Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: sorghum

57 Metagenomics Analysis of Bacteria in Sorghum Using next Generation Sequencing

Authors: Kedibone Masenya, Memory Tekere, Jasper Rees


Sorghum is an important cereal crop in the world. In particular, it has attracted breeders due to capacity to serve as food, feed, fiber and bioenergy crop. Like any other plant, sorghum hosts a variety of microbes, which can either, have a neutral, negative and positive influence on the plant. In the current study, regions (V3/V4) of 16 S rRNA were targeted to extensively assess bacterial multitrophic interactions in the phyllosphere of sorghum. The results demonstrated that the presence of a pathogen has a significant effect on the endophytic bacterial community. Understanding these interactions is key to develop new strategies for plant protection.

Keywords: bacteria, multitrophic, sorghum, target sequencing

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
56 Use RP-HPLC To Investigate Factors Influencing Sorghum Protein Extraction

Authors: Khaled Khaladi, Rafika Bibi, Hind Mokrane, Boubekeur Nadjemi


Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important cereal crop grown in the semi-arid tropics of Africa and Asia due to its drought tolerance. Sorghum grain has protein content varying from 6 to 18%, with an average of 11%, Sorghum proteins can be broadly classified into prolamin and non-prolamin proteins. Kafirins, the major storage proteins, are classified as prolamins, and as such, they contain high levels of proline and glutamine and are soluble in non-polar solvents such as aqueous alcohols. Kafirins account for 77 to 82% of the protein in the endosperm, whereas non-prolamin proteins (namely, albumins, globulins, and glutelins) make up about 30% of the proteins. To optimize the extraction of sorghum proteins, several variables were examined: detergent type and concentration, reducing agent type and concentration, and buffer pH and concentration. Samples were quantified and characterized by RP-HPLC.

Keywords: sorghum, protein extraction, detergent, food science

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
55 Utilization of Sorghum and White Bean Flour for the Production of Gluten Free and Iron Rich Cookies

Authors: Tahra Elobeid, Emmerich Berghofer


The aim of this study is to find innovative approaches for the production of iron rich foods using natural iron sources. The vehicle used for fortification was sorghum whereas the iron fortificant was white bean. Fortified sorghum cookies were produced from five different mixtures; iron content, iron bioavailability, cookie texture and acceptability were measured. Cookies were prepared from the three fortified flours; 90% sorghum + 10% white bean (S9WB1), 75% sorghum + 25% white bean (S3WB1), 50% sorghum + 50% white bean (S1WB1) and 100% sorghum and 100% white bean. The functional properties gave good results in all the formulations. Statistical analysis of the iron content in the five different cookies showed that there was significant difference at the 95% confidence level (ANOVA). The iron content in all the recipes including the 100% sorghum improved, the increase ranging from 112% in 100% sorghum cookies to 476% in 100% white bean cookies. This shows that the increase in the amount of white bean used for fortification leads to the improvement of the iron content of cookies. The bioavailability of iron ranged from 21.3% in 100% sorghum to 28.6% in 100% white bean cookies. In the 100% sorghum cookies the iron bioavailability increased with reference to raw sorghum due to the addition of eggs. Bioavailability of iron in raw sorghum is 16.2%, therefore the percentage increase ranged from 5.1% to 28.6%. The cookies prepared from 10% white bean (S9WB1) scored the lowest 3.7 in terms of acceptability. They were the least preferred due to their somewhat soft texture. The 30% white bean cookies (S3WB1) gave results comparable to the 50% (S1WB1) and 100% white bean cookies. Cookies prepared with high percentage of white bean (50% and 100% white bean) gave the best results. Therefore cookie formulations from sorghum and white bean are successful in improving the iron status of anaemic individuals.

Keywords: sorghum, white bean, iron content, bioavailable iron, cookies

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54 Effect of Sprouting Period of Proximate Composition, Functional Properties and Mineral Content on Malted Sorghum Flour

Authors: Adebola Ajayi, Olakunle M. Makanjuola


Effect of sprouting period on proximate, functional and mineral properties of malted sorghum flour was evaluated. The study was carried out to determine the proximate, functional and mineral properties of sprouting period on malted sorghum flour produced. The malted sorghum flour was obtained by sorting, weighing, washing, steeping, draining, germination, drying, dry milling, sieving. Malted sorghum flour was evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties and mineral contents. Moisture, protein, fat content, crude fiber, ash contents and carbohydrate of 24 and 48 hours, were in the range of 10.50-11.0, 11.17-11.17, 1.50-4.00, 2.50-1.50, 1.50-1.54 and 73.15-70.79% respectively. Bulk density ranged between 0.64 and 0.59g/ml, water and oil absorption capacities ranged between 139.3 and 150.0 and 217.3 and 222.7g/g respectively. Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron and Manganese were also range of 12.5, 59.3-60.0, 3.22-3.25, 3.80-3.90 and 3.22-3.25 mg/100g respectively. The results indicate that the germination of red sorghum resulted in the enhancement of the nutritional quality and its functional properties.

Keywords: sprouting, sorghum, malted sorghum flour, cabinet dryer

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
53 Characteristics of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Flour on the Soaking Time of Peeled Grains and Particle Size Treatment

Authors: Sri Satya Antarlina, Elok Zubaidah, Teti Istiana, Harijono


Sorghum bicolor (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential as a flour for gluten-free food products. Sorghum flour production needs grain soaking treatment. Soaking can reduce the tannin content which is an anti-nutrient, so it can increase the protein digestibility. Fine particle size decreases the yield of flour, so it is necessary to study various particle sizes to increase the yield. This study aims to determine the characteristics of sorghum flour in the treatment of soaking peeled grain and particle size. The material of white sorghum varieties KD-4 from farmers in East Java, Indonesia. Factorial randomized factorial design (two factors), repeated three times, factor I were the time of grain soaking (five levels) that were 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours, factor II was the size of the starch particles sifted with a fineness level of 40, 60, 80, and 100 mesh. The method of making sorghum flour is grain peeling, soaking peeled grain, drying using the oven at 60ᵒC, milling, and sieving. Physico-chemical analysis of sorghum flour. The results show that there is an interaction between soaking time of grain with the size of sorghum flour particles. Interaction in yield of flour, L* color (brightness level), whiteness index, paste properties, amylose content, protein content, bulk density, and protein digestibility. The method of making sorghum flour through the soaking of peeled grain and the difference in particle size has an important role in producing the physicochemical properties of the specific flour. Based on the characteristics of sorghum flour produced, it is determined the method of making sorghum flour through sorghum grain soaking for 24 hours, the particle size of flour 80 mesh. The sorghum flour with characteristic were 24.88% yield of flour, 88.60 color L* (brightness level), 69.95 whiteness index, 3615 Cp viscosity, 584.10 g/l of bulk density, 24.27% db protein digestibility, 90.02% db starch content, 23.4% db amylose content, 67.45% db amylopectin content, 0.22% db crude fiber content, 0.037% db tannin content, 5.30% db protein content, ash content 0.18% db, carbohydrate content 92.88 % db, and 1.94% db fat content. The sorghum flour is recommended for cookies products.

Keywords: characteristic, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) flour, grain soaking, particle size, physicochemical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
52 Genetic Diversity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Genotypes as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Maletsema Alina Mofokeng, Hussein Shimelis, Mark Laing, Pangirayi Tongoona


Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops grown for food, feed and bioenergy. Knowledge of genetic diversity is important for conservation of genetic resources and improvement of crop plants through breeding. The objective of this study was to assess the level of genetic diversity among sorghum genotypes using microsatellite markers. A total of 103 accessions of sorghum genotypes obtained from the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the African Centre for Crop Improvement and Agricultural Research Council-Grain Crops Institute collections in South Africa were estimated using 30 microsatellite markers. For all the loci analysed, 306 polymorphic alleles were detected with a mean value of 6.4 per locus. The polymorphic information content had an average value of 0.50 with heterozygosity mean value of 0.55 suggesting an important genetic diversity within the sorghum genotypes used. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering based on Euclidian coefficients revealed two major distinct groups without allocating genotypes based on the source of collection or origin. The genotypes 4154.1.1.1, 2055.1.1.1, 4441.1.1.1, 4442.1.1.1, 4722.1.1.1, and 4606.1.1.1 were the most diverse. The sorghum genotypes with high genetic diversity could serve as important sources of novel alleles for breeding and strategic genetic conservation.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, Genotypes, Microsatellites, Sorghum

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
51 Performance Evaluation of Iar Multi Crop Thresher

Authors: Idris Idris Sunusi, U.S. Muhammed, N.A. Sale, I.B. Dalha, N.A. Adam


Threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damages are among the important parameters used in rating the performance of agricultural threshers. To be acceptable to farmers, threshers should have high threshing efficiency and low grain. The objective of the research is to evaluate the performances of the thresher using sorghum and millet, the performances parameters considered are; threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damage. For millet, four drum speed levels; 700, 800, 900 and 1000 rpm were considered while for sorghum; 600, 700, 800 and 900 rpm were considered. The feed rate levels were 3, 4, 5 and 6 kg/min for both sorghum and millet; the levels of moisture content were 8.93 and 10.38% for sorghum and 9.21 and 10.81% for millet. For millet the test result showed a maximum of 98.37 threshing efficiencies and a minimum of 0.24% mechanical grain damage while for sorghum the test result indicated a maximum of 99.38 threshing efficiencies, and a minimum of 0.75% mechanical grain damage. In comparison to the previous thresher, the threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damage of the modified machine has improved by 2.01% and 330.56% for millet and 5.31%, 287.64% for sorghum. Also analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that, the effect of drum speed, feed rate and moisture content were significant on the performance parameters.

Keywords: Threshing Efficiency, Mechanical Grain Damages, Sorghum and Millet, Multi Crop Thresher

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50 Growing Sorghum Varieties with Potential of Fodder and Biofuel Crops, with Potential of Two Harvest in One Year

Authors: Farah Jafarpisheh, John Hutson, Howard Fallowfield


Growing Sorghum varieties, with the potential of the animal food source, by using the treated wastewater from High Rate Algae Ponds (HRAPs) is an attractive subject. For the first time, in South Australia, Sorghum Earthnote variety one (SE1) has been grown using the wastewater from HRAPs. In this study, after the first harvest, the roots left in the soil. After a short period of time, sorghum started to regrow again, which can increase the value of planting sorghum by using the wastewater. This study demonstrates the higher amount of green biomass with the potential of animal food source after the second harvest. Different parameters, including height(mm), number of leaves and tiller, Brix percentage, fresh and dry leaf weight(g), total top fresh weight(g), stem and seed dry and fresh weight(g) have been measured in the field after first and second harvest. The results demonstrated the higher height, number of tiller, and diameter after the second harvest. Number of leaves and leaves fresh weight and total top weight increased by 6 and 10 times, respectively. Brix percentage increased by 2 times. In the first harvest, no seeds harvested, while in the second harvest, 134 g seeds harvested. This sorghum variety (SE1) showed the acceptable green biomass, especially after the second harvest. This property will add to the value of sorghum in this condition, as it will not need extra fertilizer and labor work for seed planting.

Keywords: energy, high rate algae ponds, HRAPs, Sorghum, waste water

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49 Study of the Chemical Composition of Rye, Millet and Sorghum from Algeria

Authors: Soualem Mami Zoubida, Brixi Nassima, Beghdad Choukri, Belarbi Meriem


Cereals are the most important source of dietary fiber in the Nordic diet. The fiber in cereals is located mainly in the outer layers of the kernel; particularly in the bran. Improved diet can help unlock the door to good health. Whole grains are an important source of nutrients that are in short supply in our diet, including digestible carbohydrates, dietary fiber, trace minerals, and other compounds of interest in disease prevention, including phytoestrogens and antioxidants (1). The objective of this study is to know the composition of whole grain cereals (rye, millet, white, and red sorghum) which a majority pushes in the south of Algeria. This shows that the millet has a high rate of the sugar estimated at 67.6%. The high proportion of proteins has been found in the two varieties of sorghum and rye. The millet presents the great percentage in lipids compared with the others cereals. And at the last, a red sorghum has the highest rate of fiber(2). These nutrients, as well as other components of whole grain cereals, have, in terms of health, an increased effect if they are consumed together.

Keywords: chemical composition, miller, Secale cereal, Sorghum bicolor

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48 Determining a Suitable Time and Temperature Combination for Electricial Conductivity Test in Sorghum

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı


This study was conducted to determine a suitable time and temperature combination for the electrical conductivity test to be used in sorghum seeds. Fifty seeds known initial seed moisture content and weight of fresh and dead seeds (105°C for 6h) of seven sorghum cultivars were used as material. The electrical conductivities of soak water were measured using EC meter at 20, 25 and 30°C for 4, 8, 12 and 24 h using 50 mL deionized water. The experimental design was three factors factorial (7 × 3 × 4) arranged in a completely randomized design; with four replications and 50 seeds per replicate. The results showed that increased time and temperature caused a remarkable increase in EC values of all of the cultivars. Temperature significantly affected the electrical conductivity values and the best results were obtained at 25°C. The cultivars having the lowest germination percentage gave the highest electrical conductivity value. Dead seeds always gave higher electrical conductivity at 25°C for all periods. It was concluded that the temperature of 25°C and higher period than 12 h was the optimum combination for the electrical conductivity test in sorghum.

Keywords: Sorghum bicolor, seed vigor, cultivar, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
47 Bioethanol Production from Wild Sorghum (Sorghum arundinacieum) and Spear Grass (Heteropogon contortus)

Authors: Adeyinka Adesanya, Isaac Bamgboye


There is a growing need to develop the processes to produce renewable fuels and chemicals due to the economic, political, and environmental concerns associated with fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic biomass is an excellent renewable feedstock because it is both abundant and inexpensive. This project aims at producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic plants (Sorghum Arundinacieum and Heteropogon Contortus) by biochemical means, computing the energy audit of the process and determining the fuel properties of the produced ethanol. Acid pretreatment (0.5% H2SO4 solution) and enzymatic hydrolysis (using malted barley as enzyme source) were employed. The ethanol yield of wild sorghum was found to be 20% while that of spear grass was 15%. The fuel properties of the bioethanol from wild sorghum are 1.227 centipoise for viscosity, 1.10 g/cm3 for density, 0.90 for specific gravity, 78 °C for boiling point and the cloud point was found to be below -30 °C. That of spear grass was 1.206 centipoise for viscosity, 0.93 g/cm3 for density 1.08 specific gravity, 78 °C for boiling point and the cloud point was also found to be below -30 °C. The energy audit shows that about 64 % of the total energy was used up during pretreatment, while product recovery which was done manually demanded about 31 % of the total energy. Enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and distillation total energy input were 1.95 %, 1.49 % and 1.04 % respectively, the alcoholometric strength of bioethanol from wild sorghum was found to be 47 % and the alcoholometric strength of bioethanol from spear grass was 72 %. Also, the energy efficiency of the bioethanol production for both grasses was 3.85 %.

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, wild sorghum, spear grass, biochemical conversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
46 Effect of Sowing Dates on Incidence of Sorghum Head Bug Eurystylus Sp (Hemiptera; Miridae) at Rainfed Sector, Blue Nile State, Sudan

Authors: Eisa Y. Adam, Anas A. Fadlelmula, Ali E. Ali


Sorghum head bug is a key insect pest of sorghum, and it is important to pay attention to the peak time of the pest abundance. The objective of this study was to study the effect of planting date on head bugs population. Field experiment was conducted during 2007/08 – 2008/09 and 2013/14 - 2014/15 cropping seasons at the Damazine Research Station Farm, Blue Nile State to determine sorghum head bugs incidence and abundance through the sowing date. Different sowing dates (early, mid and late sowing) and a susceptible sorghum variety known as Wad Ahmed variety were used the experiment. The experimental design used was randomized complete block design (RCBD). Data were collected on the number of head bug adults and nymphs/panicle, damage percent, coloration and a puncture due to bug feeding and oviposition, 1000 seeds weight and yield. The results showed that significantly (P<0.05) higher number of bugs and damage percent were recorded on the late sowing date for the four seasons followed by the mid sowing, while the early sowing gave low number of bugs, damage percent and high1000 weight. There were significant differences between protected and unprotected heads. The late sowing (August) is a critical sorghum planting time because it coincided with highest numbers of the head bugs.

Keywords: abundance, damage, headbugs, panicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
45 Enzyme Treatment of Sorghum Dough: Modifications of Rheological Properties and Product Characteristics

Authors: G. K. Sruthi, Sila Bhattacharya


Sorghum is an important food crop in the dry tropical areas of the world, and possesses significant levels of phytochemicals and dietary fiber to offer health benefits. However, the absence of gluten is a limitation for converting the sorghum dough into sheeted/flattened/rolled products. Chapathi/roti (flat unleavened bread prepared conventionally from whole wheat flour dough) was attempted from sorghum as wheat gluten causes allergic reactions leading to celiac disease. Dynamic oscillatory rheology of sorghum flour dough (control sample) and enzyme treated sorghum doughs were studied and linked to the attributes of the finished ready-to-eat product. Enzymes like amylase, xylanase, and a mix of amylase and xylanase treated dough affected drastically the rheological behaviour causing a lowering of dough consistency. In the case of amylase treated dough, marked decrease of the storage modulus (G') values from 85513 Pa to 23041 Pa and loss modulus (G") values from 8304 Pa to 7370 Pa was noticed while the phase angle (δ) increased from 5.6 to 10.1o for treated doughs. There was a 2 and 3 fold increase in the total sugar content after α-amylase and xylanase treatment, respectively, with simultaneous changes in the structure of the dough and finished product. Scanning electron microscopy exhibited enhanced extent of changes in starch granules. Amylase and mixed enzyme treatment produced a sticky dough which was difficult to roll/flatten. The dough handling properties were improved by the use of xylanase and quality attributes of the chapath/roti. It is concluded that enzyme treatment can offer improved rheological status of gluten free doughs and products.

Keywords: sorghum dough, amylase, xylanase, dynamic oscillatory rheology, sensory assessment

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44 Application of Nitric Acid Modified Cocos nucifera, Pennisetum glaucum and Sorghum bicolor Activated Carbon for Adsorption of H₂S Gas

Authors: Z. N. Ali, O. A. Babatunde, S. Garba, H. M. S. Haruna


The potency of modified and unmodified activated carbons prepared from shells of Cocos nucifera (coconut shell), straws of Pennisetum glaucum (millet) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) for adsorption of hydrogen sulphide gas were investigated using an adsorption apparatus (stainless steel cylinder) at constant temperature (ambient temperature). The adsorption equilibria states were obtained when the pressure indicated on the pressure gauge remained constant. After modification with nitric acid, results of the scanning electron microscopy of the unmodified and modified activated carbons showed that HNO3 greatly improved the formation of micropores and mesopores on the activated carbon surface. The adsorption of H2S gas was found to be highest in modified Cocos nucifera activated carbon with maximum monolayer coverage of 28.17 mg/g, and the adsorption processes were both physical and chemical with the physical process being predominant. The adsorption data were well fitted into the Langmuir isotherm model with the adsorption capacities of the activated carbons in the order modified Cocos nucifera > modified Pennisetum glaucum > modified Sorghum bicolor > unmodified Cocos nucifera > unmodified Pennisetum glaucum > unmodified Sorghum bicolour.

Keywords: activated carbon adsorption, hydrogen sulphide, nitric acid, modification, stainless steel cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
43 Microwave-Assisted Chemical Pre-Treatment of Waste Sorghum Leaves: Process Optimization and Development of an Intelligent Model for Determination of Volatile Compound Fractions

Authors: Daneal Rorke, Gueguim Kana


The shift towards renewable energy sources for biofuel production has received increasing attention. However, the use and pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material are inundated with the generation of fermentation inhibitors which severely impact the feasibility of bioprocesses. This study reports the profiling of all volatile compounds generated during microwave assisted chemical pre-treatment of sorghum leaves. Furthermore, the optimization of reducing sugar (RS) from microwave assisted acid pre-treatment of sorghum leaves was assessed and gave a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.76, producing an optimal RS yield of 2.74 g FS/g substrate. The development of an intelligent model to predict volatile compound fractions gave R2 values of up to 0.93 for 21 volatile compounds. Sensitivity analysis revealed that furfural and phenol exhibited high sensitivity to acid concentration, alkali concentration and S:L ratio, while phenol showed high sensitivity to microwave duration and intensity as well. These findings illustrate the potential of using an intelligent model to predict the volatile compound fraction profile of compounds generated during pre-treatment of sorghum leaves in order to establish a more robust and efficient pre-treatment regime for biofuel production.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, fermentation inhibitors, lignocellulosic pre-treatment, sorghum leaves

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
42 Optimization of Alkali Assisted Microwave Pretreatments of Sorghum Straw for Efficient Bioethanol Production

Authors: Bahiru Tsegaye, Chandrajit Balomajumder, Partha Roy


The limited supply and related negative environmental consequence of fossil fuels are driving researcher for finding sustainable sources of energy. Lignocellulose biomass like sorghum straw is considered as among cheap, renewable and abundantly available sources of energy. However, lignocellulose biomass conversion to bioenergy like bioethanol is hindered due to the reluctant nature of lignin in the biomass. Therefore, removal of lignin is a vital step for lignocellulose conversion to renewable energy. The aim of this study is to optimize microwave pretreatment conditions using design expert software to remove lignin and to release maximum possible polysaccharides from sorghum straw for efficient hydrolysis and fermentation process. Sodium hydroxide concentration between 0.5-1.5%, v/v, pretreatment time from 5-25 minutes and pretreatment temperature from 120-2000C were considered to depolymerize sorghum straw. The effect of pretreatment was studied by analyzing the compositional changes before and after pretreatments following renewable energy laboratory procedure. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the significance of the model used for optimization. About 32.8%-48.27% of hemicellulose solubilization, 53% -82.62% of cellulose release, and 49.25% to 78.29% lignin solubilization were observed during microwave pretreatment. Pretreatment for 10 minutes with alkali concentration of 1.5% and temperature of 1400C released maximum cellulose and lignin. At this optimal condition, maximum of 82.62% of cellulose release and 78.29% of lignin removal was achieved. Sorghum straw at optimal pretreatment condition was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The efficiency of hydrolysis was measured by analyzing reducing sugars by 3, 5 dinitrisylicylic acid method. Reducing sugars of about 619 mg/g of sorghum straw were obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis. This study showed a significant amount of lignin removal and cellulose release at optimal condition. This enhances the yield of reducing sugars as well as ethanol yield. The study demonstrates the potential of microwave pretreatments for enhancing bioethanol yield from sorghum straw.

Keywords: cellulose, hydrolysis, lignocellulose, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
41 Assessment of N₂ Fixation and Water-Use Efficiency in a Soybean-Sorghum Rotation System

Authors: Mmatladi D. Mnguni, Mustapha Mohammed, George Y. Mahama, Alhassan L. Abdulai, Felix D. Dakora


Industrial-based nitrogen (N) fertilizers are justifiably credited for the current state of food production across the globe, but their continued use is not sustainable and has an adverse effect on the environment. The search for greener and sustainable technologies has led to an increase in exploiting biological systems such as legumes and organic amendments for plant growth promotion in cropping systems. Although the benefits of legume rotation with cereal crops have been documented, the full benefits of soybean-sorghum rotation systems have not been properly evaluated in Africa. This study explored the benefits of soybean-sorghum rotation through assessing N₂ fixation and water-use efficiency of soybean in rotation with sorghum with and without organic and inorganic amendments. The field trials were conducted from 2017 to 2020. Sorghum was grown on plots previously cultivated to soybean and vice versa. The succeeding sorghum crop received fertilizer amendments [organic fertilizer (5 tons/ha as poultry litter, OF); inorganic fertilizer (80N-60P-60K) IF; organic + inorganic fertilizer (OF+IF); half organic + inorganic fertilizer (HIF+OF); organic + half inorganic fertilizer (OF+HIF); half organic + half inorganic (HOF+HIF) and control] and was arranged in a randomized complete block design. The soybean crop succeeding fertilized sorghum received a blanket application of triple superphosphate at 26 kg P ha⁻¹. Nitrogen fixation and water-use efficiency were respectively assessed at the flowering stage using the ¹⁵N and ¹³C natural abundance techniques. The results showed that the shoot dry matter of soybean plants supplied with HOF+HIF was much higher (43.20 g plant-1), followed by OF+HIF (36.45 g plant⁻¹), and HOF+IF (33.50 g plant⁻¹). Shoot N concentration ranged from 1.60 to 1.66%, and total N content from 339 to 691 mg N plant⁻¹. The δ¹⁵N values of soybean shoots ranged from -1.17‰ to -0.64‰, with plants growing on plots previously treated to HOF+HIF exhibiting much higher δ¹⁵N values, and hence lower percent N derived from N₂ fixation (%Ndfa). Shoot %Ndfa values varied from 70 to 82%. The high %Ndfa values obtained in this study suggest that the previous year’s organic and inorganic fertilizer amendments to sorghum did not inhibit N₂ fixation in the following soybean crop. The amount of N-fixed by soybean ranged from 106 to 197 kg N ha⁻¹. The treatments showed marked variations in carbon (C) content, with HOF+HIF treatment recording the highest C content. Although water-use efficiency varied from -29.32‰ to -27.85‰, shoot water-use efficiency, C concentration, and C:N ratio were not altered by previous fertilizer application to sorghum. This study provides strong evidence that previous HOF+HIF sorghum residues can enhance N nutrition and water-use efficiency in nodulated soybean.

Keywords: ¹³C and ¹⁵N natural abundance, N-fixed, organic and inorganic fertilizer amendments, shoot %Ndfa

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40 Determination of Phytostearol in Serial Grains

Authors: Sumonthip Kongtun Janphuk


Ten cereal grains that usually used as ingredients in healthy products were studied for phytosteryl glucoside contents. β-sitosteryl glucoside in 10 cereal grains, including Phasecolus vulgaris L. (kidney bean), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick), Nelumbo nucifera (lotus), Vigna radiate L. (mung bean), Coix lacrymajobi (job’tears), Oryza sativa. (red rice), Glycine max L. Merrill. (soybean),Cucurbita maschata Decne (pumpkin) and Helianthas annuus (sunflower seeds), were analyzed using Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and High-Performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All grains were extracted with methanol before analysis. Red bean showed the maximum phytosteryl glucoside content of 0.42% w/w. The content of others were as follows: pumpkin seed 0.173%, mung bean 0.099 %, soybean 0.07%, dried moringa seed 0.067%, lotus seed 0.044%, sorghum 0.032%, sunflower seed 0.016%, Job's tears 0.012%, and brown rice 0.006%.

Keywords: cereal grains, phytosterol, β-sitosteryl glucoside, food analysis.

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
39 Physical, Microstructural and Functional Quality Improvements of Cassava-Sorghum Composite Snacks

Authors: Adil Basuki Ahza, Michael Liong, Subarna Suryatman


Healthy chips now dominating the snack market shelves. More than 80% processed snack foods in the market are chips. This research takes the advantages of twin extrusion technology to produce two types of product, i.e. directly expanded and intermediate ready-to-fry or microwavable chips. To improve the functional quality, the cereal-tuber based mix was enriched with antioxidant rich mix of temurui, celery, carrot and isolated soy protein (ISP) powder. Objectives of this research were to find best composite cassava-sorghum ratio, i.e. 60:40, 70:30 and 80:20, to optimize processing conditions of extrusion and study the microstructural, physical and sensorial characteristics of the final products. Optimization was firstly done by applying metering section of extruder barrel temperatures of 120, 130 and 140 °C with screw speeds of 150, 160 and 170 rpm to produce direct expanded product. The intermediate product was extruded in 100 °C and 100 rpm screw speed with feed moisture content of 35, 40 and 45%. The directly expanded products were analyzed for color, hardness, density, microstructure, and organoleptic properties. The results showed that interaction of ratio of cassava-sorghum and cooking methods affected the product's color, hardness, and bulk density (p<0.05). Extrusion processing conditions also significantly affected product's microstructure (p<0.05). The direct expanded snacks of 80:20 cassava-sorghum ratio and fried expanded one 70:30 and 80:20 ratio shown the best organoleptic score (slightly liked) while baking the intermediate product with microwave were resulted sensorial not acceptable quality chips.

Keywords: cassava-sorghum composite, extrusion, microstructure, physical characteristics

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38 Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis in Multiple Sorghum Mapping Populations Facilitates the Dissection of Genetic Control of Drought Tolerance Related Traits in Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (Moench)]

Authors: Techale B., Hongxu Dong, Mihrete Getinet, Aregash Gabizew, Andrew H. Paterson, Kassahun Bantte


The genetic architecture of drought tolerance is expected to involve multiple loci that are unlikely to all segregate for alternative alleles in a single bi-parental population. Therefore, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are expressed in diverse genetic backgrounds of multiple bi-parental populations provides evidence about both background-specific and common genetic variants. The purpose of this study was to map QTL related to drought tolerance using three connected mapping populations of different genetic backgrounds to gain insight into the genomic landscape of this important trait in elite Ethiopian germplasm. The three bi-parental populations, each with 207 F₂:₃ lines, were evaluated using an alpha lattice design with two replications under two moisture stress environments. Drought tolerance related traits were analyzed separately for each population using composite interval mapping, finding a total of 105 QTLs. All the QTLs identified from individual populations were projected on a combined consensus map, comprising a total of 25 meta QTLs for seven traits. The consensus map allowed us to deduce locations of a larger number of markers than possible in any individual map, providing a reference for genetic studies in different genetic backgrounds. The mQTL identified in this study could be used for marker-assisted breeding programs in sorghum after validation. Only one trait, reduced leaf senescence, showed a striking bias of allele distribution, indicating substantial standing variation among present varieties that might be employed in improving drought tolerance of Ethiopian and other sorghums.

Keywords: Drought tolerance , Mapping populations, Meta QTL, QTL mapping, Sorghum

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37 Productivity of Grain Sorghum-Cowpea Intercropping System: Climate-Smart Approach

Authors: Mogale T. E., Ayisi K. K., Munjonji L., Kifle Y. G.


Grain sorghum and cowpea are important staple crops in many areas of South Africa, particularly the Limpopo Province. The two crops are produced under a wide range of unsustainable conventional methods, which reduces productivity in the long run. Climate-smart traditional methods such as intercropping can be adopted to ensure sustainable production of these important two crops in the province. A no-tillage field experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with four replications over two seasons in two distinct agro-ecological zones, Syferkuil and Ofcolacoin, the province to assess the productivity of sorghum-cowpea intercropped under two cowpea densities.LCi Ultra compact photosynthesis machine was used to collect photosynthetic rate data biweekly between 11h00 and 13h00 until physiological maturity. Biomass and grain yield of the component crops in binary and sole cultures were determined at harvest maturity from middle rows of 2.7 m2 area. The biomass was oven dried in the laboratory at 65oC till constant weight. To obtain grain yield, harvested sorghum heads and cowpea pods were threshed, cleaned, and weighed. Harvest index (HI) and land equivalent ratio (LER) of the two crops were calculated to assess intercrop productivity relative to sole cultures. Data was analysed using the statistical analysis software system (SAS) 9.4 version, followed by mean separation using the least significant difference method. The photosyntheticrate of sorghum-cowpea intercrop was influenced by cowpea density and sorghum cultivar. Photosynthetic rate under low density was higher compared to high density, but this was dependent on the growing conditions. Dry biomass accumulation, grain yield, and harvest index differed among the sorghum cultivars and cowpea in both binary and sole cultures at the two test locations during the 2018/19 and 2020/21 growing seasons. Cowpea grain and dry biomass yields werein excess of 60% under high density compared to low density in both binary and sole cultures. The results revealed that grain yield accumulation of sorghum cultivars was influenced by the density of the companion cowpea crop as well as the production season. For instant, at Syferkuil, Enforcer and Ns5511 accumulated high yield under low density, whereas, at Ofcolaco, the higher yield was recorded under high density. Generally, under low cowpea density, cultivar Enforcer produced relatively higher grain yield whereas, under higher density, Titan yield was superior. The partial and total LER varied with growing season and the treatments studied. The total LERs exceeded 1.0 at the two locations across seasons, ranging from 1.3 to 1.8. From the results, it can be concluded that resources were used more efficiently in sorghum-cowpea intercrop at both Syferkuil and Ofcolaco. Furthermore, intercropping system improved photosynthetic rate, grain yield, and dry matter accumulation of sorghum and cowpea depending on growing conditions and density of cowpea. Hence, the sorghum-cowpea intercropping system can be adopted as a climate-smart practice for sustainable production in the Limpopo province.

Keywords: cowpea, climate-smart, grain sorghum, intercropping

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36 Estimation of Genetic Diversity in Sorghum Accessions Using Agro-Mophological and Nutritional Traits

Authors: Maletsema Alina Mofokeng, Nemera Shargie


Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops grown as a source of calories for many people in tropics and sub-tropics of the world. Proper characterisation and evaluation of crop germplasm is an important component for effective management of genetic resources and their utilisation in the improvement of the crop through plant breeding. The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic diversity present in sorghum accessions grown in South Africa using agro-morphological traits and some nutritional contents. The experiment was carried out in Potchefstroom. Data were subjected to correlations, principal components analysis, and hierarchical clustering using GenStat statistical software. There were highly significance differences among the accessions based on agro-morphological and nutritional quality traits. Grain yield was highly positively correlated with panicle weight. Plant height was highly significantly correlated with internode length, leaf length, leaf number, stem diameter, the number of nodes and starch content. The Principal component analysis revealed three most important PCs with a total variation of 78.6%. The protein content ranged from 7.7 to 14.7%, and starch ranged from 58.52 to 80.44%. The accessions that had high protein and starch content were AS16cyc and MP4277. There was vast genetic diversity observed among the accessions assessed that can be used by plant breeders to improve yield and nutritional traits.

Keywords: accessions, genetic diversity, nutritional quality, sorghum

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35 Growth and Yield Assessment of Two Types of Sorghum-Sudangrass Hybrids as Affected by Deficit Irrigation

Authors: A. Abbas Khalaf, L. Issazadeh, Z. Arif Abdullah, J. Hassanpour


In order to evaluate the growth and yield properties of two Sorghum-Sudangrass hybrids under different irrigation levels, an investigation was done in the experiment site of Collage of Agriculture, University of Duhok, Kurdistan region of Iraq (36°5´38 N, 42°52´02 E) in the years 2015-16. The experiment was conducted under Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications, which main factor was irrigation treatments (I100, I75 and I50) according to evaporation pan class A and type of Sorghum-Sudangrass hybrids (KH12SU9001, G1) and (KH12SU9002, G2) were factors of subplots. The parameters studied were: plant height (cm), number of green leaves per plant; leaf area (m2/m2), stem thickness (mm), percent of protein, fresh and dry biomass (ton.ha-1) and also crop water productivity. The results of variance analysis showed that KH12SU9001 variety had more amount of leaf area, percent of protein, fresh and dry biomass yield in comparison to KH12SU9002 variety. By comparing effects of irrigation levels on vegetative growth and yield properties, results showed that amount of plant height, fresh and dry biomass weight was decreased by decreasing irrigation level from full irrigation regime to 5 o% of irrigation level. Also, results of crop water productivity (CWP) indicated that improvement in quantity of irrigation would impact fresh and dry biomass yield significantly. Full irrigation regime was recorded the highest level of CWP (1.28-1.29 kg.m-3).

Keywords: deficit irrigation, growth, sorghum-sudangrass hybrid, yield

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34 Characterisation of Fractions Extracted from Sorghum Byproducts

Authors: Prima Luna, Afroditi Chatzifragkou, Dimitris Charalampopoulos


Sorghum byproducts, namely bran, stalk, and panicle are examples of lignocellulosic biomass. These raw materials contain large amounts of polysaccharides, in particular hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignins, which if efficiently extracted, can be utilised for the development of a range of added value products with potential applications in agriculture and food packaging sectors. The aim of this study was to characterise fractions extracted from sorghum bran and stalk with regards to their physicochemical properties that could determine their applicability as food-packaging materials. A sequential alkaline extraction was applied for the isolation of cellulosic, hemicellulosic and lignin fractions from sorghum stalk and bran. Lignin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were also investigated in the case of the lignin fraction. Thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of cellulose fraction of the stalk was ~78.33 oC at amorphous state (~65%) and water content of ~5%. In terms of hemicellulose, the Tg value of stalk was slightly lower compared to bran at amorphous state (~54%) and had less water content (~2%). It is evident that hemicelluloses generally showed a lower thermal stability compared to cellulose, probably due to their lack of crystallinity. Additionally, bran had higher arabinose-to-xylose ratio (0.82) than the stalk, a fact that indicated its low crystallinity. Furthermore, lignin fraction had Tg value of ~93 oC at amorphous state (~11%). Stalk-derived lignin fraction contained more phenolic compounds (mainly consisting of p-coumaric and ferulic acid) and had higher lignin content and antioxidant capacity compared to bran-derived lignin fraction.

Keywords: alkaline extraction, bran, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, stalk

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33 Preparation and Characterization of Bioplastic from Sorghum Husks

Authors: Hannatu Abubakar Sani, Abubakar Umar Birnin Yauri, Aliyu Muhammad, Mujahid Salau, Aminu Musa, Hadiza Adamu Kwazo


The increase in the global population and advances in technology have made plastic materials to have wide applications in every aspect of life. However, the non-biodegradability of these petrochemical-based materials and their increasing accumulation in the environment has been a threat to the planet and has been a source of environmental concerns and hence, the driving force in the search for ‘green’ alternatives for which agricultural waste remains the front liner. Sorghum husk, an agricultural waste with potentials as a raw material in the production of bioplastic, was used in this research to prepare bioplastic using sulphuric acid-catalyzed acetylation process. The prepared bioplastic was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the structure of the prepared bioplastic was confirmed. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of the product displayed the presence of OH, C-H, C=O, and C-O absorption peaks. The bioplastic obtained is biodegradable and is affected by acid, salt, and alkali to a lesser extent. Other tests like solubility and swelling studies were carried out to ensure the commercial properties of these bioplastic materials. Therefore, this revealed that new bioplastics with better environmental and sustainable properties could be produced from agricultural waste, which may have applications in many industries.

Keywords: agricultural waste, bioplastic, characterization, Sorghum Husk

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32 Conversion of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse to Sugars for Succinic Acid Production

Authors: Enlin Lo, Ioannis Dogaris, George Philippidis


Succinic acid is a compound used for manufacturing lacquers, resins, and other coating chemicals. It is also used in the food and beverage industry as a flavor additive. It is predominantly manufactured from petrochemicals, but it can also be produced by fermentation of sugars from renewable feedstocks, such as plant biomass. Bio-based succinic acid has great potential in becoming a platform chemical (building block) for commodity and high-value chemicals. In this study, the production of bio-based succinic acid from sweet sorghum was investigated. Sweet sorghum has high fermentable sugar content and can be cultivated in a variety of climates. In order to avoid competition with food feedstocks, its non-edible ‘bagasse’ (the fiber part after extracting the juice) was targeted. Initially, various conditions of pretreating sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) were studied in an effort to remove most of the non-fermentable components and expose the cellulosic fiber containing the fermentable sugars (glucose). Concentrated (83%) phosphoric acid was utilized at temperatures 50-80 oC for 30-60 min at various SSB loadings (10-15%), coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis using commercial cellulase (Ctec2, Novozymes) enzyme, to identify the conditions that lead to the highest glucose yields for subsequent fermentation to succinic acid. As the pretreatment temperature and duration increased, the bagasse color changed from light brown to dark brown-black, indicating decomposition, which ranged from 15% to 72%, while the theoretical glucose yield is 91%. With Minitab software statistical analysis, a model was built to identify the optimal pretreatment condition for maximum glucose released. The projected theoretical bio-based succinic acid production is 23g per 100g of SSB, which will be confirmed with fermentation experiments using the bacterium Actinobacillus succinogenes.

Keywords: biomass, cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, pretreatment, succinic acid

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31 Sorghum Polyphenols Encapsulated by Spray Drying, Using Modified Starches as Wall Materials

Authors: Adriana Garcia G., Alberto A. Escobar P., Amira D. Calvo L., Gabriel Lizama U., Alejandro Zepeda P., Fernando Martínez B., Susana Rincón A.


Different studies have recently been focused on the use of antioxidants such as polyphenols because of to its anticarcinogenic capacity. However, these compounds are highly sensible to environmental factors such as light and heat, so lose its long-term stability, besides possess an astringent and bitter taste. Nevertheless, the polyphenols can be protected by microcapsule formulation. In this sense, a rich source of polyphenols is sorghum, besides presenting a high starch content. Due to the above, the aim of this work was to obtain modified starches from sorghum by extrusion to encapsulate polyphenols the sorghum by spray drying. Polyphenols were extracted by ethanol solution from sorghum (Pajarero/red) and determined by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu, obtaining GAE at 30 mg/g. Moreover, was extracted starch of sorghum (Sinaloense/white) through wet milling (yield 32 %). The hydrolyzed starch was modified with three treatments: acetic anhydride (2.5g/100g), sodium tripolyphosphate (4g/100g), and sodium tripolyphosphate/ acetic anhydride (2g/1.25g by each 100 g) by extrusion. Processing conditions of extrusion were as follows: barrel temperatures were of 60, 130 and 170 °C at the feeding, transition, and high-pressure extrusion zones, respectively. Analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), showed bands exhibited of acetyl groups (1735 cm-1) and phosphates (1170 cm-1, 910 cm-1 and 525 cm-1), indicating the respective modification of starch. Besides, all modified starches not developed viscosity, which is a characteristic required for use in the encapsulation of polyphenols using the spray drying technique. As result of the modification starch, was obtained a water solubility index (WSI) from 33.8 to 44.8 %, and crystallinity from 8 to 11 %, indicating the destruction of the starch granule. Afterwards, microencapsulation of polyphenols was developed by spray drying, with a blend of 10 g of modified starch, 60 ml polyphenol extract and 30 ml of distilled water. Drying conditions were as follows: inlet air temperature 150 °C ± 1, outlet air temperature 80°C ± 5. As result of the microencapsulation: were obtained yields of 56.8 to 77.4 % and an efficiency of encapsulation from 84.6 to 91.4 %. The FTIR analysis showed evidence of microcapsules loaded with polyphenols in bands 1042 cm-1, 1038 cm-1 and 1148 cm-1. Analysis Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed transition temperatures from 144.1 to 173.9 °C. For the order hand, analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were observed rounded surfaces with concavities, typical feature of microcapsules produced by spray drying, how result of rapid evaporation of water. Finally, the modified starches were obtained by extrusion with good characteristics for use as cover materials by spray drying, where the phosphorylated starch was the best treatment in this work, according to the encapsulation yield, efficiency, and transition temperature.

Keywords: encapsulation, extrusion, modified starch, polyphenols, spray drying

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30 Apatite Flotation Using Fruits' Oil as Collector and Sorghum as Depressant

Authors: Elenice Maria Schons Silva, Andre Carlos Silva


The crescent demand for raw material has increased mining activities. Mineral industry faces the challenge of process more complexes ores, with very small particles and low grade, together with constant pressure to reduce production costs and environment impacts. Froth flotation deserves special attention among the concentration methods for mineral processing. Besides its great selectivity for different minerals, flotation is a high efficient method to process fine particles. The process is based on the minerals surficial physicochemical properties and the separation is only possible with the aid of chemicals such as collectors, frothers, modifiers, and depressants. In order to use sustainable and eco-friendly reagents, oils extracted from three different vegetable species (pequi’s pulp, macauba’s nut and pulp, and Jatropha curcas) were studied and tested as apatite collectors. Since the oils are not soluble in water, an alkaline hydrolysis (or saponification), was necessary before their contact with the minerals. The saponification was performed at room temperature. The tests with the new collectors were carried out at pH 9 and Flotigam 5806, a synthetic mix of fatty acids industrially adopted as apatite collector manufactured by Clariant, was used as benchmark. In order to find a feasible replacement for cornstarch the flour and starch of a graniferous variety of sorghum was tested as depressant. Apatite samples were used in the flotation tests. XRF (X-ray fluorescence), XRD (X-ray diffraction), and SEM/EDS (Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) were used to characterize the apatite samples. Zeta potential measurements were performed in the pH range from 3.5 to 12.5. A commercial cornstarch was used as depressant benchmark. Four depressants dosages and pH values were tested. A statistical test was used to verify the pH, dosage, and starch type influence on the minerals recoveries. For dosages equal or higher than 7.5 mg/L, pequi oil recovered almost all apatite particles. In one hand, macauba’s pulp oil showed excellent results for all dosages, with more than 90% of apatite recovery, but in the other hand, with the nut oil, the higher recovery found was around 84%. Jatropha curcas oil was the second best oil tested and more than 90% of the apatite particles were recovered for the dosage of 7.5 mg/L. Regarding the depressant, the lower apatite recovery with sorghum starch were found for a dosage of 1,200 g/t and pH 11, resulting in a recovery of 1.99%. The apatite recovery for the same conditions as 1.40% for sorghum flour (approximately 30% lower). When comparing with cornstarch at the same conditions sorghum flour produced an apatite recovery 91% lower.

Keywords: collectors, depressants, flotation, mineral processing

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29 Development and Structural Characterization of a Snack Food with Added Type 4 Extruded Resistant Starch

Authors: Alberto A. Escobar Puentes, G. Adriana García, Luis F. Cuevas G., Alejandro P. Zepeda, Fernando B. Martínez, Susana A. Rincón


Snack foods are usually classified as ‘junk food’ because have little nutritional value. However, due to the increase on the demand and third generation (3G) snacks market, low price and easy to prepare, can be considered as carriers of compounds with certain nutritional value. Resistant starch (RS) is classified as a prebiotic fiber it helps to control metabolic problems and has anti-cancer colon properties. The active compound can be developed by chemical cross-linking of starch with phosphate salts to obtain a type 4 resistant starch (RS4). The chemical reaction can be achieved by extrusion, a process widely used to produce snack foods, since it's versatile and a low-cost procedure. Starch is the major ingredient for snacks 3G manufacture, and the seeds of sorghum contain high levels of starch (70%), the most drought-tolerant gluten-free cereal. Due to this, the aim of this research was to develop a snack (3G), with RS4 in optimal conditions extrusion (previously determined) from sorghum starch, and carry on a sensory, chemically and structural characterization. A sample (200 g) of sorghum starch was conditioned with 4% sodium trimetaphosphate/ sodium tripolyphosphate (99:1) and set to 28.5% of moisture content. Then, the sample was processed in a single screw extruder equipped with rectangular die. The inlet, transport and output temperatures were 60°C, 134°C and 70°C, respectively. The resulting pellets were expanded in a microwave oven. The expansion index (EI), penetration force (PF) and sensory analysis were evaluated in the expanded pellets. The pellets were milled to obtain flour and RS content, degree of substitution (DS), and percentage of phosphorus (% P) were measured. Spectroscopy [Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)], X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were performed in order to determine structural changes after the process. The results in 3G were as follows: RS, 17.14 ± 0.29%; EI, 5.66 ± 0.35 and PF, 5.73 ± 0.15 (N). Groups of phosphate were identified in the starch molecule by FTIR: DS, 0.024 ± 0.003 and %P, 0.35±0.15 [values permitted as food additives (<4 %P)]. In this work an increase of the gelatinization temperature after the crosslinking of starch was detected; the loss of granular and vapor bubbles after expansion were observed by SEM; By using X-ray diffraction, loss of crystallinity was observed after extrusion process. Finally, a snack (3G) was obtained with RS4 developed by extrusion technology. The sorghum starch was efficient for snack 3G production.

Keywords: extrusion, resistant starch, snack (3G), Sorghum

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28 Allelopathic Action of Diferents Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench Fractions on Ipomoea grandifolia [Dammer] O'Donell

Authors: Mateus L. O. Freitas, Flávia H. de M. Libório, Letycia L. Ricardo, Patrícia da C. Zonetti, Graciene de S. Bido


Weeds compete with agricultural crops for resources such as light, water, and nutrients. This competition can cause significant damage to agricultural producers, and, currently, the use of agrochemicals is the most effective method for controlling these undesirable plants. Morning glory (Ipomoea grandifolia [Dammer] O'Donell) is an aggressive weed and significantly reduces agricultural productivity making harvesting difficult, especially mechanical harvesting. The biggest challenge in modern agriculture is to preserve high productivity reducing environmental damage and maintaining soil characteristics. No-till is a sustainable practice that can reduce the use of agrochemicals and environmental impacts due to the presence of plant residues in the soil, which release allelopathic compounds and reduce the incidence or alter the growth and development of crops and weeds. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) is a forage with proven allelopathic activity, mainly for producing sorgholeone. In this context, this research aimed to evaluate the allelopathic action of sorghum fractions using hexane, dichloromethane, butanol, and ethyl acetate on the germination and initial growth of morning glory. The parameters analyzed were the percentage of germination, speed of germination, seedling length, and biomass weight (fresh and dry). The bioassays were performed in Petri dishes, kept in an incubation chamber for 7 days, at 25 °C, with a 12h photoperiod. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five replicates of each treatment. The data were evaluated by analysis of variance, and the averages between each treatment were compared using the Scott Knott test at a 5% significance level. The results indicated that the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions showed bioherbicidal effects, promoting effective reductions on germination and initial growth of the morning glory. It was concluded that allelochemicals were probably extracted in these fractions. These secondary metabolites can reduce the use of agrochemicals and environmental impact, making agricultural production systems more sustainable.

Keywords: allelochemicals, secondary metabolism, sorgoleone, weeds

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