Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 201

Search results for: dominance

201 Genetic Analysis of Iron, Phosphorus, Potassium and Zinc Concentration in Peanut

Authors: Ajay B. C., Meena H. N., Dagla M. C., Narendra Kumar, Makwana A. D., Bera S. K., Kalariya K. A., Singh A. L.

Abstract:

The high-energy value, protein content and minerals makes peanut a rich source of nutrition at comparatively low cost. Basic information on genetics and inheritance of these mineral elements is very scarce. Hence, in the present study inheritance (using additive-dominance model) and association of mineral elements was studied in two peanut crosses. Dominance variance (H) played an important role in the inheritance of P, K, Fe and Zn in peanut pods. Average degree of dominance for most of the traits was greater than unity indicating over dominance for these traits. Significant associations were also observed among mineral elements both in F2 and F3 generations but pod yield had no associations with mineral elements (with few exceptions). Di-allele/bi-parental mating could be followed to identify high yielding and mineral dense segregates.

Keywords: correlation, dominance variance, mineral elements, peanut

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
200 Stochastic Prioritization of Dependent Actuarial Risks: Preferences among Prospects

Authors: Ezgi Nevruz, Kasirga Yildirak, Ashis SenGupta

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Comparing or ranking risks is the main motivating factor behind the human trait of making choices. Cumulative prospect theory (CPT) is a preference theory approach that evaluates perception and bias in decision making under risk and uncertainty. We aim to investigate the aggregate claims of different risk classes in terms of their comparability and amenability to ordering when the impact of risk perception is considered. For this aim, we prioritize the aggregate claims taken as actuarial risks by using various stochastic ordering relations. In order to prioritize actuarial risks, we use stochastic relations such as stochastic dominance and stop-loss dominance that are proposed in the frame of partial order theory. We take into account the dependency of the individual claims exposed to similar environmental risks. At first, we modify the zero-utility premium principle in order to obtain a solution for the stop-loss premium under CPT. Then, we propose a stochastic stop-loss dominance of the aggregate claims and find a relation between the stop-loss dominance and the first-order stochastic dominance under the dependence assumption by using properties of the familiar as well as some emerging multivariate claim distributions.

Keywords: cumulative prospect theory, partial order theory, risk perception, stochastic dominance, stop-loss dominance

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
199 Parameterized Lyapunov Function Based Robust Diagonal Dominance Pre-Compensator Design for Linear Parameter Varying Model

Authors: Xiaobao Han, Huacong Li, Jia Li

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For dynamic decoupling of linear parameter varying system, a robust dominance pre-compensator design method is given. The parameterized pre-compensator design problem is converted into optimal problem constrained with parameterized linear matrix inequalities (PLMI); To solve this problem, firstly, this optimization problem is equivalently transformed into a new form with elimination of coupling relationship between parameterized Lyapunov function (PLF) and pre-compensator. Then the problem was reduced to a normal convex optimization problem with normal linear matrix inequalities (LMI) constraints on a newly constructed convex polyhedron. Moreover, a parameter scheduling pre-compensator was achieved, which satisfies robust performance and decoupling performances. Finally, the feasibility and validity of the robust diagonal dominance pre-compensator design method are verified by the numerical simulation of a turbofan engine PLPV model.

Keywords: linear parameter varying (LPV), parameterized Lyapunov function (PLF), linear matrix inequalities (LMI), diagonal dominance pre-compensator

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
198 Enhancing National Integrity through Teaching Secular Perspectives in Medieval Indian History Curricula: A Secular Paradigms

Authors: Deepak Deshpande, Vikas Minchekar

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Day by day in modern India communal forces became stronger and stronger. Each and every caste group trying to show their strength through massive marches. Such kind of marches or ralliesruinous national integrity in India. To test this assumption present investigation has been carried out. This research was undertaken by using survey techniques. The study has been carried out in two phases. In the first stage, the students’ attitudes were collected while in the second phase the views of the members of the historical association were collected. The social dominance orientation scale and sources of social dominance inventory have been administered on 200 college students belonging to Maratha caste. Analyzed data revealed ahigh level of social dominance in Maratha caste students. Approximately, 80 percent students have reported that they have learned such dominance from the medieval history. The other sources disappear very less prominent. These results and present Indian social situation have been communicated with the members of the historical association of India. The majority members of this association agreed with this reality. The consensus also received on that Maratha caste person experiencing dominance due to the misinterpretation of the King Shivaji Empire; synchronize by politicians. The survey monkey app was used through electronic mail to collect the views on ‘The attitude towards the modification of curricula questionnaire’. The maximum number of members of the historical association agreed to employ to teach the medieval Indian history accordingly the secular perspectives.

Keywords: social dominance orientation, secular perceptive, national integrity, Maratha caste and medieval Indian history

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
197 Consistent Testing for an Implication of Supermodular Dominance with an Application to Verifying the Effect of Geographic Knowledge Spillover

Authors: Chung Danbi, Linton Oliver, Whang Yoon-Jae

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Supermodularity, or complementarity, is a popular concept in economics which can characterize many objective functions such as utility, social welfare, and production functions. Further, supermodular dominance captures a preference for greater interdependence among inputs of those functions, and it can be applied to examine which input set would produce higher expected utility, social welfare, or production. Therefore, we propose and justify a consistent testing for a useful implication of supermodular dominance. We also conduct Monte Carlo simulations to explore the finite sample performance of our test, with critical values obtained from the recentered bootstrap method, with and without the selective recentering, and the subsampling method. Under various parameter settings, we confirmed that our test has reasonably good size and power performance. Finally, we apply our test to compare the geographic and distant knowledge spillover in terms of their effects on social welfare using the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) patent data. We expect localized citing to supermodularly dominate distant citing if the geographic knowledge spillover engenders greater social welfare than distant knowledge spillover. Taking subgroups based on firm and patent characteristics, we found that there is industry-wise and patent subclass-wise difference in the pattern of supermodular dominance between localized and distant citing. We also compare the results from analyzing different time periods to see if the development of Internet and communication technology has changed the pattern of the dominance. In addition, to appropriately deal with the sparse nature of the data, we apply high-dimensional methods to efficiently select relevant data.

Keywords: supermodularity, supermodular dominance, stochastic dominance, Monte Carlo simulation, bootstrap, subsampling

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196 Half-Human: Examining Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation Effects on Dehumanization Tendencies

Authors: Brianna Ross, John Sollers, Christopher Edwards

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In the age of heightened social and political discourse, there is a tendency for individuals and media sources to use dehumanization as a tool to influence group thoughts and attitudes. When considering individual interactions, there is a need to determine what characteristics increase or predict dehumanization. The present study investigated dehumanization tendencies related to social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) while factoring in political affiliation. Two-hundred and seven individuals participated in an anonymous study to reveal that there was a significant relationship between high SDO and high RWA scores. There was also a significant correlation between the dehumanization of Black Lives Matter and SDO. These findings suggest that those who are “double high” (scoring highly on both SDO and RWA are more likely to dehumanize others, particularly social groups they disagree with. Acknowledging that there are significant changes occurring in the sociopolitical atmosphere, it is essential that researchers understand dehumanization tendencies in modern society to better define the concept of othering and its consequences on social interaction.

Keywords: dehumanization, social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, political affiliation

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195 Competition in Kenya: The Legal and Institutional Framework and an Appraisal of Key Market Players

Authors: Edwin Njoroge Kimani, Alan M. Munyao

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Despite Kenya’s status as a regional economic powerhouse, it struggles with economic shocks that expose the consumers. This, however, seems not to affect major cooperates such as those in the telecommunication and energy sectors. Through their operations, they have not only been able to fluctuate prices at will but also they have been accused of curtailing their rivals from penetrating the market. This study, through literature review of the legal and institutional framework, reports and publications interrogates the law and uncovers the following; i) failings of the legal framework to define market dominance and abuse of such positions, ii) the participation of the state, iii) the inertia of the government to prosecute corporations that abuse their market dominance, iv) the role of the state as a market player and as a regulator through the Competition Authority of Kenya. This study concludes that the market distortion is as a result of weak legal and institutional framework as well as conflict of interest by the government. Not much has been researched in the field of competition law the greater East Africa. This research is intended to form part of the growing research in the field and inform legal reform.

Keywords: competition law, economic power, dominance, Kenya

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194 Usability Testing on Information Design through Single-Lens Wearable Device

Authors: Jae-Hyun Choi, Sung-Soo Bae, Sangyoung Yoon, Hong-Ku Yun, Jiyoung Kwahk

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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of ocular dominance on recognition performance using a single-lens smart display designed for cycling. A total of 36 bicycle riders who have been cycling consistently were recruited and participated in the experiment. The participants were asked to perform tasks riding a bicycle on a stationary stand for safety reasons. Independent variables of interest include ocular dominance, bike usage, age group, and information layout. Recognition time (i.e., the time required to identify specific information measured with an eye-tracker), error rate (i.e. false answer or failure to identify the information in 5 seconds), and user preference scores were measured and statistical tests were conducted to identify significant results. Recognition time and error ratio showed significant difference by ocular dominance factor, while the preference score did not. Recognition time was faster when the single-lens see-through display on the dominant eye (average 1.12sec) than on the non-dominant eye (average 1.38sec). Error ratio of the information recognition task was significantly lower when the see-through display was worn on the dominant eye (average 4.86%) than on the non-dominant eye (average 14.04%). The interaction effect of ocular dominance and age group was significant with respect to recognition time and error ratio. The recognition time of the users in their 40s was significantly longer than the other age groups when the display was placed on the non-dominant eye, while no difference was observed on the dominant eye. Error ratio also showed the same pattern. Although no difference was observed for the main effect of ocular dominance and bike usage, the interaction effect between the two variables was significant with respect to preference score. Preference score of daily bike users was higher when the display was placed on the dominant eye, whereas participants who use bikes for leisure purposes showed the opposite preference patterns. It was found more effective and efficient to wear a see-through display on the dominant eye than on the non-dominant eye, although user preference was not affected by ocular dominance. It is recommended to wear a see-through display on the dominant eye since it is safer by helping the user recognize the presented information faster and more accurately, even if the user may not notice the difference.

Keywords: eye tracking, information recognition, ocular dominance, smart headware, wearable device

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
193 Relationship between Right Brain and Left Brain Dominance and Intonation Learning

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Mahmoodi, Soroor Zekrati

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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between hemispheric dominance and intonation learning of Iranian EFL students. In order to gain this goal, 52 female students from three levels of beginner, elementary and intermediate in Paradise Institute, and 18 male university students at Bu-Ali Sina University constituted the sample. In order to assist students learn the correct way of applying intonation to their everyday speech, the study proposed an interactive approach and provided students with visual aid through which they were able to see the intonation pattern on computer screen using 'Speech Analyzer' software. This software was also used to record subjects’ voice and compare them with the original intonation pattern. Edinburg Handedness Questionnaire (EHD), which ranges from –100 for strong left-handedness to +100 for strong right-handedness was used to indicate the hemispheric dominance of each student. The result of an independent sample t-test indicated that girls learned intonation pattern better than boys, and that right brained students significantly outperformed the left brained ones. Using one-way ANOVA, a significant difference between three proficiency levels was also found. The posthoc Scheffer test showed that the exact difference was between intermediate and elementary, and intermediate and beginner levels, but no significant difference was observed between elementary and beginner levels. The findings of the study might provide researchers with some helpful implications and useful directions for future investigation into the domain of the relationship between mind and second language learning.

Keywords: intonation, hemispheric dominance, visual aid, language learning, second language learning

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192 The Biomechanical Consequences of Pes Planus

Authors: Mariette Swanepoel, Terry Ellapen, Henriette Hammil, Juandre Williams, Timothy Qumbu

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The biomechanical consequence of pes planus is a topic seldom reviewed in regards to energy expenditure and predisposition to injury. However its comprehension in the field of foot rehabilitation, pre-and post-surgery is fundamental to successful patient management. This short communication unites the present literature to provide the reader with better insight on the consequence of pes planus, foot mechanics and its predisposition to injury at the foot and tibiofemoral joint. Further, the consideration of synergistic dominance of the foot invertors to compensate for the ineffective torque production of the fibularis longus due pes planus is presented.

Keywords: pes planus, fibularis longus, synergistic dominance, injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
191 Algorithms Minimizing Total Tardiness

Authors: Harun Aydilek, Asiye Aydilek, Ali Allahverdi

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The total tardiness is a widely used performance measure in the scheduling literature. This performance measure is particularly important in situations where there is a cost to complete a job beyond its due date. The cost of scheduling increases as the gap between a job's due date and its completion time increases. Such costs may also be penalty costs in contracts, loss of goodwill. This performance measure is important as the fulfillment of due dates of customers has to be taken into account while making scheduling decisions. The problem is addressed in the literature, however, it has been assumed zero setup times. Even though this assumption may be valid for some environments, it is not valid for some other scheduling environments. When setup times are treated as separate from processing times, it is possible to increase machine utilization and to reduce total tardiness. Therefore, non-zero setup times need to be considered as separate. A dominance relation is developed and several algorithms are proposed. The developed dominance relation is utilized in the proposed algorithms. Extensive computational experiments are conducted for the evaluation of the algorithms. The experiments indicated that the developed algorithms perform much better than the existing algorithms in the literature. More specifically, one of the newly proposed algorithms reduces the error of the best existing algorithm in the literature by 40 percent.

Keywords: algorithm, assembly flowshop, dominance relation, total tardiness

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
190 Inheritance of Protein Content and Grain Yield in Half Diallel Maize (Zea mays L.) Populations

Authors: Gül Ebru Orhun

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A half diallel crossing design was carried out during 2011 and 2012 growing seasons under Çanakkale-Turkey ecological conditions. In this research, 20 F1 maize hybrids obtained by 6x6 half diallel crossing were used. Gene action for protein content and grain yield traits were explored in half set involving six elite inbred lines. According to the results diallel analysis dominance and additive gene variances were determined for protein content. Variance/Co-variance graphs revealed for grain yield and protein content traits. In this study, inheritance of grain yield and protein content demonstrated over-dominance type of gene action.

Keywords: protein, maize, inheritance, gene action

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189 An Ideational Grammatical Metaphor of Narrative History in Chinua Achebe's 'There Was a Country'

Authors: Muhammed-Badar Salihu Jibrin, Chibabi Makedono Darlington

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This paper studied Ideational Grammatical Metaphor (IGM) of Narrative History in Chinua Achebe’s There Was a Country. It started with a narrative historical style as a recent genre out of the conventional historical writings. In order to explore the linguistic phenomenon using a particular lexico-grammatical tool of IGM, the theoretical background was examined based on Hallidayan Systemic Functional Linguistics. Furthermore, the study considered the possibility of applying IGM to the Part 4 of Achebe’s historical text with recourse to the concept of congruence in IGM and research questions before formulating a working methodology. The analysis of Achebe’s memoir was, thus, presented in tabular forms to account for the quantitative content analysis with qualitative research technique, as well as the metaphorical and congruent wording through nominalization and process types with samples. The frequencies and percentage were given appropriately with respect to each subheadings of the text. To this end, the findings showed that material and relational types indicated dominance. The discussion and implications were that the findings confirmed earlier study by MAK Halliday and C.I.M.I.M. Matthiessen’s suggestion that IGM should show dominance of material type process. The implication is that IGM can be an effective tool for the analysis of a narrative historical text. In conclusion, it was observed that IGM does not only carry grammatical function but also an ideological role in shaping the historical discourse within the narrative mode between writers and readers.

Keywords: ideational grammatical metaphor, nominalization, narrative history, memoire, dominance

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
188 Selecting Skyline Mash-Ups under Uncertainty

Authors: Aymen Gammoudi, Hamza Labbaci, Nizar Messai, Yacine Sam

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Web Service Composition (Mash-up) has been considered as a new approach used to offer the user a set of Web Services responding to his request. These approaches can return a set of similar Mash-ups in a given context that makes users unable to select the perfect one. Recent approaches focus on computing the skyline over a set of Quality of Service (QoS) attributes. However, these approaches are not sufficient in a dynamic web service environment where the delivered QoS by a Web service is inherently uncertain. In this paper, we treat the problem of computing the skyline over a set of similar Mash-ups under certain dimension values. We generate dimensions for each Mash-up using aggregation operations applied to the QoS attributes. We then tackle the problem of computing the skyline under uncertain dimensions. We present each dimension value of mash-up using a frame of discernment and introduce the d-dominance using the Evidence Theory. Finally, we propose our experimental results that show both the effectiveness of the introduced skyline extensions and the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

Keywords: web services, uncertain QoS, mash-ups, uncertain dimensions, skyline, evidence theory, d-dominance

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
187 The Political Economy of Fiscal and Monetary Interactions in Brazil

Authors: Marcos Centurion-Vicencio

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This study discusses the idea of ‘dominance’ in economic policy and its practical influence over monetary decisions. The discretionary use of repurchase agreements in Brazil over the period 2006-2016 and its effects on the overall price level are the specific issues we will be focusing on. The set of in-depth interviews carried out with public servants at the Brazilian central bank and national treasury, alongside data collected from the National Institution of Statistics (IBGE), suggest that monetary and fiscal dominance do not differ in nature once the assumption of depoliticized central bankers is relaxed. In both regimes, the pursuit of private gains via public institutions affects price stability. While short-sighted politicians in the latter are at the origin of poor monetary decisions, the action of short-sighted financial interest groups is likely to generate a similar outcome in the former. This study then contributes to rethinking monetary policy theory as well as the nature of public borrowing.

Keywords: fiscal and monetary interactions, interest groups, monetary capture, public borrowing

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186 Turkish College Students’ Attitudes toward Homophobia; Relations with, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Social Dominance Orientation and Just World Beliefs

Authors: Melek Göregenli, Işık Gürşimşek

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There has been a great deal of research in the past few decades examining attitudes toward homosexuals.Theoretic research has demonstrated that antihomosexual attitudes are expressed in cognitive, affective, behavioral and cultural components. Homophobia is generally defined as hostility towards or fear of LGBTI people, but can also refer to social and cultural ideologies which stigmatize homosexuality. Negative feelings or attitudes towards non-heterosexual behavior, identity, relationships and community can lead to homophobic behavior and is the root of the discrimination experienced by many lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBTI) people. Since the increase in number of hate crimes during the last decade, there has been a sense of urgency to respond to the problem of hate violence in Turkey. The LGBTI Rights Association KAOS-GL indicated that the most of lesbian, gay, bisexual, travesty and transsexuals reported some form of victimization in their lifetimes based on their sexual orientation in Turkey. This study explored the relations between homophobia, right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation and just world belief attitudes towards LGBTI individuals in a sample of 393 Turkish college students from Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Data were collected with a questionnaire including the Homosexism Scale, the Right-Wing Authoritarianism Scale, Social Dominance Orientation Scale and Just World Belief Scale. Participants completed a questionnaire containing the attitude measures and other several questions related with the socio-demographic variables. Consistent with the previous finding males were more homophobic than females. Contrary to this finding the main effects of other demographic variables (age, income, place of birth, class) were not statistically significant except the department of participants. These findings imply that efforts to garner wide-ranging support for policies designed to change negative attitudes to LGBT people and to enhance the given awareness on homophobia. The results of the study were discussed in cross-cultural and social psychological perspective considering cultural and social values of Turkey and current political circumstances of the country.

Keywords: homophobia, just world belief, right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, Turkey

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185 Tidal Current Behaviors and Remarkable Bathymetric Change in the South-Western Part of Khor Abdullah, Kuwait

Authors: Ahmed M. Al-Hasem

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A study of the tidal current behavior and bathymetric changes was undertaken in order to establish an information base for future coastal management. The average velocity for tidal current was 0.46 m/s and the maximum velocity was 1.08 m/s during ebb tide. During spring tides, maximum velocities range from 0.90 m/s to 1.08 m/s, whereas maximum velocities vary from 0.40 m/s to 0.60 m/s during neap tides. Despite greater current velocities during flood tide, the bathymetric features enhance the dominance of the ebb tide. This can be related to the abundance of fine sediments from the ebb current approaching the study area, and the relatively coarser sediment from the approaching flood current. Significant bathymetric changes for the period from 1985 to 1998 were found with dominance of erosion process. Approximately 96.5% of depth changes occurred within the depth change classes of -5 m to 5 m. The high erosion processes within the study area will subsequently result in high accretion processes, particularly in the north, the location of the proposed Boubyan Port and its navigation channel.

Keywords: bathymetric change, Boubyan island, GIS, Khor Abdullah, tidal current behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
184 The Relationship between Mothers’ Attachment Style, Mindful Parenting and Perception of the Child

Authors: Brigitta Szabo, Miklosi Monika

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Background/Aims: In early childhood, the context of development is the caregiver-child relationship. Maternal attachment style plays a major role in the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the mothers’ attachment style, mindful parenting, and perception of the child. Method: Data was collected from 144 non-clinical mothers who have a child below the age of 3 years. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires, including the following scales: a demographic questionnaire, Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IMP), and the Mothers’ Object Relations Scale (MORS-SF). K-means cluster analysis was used to identify the mothers’ attachment styles. Mediation analyses with Mothers’ Object Relations Scale (MORS-SF) positive emotions and dominance subscales as dependent variables, mothers’ attachment style (ASQ) as an independent variable, and mindful parenting (IMP) as a mediator were conducted. Results: Four attachment styles (secure, preoccupied, fearful, dismissing) were identified. The relationship between mothers’ attachment style and mindful parenting was significant (R2 = .51; F(4,139) = 36.60; p < .001). Compared to the secure attachment style as a reference group, both preoccupied and dismissing styles were related to lower levels of mindful parenting; however, this relationship was the strongest in case of fearful style. In mediation analysis the direct effects of mothers’ attachment style on the perception of the child were not significant (MORS positive emotions: R2= .29; F(5,138) = 11.22; p < .001; MORS dominance: R2= .39 F(5,138) = 17.54, p < .001). However, indirect effects through mindful parenting were significant; higher levels of mindful parenting were associated with higher levels of MORS positive emotions and lower levels of MORS dominance. Conclusions: These findings suggest that attachment styles are related to the perception of the child through mindful parenting. Mindfulness-based parenting training might be useful in case of attachment-related problems to improve the parent-child relationship.

Keywords: mindfulness, mindful parenting, attachement, perception

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183 Anticipating the Change: Visions and Perspectives towards a Post-Car World

Authors: Farzaneh Bahrami

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Different indicators, such as modal shares in mobility practices or car ownership, may suggest that the century of car dominance - at least in Europe and North America - is already behind us. If the emergence of the car had radical spatial and social consequences, what would be the implications of its gradual disappearance - which could be expected in the context of ecological consciousness, economic and energetic constraints as a result of both urban policies as well as lifestyle choices? To what extend shall urban experts account for this limited but visible transition from car-dominated systems towards alternative models of mobility in which the individual-motorized mobility (car) is not central; what models of urbanity could be imagined to support such a transformation? We have examined a selection of projects at different scales and within different contexts - new planned cities, dense urban areas or territories of dispersion – whose visions involve a significant shift from the current car system. We have been looking into their tools, strategies and different measures of car reduction, as well as their varied approaches to public space as an inevitable corollary to this change. The car’s dominance was formerly questioned by advocates of public space, rather than through interests in ecological urban design or other urban planning concerns. In the 60s already a universal longing for the qualities of traditional urban space led to a critique of the proliferation of fast roads, and thus the car’s colonization of everyday life. Reclamation of public space as the city’s quintessential social territory reappears today in contemporary discourses and reinforces the shift-provoking trends towards a new urbanity freed from car dominance. In a hypothetical process of the progressive phasing-out of the car, we shall expect fundamental transformations in spatial practices of the city, accompanied by the physical configuration of its public spaces. What will be the main characteristics of the new emerging spaces of sociability and where shall we encounter them? This contribution is an ongoing research within the framework of Post-Car World, an interdisciplinary project that explores the future of mobility through the role of the car.

Keywords: mobility, urbanity, future visions, public space

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182 M-Machine Assembly Scheduling Problem to Minimize Total Tardiness with Non-Zero Setup Times

Authors: Harun Aydilek, Asiye Aydilek, Ali Allahverdi

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Our objective is to minimize the total tardiness in an m-machine two-stage assembly flowshop scheduling problem. The objective is an important performance measure because of the fact that the fulfillment of due dates of customers has to be taken into account while making scheduling decisions. In the literature, the problem is considered with zero setup times which may not be realistic and appropriate for some scheduling environments. Considering separate setup times from processing times increases machine utilization by decreasing the idle time and reduces total tardiness. We propose two new algorithms and adapt four existing algorithms in the literature which are different versions of simulated annealing and genetic algorithms. Moreover, a dominance relation is developed based on the mathematical formulation of the problem. The developed dominance relation is incorporated in our proposed algorithms. Computational experiments are conducted to investigate the performance of the newly proposed algorithms. We find that one of the proposed algorithms performs significantly better than the others, i.e., the error of the best algorithm is less than those of the other algorithms by minimum 50%. The newly proposed algorithm is also efficient for the case of zero setup times and performs better than the best existing algorithm in the literature.

Keywords: algorithm, assembly flowshop, scheduling, simulation, total tardiness

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
181 Emotion and Risk Taking in a Casino Game

Authors: Yulia V. Krasavtseva, Tatiana V. Kornilova

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Risk-taking behaviors are not only dictated by cognitive components but also involve emotional aspects. Anticipatory emotions, involving both cognitive and affective mechanisms, are involved in decision-making in general, and risk-taking in particular. Affective reactions are prompted when an expectation or prediction is either validated or invalidated in the achieved result. This study aimed to combine predictions, anticipatory emotions, affective reactions, and personality traits in the context of risk-taking behaviors. An experimental online method Emotion and Prediction In a Casino (EPIC) was used, based on a casino-like roulette game. In a series of choices, the participant is presented with progressively riskier roulette combinations, where the potential sums of wins and losses increase with each choice and the participant is given a choice: to 'walk away' with the current sum of money or to 'play' the displayed roulette, thus accepting the implicit risk. Before and after the result is displayed, participants also rate their emotions, using the Self-Assessment Mannequin [Bradley, Lang, 1994], picking a picture, representing the intensity of pleasure, arousal, and dominance. The following personality measures were used: 1) Personal Decision-Making Factors [Kornilova, 2003] assessing risk and rationality; 2) I7 – Impulsivity Questionnaire [Kornilova, 1995] assessing impulsiveness, risk readiness, and empathy and 3) Subjective Risk Intelligence Scale [Craparo et al., 2018] assessing negative attitude toward uncertainty, emotional stress vulnerability, imaginative capability, and problem-solving self-efficacy. Two groups of participants took part in the study: 1) 98 university students (Mage=19.71, SD=3.25; 72% female) and 2) 94 online participants (Mage=28.25, SD=8.25; 89% female). Online participants were recruited via social media. Students with high rationality rated their pleasure and dominance before and after choices as lower (ρ from -2.6 to -2.7, p < 0.05). Those with high levels of impulsivity rated their arousal lower before finding out their result (ρ from 2.5 - 3.7, p < 0.05), while also rating their dominance as low (ρ from -3 to -3.7, p < 0.05). Students prone to risk-rated their pleasure and arousal before and after higher (ρ from 2.5 - 3.6, p < 0.05). High empathy was positively correlated with arousal after learning the result. High emotional stress vulnerability positively correlates with arousal and pleasure after the choice (ρ from 3.9 - 5.7, p < 0.05). Negative attitude to uncertainty is correlated with high anticipatory and reactive arousal (ρ from 2.7 - 5.7, p < 0.05). High imaginative capability correlates negatively with anticipatory and reactive dominance (ρ from - 3.4 to - 4.3, p < 0.05). Pleasure (.492), arousal (.590), and dominance (.551) before and after the result were positively correlated. Higher predictions positively correlated with reactive pleasure and arousal. In a riskier scenario (6/8 chances to win), anticipatory arousal was negatively correlated with the pleasure emotion (-.326) and vice versa (-.265). Correlations occur regardless of the roulette outcome. In conclusion, risk-taking behaviors are linked not only to personality traits but also to anticipatory emotions and affect in a modeled casino setting. Acknowledgment: The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project 19-29-07069.

Keywords: anticipatory emotions, casino game, risk taking, impulsiveness

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180 Seasonal Variation in Aerosols Characteristics over Ahmedabad

Authors: Devansh Desai, Chamandeep Kaur, Nirmal Kullu, George Christopher

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Study of aerosols has become very important tool in assuming the climatic changes over a region.Spectral and temporal variability’s in aerosol optical depth(AOD) and size distribution are investigated using ground base measurements over Ahmedabad during the months of January(2013) to may (2013). Angstrom coefficient (ἁ) was found to be higher in winter season (January to march) indicating the dominance of fine mode aerosol concentration over Ahmedabad, and the Angstrom coefficient (ἁ) was found to be lower indicating the dominance of coarse mode aerosol concentration over Ahmedabad. The different values of alpha are observed when calculated over different wavelength ranges indicating bimodal aerosol size distribution. Discrimination of aerosol size during different seasons is made using the coefficient of polynomial fit (ἁ1 and ἁ2) which shows the presence of changing dominant aerosol types as a function of season over Ahmedabad. The ἁ2- ἁ1 value is used to get the confirmation on the dominant aerosol mode over Ahmedabad in both seasons. During pre-monsoon about 90% of AOD spectra is dominated by coarse mode aerosols and during winter about 60% of AOD spectra is dominated by fine mode aerosols. This characterization of aerosols is important in assessing the response of different aerosols type in radiative forcing and over climate of Ahmedabad.

Keywords: radiative forcing, aerosol optical depth, fine mode, coarse mode

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179 Exploring Social Desirability within the Zulu Culture: An Emic Perspective

Authors: Debrah Mtshelwane, Alewyn Nel, Lizelle Brink

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Social desirability is an important topic to study. It may be possible that different cultures experience social desirability in different ways. Different cultural groups exist within South Africa, however the focus of this study is specifically in the Zulu culture. This research aims to explore social desirability from an emic perspective within the social constructivist paradigm among individuals within the Zulu culture. The researcher intended to identify those features Zulu individuals deem as socially desirable and undesirable from their cultural viewpoint. The research was conducted using a qualitative research design and the constructivism paradigm was utilised in this study. Combined purposive and quota non-probability sampling was employed for this study. A sample of 30 employees (N = 30) working in various organisations from the provinces of Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal formed part of this study and data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The main findings showed that Zulu people regard certain behaviours and actions as socially desirable and others as undesirable. The following are considered socially desirable: Conscientiousness, dominance, subjective expectations and positive relations, these are the themes that were reported on the most. These are positive features in the Zulu culture, and they reflect on behaviour patterns, attitudes and manners that people display, which are also seen as acceptable and good in the Zulu culture. The following are regarded as socially undesirable features that were identified by people who belong to the Zulu culture, the themes that were identified as undesirable are: non-conscientiousness, non-dominance (male), dominance (females), tradition, negative relations and subjective expectations. This study creates awareness on social desirability in the workplace and provides basic tools to management on how to deal with such behaviours relating to this phenomenon in the workplace. This knowledge informs employees on the concept of socially desirable behaviour, and provide more insight into behaviours and/or emotions Zulu individuals. The outcome of this study provided new indigenous, empirical knowledge on the phenomenon of social desirability within the South African context.

Keywords: cultural diversity, emic perspective, social constructivism paradigm, social desirability, Zulu culture

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178 Gender Disparity in Film Industries: A Conceptual Study

Authors: Daniel Edem Adzovie, Jakub Kudlac

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The subtle institutionalization of male dominance in the film industry in the 1930s and its rippling effect of gender imbalance especially, regarding female active participation in film industries across the globe in terms of number and influence, is a worrying trend. The main purpose of the study is to explore the role of gender themes, especially patriarchal themes in films, in influencing the disparity experienced in film industries. Partially, we examine the motivations vis-à-vis the demotivating factors that attract and or refract females from enrolling in film schools against their male contemporaries. Employing a qualitative inquiry with a specific focus on document analysis as well as experts’ opinions in order to ascertain the antecedents and consequences of patriarchal themes in films on female participation in film industries, we drew extant literature from reputable databases such as EBSCO, Scopus, Web of Science, ERIH Plus, Google Scholar as well as notable books on gender and film. Secondly, we conceptualized a research model for a future qualitative research design that could take into consideration a study from at least three different film industries and analyze using thematic analysis. This could help validate the proposed conceptual model of the study. The literature review revealed that culture, to a large extent, influences the patriarchal themes conveyed in films, which inhibits active female participation in film industries. Research implications have been discussed.

Keywords: film industry, female, gender, male dominance, patriarchal themes

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177 A Study on Coronary Artery Dominance and Divisions of Main Trunk of Left Coronary Artery in Adult Human Cadaveric Hearts of South Indian Population

Authors: Chethan Purushothama

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Coronary artery disease is one of the major causes of death in developing countries. The coronary arteries show wide range of variations and these variations have not been dealt with different population groups. The present study aims to focus on the pattern and variations of coronary artery in south Indian population. The study was performed to analyze the coronary artery dominance and divisions of main trunk of left coronary artery in 81 isolated adult human cadaveric hearts of South Indian population. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and were dissected manually. In our specimens, 74.1% of the hearts were right dominant, 11.1% were left dominant, and 14.8% were co-dominant. Bifurcation, trifurcation, and quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery were seen in 49.4%, 48.1%, and 2.5% cases respectively. The right dominant hearts had bifurcation, trifurcation and quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 46.7%, 50% and 3.3% hearts respectively. The left dominant hearts had bifurcation and trifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 55.6% and 44.4% cases respectively. The co-dominant hearts had bifurcation and trifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 58.3% and 41.7% respectively. Quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery were seen only in right dominant hearts. We believe that the data obtained from the present study are important to the interventional cardiologists and radiologists. The details obtained will also be helpful for the clinical anatomists.

Keywords: bifurcation, coronary artery, trifurcation, quadrifurcation

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176 Groundwater Flow Dynamics in Shallow Coastal Plain Sands Aquifer, Abesan Area, Eastern Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Anne Joseph, Yinusa Asiwaju-Bello, Oluwaseun Olabode

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Sustainable administration of groundwater resources tapped in Coastal Plain Sands aquifer in Abesan area, Eastern Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria necessitates the knowledge of the pattern of groundwater flow in meeting a suitable environmental need for habitation. Thirty hand-dug wells were identified and evaluated to study the groundwater flow dynamics and anionic species distribution in the study area. Topography and water table levels method with the aid of Surfer were adopted in the identification of recharge and discharge zones where six recharge and discharge zones were delineated correspondingly. Dissolved anionic species of HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-and NO3- were determined using titrimetric and spectrophotometric method. The trend of significant anionic concentrations of groundwater samples are in the order Cl- > HCO3-> SO42- > NO3-. The prominent anions in the discharge and recharge area are Cl- and HCO3- ranging from 0.22ppm to 3.67ppm and 2.59ppm to 0.72ppm respectively. Analysis of groundwater head distribution and the groundwater flow vector in Abesan area confirmed that Cl- concentration is higher than HCO3- concentration in recharge zones. Conversely, there is a high concentration of HCO3- than Cl- inland towards the continent; therefore, HCO3-concentration in the discharge zones is higher than the Cl- concentration. The anions were to be closely related to the recharge and discharge areas which were confirmed by comparison of activities such as rainfall regime and anthropogenic activities in Abesan area. A large percentage of the samples showed that HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-and NO3- falls within the permissible limit of the W.H.O standard. Most of the samples revealed Cl- / (CO3- + HCO3-) ratio higher than 0.5 indicating that there is saltwater intrusion imprints in the groundwater of the study area. Gibbs plot shown that most of the samples is from rock dominance, some from evaporation dominance and few from precipitation dominance. Potential salinity and SO42/ Cl- ratios signifies that most of the groundwater in Abesan is saline and falls in a water class found to be insuitable for irrigation. Continuous dissolution of these anionic species may pose a significant threat to the inhabitants of Abesan area in the nearest future.

Keywords: Abessan, Anionic species, Discharge, Groundwater flow, Recharge

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175 Miracle Fruit Application in Sour Beverages: Effect of Different Concentrations on the Temporal Sensory Profile and Overall Linking

Authors: Jéssica F. Rodrigues, Amanda C. Andrade, Sabrina C. Bastos, Sandra B. Coelho, Ana Carla M. Pinheiro

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Currently, there is a great demand for the use of natural sweeteners due to the harmful effects of the high sugar and artificial sweeteners consumption on the health. Miracle fruit, which is known for its unique ability to modify the sour taste in sweet taste, has been shown to be a good alternative sweetener. However, it has a high production cost, being important to optimize lower contents to be used. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of different miracle fruit contents on the temporal (Time-intensity - TI and Temporal Dominance of Sensations - TDS) sensory profile and overall linking of lemonade, to determine the better content to be used as a natural sweetener in sour beverages. TI and TDS results showed that the concentrations of 150 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg miracle fruit were effective in reducing the acidity and promoting the sweet perception in lemonade. Furthermore, the concentrations of 300 mg and 600 mg obtained similar profiles. Through the acceptance test, the concentration of 300 mg miracle fruit was shown to be an efficient substitute for sucrose and sucralose in lemonade, once they had similar hedonic values between ‘I liked it slightly’ and ‘I liked it moderately’. Therefore, 300mg miracle fruit consists in an adequate content to be used as a natural sweetener of lemonade. The results of this work will help the food industry on the efficient application of a new natural sweetener- the Miracle fruit extract in sour beverages, reducing costs and providing a product that meets the consumer desires.

Keywords: acceptance, natural sweetener, temporal dominance of sensations, time-intensity

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174 Agroecological and Socioeconomic Determinants of Conserving Diversity On-Farm: The Case of Wheat Genetic Resources in Ethiopia

Authors: Bedilu Tafesse

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Conservation of crop genetic resources presents a challenge of identifying specific determinants driving maintenance of diversity at farm and agroecosystems. The objectives of this study were to identify socioeconomic, market and agroecological determinants of farmers’ maintenance of wheat diversity at the household level and derive implications for policies in designing on-farm conservation programs. We assess wheat diversity at farm level using household survey data. A household decision making model is conceptualized using microeconomic theory to assess and identify factors influencing on-farm rice diversity. The model is then tested econometrically by using various factors affecting farmers’ variety choice and diversity decisions. The findings show that household-specific socioeconomic, agroecological and market factors are important in determining on-farm wheat diversity. The significant variables in explaining richness and evenness of wheat diversity include distance to the nearest market, subsistence ratio, modern variety sold, land types and adult labour working in agriculture. The statistical signs of the factors determining wheat diversity are consistent in explaining the richness, dominance and evenness among rice varieties. Finally, the study implies that the cost-effective means of promoting and sustaining on-farm conservation programmes is to target them in market isolated geographic locations of high crop diversity where farm households have more heterogeneity of agroecological conditions and more active family adult labour working on-farm.

Keywords: diversity indices, dominance, evenness, on-farm conservation, wheat diversity, richness

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173 Public Attitudes toward Domestic Violence against Women in China and Spain: A Cross-Cultural Study

Authors: Menglu Yang, Ani Beybutyan, Rocio Pina, Miguel Angel Soria

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Domestic violence against women is one of the most serious social problems in the world. Attitudes toward domestic violence against women play an important role in the perpetration of violence against women, the way that victims respond to the violence, and how the community responds to violence against women. China and Spain are countries which have been influenced by the culture which males hold power and dominance over the female for a long time. However, as more connected with other European countries, the legal enforcement related to domestic violence against women developed earlier in Spain, and consequently, social awareness of violence against women evolved differently in two countries. The present study aimed to explore and compare the attitudes toward domestic violence against women across China and Spain, and their influence factors, such as gender equality attitudes and coercive control. Totally 506 participants, 255 from China and 251 from Spain completed questionnaires, including attitudes toward domestic violence against women, definition of violence behavior, justification for violence, gender equity attitudes, and coercive control. Results demonstrated that Chinese participants were less aware of domestic violence against women issue but more agreed that such issue was a crime than Spanish participants. In addition to cultural difference, gender equality attitudes, coercive control, gender, and age also affected attitudes toward domestic violence against women. Our findings imply attitudes toward domestic violence against women differ from countries along with the difference in gender equity attitudes and coercive control; such a difference may arise from cultural, traditional belief and current justice system influence. Despite the developed justice system, male dominance culture may lead to maintain the belief that domestic violence is domestic and private issue which police and justice force may not get involved.

Keywords: cross-cultural differences, domestic violence, public attitudes, violence against women

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172 Comparison Study of Capital Protection Risk Management Strategies: Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance versus Volatility Target Based Investment Strategy with a Guarantee

Authors: Olga Biedova, Victoria Steblovskaya, Kai Wallbaum

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In the current capital market environment, investors constantly face the challenge of finding a successful and stable investment mechanism. Highly volatile equity markets and extremely low bond returns bring about the demand for sophisticated yet reliable risk management strategies. Investors are looking for risk management solutions to efficiently protect their investments. This study compares a classic Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) strategy to a Volatility Target portfolio insurance (VTPI). VTPI is an extension of the well-known Option Based Portfolio Insurance (OBPI) to the case where an embedded option is linked not to a pure risky asset such as e.g., S&P 500, but to a Volatility Target (VolTarget) portfolio. VolTarget strategy is a recently emerged rule-based dynamic asset allocation mechanism where the portfolio’s volatility is kept under control. As a result, a typical VTPI strategy allows higher participation rates in the market due to reduced embedded option prices. In addition, controlled volatility levels eliminate the volatility spread in option pricing, one of the frequently cited reasons for OBPI strategy fall behind CPPI. The strategies are compared within the framework of the stochastic dominance theory based on numerical simulations, rather than on the restrictive assumption of the Black-Scholes type dynamics of the underlying asset. An extended comparative quantitative analysis of performances of the above investment strategies in various market scenarios and within a range of input parameter values is presented.

Keywords: CPPI, portfolio insurance, stochastic dominance, volatility target

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