and validated scales as the measures of study variables. More specifically, the multidimensional short-form measure of Cultural Intelligence (CQ) and the diversity climate scale were used to measure the study variables. Multivariate statistics, including the analysis of multivariate analysis of variance (MANCOVA) and structural equation modeling (SEM), were employed to examine the relationships between the study variables. The preliminary analyses of data showed that principals and teachers have differing views of diversity management and climate in schools. Findings also showed that principals’ cultural intelligence has both direct and moderating influences on teachers’ perceived diversity climate. The study findings are expected to inform policymakers and practicing educational leaders in addressing diversity management in a country where the majority of the residents are the minority who have diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds.

Keywords: diversity management, united arab emirates, school principals’ cultural intelligence (CQ), teachers’ perceived diversity climate

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4004 Examining College Students’ Attitudes toward Diversity Environments in a Physical Activity Course

Authors: Young Ik Suh, Sanghak Lee, Tae Wook Chung

Abstract:

In recent year, cultural diversity has acquired increasing attentions in our society due to the cultural pluralism and globalization. With the emphasis of diversity in our society, higher education has played a significant role in preparing people to be successful in a diverse world. A number of colleges and universities provide various diversity-related courses that enhance students to recognize the importance of diversity and multiculturalism. However, little research has been conducted with diversity environments in physical activity and sports-related courses to appreciate students’ attitudes toward multiculturalism. Physical activity courses can be regarded as an essential and complementary part of general education. As well, playing and watching certain sports plays a critical role to foster mutual understanding between different races and to help social integration for minority communities. Therefore, it is expected that the appropriate diverse environments in physical activity courses may have a positive impact to the understandings of different cultures and races. The primary purpose of this study is to examine attitudes toward cultural diversity in a physical activity course among undergraduate students. In building on the scholarly foundation in this area, this study applies the established survey scale (e.g., Pluralism and Diversity Attitude Assessment [PADAA]) developed by Stanley (1996) and previous literature related to cultural diversity. The PADAA includes 19 questions. The following two research hypotheses were proposed. H1: Students who take a diversity-related physical course (i.e., Taekwondo) will provide positive attitude changes toward their cultural diversity. H2: Students who take a general physical activity course (i.e., Weight Training) will provide no significant attitude changes toward their cultural diversity. To test the research hypotheses, subjects will be selected from the both Taekwondo and Weight Training class at University of West Georgia. In the Taekwondo class, students will learn the history, meaning, basic terminology, and physical skills, which is a Korean martial art and the national sport of Korea. In the Weight Training class, students will not be exposed to any cultural diversity topics. Regarding data analysis, Doubly Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (Doubly MANCOVA), 2 (time period: pre and after) X 2 (diversity-related content exposure: Taekwondo and Weight Training), will be conducted on attitudes toward the cultural diversity with control variables such as gender and age. The findings of this study will add to the body of literature in cultural diversity because this will be the first known attempt to explain the college students’ attitudes toward cultural diversity in a physical activity courses. The expected results will state that the physical activity course focusing on diversity issues will have a positive impact on college students’ attitude toward cultural diversity. This finding will indicate that Universities need to create diverse programs (e.g., study abroad, exchange program, second language courses) and environments so that students can have positive interactions with other groups of races and different cultures. It is also expected that the positive perceptions and attitudes toward cultural diversity will break down cultural barriers and make students be ready for meeting several challenges in a multicultural and global society.

Keywords: cultural diversity, physical activity course, attitude, Taekwondo

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4003 Cultural Studies in the Immigration Movements: Memories and Social Collectives

Authors: María Eugenia Peltzer, María Estela Rodríguez

Abstract:

This work presents an approach to the cultural aspects of the Immigrants as part of the Cultural Intangible Heritage of Argentina. The intangible cultural heritage consists of the manifestations, practices, uses, representations, expressions, knowledge, techniques and cultural spaces that communities and groups recognize as an integral part of their cultural heritage. This heritage generates feelings of identity and establishes links with the collective memory, as well as being transmitted and recreated over time according to its environment, its interaction with nature and its history contributing to promote respect for cultural diversity and Human creativity. The Immigrants brings together those who came from other lands and their descendants, thus maintaining their traditions through time and linking the members of each cultural group with a strong sense of belonging through a communicative and effective process.

Keywords: cultural, immigration, memories, social

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4002 Technology and Terror

Authors: Janet D. Fish

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This paper will analyze how advanced information technology communications platform’s such as you tube, twitter, Facebook, and websites are being used in marketing cultural diversity on a global scale. The scope of this topic will encompass the use of marketing terror as a tool of educational understanding, accepting, and incorporating other ethnic groups into extremist Islamic cultural practices with an end goal of cultural assimilation. This paper will examine the impacts of various influences, such as globalism and technology on common public values and cultural diversity. Additionally, multiculturalism in public administration settings will be examined across cultures. Communications are a primary focus of review for this paper, the purpose of this review is to see how different technological platforms are currently being used as major tools of influence within the public sector. Technology and terror must become a primary concern for new public administrators in a modern world. While its existence is acknowledged, boundaries of legal recourse are currently few. Public administrators must understand the depth and reach of the future consequences of an unchecked process in the realm of technology and terror on a global scale.

Keywords: inclusionism, exclusionism, technology, terror

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4001 Team Workforce Diversity and Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

Abstract:

This study was carried out a meta-analysis on team workforce diversity and team outcomes. Using data from 3,534 teams in 13 studies conducted in team-level settings, we examined whether contextual factors at research local and team-size, influenced team outcomes of team workforce diversity. This meta-analytic examines the team workforce diversity and team outcomes. 13 studies included in the analysis are studies published from 2009 to 2014. We first examined the correlations between all types of diversity and team performance, significant result (Fisher`s Z = .112, k = 32, 95% CI = 0.039 to 0.183). After the analysis was conducted to moderating effect of research local (Republic of Korea=1, other area=0) and team-size. As a result, research local moderating effect had a significant but team-size was not supported. Based on the above findings suggest implications and future research directions.

Keywords: team workforce diversity, team outcomes, meta- analytic, cross-cultural research

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4000 [Keynote Talk]: Swiss Scientific Society for Developing Countries: A Concept of Relationship

Authors: Jawad Alzeer

Abstract:

Cultural setup is varied from country to country and nation to nation, but the ability to adapt successfully to the new cultural setup may pave the way toward the development of cultural intelligence. Overcoming differences may require to build up our personality with the ability to learn, exchange thoughts, and have a constructive dream. Adaptation processes can be accelerated if we effectively utilize our cultural diversity. This can be done through a unified body or society; people with common goals can collectively work to satisfy their values. Narrowing the gap between developed and developing countries is of prime importance. Many international organizations are trying to resolve these issues by rational and peaceful means. Failing to understand the cultural differences, mentalities, strengths and weaknesses of developed and developing countries led to the collapse of many partnerships. Establishment of a neutral body influenced by developed countries intellectuality and developing countries personality may offer a better understanding and reasonable solutions, suggestions, advice that may assist in narrowing gaps and promote-strengthening relationship between developed and developing countries. The key issues, goals, and potential concepts associated with initiating Swiss scientific society for developing countries as a model to facilitate integration of highly skilled scientists are discussed.

Keywords: cultural diversity, developing countries, integration, Switzerland

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3999 Attitude to Cultural Diversity and Inclusive Pedagogical Practices in the Classroom: A Correlational Study

Authors: Laura M. Espinoza, Karen A. Hernández, Diana B. Ledezma

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Currently, in Chile, migratory movements are generated, where the country receives constantly people from Latin America such as Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Haiti, among others. This phenomenon has reached the schools of Chile, where immigrant children and adolescents are educated in a context of cultural diversity. However, education professionals face this recent phenomenon without prior preparation to carry out their pedagogical practices in the classroom. On the other hand, research on how to understand and guide the processes of cultural diversity especially within the school is even scarce and recent in Latin America and specifically in Chile. The general purpose of the study is to analyze the relationships between teaching efforts towards multiculturalism and inclusive pedagogical practices in the schools of the city of La Serena and Coquimbo, in Chile. The study refers to a quantitative approach, with a correlational design. The selection of the participants was not intentional probabilistic. It comprises 88 teachers of preschool, primary, secondary and special education, who work in two schools with similar characteristics. For the collection of information on the independent variable, the attitude scale towards Immigration and the attitude scale towards Multiculturalism in the school are applied. To obtain information on the independent variable, the guide for the evaluation of inclusive practices in the classroom is applied. Both instruments have statistical validation. A Spearman correlation analysis was made to achieve the objective of the study. Among the main findings, we will find the relationships between the positive perceptions of multiculturalism at school and inclusive practices such as the physical conditions of the classroom, planning, methodology, use of time and evaluation. These findings are relevant to the teaching and learning processes of students in Chilean classrooms and contribute to literature for the understanding of educational processes in contexts of cultural diversity.

Keywords: cultural diversity, immigration, inclusive pedagogical practices, multiculturalism

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3998 A Holistic Approach of Cross-Cultural Management with Insight from Neuroscience

Authors: Mai Nguyen-Phuong-Mai

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This paper incorporates insight from various models, studies and disciplines to construct a framework called the Inverted Pyramid Model. It is argued that such a framework has several advantages: (1) it reduces the shortcomings of the problem-focused approach that dominates the mainstream theories of cross-cultural management. With contributing insight from neuroscience, it suggests that training in business cross-cultural awareness should start with potential synergy emerged from differences instead of the traditional approach that focuses on the liability of foreigners and negative consequences of cultural distance. (2) The framework supports a dynamic and holistic way of analyzing cultural diversity by analyzing four major cultural units (global, national, organizational and group culture). (3) The framework emphasizes the role of individuals –an aspect of culture that is often ignored or regarded as a non-issue in the traditional approach. It is based on the notion that people don’t do business with a country, but work (in)directly with a unique person. And it is at this individual level that culture is made, personally, dynamically, and contextually. Insight from neuroscience provides significant evidence that a person can develop a multicultural mind, confirm and contradict, follow and reshape a culture, even when (s)he was previously an outsider to this culture. With this insight, the paper proposes a revision of the old adage (Think global – Act local) and change it into Think global – Plan local – Act individual.

Keywords: static–dynamic paradigm, cultural diversity, multicultural mind, neuroscience

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3997 The Impact of the Inclusive Center on Social and Psychological State of Beneficiaries

Authors: Parvina Ismayilova

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Inclusion is like cultural diversity because, in the modern world, it is understood as everything that allows you to immerse yourself in the environment with the opportunity to expand your experience. In a narrow sense, inclusion is more associated with "inclusive education" and "inclusive technologies" - that is, it is a principle that allows people with disabilities to interact with the outside world. Technological progress allows people to unite, ensuring that they are seen and heard.

Keywords: diversity, disability, inclusivity, equality

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3996 A Call for Transformative Learning Experiences to Facilitate Student Workforce Diversity Learning in the United States

Authors: Jeanetta D. Sims, Chaunda L. Scott, Hung-Lin Lai, Sarah Neese, Atoya Sims, Angelia Barrera-Medina

Abstract:

Given the call for increased transformative learning experiences and the demand for academia to prepare students to enter workforce diversity careers, this study explores the landscape of workforce diversity learning in the United States. Using a multi-disciplinary syllabi browsing process and a content analysis method, the most prevalent instructional activities being used in workforce-diversity related courses in the United States are identified. In addition, the instructional activities are evaluated based on transformative learning tenants.

Keywords: workforce diversity, workforce diversity learning, transformative learning, diversity education, U. S. workforce diversity, workforce diversity assignments

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3995 Perceptions of Students toward ODL Services Quality in Facilitating Their Study: Experience of Universitas Terbuka in Managing ODL in Cultural Diversity Areas

Authors: Ribut Alam Malau, Durri Andriani, C. B. Supartomo

Abstract:

Universitas Terbuka (UT) as a higher education institution implements open and distance education is responsible to provide higher education to all Indonesian citizen wherever they live, including those reside in cultural diversity aras. Operate from Jakarta Head Office and 37 regional centers (ROs), UT is accustomed to the challenge. UT-Kupang and UT-Ambon which oversee East Nusa Tenggara and Maluku have successfully provided quality educational services for students. The two ROs have provided educational facilities which could assist the students to cope with their study in spite of the diversity situations. In order to analyze the effectiveness of the facilities provided, questionnaires focusing on tutorial services were sent to 90 students in the two ROs asking them to assess the facilities which best fulfills students’ needs in terms of their culture diversity. The results showed that UT-Kupang and UT-Ambon have successful in providing education for students in their areas as reflected in more than 80% of respondents aware of the facilities concerning tutorial service except for tutorial mechanism where only 34,5% of respondents aware of. However, despite lower rate of awareness in tutorial mechanism, majority of respondent 90.8% of respondents registered in tutorials and 95.4% will register in tutorials next semester. The majority of respondents showed appreciation for the ROs efforts to provide tutorials on weekdays which could accommodate their beliefs. In addition, conducting tutorials in all islands also perceived highly since students did not have to commute between islands. Efforts done by UT-Kupang and UT-Ambon have proven to be appreciated by students.

Keywords: archipelago, cultural diversity, ODL, service quality, Universitas Terbuka

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3994 Attitudes toward Cultural Diversity: A Study of Russian Teachers

Authors: Rezeda Khairutdinova, Chulpan Gromova, Dina Birman

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The paper presents results of an exploratory study of teachers’ social attitudes toward ethnic and religious diversity, and variables influencing such attitudes. The study was conducted in Russia and is focused on school teachers, given their special role in culturally diverse modern societies. Using the social distance scale (adapted from Bogardus, 1926), we sampled 355 school teachers from two Russian regions known for their high cultural diversity: Moscow and Moscow region, Kazan and Republic of Tatarstan, and measured teacher attitudes toward large religious and ethnic groups (including migrants). The findings showed that teachers hold mostly tolerant attitudes with respect to members belonging to culturally and religiously diverse groups. The social distance between respondents and native residents of their region was minimal. Social distance was larger with respect to such ethnic groups as migrants from the Caucasian and Central Asian countries. The analysis of perception of different religious groups also showed positive attitudes toward these groups and readiness to interact with them. Teacher attitudes were not related to their age or ethnicity. The findings indicated that there was a significant correlation between social distance and the region of residence on the one hand, and between social distance and the degree of social interaction on the other. The results of this study will be used to develop a large-scale study to contribute to a better understanding of teacher attitudes toward immigrant students in public schools.

Keywords: attitudes of teachers, cultural diversity, migrants, social distance

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3993 Developing Educator Cultural Awareness through Critically Reflective Professional Learning Community Collaboration

Authors: Brooke A. Moore

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Developing teachers’ cultural awareness ensures schools are culturally responsive and socially just for diverse and exceptional students. An ideology of ‘normal’ exists in schools, creating boundaries where some students belong and others are marginalized based on difference. It is important that teacher preparation work to create democratic classrooms where teachers foster tolerance of difference and promote critical thinking and social justice. This paper outlines a framework for developing educator cultural awareness through the use of critically reflective professional learning communities (PLCs) drawing from the research on teacher critical reflection, collaborative PLCs, and Engeström’s theory of expansive learning. A case study using the framework was conducted with ten practicing teachers. Participants read and reflected on critical literature to make visible unexamined beliefs, engaged in conversations that pushed them to reflect more deeply and project forward new ideas, and set goals for acting as agents of change in their schools.

Keywords: cultural and linguistic diversity, diversity, special education, teacher beliefs

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3992 Adopting a Comparative Cultural Studies Approach to Teaching Writing in the Global Classroom

Authors: Madhura Bandyopadhyay

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Teaching writing within multicultural and multiethnic communities poses many unique challenges not the least of which is that of intercultural communication. When the writing is in English, pedagogical imperatives often encounter the universalizing tendencies of standardization of both language use and structural parameters which are often at odds with maintaining local practices which preserve cultural pluralism. English often becomes the contact zone within which individual identities of students play out against the standardization imperatives of the larger world. Writing classes can serve as places which become instruments of assimilation of ethnic minorities to a larger globalizing or nationalistic agenda. Hence, for those outside of the standard practices of writing English, adaptability towards a mastery of those practices valued as standard become the focus of teaching taking away from diversity of local English use and other modes of critical thinking. In a very multicultural and multiethnic context such as the US or Singapore, these dynamics become very important. This paper will argue that multiethnic writing classrooms can greatly benefit from taking up a cultural studies approach whereby the students’ lived environments and experiences are analyzed as cultural texts to produce writing. Such an approach eliminates limitations of using both literary texts as foci of discussion as in traditional approaches to teaching writing and the current trend in teaching composition without using texts at all. By bringing in students’ lived experiences into the classroom and analyzing them as cultural compositions stressing the ability to communicate across cultures, cultural competency is valued rather than adaptability while privileging pluralistic experiences as valuable even as universal shared experience are found. Specifically, while teaching writing in English in a multicultural classroom, a cultural studies approach makes both teacher and student aware of the diversity of the English language as it exists in our global context in the students’ experience while making space for diversity in critical thinking, structure and organization of writing effective in an intercultural context.

Keywords: English, multicultural, teaching, writing

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3991 The Effect of Diversity Sensitive Orientation on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

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The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of diversity sensitive orientation on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Diversity sensitive orientation is the attitude of the individual to respect and accommodate diversity. This is focused on an individual’s perception of diversity. Although being made from the most diversity related research team and organizational level, this study deals with diversity issues at the individual level. To test the proposed research model and hypothesis, the data were collected from 291 Korean employees. The study conducted a confirmatory factor analysis for the validity test. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the hypothesized relationship in the conceptual model. The results of this paper were as followings: First, diversity sensitive orientation was positively related to job satisfaction. Second, diversity sensitive orientation was negatively related to turnover intention. In other words, the positive influence of the diversity sensitive orientation has been verified. Based on the findings, this study suggested implications and directions for future research.

Keywords: diversity sensitive orientation, job satisfaction, turnover intention, perception, cognition

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3990 Teaching Tolerance in the Language Classroom through a Text

Authors: Natalia Kasatkina

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In an ever-increasing globalization, one’s grasp of diversity and tolerance has never been more indispensable, and it is a vital duty for all those in the field of foreign language teaching to help children cultivate such values. The present study explores the role of DIVERSITY and TOLERANCE in the language classroom and elementary, middle, and high school students’ perceptions of these two concepts. It draws on several theoretical domains of language acquisition, cultural awareness, and school psychology. Relying on these frameworks, the major findings are synthesized, and a paradigm of teaching tolerance through language-teaching is formulated. Upon analysing how tolerant our children are with ‘others’ in and outside the classroom, we have concluded that intolerance and aggression towards the ‘other’ increase with age, and that a feeling of supremacy over migrants and a sense of fear towards them begin to manifest more apparently when the students are in high school. In addition, we have also found that children in elementary school do not exhibit such prejudiced thoughts and behavior, which leads us to the believe that tolerance as well as intolerance are learned. Therefore, it is within our reach to teach our children to be open-minded and accepting. We have used the novel ‘Uncle Tom’s Cabin’ by Harriet Beecher Stowe as a springboard for lessons which are not only targeted at shedding light on the role of language in the modern world, but also aim to stimulate an awareness of cultural diversity. We equally strive to conduct further cross-cultural research in order to solidify the theory behind this study, and thus devise a language-based curriculum which would encourage tolerance through the examination of various literary texts.

Keywords: literary text, tolerance, EFL classroom, word-association test

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3989 The Jordanian Traditional Dress of Women as a Form of Cultural Heritage

Authors: Sarah Alkhateeb

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This research explores the Jordanian traditional dress of women as a form of cultural heritage. The dress of the Jordanian woman expresses her social and cultural functions and reflects the local environment in its social and cultural frameworks and the determinants of the natural formation of climate and terrain, in addition to what is expressed by the person’s social status and position in the social ladder of any society. Therefore, the traditional dress of Jordanian women is distinguished by its abundance and diversity. Few studies have been conducted on the Jordanian traditional dress of women, the lack of studies about the Jordanian traditional dress of women needs highlighting and the characteristics of this dress have to be featured and documented as a part of cultural heritage. The main aim of this research is to contribute or to develop a conservation strategy to save this part of cultural heritage from loss. In this research, the qualitative method approach will be used and will follow the ethnographic method. The data will be gathered from a primary source which is the single focus group discussion with the TIRAZ museum team; the Jordanian traditional dress will be explored across three regions: The North, Middle and South of Jordan, investigating the regional differences and focusing on the details of the individual garment.

Keywords: Jordanian traditional dress, cultural heritage, tiraz museum, ethnographic method

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3988 The Role of Communicative Grammar in Cross-Cultural Learning Environment

Authors: Tonoyan Lusine

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The Communicative Grammar (CG) of a language deals with semantics and pragmatics in the first place as communication is a process of generating speech. As it is well known people can communicate with the help of limited word expressions and grammatical means. As to non-verbal communication, both vocabulary and grammar are not essential at all. However, the development of the communicative competence lies in verbal, non-verbal, grammatical, socio-cultural and intercultural awareness. There are several important issues and environment management strategies related to effective communication that one might need to consider for a positive learning experience. International students bring a broad range of cultural perspectives to the learning environment, and this diversity has the capacity to improve interaction and to enrich the teaching/learning process. Intercultural setting implies creative and thought-provoking work with different cultural worldviews and international perspectives. It is worth mentioning that the use of Communicative Grammar models creates a profound background for the effective intercultural communication.

Keywords: CG, cross-cultural communication, intercultural awareness, non-verbal behavior

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3987 Managing Diversity in MNCS: A Literature Review of Existing Strategic Models for Managing Diversity and a Roadmap to Transfer Them to the Subsidiaries

Authors: Debora Gottardello, Mireia Valverde Aparicio, Juan Llopis Taverner

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Globalization has given rise to a great diversity in the composition of people in organizations. Diversity management is therefore key to create growth in today’s competitive global marketplace. This work develops a literature review related to the existing models for managing diversity covering the period from 1980 until 2014. Furthermore, it identifies limitations in previous models. More specifically, the literature review reveals that there is a lack of information about how these models can be adapted from the headquarters to the subsidiaries. Therefore, the contribution of this paper is to suggest how the models should be adapted when they are directed to host countries. Our aim is to highlight the limitations of the developed models with regards to the translation of the diversity management practices to the subsidiaries. Accordingly, a model that will enable MNCs to ensure a global strategy is suggested. Taking advantage of the potential incorporated in a culturally diverse work team should be at the top of every international company’s aims. Executives from headquarters need to use different attitudes when transferring diversity practices towards their subsidiaries. Further studies should reassess local practices of diversity management to find out how this universal management model is translated.

Keywords: culture diversity, diversity management, human resources management, MNCs, subsidiaries, workforce diversity

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3986 Diversity and Intensity of International Technology Transfer and their Impacts on Organizational Performance

Authors: Seongryong Kang, Woonjin Kim, Sungjoo Lee

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Under the environment of fierce competition and globalized economy, international technology collaboration has gained increasing attention as a way to improve innovation efficiency. While international technology transfer helps a firm to acquire necessary technology in a short period of time, it also has a risk; embedding external technology from overseas partners may cause a transaction cost due to the regional, cultural and language barriers, which tend to offset the benefits of such transfer. Though a number of previous studies have focused on the effects of technology in-transfer on firm performance, few have conducted in the context of international technology transfer. To fill this gap, this study aims to investigate the impact of international technology in-transfer on firm performance – both innovation and financial performance, with a particular emphasis on the diversity and intensity of such transfer. To do this, we adopted technology balance payment (TBP) data of Korean firms from 2010 to 2011, where an intermediate regression analysis was used to identify the intermediate effects of absorptive capacity. The analysis results indicate that i) the diversity and intensity of international technology transfer influence innovation performance by improving R&D capability positively; and ii) the diversity has a positive impact but the intensity has a negative impact on financial performance through the intermediation of R&D intensity. The research findings are expected to provide meaningful implications for establishing global technology strategy and developing policy programs to facilitate technology transfer.

Keywords: diversity, intensity, international technology acquisition, performance, technology transfer

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3985 From Cultural Policy to Social Practice: Literary Festivals as a Platform for Social Inclusion in Pakistan

Authors: S. Jabeen

Abstract:

Though Pakistan has a rich cultural history and a diverse population; its global image is tarnished with labels of Muslim ‘fundamentalism’ and ‘extremism.’ Cultural policy is a tool that can be used by the government of Pakistan to ameliorate this image, but instead, this fundamentalist reputation is reinforced in the 2005 draft of Pakistan’s cultural policy. With its stern focus on a homogenized cultural identity, this 2005 draft bases itself largely on forced participation from the largely Muslim public and leaves little or no benefits to them or cultural minorities in Pakistan. The effects of this homogenized ‘Muslim’ identity linger ten years later where the study and celebration of the cultural heritage of Pakistan in schools and educational festivals focus entirely on creating and maintaining a singular ‘Islamic’ cultural identity. The current lack of inclusion has many adverse effects that include the breeding of extremist mindsets through the usurpation of minority rights and lack of safe cultural public spaces. This paper argues that Pakistan can improve social inclusivity and boost its global image through cultural policy. The paper sets the grounds for research by surveying the effectiveness of different cultural policies across nations with differing socioeconomic status. Then, by sampling two public literary festivals in Pakistan as case studies, the National Youth Peace Festival hosted with a nationalistic agenda using public funds and the Lahore Literary Festival (LLF) that aims to boost the cultural literacy scene of Lahore using both private and public efforts, this paper looks at the success of the private, more inclusive LLF. A revision of cultural policy is suggested that combines public and private efforts to host cultural festivals for the sake of cultural celebration and human development, without a set nationalistic agenda. Consequently, this comparison which is grounded in the human capabilities approach, recommends revising the 2005 draft of the Cultural Policy to improve human capabilities in order to support cultural diversity and ultimately contribute to economic growth in Pakistan.

Keywords: cultural policy, festivals, human capabilities, Pakistan

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3984 The Influence of the Normative Gender Binary in Diversity Management: A Multi-Method Study on Gender Diversity of Diversity Management

Authors: Robin C. Ladwig

Abstract:

Diversity Management, as a substantial element of Human Resource Management, aims to secure the economic benefit that assumingly comes with a diverse workforce. Consequently, diversity managers focus on the protection of employees and securing equality measurements to assure organisational gender diversity. Gender diversity as one aspect of Diversity Management seems to adhere to gender binarism and cis-normativity. Workplaces are gendered spaces which are echoing the binary gender-normativity presented in Diversity Management, sold under the label of gender diversity. While the expectation of Diversity Management implies the inclusion of a multiplicity of marginalised groups, such as trans and gender diverse people, in current literature and practice, the reality is curated by gender binarism and cis-normativity. The qualitative multi-method research showed a lack of knowledge about trans and gender diverse matters within the profession of Diversity Management and Human Resources. The semi-structured interviews with trans and gender diverse individuals from various backgrounds and occupations in Australia exposed missing considerations of trans and gender diverse experiences in the inclusivity and gender equity of various workplaces. Even if practitioners consider trans and gender diverse matters under gender diversity, the practical execution is limited to gender binary structures and cis-normative actions as the photo-elicit questionnaire with diversity managers, human resource officers, and personnel management demonstrates. Diversity Management should approach a broader source of informed practice by extending their business focus to the knowledge of humanity studies. Humanity studies could include diversity, queer, or gender studies to increase the inclusivity of marginalised groups such as trans and gender diverse employees and people. Furthermore, the definition of gender diversity should be extended beyond the gender binary and cis-normative experience. People may lose trust in Diversity Management as a supportive ally of marginalised employees if the understanding of inclusivity is limited to a gender binary and cis-normativity value system that misrepresents the richness of gender diversity.

Keywords: cis-normativity, diversity management, gender binarism, trans and gender diversity

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3983 Bridging the Divide: Mixed-Method Analysis of Student Engagement and Outcomes in Diverse Postgraduate Cohorts

Authors: A.Knox

Abstract:

Student diversity in postgraduate classes puts major challenges on educators seeking to encourage student engagement and desired to learn outcomes. This paper outlines the impact of a set of teaching initiatives aimed at addressing challenges associated with teaching and learning in an environment characterized by diversity in the student cohort. The study examines postgraduate students completing the core capstone unit within a specialized business degree. Although relatively small, the student cohort is highly diverse in terms of cultural backgrounds represented, prior learning and/or qualifications, as well as duration and type of work experience relevant to the degree, is completed. The wide range of cultures, existing knowledge and experience create enormous challenges with respect to students’ learning needs and outcomes. Subsequently, a suite of teaching innovations has been adopted to enhance curriculum content/delivery and the design of assessments. This paper explores the impact of these specific teaching and learning practices, examining the ways they have supported students’ diverse needs and enhanced students’ learning outcomes. Data from surveys and focus groups are used to assess the effectiveness of these practices. The results highlight the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning, cultural competence-building, and advanced assessment options in addressing diverse student needs and enhancing student engagement and learning outcomes. These findings suggest that such practices would benefit students’ learning in environments marked by diversity in the student cohort. Specific recommendations are offered for other educators working with diverse classes.

Keywords: assessment design, curriculum content, curriculum delivery, student diversity

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3982 Mechanisms of Cultural Change Resistance through Cultures

Authors: Horaya Mostafa Ahmed

Abstract:

All cultures are inherently predisposed to change and, at the same time, to resisting change. There are dynamic processes operating that encourage the acceptance of new ideas and things, while there are others that encourage changeless stability. Despite the dramatic changes that have taken place in all human cultures, there are cultures still steadfast and resist change. These cultures resist through some culture mechanisms like, cultural boundaries, ethnocentrism, religion, and cultural relativity. So this paper is an attempt to discover these mechanisms of cultural change resistance and to ask is cultural change always required.

Keywords: cultural change, cultural boundaries, cultural relativity, ethnocentrism, religion, resistance

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3981 Coding and Decoding versus Space Diversity for ‎Rayleigh Fading Radio Frequency Channels ‎

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoud Ahmed Abouelmagd

Abstract:

The diversity is the usual remedy of the transmitted signal level variations (Fading phenomena) in radio frequency channels. Diversity techniques utilize two or more copies of a signal and combine those signals to combat fading. The basic concept of diversity is to transmit the signal via several independent diversity branches to get independent signal replicas via time – frequency - space - and polarization diversity domains. Coding and decoding processes can be an alternative remedy for fading phenomena, it cannot increase the channel capacity, but it can improve the error performance. In this paper we propose the use of replication decoding with BCH code class, and Viterbi decoding algorithm with convolution coding; as examples of coding and decoding processes. The results are compared to those obtained from two optimized selection space diversity techniques. The performance of Rayleigh fading channel, as the model considered for radio frequency channels, is evaluated for each case. The evaluation results show that the coding and decoding approaches, especially the BCH coding approach with replication decoding scheme, give better performance compared to that of selection space diversity optimization approaches. Also, an approach for combining the coding and decoding diversity as well as the space diversity is considered, the main disadvantage of this approach is its complexity but it yields good performance results.

Keywords: Rayleigh fading, diversity, BCH codes, Replication decoding, ‎convolution coding, viterbi decoding, space diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 350