Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6921

Search results for: feed rate

6921 Growth Performance, Survival Rate and Feed Efficacy of Climbing Perch, Anabas testudineus, Feed Experimental Diet with Several Dosages of Papain Enzyme

Authors: Zainal A. Muchlisin, Muhammad Iqbal, Abdullah A. Muhammadar


The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dose of papain enzyme in the diet for growing, survival rate and feed efficacy of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus). The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Aquatic of Faculty of Veterinary, Syiah Kuala University from January to March 2016. The completely randomized design was used in this study. Six dosages level of papain enzyme were tested with 4 replications i.e. 0 g kg-1 of feed, 20.0 g kg-1 feed, 22.5 g kg-1 of feed, 25.0 g kg-1 of feed, 27.5 g kg-1 of feed, and 30.0 g kg-1 of feed. The experimental fish fed twice a day at feeding level of 5% for 60 days. The results showed that weight gain ranged from 2.41g to 7.37g, total length gain ranged from 0.67cm to 3.17cm, specific growth rate ranged from 1.46 % day to 3.41% day, daily growth rate ranged from 0.04 g day to 0.13 g day, feed conversion ratio ranged from 1.94 to 3.59, feed efficiency ranged from 27.99% to 51.37%, protein retention ranged from 3.38% to 28.28%, protein digestibility ranged from 50.63% to 90.38%, and survival rate ranged from 88.89% to 100%. The highest rate for all parameters was found in the dosage of 3.00% papain enzyme kg feed. The ANOVA test showed that enzyme papain gave a significant effect on the weight gain, total length gain, daily growth rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, protein retention, protein digestibility, and survival rate of the climbing perch (Anabas testudieus). The best enzyme papain dosage was 3.0%.

Keywords: betok, feed conversion ratio, freshwater fish, nutrition, feeding

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6920 Effect of Feed Rate on Grinding Circuits and Cyclone Efficiency

Authors: Patel Himeshkumar Ashokbhai, Suchit Sharma, Arvind Kumar Garg


The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of change in feed rate on grinding circuit and cyclone efficiency in case of lead-zinc ore. The following experiments and analysis were conducted on beneficiation circuit of Sindesar Khurd (SK) mines under Hindustan Zinc Ltd. subsidiary of Vedanta Group of Companies, a leading producer of lead-Zinc, silver and cadmium (as by products) in India. Feed rate is an important variable in beneficiation circuit operation. Optimizing feed rate is indispensable for any grinding circuit and directly effects cyclone efficiency. The size analysis of ore in grinding circuit along with cyclone efficiency on varying feed rates establishes their interdependence. Feed rate determines retention time ore gets within grinding circuit. Retention time in turn determines degree of liberation of mineral. Inadequate liberation causes decreased circuit efficiency. In this paper we have studied the effect of varying feed rate on (1) D80 particle size of different sections of different streams of grinding circuit (2) Re-circulating load (3) Cyclone efficiency. As a conclusion, this study gives some clues to operate grinding circuits and hydro-cyclones in more efficient way regarding beneficiation of Lead-zinc ore.

Keywords: cyclone efficiency, feed rate, grinding circuit, re-circulating load

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
6919 Thermal Efficiency Analysis and Optimal of Feed Water Heater for Mae Moh Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Khomkrit Mongkhuntod, Chatchawal Chaichana, Atipoang Nuntaphan


Feed Water Heater is the important equipment for thermal power plant. The heating temperature from feed heating process is an impact to power plant efficiency or heat rate. Normally, the degradation of feed water heater that operated for a long time is effect to decrease plant efficiency or increase plant heat rate. For Mae Moh power plant, each unit operated more than 20 years. The degradation of the main equipment is effect of planting efficiency or heat rate. From the efficiency and heat rate analysis, Mae Moh power plant operated in high heat rate more than the commissioning period. Some of the equipment were replaced for improving plant efficiency and plant heat rates such as HP turbine and LP turbine that the result is increased plant efficiency by 5% and decrease plant heat rate by 1%. For the target of power generation plan that Mae Moh power plant must be operated more than 10 years. These work is focus on thermal efficiency analysis of feed water heater to compare with the commissioning data for find the way to improve the feed water heater efficiency that may effect to increase plant efficiency or decrease plant heat rate by use heat balance model simulation and economic value add (EVA) method to study the investment for replacing the new feed water heater and analyze how this project can stay above the break-even point to make the project decision.

Keywords: feed water heater, power plant efficiency, plant heat rate, thermal efficiency analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
6918 Comparison between Torsional Ultrasonic Assisted Drilling and Conventional Drilling of Bone: An in vitro Study

Authors: Nikoo Soleimani


Background: Reducing torque during bone drilling is one of the effective factors in reaching to an optimal drilling process. Methods: 15 bovine femurs were drilled in vitro with a drill bit with a diameter of 4 mm using two methods of torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling (T-UAD) and convent conventional drilling (CD) and the effects of changing the feed rate and rotational speed on the torque were compared in both methods. Results: There was no significant difference in the thrust force measured in both methods due to the direction of vibrations. Results showed that using T-UAD method for bone drilling at feed rates of 0.16, 0.24 and 0.32 mm/rev led for all rotational speeds to a decrease of at least 16.3% in torque compared to the CD method. Further, using T-UAD at rotational speeds of 355~1000 rpm with various feed rates resulted in a torque reduction of 16.3~50.5% compared to CD method. Conclusions: Reducing the feed rate and increasing the rotational speed, except for the rotational speed of 500 rpm and a feed rate of 0.32 mm/rev, resulted generally in torque reduction in both methods. However, T-UAD is a more effective and desirable option for bone drilling considering its significant torque reduction.

Keywords: torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling, torque, bone drilling, rotational speed, feed rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
6917 Microwave Plasma Dry Reforming of Methane at High CO2/CH4 Feed Ratio

Authors: Nabil Majd Alawi, Gia Hung Pham, Ahmed Barifcani


Dry reforming of methane that converts two greenhouses gases (CH4 and CO2) to synthesis gas (a mixture of H2 and CO) was studied in a commercial bench scale microwave (MW) plasma reactor system at atmospheric pressure. The CO2, CH4 and N2 conversions; H2, CO selectivities and yields, and syngas ratio (H2/CO) were investigated in a wide range of total feed flow rate (0.45 – 2.1 L/min), MW power (700 – 1200 watt) and CO2/CH4 molar ratio (2 – 5). At the feed flow rates of CH4, CO2 and N2 of 0.2, 0.4 and 1.5 L/min respectively, and the MWs input power of 700 W, the highest conversions of CH4 and CO2, selectivity and yield of H2, CO and H2/CO ratio of 79.35%, 44.82%, 50.12, 58.42, 39.77%, 32.89%, and 0.86, respectively, were achieved. The results of this work show that the product ratio increases slightly with the increasing total feed flow rate, but it decreases significantly with the increasing MW power and feeds CO2/CH4 ratio.

Keywords: dry reforming of methane, microwave discharge, plasma technology, synthesis gas production

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
6916 Response Development of larvae Portunus pelagicus to Artificial Feeding Predigest

Authors: Siti Aslamyah, Yushinta Fujaya, Okto Rimaldi


One of the problems faced in the crab hatchery operations is the reliance on the use of natural feed. This study aims to analyze the response of larval development and determine the initial stages crab larvae begin to fully able to accept artificial feeding predigest with the help of probiotic Bacillus sp. The experiment was conducted in June 2014 through July 2014 at the location of the scale backyard hatcheries, Bojo village Mallusettasi sub-district, district Barru. This study was conducted in two stages larval rearing. The first stage is designed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and each with 3 repetitions, ie, without the use of artificial feeding; predigest feed given from zoea 1 - megalopa; predigest feed given since zoea 2 - megalopa; predigest feed given from zoea 3 - megalopa; and feed predigest given since zoea 4 - megalopa. The second stage of the two treatments, i.e. comparing artificial feeding without and with predigest. The results showed that the artificial feeding predigest able to replace the use of natural feed started zoea 3 generated based on the survival rate. Artificial feeding predigest provide a higher survival rate (16%) compared to artificial diets without predigest only 10.8%. However, feed predigest not give a different effect on the rate of development of stadia. Cell activity in larvae that received artificial feed predigest higher with RNA-DNA ratio of 8.88 compared with no predigest only 5:36. This research is very valuable information for crab hatchery hatchery scale households have limitations in preparing natural food.

Keywords: artificial feeding, development of stadia, larvae Portunus pelagicus, predigest

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
6915 Effect of Herbal Mineral Blend on Growth Performance of Broilers

Authors: M. Rizwan, S. Ahmad, U. Farooq, U. Mahmood, S. U. Rehman, P. Akhtar


This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of herbal and mineral mixture on growth performance of boilers. One hundred and eighty birds were randomly distributed into 6 experimental units of 3 replicates (10 birds/replicate) as: negative control (basal diet), positive control (Lincomycin at the rate of 5g/bag), commercially available herbal-mineral product FitFat™ at the rate of 150g/bag and 200g/bag, and herbal-mineral mixture at the rate of 150g/bag and herbal-mineral mixture at the rate of 300g/bag. The data regarding weekly feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded, and fecal samples were collected at the end of starter and finisher phase for nutrient digestibility trial. The results of body weight gain showed significant (P < 0.05) differences in 3rd week of age (506.90g), also, feed intake showed significant (P < 0.05) results in 1st (297.22g), 3rd (936.7g) and 4th (967.8g) week and feed conversion ratio indicated significant (P < 0.05) variations in 1st (1.14) and 3rd (1.74) week of age. The starter phase indicated significant (P < 0.05) differences among all treatments groups in body weight gain (902.2g), feed intake (1843.9g) and feed conversion ratio (1.78). In case of nutrient digestibility trial, results showed significant (P < 0.05) values of dry matter, crude protein, and crude fat in starter phase as 77.74%, 69.37%, and 61.18% respectively and 77.65%, 68.79% and 61.03% respectively, in finisher phase. Based on overall results, it was concluded that the dietary inclusion of combination of herbs and mineral can increase the production performance of broilers.

Keywords: herbal blend, minerals, crop filling, nutrient digestibility, broiler

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
6914 Statistical Analysis of Surface Roughness and Tool Life Using (RSM) in Face Milling

Authors: Mohieddine Benghersallah, Lakhdar Boulanouar, Salim Belhadi


Currently, higher production rate with required quality and low cost is the basic principle in the competitive manufacturing industry. This is mainly achieved by using high cutting speed and feed rates. Elevated temperatures in the cutting zone under these conditions shorten tool life and adversely affect the dimensional accuracy and surface integrity of component. Thus it is necessary to find optimum cutting conditions (cutting speed, feed rate, machining environment, tool material and geometry) that can produce components in accordance with the project and having a relatively high production rate. Response surface methodology is a collection of mathematical and statistical techniques that are useful for modelling and analysis of problems in which a response of interest is influenced by several variables and the objective is to optimize this response. The work presented in this paper examines the effects of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) on to the surface roughness through the mathematical model developed by using the data gathered from a series of milling experiments performed.

Keywords: Statistical analysis (RSM), Bearing steel, Coating inserts, Tool life, Surface Roughness, End milling.

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
6913 The Application of to Optimize Pellet Quality in Broiler Feeds

Authors: Reza Vakili


The aim of this experiment was to optimize the effect of moisture, the production rate, grain particle size and steam conditioning temperature on pellet quality in broiler feed using Taguchi method and a 43 fractional factorial arrangement was conducted. Production rate, steam conditioning temperatures, particle sizes and moisture content were performed. During the production process, sampling was done, and then pellet durability index (PDI) and hardness evaluated in broiler feed grower and finisher. There was a significant effect of processing parameters on PDI and hardness. Based on the results of this experiment Taguchi method can be used to find the best combination of factors for optimal pellet quality.

Keywords: broiler, feed physical quality, hardness, processing parameters, PDI

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
6912 Camel Mortalities Due to Accidental Intoxcation with Ionophore

Authors: M. A. Abdelfattah, F. K. Waleed


Anticoccidials were utilized widely in veterinary practice for the avoidance of coccidiosis in poultry and assume a huge job as development promotants in ruminants. Ionophore harming is every now and again happens because of accidental access to medicated feed, errors in feed mixing, incorrect dosage calculation or misuse in non-recommended species. Camels on several farms in Eastern area of Saudi Arabia were accidently fed with a feed pellet containing 13 ppm salinomycin. One hundred and sixty-three camels died with mortality rate of 100%. The poisoning was clinically characterized by restlessness with tail lift to the top, jerk in the muscles of legs and thighs, excessive sweating, frequent setting and standing with body imbalance, lateral and sternal recumbences with the legs stretched back, eye tears with dilated pupil, vomiting of the stomach content, loss of consciousness and death of some of them. Feed analysis indicated the presence of salinomycin in pelleted feed in a range of 13 mg/kg-47 mg/kg. Necropsy findings and histopathological examinations were presented. Regulations and legal implications concerning with sale of contaminated feed in Saudi market are discussed in the light of feed law and by-law. The necessity for an effective implication of regulation concerning application of quality assurance systems based on the principles of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and the application of Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Point (HACCP) during feed production is necessary to avoid feed accident.

Keywords: medicated feed, salinomycin, anticoccidial, camel, toxicity

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6911 Effect of Bactocellon White Leg Shrimp (Litopenaeusvannamei) Growth Performance and the Shrimp Survival to Vibrio paraheamolyticus

Authors: M. Soltani, K. Pakzad, A. Haghigh-Khiyabani, M. Alavi, R. Naderi, M. Castex


Effect of probiotic Bactocell (Pediococcus acidilactici) as a supplementary diet was studied on post-larvae 12-15 of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) (150000 PL/0.5 h pond, average body weight=0.02 g) growth performance under farm condition for 102 days at water quality parameters consisting of temperature at 30.5-36οC, dissolved oxygen 4.1-6.6 mg/l, salinity 40-54 g/l, turbidity 35-110 cm, ammonia 0.1-0.8 mg/l and nitrite 0.1-0.9 mg/l. Also, the resistance level of the treated shrimps was assessed against a virulent strain of Vibrio paraheamolyticus as intramuscular injection route at 1.4 x 106 cells/shrimp. Significantly higher growth rate (11.3±1.54 g) and lower feed conversion ratio (1.1) were obtained in shrimps fed diets supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/ tone feed compared to other treatments of 250 g Bactocell/ton feed (10.8±2 g, 1.3), 500 g Bactocell/ton feed (10.3±1.7 g, 1.3) and untreated control (10.1±2 g, 1.4). Also, thermal growth coefficient (0.057%) and protein efficiency ratio (2.13) were significantly improved in shrimps fed diets supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/ton feed compare to other groups. Shrimps fed diet supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/tone feed showed significantly higher protein content (72.56%) in their carcass composition than treatments of 250 g/ton feed (65.9%), 500 g/ton feed (67.5%) and control group (65.9%), while the carcass contents of moisture, lipid and ash in all shrimp groups were not significantly affected by different concentrations of Bactocell. No mortality occurred in the experimentally infected shrimps fed with Bactocell at 500 g/tone feed after 7 hours post-challenge with V. parahemolyticus. The mortality levels of 100%, 40%, 50% and 70% were obtained in shrimps fed with 0.0, 500 g/tone feed, 350 g/ton feed and 250 g/ton feed, respectively 14 hours post-infection. Also, the cumulative mortalities were achieved in 100%, 92% and 81% in shrimps few with Bactocell at 500 g/ton feed, 250 g/ton feed and 350 g/ton feed, respectively.

Keywords: litopenaeus vannamei, vibrio paraheamolyticus, pediococcus acidilactici, growth performance, bactocell

Procedia PDF Downloads 482
6910 Influence of Dietary Herbal Blend on Crop Filling, Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Broiler Chickens

Authors: S. Ahmad, M. Rizwan, B. Ayub, S. Mehmood, P. Akhtar


This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of pure herbal blend on growth performance of boilers. One hundred and twenty birds were randomly distributed into 4 experimental units of 3 replicates (10 birds/replicate) as: negative control (basal diet), positive control (Lincomycin at the rate of 5g/bag), pure herbal blend at the rate of 150g/bag and pure herbal blend at the rate of 300g/bag. The data regarding weekly feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded, and fecal samples were collected at the end of starter and finisher phase for nutrient digestibility trial. The results of feed intake showed significant (P < 0.05) results in 1st (305g), 2nd (696.88g), 3rd (1046.9g) and 4th (1173.2g) week and feed conversion ratio indicated significant (P < 0.05) variations in 1st (2.54) and 4th (2.28) week of age. Also, both starter and finisher phase indicated significant (P < 0.05) differences among all treatment groups in feed intake (2023.4g) and (2302.6g) respectively. The statistical analysis indicated significant (P < 0.05) results in crop filling percentage (86.6%) after 2 hours of first feed supplementation. In case of nutrient digestibility trial, results showed significant (P < 0.05) values of crude protein and crude fat in starter phase as 69.65% and 56.62% respectively, and 69.57% and 48.55% respectively, in finisher phase. Based on overall results, it was concluded that the dietary inclusion of pure herbal blend containing neem tree leaves powder, garlic powder, ginger powder and turmeric powder increase the production performance of broilers.

Keywords: neem tree leave, garlic, ginger, herbal blend, broiler

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
6909 Examination of the Reasons for the Formation of Red Oil in Spent Caustic from Olefin Plant

Authors: Mehdi Seifollahi, Ashkan Forootan, Sajjad Bahrami Reyhan


Due to the complexity of olefinic plants, various environmental pollutants exist such as NOx, CO2, Tar Water, and most importantly Spent Caustic. In this paper, instead of investigating ways of treating this pollutant, we evaluated the production in relation to plant’s variable items. We primarily discussed the factors affecting the quality of the output spent caustic such as impurities in the feed of olefin plant, the amount of injected dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) in furnaces, variation in feed composition, differences among gas temperatures and the concentration of caustic solution at the bottom of the tower. The results of the laboratory proved that in the formation of Red Oil, 1,3butadiene and acetaldehyde followed free radical and aldol condensation mechanism respectively. By increasing the injection rate of DMDS, Mercaptide amount increases in the effluent. In addition, pyrolysis gasoline accumulation is directly related to caustic concentration in the tower. Increasing naphtenes in the liquid feed augments the amount of 1,3butadiene, as one of the sources of Red Oil formation. By increasing the oxygenated compound in the feed, the rate of acetaldehyde formation, as the main source of Red Oil formation, increases.

Keywords: olefin, spent caustic, red oil, caustic wash tower

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
6908 The Flotation Device Designed to Treat Phosphate Rock

Authors: Z. Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, D. L. Li


To overcome the some shortcomings associated with traditional flotation machines and columns in collophanite flotation, a flotation device was designed and fabricated in the laboratory. A multi-impeller pump with same function as a mechanical cell was used instead of the injection sparger and circulation pump in column flotation unit. The influence of main operational parameters of the device like feed flow rate, air flow rate and impellers’ speed on collophanite flotation was analyzed. Experiment results indicate that the influence of the operational parameters were significant on flotation recovery and grade of phosphate concentrate. The best operating conditions of the device were: feed flow rate 0.62 L/min, air flow rate 6.67 L/min and impellers speed 900 rpm. At these conditions, a phosphate concentrate assaying about 30.5% P2O5 and 1% MgO with a P2O5 recovery of about 81% was obtained from a Yuan'an phosphate ore sample containing about 22.30% P2O5 and 3.2% MgO.

Keywords: collophanite flotation, flotation columns, flotation machines, multi-impeller pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
6907 Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Hard Material Machining

Authors: Rajaram Kr. Gupta, Bhupendra Kumar, T. V. K. Gupta, D. S. Ramteke


Machining of hard materials is a recent technology for direct production of work-pieces. The primary challenge in machining these materials is selection of cutting tool inserts which facilitates an extended tool life and high-precision machining of the component. These materials are widely for making precision parts for the aerospace industry. Nickel-based alloys are typically used in extreme environment applications where a combination of strength, corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance material characteristics are required. The present paper reports the theoretical and experimental investigations carried out to understand the influence of machining parameters on the response parameters. Considering the basic machining parameters (speed, feed and depth of cut) a study has been conducted to observe their influence on material removal rate, surface roughness, cutting forces and corresponding tool wear. Experiments are designed and conducted with the help of Central Composite Rotatable Design technique. The results reveals that for a given range of process parameters, material removal rate is favorable for higher depths of cut and low feed rate for cutting forces. Low feed rates and high values of rotational speeds are suitable for better finish and higher tool life.

Keywords: speed, feed, depth of cut, roughness, cutting force, flank wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
6906 Experimental Analysis on the Thermal Performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membrane

Authors: Hong-Jin Joo, Hee-Yoel Kwak


Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) uses pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure. The feed seawater is capable of producing more vapor at the same temperature than Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) or Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD). It is advantageous because it is operable at a lower temperature than other membrane distillations. However, no commercial product is available that uses the VMD method, as it is still in the study stage. In this study, therefore, thermal performance test according to the feed water conditions was performed prior to both construction of the demonstration plant, which uses VMD module of the capacity of 400m³/d in South Korea, and commercialization of VMD module with hollow fiber membrane. Such study was performed by designing and constructing the VMD module of the capacity of 2 m³/day which utilizes the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane. The results obtained from the VMD module manufactured by ECONITY Co., Ltd in South Korea, showed that the maximum performance ratio (PR) value of 0.904, feed water temperature of 75 ℃, and the flow rate of 8 m3/h. As the temperature of and flow rate of the feed water increased, the PR value of the VMD module also increased.

Keywords: membrane distillation, vacuum membrane distillation, hollow fiber membrane, desalination

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6905 Process Integration of Natural Gas Hydrate Production by CH₄-CO₂/H₂ Replacement Coupling Steam Methane Reforming

Authors: Mengying Wang, Xiaohui Wang, Chun Deng, Bei Liu, Changyu Sun, Guangjin Chen, Mahmoud El-Halwagi


Significant amounts of natural gas hydrates (NGHs) are considered potential new sustainable energy resources in the future. However, common used methods for methane gas recovery from hydrate sediments require high investment but with low gas production efficiency, and may cause potential environment and security problems. Therefore, there is a need for effective gas production from hydrates. The natural gas hydrate production method by CO₂/H₂ replacement coupling steam methane reforming can improve the replacement effect and reduce the cost of gas separation. This paper develops a simulation model of the gas production process integrated with steam reforming and membrane separation. The process parameters (i.e., reactor temperature, pressure, H₂O/CH₄ ratio) and the composition of CO₂ and H₂ in the feed gas are analyzed. Energy analysis is also conducted. Two design scenarios with different composition of CO₂ and H₂ in the feed gas are proposed and evaluated to assess the energy efficiency of the novel system. Results show that when the composition of CO₂ in the feed gas is between 43 % and 72 %, there is a certain composition that can meet the requirement that the flow rate of recycled gas is equal to that of feed gas, so as to ensure that the subsequent production process does not need to add feed gas or discharge recycled gas. The energy efficiency of the CO₂ in feed gas at 43 % and 72 % is greater than 1, and the energy efficiency is relatively higher when the CO₂ mole fraction in feed gas is 72 %.

Keywords: Gas production, hydrate, process integration, steam reforming

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
6904 Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh, Adel Mahmood Hassan, Moath AL-Qudah


Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.

Keywords: burnishing process, Al-Mg-Graphite composites, surface hardness, surface roughness

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6903 Surface Roughness of AlSi/10%AlN Metal Matrix Composite Material Using the Taguchi Method

Authors: Nurul Na'imy Wan, Mohamad Sazali Said, Jaharah Ab. Ghani, Mohd Asri Selamat


This paper presents the surface roughness of the Aluminium silicon alloy (AlSi) matrix composite which has been reinforced with aluminium nitride (AlN), with three types of carbide inserts. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut, according to the Taguchi method, using a standard orthogonal array L27 (34). The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance are applied to study the characteristic performance of machining parameters in measuring the surface roughness during the milling operation. The analysis of results, using the Taguchi method concluded that a combination of low feed rate, medium depth of cut, low cutting speed, and insert TiB2 give a better value of surface roughness. From Taguchi method, it was found that cutting speed of 230m/min, feed rate of 0.4 mm/tooth, depth of cut of 0.5mm and type of insert of TiB2 were the optimal machining parameters that gave the optimal value of surface roughness.

Keywords: AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), surface roughness, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
6902 Tool Wear of Metal Matrix Composite 10wt% AlN Reinforcement Using TiB2 Cutting Tool

Authors: M. S. Said, J. A. Ghani, C. H. Che Hassan, N. N. Wan, M. A. Selamat, R. Othman


Metal Matrix Composite (MMCs) have attracted considerable attention as a result of their ability to provide high strength, high modulus, high toughness, high impact properties, improved wear resistance and good corrosion resistance than unreinforced alloy. Aluminium Silicon (Al/Si) alloys Metal Matrix composite (MMC) has been widely used in various industrial sectors such as transportation, domestic equipment, aerospace, military, construction, etc. Aluminium silicon alloy is MMC reinforced with aluminium nitride (AlN) particle and becomes a new generation material for automotive and aerospace applications. The AlN material is one of the advanced materials with light weight, high strength, high hardness and stiffness qualities which have good future prospects. However, the high degree of ceramic particles reinforcement and the irregular nature of the particles along the matrix material that contribute to its low density, is the main problem that leads to the machining difficulties. This paper examines tool wear when milling AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite using a TiB2 coated carbide cutting tool. The volume of the AlN reinforced particle was 10%. The milling process was carried out under dry cutting condition. The TiB2 coated carbide insert parameters used were the cutting speed of (230 m/min, feed rate 0.4mm tooth, DOC 0.5mm, 300 m/min, feed rate 0.8mm/tooth, DOC 0.5mm and 370 m/min, feed rate 0.8, DOC 0.4m). The Sometech SV-35 video microscope system was used for tool wear measurements respectively. The results have revealed that the tool life increases with the cutting speed (370 m/min, feed rate 0.8 mm/tooth and depth of cut 0.4mm) constituted the optimum condition for longer tool life which is 123.2 min. While at medium cutting speed, it is found that the cutting speed of 300m/min, feed rate 0.8 mm/tooth and depth of cut 0.5mm only 119.86 min for tool wear mean while the low cutting speed give 119.66 min. The high cutting speed gives the best parameter for cutting AlSi/AlN MMCs materials. The result will help manufacture to machining the AlSi/AlN MMCs materials.

Keywords: AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite milling process, tool wear, TiB2 coated carbide tool, manufacturing engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
6901 Production of Premium Quality Cinnamon Bark Powder Using Cryogenic Grinding

Authors: Monika R. Bhoi, R. F. Sutar, Bhaumik B. Patel


The objective of this research paper is to obtain the premium quality of cinnamon bark powder through cryogenic grinding technology. The effect of grinding temperature (0, -20, -40, -60, -80 and -100˚C), feed rate (8, 9 and 10 kg/h), and sieve size (0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mm) were evaluated with respect to grinding time, volatile oil content, particle size, energy consumption, and liquid nitrogen consumption. Cryogenic grinding process parameters were optimized to obtain premium quality cinnamon bark powder was carried out using three factorial completely randomized design. The optimization revealed that grinding of cinnamon bark at -80⁰C temperature using 0.8 mm sieve size and 10 kg/h feed rate resulted in premium quality cinnamon bark powder containing volatile oil 3.01%. In addition, volatile oil retention in cryogenically ground powder was 88.23%, whereas control (ambient grinding) had 33.11%. Storage study of premium quality cryogenically ground powder was carried out under accelerated storage conditions (38˚C & 90% R.H). Accelerated storage of cryoground powder was found to be advantageous over the conventional ground for extended storage of the ground cinnamon powder with retention of its nutritional quality. Hence, grinding of spices at optimally low cryogenic temperature is a promising technology for the production of its premium quality powder economically.

Keywords: cinnamon bark, cryogenic grinding, feed rate, volatile oil

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6900 Performance of Constant Load Feed Machining for Robotic Drilling

Authors: Youji Miyake


In aircraft assembly, a large number of preparatory holes are required for screw and rivet joints. Currently, many holes are drilled manually because it is difficult to machine the holes using conventional computerized numerical control(CNC) machines. The application of industrial robots to drill the hole has been considered as an alternative to the CNC machines. However, the rigidity of robot arms is so low that vibration is likely to occur during drilling. In this study, it is proposed constant-load feed machining as a method to perform high-precision drilling while minimizing the thrust force, which is considered to be the cause of vibration. In this method, the drill feed is realized by a constant load applied onto the tool so that the thrust force is theoretically kept below the applied load. The performance of the proposed method was experimentally examined through the deep hole drilling of plastic and simultaneous drilling of metal/plastic stack plates. It was confirmed that the deep hole drilling and simultaneous drilling could be performed without generating vibration by controlling the tool feed rate in the appropriate range.

Keywords: constant load feed machining, robotic drilling, deep hole, simultaneous drilling

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6899 Pellet Feed Improvements through Vitamin C Supplementation for Snakehead (Channa striata) Culture in Vietnam

Authors: Pham Minh Duc, Tran Thi Thanh Hien, David A. Bengtson


Laboratory feeding trial: the study was conducted to find out the optimal dietary vitamin C, or ascorbic acid (AA) levels in terms of the growth performance of snakehead. The growth trial included six treatments with five replications. Each treatment contained 0, 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg AA equivalent kg⁻¹ diet which included six iso-nitrogenous (45% protein), iso-lipid (9% lipid) and isocaloric (4.2 Kcal.g¹). Eighty snakehead fingerlings (6.24 ± 0.17 g.fish¹) were assigned randomly in 0.5 m³ composite tanks. Fish were fed twice daily on demand for 8 weeks. The result showed that growth rates increased, protein efficiency ratio increased and the feed conversion ratio decreased in treatments with AA supplementation compared with control treatment. The survival rate of fish tends to increase with increase AA level. The number of RBCs, lysozyme in treatments with AA supplementation tended to rise significantly proportional to the concentration of AA. The number of WBCs of snakehead in treatments with AA supplementation was higher 2.1-3.6 times. In general, supplementation of AA in the diets for snakehead improved growth rate, feed efficiency and immune response. Hapa on-farm trial: based on the results of the laboratory feeding trial, the effects of AA on snakehead in hapas to simulate farm conditions, was tested using the following treatments: commercial feed; commercial feed plus hand mixed AA at 500; 750 and 1000 mg⁻¹; SBM diet without AA; SBM diet plus 500; 750 and 1000 mg⁻¹. The experiment was conducted in two experimental ponds (only SBM diet without AA placed in one pond and the rest in the other pond) with four replicate hapa each. Stocking density was 150 fish.m² and culture period was 5 months until market size was attained. The growth performance of snakehead and economic aspects were examined in this research.

Keywords: fish health, growth rate, snakehead, Vitamin C

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6898 Surface Roughness of Al-Si/10% AlN MMC Material in Milling Operation Using the Taguchi Method

Authors: M. S. Said, J. A. Ghani, Izzati Osman, Z. A. Latiff, S. A .F. Syed Mohd


Metal matrix composites have demand for light-weight structural and functional materials. MMCs have been shown to offer improvements in strength, rigidity, temperature stability, wear resistance, reliability and control of physical properties such as density and coefficient of thermal expansion, thereby providing improved engineering performance in comparison to the un-reinforced matrix. Experiment were conducted at various cutting speed, feed rate and difference cutting tools according to Taguchi method using a standard orthogonal array L9. The volume of AlN reinforced particle was 10% in MMC. The milling process was carried out under dry cutting condition using uncoated carbide, TiN and TiCN tool insert. The parameters used were the cutting speed of (230,300,370 m/min) the federate used were (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mm/tooth) while the depth of cut is constant (0.3 mm). The tool diameter is 20mm. From the project, the surface roughness mechanism was investigated in detail using Mitutoyo portable surface roughness measurements surftest SJ-310. This machining will be fabricated on MMC with 150mm length, 100mm width and 30mm thick. The results showed using S/N ratio, concluded that a combination of low cutting speed, medium feed rate and uncoated insert give a remarkable surface finish. From the ANOVA result showed the feed rate was major contributing factor (43.76%) following type of insert (40.89%).

Keywords: MMC, milling operation and surface roughness, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
6897 Assessment of Microbiological Feed Safety from Serbian Market from 2013 to 2017

Authors: Danijela Vuković, Radovan Čobanović, Milorad Plačkić


The expansion of population imposes increase in usage of animal meat, on whose quality directly affects the quality of the feed that the animals are fed with. The selection of raw materials, hygiene during the technological process, various hydrothermal treatments, methods of mixing etc. have an influence on the quality of feed. Monitoring of the feed is very important to obtain information about the quality of feed and the possible prevention of animal diseases which can lead to different human diseases outbreaks. In this study parameters of feed safety were monitored. According to the mentioned, the goal of this study was to evaluate microbiological safety of feed (feedstuffs and complete mixtures). Total number of analyzed samples was 4399. Analyzed feed samples were collected in various retail shops and feed factories during the period of 44 months (from January 2013 untill September 2017). Samples were analyzed on Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens in quantity of 50g according to Serbian regulation. All microorganisms were tested according to ISO methodology: Salmonella spp. ISO 6579:2002 and Clostridium perfringens ISO 7937:2004. Out of 4399 analyzed feed samples 97,5% were satisfactory and 2,5% unsatisfactory concerning Salmonella spp. As far as Clostridium perfringens is concerned 100% of analyzed samples were satisfactory. The obtained results suggest that technological processing of feed in Serbia is at high level when it comes to safety and hygiene of the products, but there are still possibilities for progress and improvement which only can be reached trough the permanent monitoring of feed.

Keywords: microbiology, safety, hygiene, feed

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6896 Evolution of Germany’s Feed-in Tariff Policy

Authors: Gaafar Muhammed, N. T. Ersoy


The role of electricity in the economic development of any country is undeniable. The main goal of utilizing renewable sources in electricity generation, especially in the emerging countries, is to improve electricity access, economic development and energy sustainability. Germany’s recent transition from conventional to renewable energy technologies is overwhelming, this might not be associated with its abundant natural resources but owing to the policies in place. In line with the fast economic and technological developments recorded in recent years, Germany currently produces approximately 1059 GW of its energy from renewable sources. Hence, at the end of 2016, Germany is among the world leaders in terms of installed renewable energy capacity. As one of the most important factors that lead to renewable energy utilization in any nation is an effective policy, this study aims at examining the effect of policies on renewable energy (RE) development in Germany. Also, the study will focus on the evolution of the adopted feed-in tariff policies, as this evolution has affected the renewable energy capacity in Germany over a period of 15 years (2000 to 2015). The main contribution of the study is to establish a link between the feed-in tariff and the increase of RE in Germany’s energy mix. This is done by analyzing the characteristics of various feed-in tariff mechanisms adopted through the years. These characteristics include the feed-in-tariff rate, degression, special conditions, supported technology, etc. Then, the renewable energy development in Germany has been analyzed through the years along with the targets and the progress in reaching these targets. The study reveals that Germany’s renewable energy support policies (especially feed-in tariff) lead to several benefits and contribute towards the targets existing for renewable energy.

Keywords: feed-in tariff, Germany, policy, penewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
6895 Efficacy of Vitamins A, C and E on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Heat Stress

Authors: Desierin Rodrin, Magdalena Alcantara, Cristina Olo


The increase in environmental temperatures brought about by climate change impacts negatively the growth performance of broilers that may be solved by manipulating the diet of the animals. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different vitamin supplements on the growth performance of broiler chickens subjected to ambient (31°C) and heat stress (34°C) temperatures. The treatments were: I- Control (no vitamin supplement), II- Vitamin A (4.5 mg/kg of feed), III- Vitamin C (250 mg/kg of feed), IV- Vitamin E (250 mg/kg of feed), V- Vitamin C and E (250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VI- Vitamin A and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VII- Vitamin A and C (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), and VIII- Vitamin A, C and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed, 250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed). The birds (n=240) were distributed randomly into eight treatments replicated three times, with each replicates having five birds. Ambient temperature was maintained using a 25 watts bulb for every 20 birds, while heat stress condition was sustained at 34°C for about 9 hours daily by using a 50 watts bulb per 5 birds. The interaction of vitamin supplements and temperatures did not significantly (P>0.05) affected body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the growing period. Similarly, supplementation of different vitamins did not improve (P>0.05) the overall production performance of birds throughout the rearing period. Birds raised in heat stress (34°C) condition had significantly lower ((P<0.05) body weight, average daily gain, and feed consumption compared to birds raised in ambient temperature at weeks 3, 4 and 5 of rearing. Supplementation of vitamins A, C, and E in the diet of broilers did not alleviate the effect of heat stress in the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: broiler growth performance, heat stress, vitamin supplementation, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
6894 Performance and Economics of Goats Fed Poultry Litter and Rumen Content

Authors: A. Mohammed, A. M. Umar, S. H. Adamu


The study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and nutrients utilization using 20 entire males of Sahelian goats fed Rumen content (fore-stomach digest) and poultry litter waste (PLW) at various levels of inclusion. The experimental animals were randomly allocated to diet A (Control), B (10% each of FSD and PLW), C (6.67%PLW and 13.33 FSD) and D(13.33% PLW and 6.67% FDS) at the rate of five animals per treatment. After 90 days of feeding trial, It was observed that Diets D had best feed intake and body weight gain which might be due to the good palatability of PLW and less odour of FSD in the diet. Diet C had the least feed cost then followed by diet B and while diet A(control) was more expensive than other treatments. There was the significant difference (P<0.05) between the treatments in the cost of daily feed consumption. Treatment A had the highest value while treatment C recorded the lowest cost of daily feed consumption. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between all treatments in terms of Cost of feed kg/ live weight gain, where treatment B had the highest value while the lowest obtained in treatment D. However, it is recommended that more research trial should be carried out to ascertain the true value of incorporating poultry litter waste and fore-stomach digest.

Keywords: poultry litter, rumen content, weight gain, economics

Procedia PDF Downloads 515
6893 To Study the Effect of Optic Fibre Laser Cladding of Cast Iron with Silicon Carbide on Wear Rate

Authors: Kshitij Sawke, Pradnyavant Kamble, Shrikant Patil


The study investigates the effect on wear rate of laser clad of cast iron with silicon carbide. Metal components fail their desired use because they wear, which causes them to lose their functionality. The laser has been used as a heating source to create a melt pool over the surface of cast iron, and then a layer of hard silicon carbide is deposited. Various combinations of power and feed rate of laser have experimented. A suitable range of laser processing parameters was identified. Wear resistance and wear rate properties were evaluated and the result showed that the wear resistance of the laser treated samples was exceptional to that of the untreated samples.

Keywords: laser clad, processing parameters, wear rate, wear resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
6892 Analysis of Delamination in Drilling of Composite Materials

Authors: Navid Zarif Karimi, Hossein Heidary, Giangiacomo Minak, Mehdi Ahmadi


In this paper analytical model based on the mechanics of oblique cutting, linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and bending plate theory has been presented to determine the critical feed rate causing delamination in drilling of composite materials. Most of the models in this area used LEFM and bending plate theory; hence, they can only determine the critical thrust force which is an incorporable parameter. In this model by adding cutting oblique mechanics to previous models, critical feed rate has been determined. Also instead of simplification in loading condition, actual thrust force induced by chisel edge and cutting lips on composite plate is modeled.

Keywords: composite material, delamination, drilling, thrust force

Procedia PDF Downloads 410