Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: scrubber

21 Drum Scrubber Performance Assessment and Improvement to Achieve the Desired Product Quality

Authors: Prateek Singh, Arun Kumar Pandey, C. Raghu Kumar, M. R. Rath, A. S. Reddy


Drum scrubber is widely used equipment in the washing of Iron ore. The purpose of the scrubber is to release the adhered fine clayey particles from the iron-bearing particles. Presently, the iron ore wash plants in the Eastern region of India consist of the scrubber, double deck screen followed by screw classifier as the main unit operations. Hence, scrubber performance efficiency has a huge impact on the downstream product quality. This paper illustrates the effect of scrubber feed % solids on scrubber performance and alumina distribution on downstream equipment. Further, it was established that scrubber performance efficiency could be defined as the ratio of the adhered particles (-0.15mm) released from scrubber feed during scrubbing operation with respect to the maximum possible release of -0.15mm (%) particles.

Keywords: scrubber, adhered particles, feed % solids, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
20 Numerical Evaluation of the Flow Behavior inside the Scrubber Unit with Engine Exhaust Pipe

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


A wet scrubber is an air pollution control device that removes particulate matter and acid gases from waste gas streams found in marine engine exhaust. If the flue gases in the exhaust is employed for CFD simulation, it makes the problem complicate due to the involvement of emissions. Owing to the fact, the scrubber system in this paper is handled with appropriate approach by designing with the flow properties of hot air and water droplet injections to evaluate the flow behavior inside the system. Since the wet scrubber has the capability of operating over wide range of mixture compositions, the current scrubber model with the designing approach doesn’t deviate from the actual behavior of the system. The scrubber design is constructed with engine exhaust pipe with the purpose of measuring the flow properties inside the scrubber by the influence of exhaust pipe characteristics. The flow properties are computed by the thermodynamic variables such as temperature and pressure with the flow velocity. In this work, numerical analyses have been conducted for the flow of fluid in the scrubber system through CFD technique.

Keywords: wet scrubber, water droplet injections, thermodynamic variables, CFD technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
19 Removal of Gaseous Pollutant from the Flue Gas in a Submerged Self-Priming Venturi Scrubber

Authors: Manisha Bal, B. C. Meikap


Hydrogen chloride is the most common acid gas emitted by the industries. HCl gas is listed as Title III hazardous air pollutant. It causes severe threat to the human health as well as environment. So, removal of HCl from flue gases is very imperative. In the present study, submerged self-priming venturi scrubber is chosen to remove the HCl gas with water as a scrubbing liquid. Venturi scrubber is the most popular device for the removal of gaseous pollutants. Main mechanism behind the venturi scrubber is the polluted gas stream enters at converging section which accelerated to maximum velocity at throat section. A very interesting thing in case of submerged condition, venturi scrubber is submerged inside the liquid tank and liquid is entered at throat section because of suction created due to large pressure drop generated at the throat section. Maximized throat gas velocity atomizes the entered liquid into number of tiny droplets. Gaseous pollutant HCl is absorbed from gas to liquid droplets inside the venturi scrubber due to interaction between the gas and water. Experiments were conducted at different throat gas velocity, water level and inlet concentration of HCl to enhance the HCl removal efficiency. The effect of throat gas velocity, inlet concentration of HCl, and water level on removal efficiency of venturi scrubber has been evaluated. Present system yielded very high removal efficiency for the scrubbing of HCl gas which is more than 90%. It is also concluded that the removal efficiency of HCl increases with increasing throat gas velocity, inlet HCl concentration, and water level height.

Keywords: air pollution, HCl scrubbing, mass transfer, self-priming venturi scrubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
18 Numerical Investigation of the Flow Characteristics inside the Scrubber Unit

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


Wet scrubbers have found widespread use in cleaning contaminated gas streams because of their ability to remove particulates and based on the applications of scrubbing of marine engine exhaust gases by spraying sea-water. In order to examine the flow characteristics inside the scrubber, the model is designated with flow properties of hot air and water sprayer. The flow dynamics of evaporation of hot air by the injection of water droplets is the key factor considered in this paper. The flow behavior inside the scrubber was investigated from the previous works and to sum up the evaporation rate with respect to the concentration of water droplets are predicted to bring out the competent modelling. The numerical analysis using CFD facilitates in understanding the problem better and empathies the behavior of the model over its entire operating envelope.

Keywords: concentration of water droplets, evaporation rate, scrubber, water sprayer

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
17 Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Using a New O-Element Design Which Replaces the Venturi Scrubber

Authors: P. Lestinsky, D. Jecha, V. Brummer, P. Stehlik


Scrubbing by a liquid spraying is one of the most effective processes used for removal of fine particles and soluble gas pollutants (such as SO2, HCl, HF) from the flue gas. There are many configurations of scrubbers designed to provide contact between the liquid and gas stream for effectively capturing particles or soluble gas pollutants, such as spray plates, packed bed towers, jet scrubbers, cyclones, vortex and venturi scrubbers. The primary function of venturi scrubber is the capture of fine particles as well as HCl, HF or SO2 removal with effect of the flue gas temperature decrease before input to the absorption column. In this paper, sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas was captured using new design replacing venturi scrubber (1st degree of wet scrubbing). The flue gas was prepared by the combustion of the carbon disulfide solution in toluene (1:1 vol.) in the flame in the reactor. Such prepared flue gas with temperature around 150 °C was processed in designed laboratory O-element scrubber. Water was used as absorbent liquid. The efficiency of SO2 removal, pressure drop and temperature drop were measured on our experimental device. The dependence of these variables on liquid-gas ratio was observed. The average temperature drop was in the range from 150 °C to 40 °C. The pressure drop was increased with increasing of a liquid-gas ratio, but not as much as for the common venturi scrubber designs. The efficiency of SO2 removal was up to 70 %. The pressure drop of our new designed wet scrubber is similar to commonly used venturi scrubbers; nevertheless the influence of amount of the liquid on pressure drop is not so significant.

Keywords: desulphurization, absorption, flue gas, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
16 Carbon Dioxide Removal from Off Gases in a Self-Priming Submerged Venturi Scrubber

Authors: Manisha Bal, Amit Verma, B. C. Meikap


Carbon dioxide (CO₂) is the most abundant waste produced by human activities. It is estimated to be one of the major contributors of greenhouse effect and also considered as a major air pollutant formed by burning of fossil fuels. The main sources of emissions are flue gas from thermal power plants and process industries. It is also a contributor of acid rain. Its exposure through inhalation can lead to health risks. Therefore, control of CO₂ emission in the environment is very necessary. The main focus of this study is on the removal of carbon dioxide from off gases using a self-priming venturi scrubber in submerged conditions using sodium hydroxide as the scrubbing liquid. A self-priming submerged venturi scrubber is an efficient device to remove gaseous pollutants. In submerged condition, venturi scrubber remains submerged in the liquid tank and the liquid enters at the throat section of venturi scrubber due to the pressure difference which includes the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid and static pressure of the gas. The inlet polluted air stream enters through converging section which moves at very high velocity in the throat section and atomizes the liquid droplets. This leads to absorption of CO₂ from the off gases in scrubbing liquid which resulted in removal of CO₂ gas from the off gases. Detailed investigation on the scrubbing of carbon dioxide has been done in this literature. Experiments were conducted at different throat gas velocities, liquid levels in outer cylinder and CO₂ inlet concentrations to study the carbon dioxide removal efficiency. Experimental results give more than 95% removal efficiency of CO₂ in the self priming venturi scrubber which can meet the environmental emission limit of CO₂ to save the human life.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, scrubbing, pollution control, self-priming venturi scrubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
15 Fertilizer Value of Nitrogen Captured from Poultry Facilities Using Ammonia Scrubbers

Authors: Philip A. Moore Jr., Jerry Martin, Hong Li


Research has shown that over half of the nitrogen (N) excreted from broiler chickens is emitted to the atmosphere before the manure is removed from the barns, resulting in air and water pollution, as well as the loss of a valuable fertilizer resource. The objective of this study was to determine the fertilizer efficiency of N captured from the exhaust air from poultry houses using acid scrubbers. This research was conducted using 24 plots located on a Captina silt loam soil. There were six treatments: (1) unfertilized control, (2) aluminum sulfate (alum) scrubber solution, (3) potassium bisulfate scrubber solution, (4) sodium bisulfate scrubber solution, (5) sulfuric acid scrubber solution and (6) ammonium nitrate fertilizer dissolved in water. There were four replications per treatment in a randomized block design. The scrubber solutions were obtained from acid scrubbers attached to exhaust fans on commercial broiler houses. All N sources were applied at an application rate equivalent to 112 kg N ha⁻¹. Forage yields were measured five times throughout the growing season. Five months after the fertilizer sources were applied, a rainfall simulation study was conducted to determine the potential effects on phosphorus (P) runoff. Forage yields were significantly higher in plots fertilized with scrubber solutions from potassium bisulfate and sodium bisulfate than plots fertilized with scrubber solutions made from alum or sulfuric acid or ammonium nitrate, which were higher than the controls (7.61, 7.46, 6.87, 6.72, 6.45, and 5.12 Mg ha ⁻¹, respectively). Forage N uptake followed similar trends as yields. Phosphorus runoff and water soluble P was significantly lower in plots fertilized with the scrubber solutions made from aluminum sulfate. This study demonstrates that N captured using ammonia scrubbers is as good or possibly better than commercial ammonium nitrate fertilizer.

Keywords: air quality, ammonia emissions, nitrogen fertilizer, poultry

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
14 Numerical Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics with Various Working Conditions inside a Reactor of Wet Scrubber

Authors: Jonghyuk Yoon, Hyoungwoon Song, Youngbae Kim, Eunju Kim


Recently, with the rapid growth of semiconductor industry, lots of interests have been focused on after treatment system that remove the polluted gas produced from semiconductor manufacturing process, and a wet scrubber is the one of the widely used system. When it comes to mechanism of removing the gas, the polluted gas is removed firstly by chemical reaction in a reactor part. After that, the polluted gas stream is brought into contact with the scrubbing liquid, by spraying it with the liquid. Effective design of the reactor part inside the wet scrubber is highly important since removal performance of the polluted gas in the reactor plays an important role in overall performance and stability. In the present study, a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis was performed to figure out the thermal and flow characteristics inside unit a reactor of wet scrubber. In order to verify the numerical result, temperature distribution of the numerical result at various monitoring points was compared to the experimental result. The average error rates (12~15%) between them was shown and the numerical result of temperature distribution was in good agreement with the experimental data. By using validated numerical method, the effect of the reactor geometry on heat transfer rate was also taken into consideration. Uniformity of temperature distribution was improved about 15%. Overall, the result of present study could be useful information to identify the fluid behavior and thermal performance for various scrubber systems. This project is supported by the ‘R&D Center for the reduction of Non-CO₂ Greenhouse gases (RE201706054)’ funded by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as the Global Top Environment R&D Program.

Keywords: semiconductor, polluted gas, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), wet scrubber, reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
13 Ecotoxicological Assessment of Maritime Exhaust Gas Scrubber Water and Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Unicellular Algae (Tetraselmis Suecica)

Authors: Lina M. Zapata-Restrepo, Georgia Freeman, Bronwyn Lee, Malcolm D. Hudson, Patrick Osborne, Ian D. Williams


There is an increase in installations of exhaust gas scrubbers to reduce the sulphur emissions from ships following international regulations on S content in marine fuel from 2020. The majority of scrubbers installed on marine vessels are wet scrubbers using either a ‘closed-’ or ‘open- loop’ system. The type of scrubber used presents different advantages and disadvantages but washwater (also known as scrubber water) from both wet scrubber systems has been found to release acidic water containing nutrients and contaminants back to the marine environment, including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot particles. In ecotoxicological tests, a number of marine organisms have shown negative effects after acute and chronic exposures to varying concentrations of scrubber water but the main pollutants involved in these responses are not clear yet. The aim of this study, part of the Horizon2020-funded EMERGE project, was to establish the toxicity and mortality of different dilutions of scrubber water and selected PAHs reported in these discharges (as single compounds and combined) on the survival and growth of Tetraselmis suecica. A range of scrubber water dilutions were used varying between 0.001% and 40% of the original outlet scrubber discharge water. PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene and fluoranthene) were tested individually or in combination at concentrations equivalent to those identified in scrubber water. After a 96-h exposure, cell concentration and mortality showed a concentration-dependent effect, and the 96-h LC50 was calculated as 60.17% at the end of the experiment. Exposure of T. suecica to all concentrations of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and anthracene resulted in a significant reduction in the cell concentration. Phenanthrene was the only PAH that showed a significant mortality (p<0.05) at the highest concentration. However, the relative toxic effects of the PAHs were greater in combination than when tested individually. Results demonstrate that algal growth was impacted by exposure to PAHs, where exposure to all concentrations of each PAH resulted in a reduction in cell concentration. Our results also suggest that when in combination, the individual toxicity of PAHs is less important, and the combined effects/interactions dominate the toxicity of the mixture. Scrubber water is known to comprise of a multitude of pollutants, including various PAHs, trace metals, nitrates, etc. and interactive effects/mechanisms of pollutants should be considered.

Keywords: maritime exhaust gas scrubber water, open-loop, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, toxicity, unicellular algae

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12 Differential Sensitivity to Maritime Exhaust Gas Scrubber Water Exposure Between Species at Different Trophic Levels

Authors: Lina M. Zapata-Restrepo, Malcolm D. Hudson, Patrick Osborne, Ian D. Williams


There is an increase in installations of exhaust gas scrubbers to reduce the sulphur emissions from ships following international regulations on sulphur content in marine fuel from 2020. The majority of scrubbers installed on marine vessels are wet scrubbers using either a ‘closed-’ or ‘open- loop’ system. The washwater (also known as scrubber water) from both wet scrubber systems can contain a variety of compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), trace metals, nitrate, and soot particles, thus displacing potential atmospheric pollutants to the marine environment- with, as yet, unknown consequences. A multispecies approach toward ecotoxicological testing is fundamental for the purposes of risk assessment and getting accurate environmental management and ecological risk assessment procedures. Marine microalgae and invertebrate larvae are important components of the aquatic environment due to their role as primary producers in the aquatic food web. The aim of this study, part of the Horizon2020-funded EMERGE project, was to investigate the effects of open-loop scrubber discharge water on cell proliferation and mortality of marine microalgae, Tetraselmis suecica, and survival and development of Mytilus edulis larvae. A range of scrubber water dilutions (between 0.001% to 40% of the original outlet scrubber discharge water) were used for treatments. After a 96-h exposure, T. suecica cell concentration and mortality showed a concentration-dependent effect, and the 96-h LC50 was 60.17% at the end of the experiment. After 48-h exposure, M. edulis larvae were inspected, and the percentage of larvae which exhibited normal morphology (normality, D-veliger shape) or any deformity (shell abnormalities, hypertrophy of the mantle, and/or hinge abnormalities) were recorded. A high sensitivity of embryo-larval stage of the blue mussel larvae was found. All the dilutions inhibited the embryonic development of M. edulis in a concentration-dependant manner. The EC50 after 48 h exposure to scrubber water was 0.94%. These results provide information about the potential effect of a direct exposure -not dietary- to scrubber water discharges in the marine environment and the differential sensitivity between trophic levels of the marine food web chain.

Keywords: blue mussel larvae, maritime exhaust gas scrubber water, microalgae, open-loop, toxicity

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11 Optimization of Effecting Parameters for the Removal of H₂S Gas in Self Priming Venturi Scrubber Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Manisha Bal, B. C. Meikap


Highly toxic and corrosive gas H₂S is recognized as one of the hazardous air pollutants which has significant effect on the human health. Abatement of H₂S gas from the air is very necessary. H₂S gas is mainly released from the industries like paper and leather industry as well as during the production of crude oil, during wastewater treatment, etc. But the emission of H₂S gas in high concentration may cause immediate death while at lower concentrations can cause various respiratory problems. In the present study, self priming venturi scrubber is used to remove the H₂S gas from the air. Response surface methodology with central composite design has been chosen to observe the effect of process parameters on the removal efficiency of H₂S. Experiments were conducted by varying the throat gas velocity, liquid level in outer cylinder, and inlet H₂S concentration. ANOVA test confirmed the significant effect of parameters on the removal efficiency. A quadratic equation has been obtained which predicts the removal efficiency very well. The suitability of the developed model has been judged by the higher R² square value which obtained from the regression analysis. From the investigation, it was found that the throat gas velocity has most significant effect and inlet concentration of H₂S has less effect on H₂S removal efficiency.

Keywords: desulfurization, pollution control, response surface methodology, venturi scrubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
10 Dust Particle Removal from Air in a Self-Priming Submerged Venturi Scrubber

Authors: Manisha Bal, Remya Chinnamma Jose, B.C. Meikap


Dust particles suspended in air are a major source of air pollution. A self-priming submerged venturi scrubber proven very effective in cases of handling nuclear power plant accidents is an efficient device to remove dust particles from the air and thus aids in pollution control. Venturi scrubbers are compact, have a simple mode of operation, no moving parts, easy to install and maintain when compared to other pollution control devices and can handle high temperatures and corrosive and flammable gases and dust particles. In the present paper, fly ash particles recognized as a high air pollutant substance emitted mostly from thermal power plants is considered as the dust particle. Its exposure through skin contact, inhalation and indigestion can lead to health risks and in severe cases can even root to lung cancer. The main focus of this study is on the removal of fly ash particles from polluted air using a self-priming venturi scrubber in submerged conditions using water as the scrubbing liquid. The venturi scrubber comprising of three sections: converging section, throat and diverging section is submerged inside a water tank. The liquid enters the throat due to the pressure difference composed of the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid and static pressure of the gas. The high velocity dust particles atomize the liquid droplets at the throat and this interaction leads to its absorption into water and thus removal of fly ash from the air. Detailed investigation on the scrubbing of fly ash has been done in this literature. Experiments were conducted at different throat gas velocities, water levels and fly ash inlet concentrations to study the fly ash removal efficiency. From the experimental results, the highest fly ash removal efficiency of 99.78% is achieved at the throat gas velocity of 58 m/s, water level of height 0.77m with fly ash inlet concentration of 0.3 x10⁻³ kg/Nm³ in the submerged condition. The effect of throat gas velocity, water level and fly ash inlet concentration on the removal efficiency has also been evaluated. Furthermore, experimental results of removal efficiency are validated with the developed empirical model.

Keywords: dust particles, fly ash, pollution control, self-priming venturi scrubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
9 Simulation of Wet Scrubbers for Flue Gas Desulfurization

Authors: Anders Schou Simonsen, Kim Sorensen, Thomas Condra


Wet scrubbers are used for flue gas desulfurization by injecting water directly into the flue gas stream from a set of sprayers. The water droplets will flow freely inside the scrubber, and flow down along the scrubber walls as a thin wall film while reacting with the gas phase to remove SO₂. This complex multiphase phenomenon can be divided into three main contributions: the continuous gas phase, the liquid droplet phase, and the liquid wall film phase. This study proposes a complete model, where all three main contributions are taken into account and resolved using OpenFOAM for the continuous gas phase, and MATLAB for the liquid droplet and wall film phases. The 3D continuous gas phase is composed of five species: CO₂, H₂O, O₂, SO₂, and N₂, which are resolved along with momentum, energy, and turbulence. Source terms are present for four species, energy and momentum, which are affecting the steady-state solution. The liquid droplet phase experiences breakup, collisions, dynamics, internal chemistry, evaporation and condensation, species mass transfer, energy transfer and wall film interactions. Numerous sub-models have been implemented and coupled to realise the above-mentioned phenomena. The liquid wall film experiences impingement, acceleration, atomization, separation, internal chemistry, evaporation and condensation, species mass transfer, and energy transfer, which have all been resolved using numerous sub-models as well. The continuous gas phase has been coupled with the liquid phases using source terms by an approach, where the two software packages are couples using a link-structure. The complete CFD model has been verified using 16 experimental tests from an existing scrubber installation, where a gradient-based pattern search optimization algorithm has been used to tune numerous model parameters to match the experimental results. The CFD model needed to be fast for evaluation in order to apply this optimization routine, where approximately 1000 simulations were needed. The results show that the complex multiphase phenomena governing wet scrubbers can be resolved in a single model. The optimization routine was able to tune the model to accurately predict the performance of an existing installation. Furthermore, the study shows that a coupling between OpenFOAM and MATLAB is realizable, where the data and source term exchange increases the computational requirements by approximately 5%. This allows for exploiting the benefits of both software programs.

Keywords: desulfurization, discrete phase, scrubber, wall film

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
8 Removal of Tar Contents in Syngas by Using Different Fuel from Downdraft Biomass Gasification System

Authors: Muhammad Awais, Wei Li, Anjum Munir


Biomass gasification is a process of converting solid biomass ingredients into a combustible gas which can be used in electricity generation. Regardless of their applications in many fields, biomass gasification technology is still facing many cleaning issues of syngas. Tar production in biomass gasification process is one of the biggest challenges for this technology. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the tar contents in syngas produced from wood chips, corn cobs, coconut shells and mixture of corn cobs and wood chips as biomass fuel and tar removal efficiency of different cleaning units integrated with gassifier. Performance of different cleaning units, i.e., cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was tested under two biomass fuels. Results of this study indicate that wood chips produced less tar of 1736 mg/Nm³ as compared to corn cobs which produced tor 2489 mg/Nm³. It is also observed that coconut shells produced a high amount of tar. It was observed that when wood chips were used as a fuel, syngas tar contents were reduced from 6600 to 112 mg/Nm³ while in case of corn cob, they were reduced from 7500 mg/Nm³ to 220 mg/Nm³. Overall tar removal efficiencies of cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was 72%, 63%, 74%, 35% respectively.

Keywords: biomass, gasification, tar, cleaning system, biomass filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
7 Recovery of Selenium from Scrubber Sludge in Copper Process

Authors: Lakshmikanth Reddy, Bhavin Desai, Chandrakala Kari, Sanjay Sarkar, Pradeep Binu


The sulphur dioxide gases generated as a by-product of smelting and converting operations of copper concentrate contain selenium apart from zinc, lead, copper, cadmium, bismuth, antimony, and arsenic. The gaseous stream is treated in waste heat boiler, electrostatic precipitator and scrubbers to remove coarse particulate matter in order to produce commercial grade sulfuric acid. The gas cleaning section of the acid plant uses water to scrub the smelting gases. After scrubbing, the sludge settled at the bottom of the scrubber, was analyzed in present investigation. It was found to contain 30 to 40 wt% copper and selenium up to 40 wt% selenium. The sludge collected during blow-down is directly recycled to the smelter for copper recovery. However, the selenium is expected to again vaporize due to high oxidation potential during smelting and converting, causing accumulation of selenium in sludge. In present investigation, a roasting process has been developed to recover the selenium before the copper recovery from the sludge at smelter. Selenium is associated with copper in sludge as copper selenide, as determined by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The thermodynamic and thermos-gravimetry study revealed that the copper selenide phase present in the sludge was amenable to oxidation at 600°C forming oxides of copper and selenium (Cu-Se-O). However, the dissociation of selenium from the copper oxide was made possible by sulfatation using sulfur dioxide between 450 to 600°C, resulting into the formation of CuSO₄ (s) and SeO₂ (g). Lab scale trials were carried out in vertical tubular furnace to determine the optimum roasting conditions with respect to roasting time, temperature and molar ratio of O₂:SO₂. Using these optimum conditions, selenium up to 90 wt% in the form of SeO₂ vapors could be recovered from the sludge in a large-scale commercial roaster. Roasted sludge free from the selenium and containing oxides and sulfates of copper could now be recycled in the smelter for copper recovery.

Keywords: copper, selenium, copper selenide, sludge, roasting, SeO₂

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
6 Design Development and Qualification of a Magnetically Levitated Blower for C0₂ Scrubbing in Manned Space Missions

Authors: Larry Hawkins, Scott K. Sakakura, Michael J. Salopek


The Marshall Space Flight Center is designing and building a next-generation CO₂ removal system, the Four Bed Carbon Dioxide Scrubber (4BCO₂), which will use the International Space Station (ISS) as a testbed. The current ISS CO2 removal system has faced many challenges in both performance and reliability. Given that CO2 removal is an integral Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) subsystem, the 4BCO2 Scrubber has been designed to eliminate the shortfalls identified in the current ISS system. One of the key required upgrades was to improve the performance and reliability of the blower that provides the airflow through the CO₂ sorbent beds. A magnetically levitated blower, capable of higher airflow and pressure than the previous system, was developed to meet this need. The design and qualification testing of this next-generation blower are described here. The new blower features a high-efficiency permanent magnet motor, a five-axis, active magnetic bearing system, and a compact controller containing both a variable speed drive and a magnetic bearing controller. The blower uses a centrifugal impeller to pull air from the inlet port and drive it through an annular space around the motor and magnetic bearing components to the exhaust port. Technical challenges of the blower and controller development include survival of the blower system under launch random vibration loads, operation in microgravity, packaging under strict size and weight requirements, and successful operation during 4BCO₂ operational changeovers. An ANSYS structural dynamic model of the controller was used to predict response to the NASA defined random vibration spectrum and drive minor design changes. The simulation results are compared to measurements from qualification testing the controller on a vibration table. Predicted blower performance is compared to flow loop testing measurements. Dynamic response of the system to valve changeovers is presented and discussed using high bandwidth measurements from dynamic pressure probes, magnetic bearing position sensors, and actuator coil currents. The results presented in the paper show that the blower controller will survive launch vibration levels, the blower flow meets the requirements, and the magnetic bearings have adequate load capacity and control bandwidth to maintain the desired rotor position during the valve changeover transients.

Keywords: blower, carbon dioxide removal, environmental control and life support system, magnetic bearing, permanent magnet motor, validation testing, vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
5 Finite Elemental Simulation of the Combined Process of Asymmetric Rolling and Plastic Bending

Authors: A. Pesin, D. Pustovoytov, M. Sverdlik


Traditionally, the need in items represents a large body of rotation (e.g. shrouds of various process units: a converter, a mixer, a scrubber, a steel ladle and etc.) is satisfied by using them at engineering enterprises. At these enterprises large parts of bodies of rotation are made on stamping units or bending and forming machines. In Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University in alliance with JSC "Magnitogorsk Metal and Steel Works" there was suggested and implemented the technology for producing such items based on a combination of asymmetric rolling processes and plastic bending under conditions of the plate mill. In this paper, based on finite elemental mathematical simulation in technology of a combined process of asymmetric rolling and bending plastic has been improved. It is shown that for the same curvature along the entire length of the metal sheet it is necessary to introduce additional asymmetry speed when rolling front end and tape trailer. Production of large bodies of rotation at mill 4500 JSC "Magnitogorsk Metal and Steel Works" showed good convergence of theoretical and experimental values of the curvature of the metal. Economic effect obtained more than 1.0 million dollars.

Keywords: asymmetric rolling, plastic bending, combined process, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
4 Condition Monitoring for Twin-Fluid Nozzles with Internal Mixing

Authors: C. Lanzerstorfer


Liquid sprays of water are frequently used in air pollution control for gas cooling purposes and for gas cleaning. Twin-fluid nozzles with internal mixing are often used for these purposes because of the small size of the drops produced. In these nozzles the liquid is dispersed by compressed air or another pressurized gas. In high efficiency scrubbers for particle separation, several nozzles are operated in parallel because of the size of the cross section. In such scrubbers, the scrubbing water has to be re-circulated. Precipitation of some solid material can occur in the liquid circuit, caused by chemical reactions. When such precipitations are detached from the place of formation, they can partly or totally block the liquid flow to a nozzle. Due to the resulting unbalanced supply of the nozzles with water and gas, the efficiency of separation decreases. Thus, the nozzles have to be cleaned if a certain fraction of blockages is reached. The aim of this study was to provide a tool for continuously monitoring the status of the nozzles of a scrubber based on the available operation data (water flow, air flow, water pressure and air pressure). The difference between the air pressure and the water pressure is not well suited for this purpose, because the difference is quite small and therefore very exact calibration of the pressure measurement would be required. Therefore, an equation for the reference air flow of a nozzle at the actual water flow and operation pressure was derived. This flow can be compared with the actual air flow for assessment of the status of the nozzles.

Keywords: condition monitoring, dual flow nozzles, flow equation, operation data

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
3 UV-Vis Spectroscopy as a Tool for Online Tar Measurements in Wood Gasification Processes

Authors: Philip Edinger, Christian Ludwig


The formation and control of tars remain one of the major challenges in the implementation of biomass gasification technologies. Robust, on-line analytical methods are needed to investigate the fate of tar compounds when different measures for their reduction are applied. This work establishes an on-line UV-Vis method, based on a liquid quench sampling system, to monitor tar compounds in biomass gasification processes. Recorded spectra from the liquid phase were analyzed for their tar composition by means of a classical least squares (CLS) and partial least squares (PLS) approach. This allowed for the detection of UV-Vis active tar compounds with detection limits in the low part per million by volume (ppmV) region. The developed method was then applied to two case studies. The first involved a lab-scale reactor, intended to investigate the decomposition of a limited number of tar compounds across a catalyst. The second study involved a gas scrubber as part of a pilot scale wood gasification plant. Tar compound quantification results showed good agreement with off-line based reference methods (GC-FID) when the complexity of tar composition was limited. The two case studies show that the developed method can provide rapid, qualitative information on the tar composition for the purpose of process monitoring. In cases with a limited number of tar species, quantitative information about the individual tar compound concentrations provides an additional benefit of the analytical method.

Keywords: biomass gasification, on-line, tar, UV-Vis

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
2 Novel Bioinspired Design to Capture Smoky CO2 by Reactive Absorption with Aqueous Scrubber

Authors: J. E. O. Hernandez


In the next 20 years, energy production by burning fuels will increase and so will the atmospheric concentration of CO2 and its well-known threats to life on Earth. The technologies available for capturing CO2 are still dubious and this keeps fostering an interest in bio-inspired approaches. The leading one is the application of carbonic anhydrase (CA) –a superfast biocatalyst able to convert up to one million molecules of CO2 into carbonates in water. However, natural CA underperforms when applied to real smoky CO2 in chimneys and, so far, the efforts to create superior CAs in the lab rely on screening methods running under pristine conditions at the micro level, which are far from resembling those in chimneys. For the evolution of man-made enzymes, selection rather than screening would be ideal but this is challenging because of the need for a suitable artificial environment that is also sustainable for our society. Herein we present the stepwise design and construction of a bioprocess (from bench-scale to semi-pilot) for evolutionary selection experiments. In this bioprocess, reaction and adsorption took place simultaneously at atmospheric pressure in a spray tower. The scrubbing solution was fed countercurrently by reusing municipal pressure and it was mainly prepared with water, carbonic anhydrase and calcium chloride. This bioprocess allowed for the enzymatic carbonation of smoky CO2; the reuse of process water and the recovery of solid carbonates without cooling of smoke, pretreatments, solvent amines and compression of CO2. The average yield of solid carbonates was 0.54 g min-1 or 12-fold the amount produced in serum bottles at lab bench scale. This bioprocess could be used as a tailor-made environment for driving the selection of superior CAs. The bioprocess and its match CA could be sustainably used to reduce global warming by CO2 emissions from exhausts.

Keywords: biological carbon capture and sequestration, carbonic anhydrase, directed evolution, global warming

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1 Experimental Investigation of Absorbent Regeneration Techniques to Lower the Cost of Combined CO₂ and SO₂ Capture Process

Authors: Bharti Garg, Ashleigh Cousins, Pauline Pearson, Vincent Verheyen, Paul Feron


The presence of SO₂ in power plant flue gases makes flue gas desulfurization (FGD) an essential requirement prior to post combustion CO₂ (PCC) removal facilities. Although most of the power plants worldwide deploy FGD in order to comply with environmental regulations, generally the achieved SO₂ levels are not sufficiently low for the flue gases to enter the PCC unit. The SO₂ level in the flue gases needs to be less than 10 ppm to effectively operate the PCC installation. The existing FGD units alone cannot bring down the SO₂ levels to or below 10 ppm as required for CO₂ capture. It might require an additional scrubber along with the existing FGD unit to bring the SO₂ to the desired levels. The absence of FGD units in Australian power plants brings an additional challenge. SO₂ concentrations in Australian power station flue gas emissions are in the range of 100-600 ppm. This imposes a serious barrier on the implementation of standard PCC technologies in Australia. CSIRO’s developed CS-Cap process is a unique solution to capture SO₂ and CO₂ in a single column with single absorbent which can potentially bring cost-effectiveness to the commercial deployment of carbon capture in Australia, by removing the need for FGD. Estimated savings of removing SO₂ through a similar process as CS-Cap is around 200 MMUSD for a 500 MW Australian power plant. Pilot plant trials conducted to generate the proof of concept resulted in 100% removal of SO₂ from flue gas without utilising standard limestone-based FGD. In this work, removal of absorbed sulfur from aqueous amine absorbents generated in the pilot plant trials has been investigated by reactive crystallisation and thermal reclamation. More than 95% of the aqueous amines can be reclaimed back from the sulfur loaded absorbent via reactive crystallisation. However, the recovery of amines through thermal reclamation is limited and depends on the sulfur loading on the spent absorbent. The initial experimental work revealed that reactive crystallisation is a better fit for CS-Cap’s sulfur-rich absorbent especially when it is also capable of generating K₂SO₄ crystals of highly saleable quality ~ 99%. Initial cost estimation carried on both the technologies resulted in almost similar capital expenditure; however, the operating cost is considerably higher in thermal reclaimer than that in crystalliser. The experimental data generated in the laboratory from both the regeneration techniques have been used to generate the simulation model in Aspen Plus. The simulation model illustrates the economic benefits which could be gained by removing flue gas desulfurization prior to standard PCC unit and replacing it with a CS-Cap absorber column co-capturing CO₂ and SO₂, and it's absorbent regeneration system which would be either reactive crystallisation or thermal reclamation.

Keywords: combined capture, cost analysis, crystallisation, CS-Cap, flue gas desulfurisation, regeneration, sulfur, thermal reclamation

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