Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 132

Search results for: cinnamon bark

132 Production of Premium Quality Cinnamon Bark Powder Using Cryogenic Grinding

Authors: Monika R. Bhoi, R. F. Sutar, Bhaumik B. Patel

Abstract:

The objective of this research paper is to obtain the premium quality of cinnamon bark powder through cryogenic grinding technology. The effect of grinding temperature (0, -20, -40, -60, -80 and -100˚C), feed rate (8, 9 and 10 kg/h), and sieve size (0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mm) were evaluated with respect to grinding time, volatile oil content, particle size, energy consumption, and liquid nitrogen consumption. Cryogenic grinding process parameters were optimized to obtain premium quality cinnamon bark powder was carried out using three factorial completely randomized design. The optimization revealed that grinding of cinnamon bark at -80⁰C temperature using 0.8 mm sieve size and 10 kg/h feed rate resulted in premium quality cinnamon bark powder containing volatile oil 3.01%. In addition, volatile oil retention in cryogenically ground powder was 88.23%, whereas control (ambient grinding) had 33.11%. Storage study of premium quality cryogenically ground powder was carried out under accelerated storage conditions (38˚C & 90% R.H). Accelerated storage of cryoground powder was found to be advantageous over the conventional ground for extended storage of the ground cinnamon powder with retention of its nutritional quality. Hence, grinding of spices at optimally low cryogenic temperature is a promising technology for the production of its premium quality powder economically.

Keywords: cinnamon bark, cryogenic grinding, feed rate, volatile oil

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131 Inhibition of the Activity of Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme Present in Annona muricata and Musa acuminata by the Experimentally Identified Natural Anti-Browning Agents

Authors: Michelle Belinda S. Weerawardana, Gobika Thiripuranathar, Priyani A. Paranagama

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Most of fresh vegetables and fruits available in the retail markets undergo a physiological disorder in its appearance and coloration, which indeed discourages consumer purchase. A loss of millions of dollars yearly to the food industry had been due to this pronounced color reaction called Enzymatic Browning which is driven due to the catalytic activity by an oxidoreductase enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The enzyme oxidizes the phenolic compounds which are abundantly available in fruits and vegetables as substrates into quinones, which could react with proteins in its surrounding to generate black pigments, called melanins, which are highly UV-active compounds. Annona muricata (Katu anoda) and Musa acuminata (Ash plantains) is a fruit and a vegetable consumed by Sri Lankans widely due to their high nutritional values, medicinal properties and economical importance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and determine the effective natural anti-browning inhibitors that could prevent PPO activity in the selected fruit and vegetable. Enzyme extracts from Annona muricata (Katu anoda) and Musa acuminata (Ash plantains), were prepared by homogenizing with analytical grade acetone, and pH of each enzyme extract was maintained at 7.0 using a phosphate buffer. The extracts of inhibitors were prepared using powdered ginger rhizomes and essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Water extracts of ginger were prepared and the essential oil from Ceylon cinnamon bark was extracted using steam distillation method. Since the essential oil is not soluble in water, 0.1µl of cinnamon bark oil was mixed with 0.1µl of Triton X-100 emulsifier and 5.00 ml of water. The effect of each inhibitor on the PPO activity was investigated using catechol (0.1 mol dm-3) as the substrate and two samples of enzyme extracts prepared. The dosages of the prepared Cinnamon bark oil, and ginger (2 samples) which were used to measure the activity were 0.0035 g/ml, 0.091 g/ml and 0.087 g/ml respectively. The measurements of the inhibitory activity were obtained at a wavelength of 525 nm using the UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results evaluated thus revealed that % inhibition observed with cinnamon bark oil, and ginger for Annona muricata was 51.97%, and 60.90% respectively. The effects of cinnamon bark oil, and ginger extract on PPO activity of Musa acuminata were 49.51%, and 48.10%. The experimental findings thus revealed that Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark oil was a more effective inhibitor for PPO enzyme present in Musa acuminata and ginger was effective for PPO enzyme present in Annona muricata. Overall both the inhibitors were proven to be more effective towards the activities of PPO enzyme present in both samples. These inhibitors can thus be corroborated as effective, natural, non-toxic, anti-browning extracts, which when added to the above fruit and vegetable will increase the shelf life and also the acceptance of the product by the consumers.

Keywords: anti-browning agent, enzymatic browning, inhibitory activity, polyphenol oxidase

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130 Assessing Digestive Enzymes Inhibitory Properties of Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Apple, Red Grape, Cinnamon

Authors: Pinar Ercan, Sedef N. El

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The goals of this study were to determine the total anthocyanin and procyanidin contents and their in vitro bioaccessibilities of apple, red grape and cinnamon by a static in vitro digestion method reported by the COST FA1005 Action INFOGEST, as well as in vitro inhibitory effects of these food samples on starch and lipid digestive enzymes. While the highest total anthocyanin content was found in red grape (164.76 ± 2.51 mg/100 g), the highest procyanidin content was found in cinnamon (6432.54±177.31 mg/100 g) among the selected food samples (p<0.05). The anthocyanin bioaccessibilities were found as 10.23±1 %, 8.23±0.64 %, and 8.73±0.70 % in apple, red grape, and cinnamon, respectively. The procyanidin bioaccessibilities of apple, red grape, and cinnamon were found as 17.57±0.71 %, 14.08±0.74 % and 18.75±1.49 %, respectively. The analyzed apple, red grape and cinnamon showed the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 544.27±21.94, 445.63±15.67, 1592±17.58 μg/mL, respectively), α-amylase (IC50 38.41±7.26, 56.12±3.60, 3.54±0.86 μg/mL, respectively), and lipase (IC50 52.65±2.05, 581.70±54.14, 49.63±2.72 μg/mL, respectively). Red grape sample showed the highest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase, cinnamon showed the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase and lipase according to IC50 (concentration of inhibitor required to produce a 50% inhibition of the initial rate of reaction) and Catechin equivalent inhibition capacity (CEIC50) values. This study reported that apple, grape and cinnamon samples can inhibit the activity of digestive enzymes in vitro. The consumption of these samples would be used in conjunction with a low-calorie diet for body weight management.

Keywords: anthocyanin, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase, procyanidin

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129 Evaluation of Chromium Fortified - Parboiled Rice Coated with Herbal Extracts: Cooking Quality and Sensory Properties

Authors: Wisnu Adi Yulianto, Agus Slamet, Sri Luwihana, Septian Albar Dwi Suprayogi

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Parboiled rice was developed to produce rice, which has a low glycemic index for diabetics. However, diabetics also have a chromium (Cr) deficiency. Thus, it is important to fortify rice with Cr to increase the Cr content. Moreover, parboiled rice becomes rancid easily and has a musty odor, rendering the rice unfavorable. Natural herbs such as pandan leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.), bay leaves (Syzygium polyanthum [Wigh] Walp) and cinnamon bark powder (Cinnamomon cassia) are commonly added to food as aroma enhancers. Previous research has shown that these herbs could improve insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of herbal extract coatings on the cooking quality and the preference level of chromium fortified - parboiled rice (CFPR). The rice grain variety used for this experiment was Ciherang and the fortificant was CrCl3. The three herbal extracts used for coating the CFPR were cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf, with concentration variations of 3%, 6%, and 9% (w/w) for each of the extracts. The samples were analyzed for their alkali spreading value, cooking time, elongation, water uptake ratio, solid loss, colour and lightness; and their sensory properties were determined by means of an organoleptic test. The research showed that coating the CFPR with pandan and cinnamon extracts at a concentration of 3% each produced a preferred CFPR. When coated with those herbal extracts the CFPR had the following cooking quality properties: alkali spreading value 5 (intermediate gelatinization temperature), cooking time, 26-27 min, color value, 14.95-15.00, lightness, 42.30 – 44.06, elongation, 1.53 – 1.54, water uptake ratio , 4.05-4.06, and solid loss, 0.09/100 g – 0.13 g/100 g.

Keywords: bay leaves, chromium, cinnamon, pandan leaves, parboiled rice

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128 Protective Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bark Extract against Doxorubicin Induced Cardiotoxicity: A Preliminary Study

Authors: J. A. N. Sandamali, R. P. Hewawasam, K. A. P. W. Jayatilaka, L. K. B. Mudduwa

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Introduction: Doxorubicin is widely used in the treatment of solid organ tumors and hematological malignancies, but the dose-dependent cardiotoxicity due to free radical formation compromises its clinical utility. Therapeutic strategies which enhance cellular endogenous defense systems have been identified as promising approaches to combat oxidative stress-associated conditions. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) has a number antioxidant compounds, which can effectively scavenge reactive oxygen including superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals and as well as other free radicals. Therefore, the objective of the study was to elucidate the most effective dose of Cinnamomum bark extract which ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Materials and methods: Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of 10 animals in each. Group 1: normal control (distilled water, orally, for 14 days, 10 mL/kg saline, ip, after 16 hours fast on the 11th day); Group 2: doxorubicin control (distilled water, orally, for 14 days, 18 mg/kg doxorubicin, ip, after 16 hour fast on the 11th day); Groups 3-7: five doses of freeze dried aqueous bark extracts (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0g/kg, orally, daily for 14 days, 18 mg/kg doxorubicin, ip, after 16 hours fast on the 11th day). Animals were sacrificed on the 15th day and blood was collected for the estimation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), AST and LDH concentrations and myocardial tissues were collected for histopathological assessment of myocardial damage and irreversible changes were graded by developing a score. Results: cTnI concentration of groups 1-7 were 0, 161.9, 128.6, 95.9, 38, 19.41 & 12.36 pg/mL showing significant differences (p<0.05) between group 2 and groups 4-7. In groups 1-7, serum AST concentration were 26.82, 68.1, 37.18, 36.23, 26.8, 26.62 & 22.43U/L and LDH concentrations were 1166.13, 2428.84, 1658.35, 1474.34, 1277.58, 1110.21 & 974.40U/L and a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between group 2 and groups 3-7. The maximum score for myocardial necrosis was observed in group 2. Parallel to the increase of the dosage of plant extract, a gradual reduction of the score for myocardial necrosis was observed in groups 3-7. Reversible histological changes such as vacuolation, congestion were observed in group 2 and all plant treated groups. Haemorrhages, inflammatory cell infiltrations, and interstitial oedema were observed in group 2, but absent in groups treated with higher doses of the plant extract. Discussion & Conclusion: According to the in vitro antioxidant assays performed, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) bark possesses high amounts of polyphenolic substances and high antioxidant activity. The present study showed that Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract at 2.0 g/kg possesses the most significant cardioprotective effect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. It can be postulated that pretreatment with Cinnamomum bark extract may replenish the cardiomyocytes with antioxidants that are needed for the defense against oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin.

Keywords: cardioprotection, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, doxorubicin, free radicals

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
127 Effect of Addition Cinnamon Extract (Cinnamomum burmannii) to Water Content, pH Value, Total Lactid Acid Bacteria Colonies, Antioxidant Activity and Cholesterol Levels of Goat Milk Yoghurt Isolates Dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus)

Authors: Endang Purwati, Ely Vebriyanti, R. Puji Hartini, Hendri Purwanto

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This study aimed to determine the effect of addition cinnamon extract (Cinnamomum burmannii) in making goat milk yogurt product isolates dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus) to antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. The method of research was the experimental method by using a Randomized Block Design (RBD), which consists of 5 treatments with 4 groups as replication. Treatment in this study was used of cinnamon extract as A (0%), B (1%), C (2%), D (3%), E (4%) in a goat’s milk yoghurt. This study was used 4200 ml of Peranakan Etawa goat’s milk and 80 ml of cinnamon extract. The variable analyzed were water content, pH value, total lactic acid bacterial colonies, antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. The average water content ranged from 81.2-85.56%. Mean pH values rang between 4.74–4.30. Mean total lactic acid bacteria colonies ranged from 3.87 x 10⁸ - 7.95 x 10⁸ CFU/ml. The average of the antioxidant activity ranged between 10.98%-27.88%. Average of cholesterol levels ranged from 14.0 mg/ml–17.5 mg/ml. The results showed that the addition of cinnamon extract in making goat milk yoghurt product isolates dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus) significantly different (P < 0.05) to water content, pH value, total lactic acid bacterial colonies, antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the study shows that using of cinnamon extract 4% is the best in making goat milk yoghurt.

Keywords: antioxidant, cholesterol, cinnamon, Pediococcus pentosaceus, yoghurt

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
126 Comparative Antibacterial Property of Matured Trunk and Stem Bark Extract of Tamarindus indica L., Preformulation, Development and Quality Control of Cream

Authors: A. M. T. Jacinto, M.O. Osi

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Tamarind has various medicinal properties among which is its antibacterial property. Its bark contains saponins, alkaloids, sesquiterpenes and tannins. It is rich in phlobapenes which is responsible for antibacterial property. The objective of the study was to determine which bark will produce the highest antibacterial property, develop it into a topical cream and evaluate its quality and characteristics. Powdered barks of Tamarind were extracted by soxhlet method using 70% acetone. Stem bark produced a higher yield than trunk bark (5.85 g vs. 4.73 g). It was found that the trunk bark was more sensitive than stem bark to microorganisms namely Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium minutissimum, and Streptococcus spp. Sensitivity of trunk bark can be attributed to a more developed phytoconstituents. Dermal sensitization test on both sexes of rabbits using the following concentrations: 100%, 40% and 20% of extract showed that Tamarind has no irritating property and therefore safe for formulation into an antibacterial cream. Excipients used for formulation such as methyl paraben, propyl paraben, stearyl alcohol and white petrolatum were compatible with the Tamarind acetone extract through Differential Scanning Calorimetry except sodium lauryl sulfate that exhibited crystallization when subjected at 200˚C. The method of manufacture used in cream is fusion, therefore strict compliance of processing temperature should be observed to prevent polymorphism. Quality control tests of formulated cream based on USP 30 and Philippine Pharmacopeia were satisfactory.

Keywords: antibacterial, differential scanning calorimetry, tannins, dermal sensitization

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125 Organic Oils Fumigation and Ozonated Cold Storage Influence Storage Life and Fruit Quality in Granny Smith Apples

Authors: Rahil Malekipoor, Zora Singh, Alan Payne

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Ethylene management during storage life of organically grown apples is a challenging issue due to limited available options. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effects of lemon and cinnamon oils fumigation on storage life, the incidence of superficial scald and quality of Granny Smith apple which were kept in cold storage with and without ozone. The fruit was fumigated with 3µl L⁻¹ lemon or cinnamon oil for 24 h and untreated fruit was kept as a control. Following the treatments, the fruit was stored at (0.5 to -1°C) with and without ozone for 100 and 150 days. After each storage period, ethylene production and respiration rate, superficial scald and various fruit quality parameters were estimated. Lemon oil fumigated fruit showed significantly reduced the mean climacteric peak ethylene production rate in both 100 and 150 days stored fruit. Mean climacteric peak ethylene production rate was significantly reduced in the apples which were kept in an ozonated as compared to cold stored without ozone for 100 days only. The climacteric ethylene peak was delayed only in 100 days cold stored fruit with ozone (8.78 d) as compared to without ozone (3.89 d). Firmness was significantly higher in the fruit fumigated with lemon or cinnamon oil compared to control for both storage time. The fruit stored for 150 days in cold storage without ozone exhibited higher mean firmness than those stored in ozonated. Lemon or cinnamon oil fumigation significantly reduced superficial scald in both cold stored fruit with or without ozone. Levels of total phenols were significantly higher in cinnamon oil treated fruit and stored for 100 days as compared to all other treatments. In 150 days stored fruit fumigated with lemon oil showed the significantly higher level of total phenols compared to cinnamon oil fumigation and control. The fruit fumigated with lemon oil or cinnamon oil following 150 days cold storage resulted in significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity as compared to the control fruit. In conclusion, lemon oil fumigation was more effective in suppressing ethylene production in 100-150 days cold stored fruit than cinnamon oil. Whilst, fumigation of both lemon or cinnamon oil were effective in reducing superficial scald and maintaining quality in 100-150 days cold stored fruit.

Keywords: apple, cold storage, organic oil, ozone

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124 Batch Adsorption Studies for the Removal of Textile Dyes from Aqueous Solution on Three Different Pine Bark

Authors: B. Cheknane, F. Zermane

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The main objective of the present study is the valorization of natural raw materials of plant origin for the treatment of textile industry wastewater. Selected bark was: maritime (MP), pinyon (PP) and Aleppo pine (AP) bark. The efficiency of these barks were tested for the removal of three dye; rhodamine B (RhB), Green Malachite (GM) and X Methyl Orange (MO). At the first time we focus to study the different parameters which can influence the adsorption processes such as: nature of the adsorbents, nature of the pollutants (dyes) and the effect of pH. Obtained results reveals that the speed adsorption is strongly influencing by the pH medium and the comparative study show that adsorption is favorable in the acidic medium with amount adsorbed of (Q=40mg/g) for rhodamine B and (Q=46mg/g) for orange methyl. Results of adsorption kinetics reveals that the molecules of GM are adsorbed better (Q=48mg/g) than the molecules of RhB (Q=46mg/g) and methyl orange (Q=18mg/g), with equilibrium time of 6 hours. The results of adsorption isotherms show clearly that the maritime pine bark is the most effective adsorbents with adsorbed amount of (QRhB=200mg/g) and (QMO=88mg/g) followed by pinyon pine (PP) with (QRhB=184mg/g) and (QMO=56mg/g) and finally Aleppo pine (AP) bark with (QRhB=131mg/g) and (QMO= 46mg/g). The different obtained isotherms were modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich models and according to the adjustment coefficient values R2, the obtained isotherms are well represented by Freundlich model.

Keywords: maritime pine bark (MP), pinyon pine bark (PP), Aleppo pine (AP) bark, adsorption, dyes

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123 Cycads Bark Harvest in Limpopo Province in South Africa: A Negative Practice Contributing to Biodiversity Loss

Authors: S. O. Bamigboye, P. M. Tshisikhawe, P. J. Taylor

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Cycads are the most threatened plant species in the world. In South Africa over 70% of cycads are threatened with extinction with 60% of them as a result of bark harvest of these highly endangered species for medicinal purposes. 3 cycads species in South Africa have gone extinct due to bark harvest for medicinal purpose. This practice keeps increasing biodiversity loss within the nation and this has generated concern for conservationists on different way to discover how people go about this practices and how it can be discouraged. Studies have revealed this practice to be common practice in provinces like Kwazulu natal, Eastern cape, Gauteng, Mpumalanga, but studies in the past have not really focused on cycads bark harvest in Limpopo province. In this study we use the indigenous knowledge to discover a particular location within the Soutpansberg Montane (a major biodiversity hotspot in Limpopo Province in South Africa) in Vhembe district in Limpopo province not yet conserved where we have a highly disturbed population of cycads. Several individuals of cycads species have been highly damaged due to bark harvest in this location. We are about proposing that such areas needs attention for conservation to prevent the loss of these species endemic to this particular location. Our study hereby reveals that cycads bark harvest which is a major threat to African cycads is also a common practice in Limpopo Province in South Africa. Rigorous conservation action is required to discourage this practice in order to prevent further biodiversity loss in this region.

Keywords: bark harvest, Cycads, conservation, extinction, Limpopo

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122 Phytochemical Screening and Toxicological Studies of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Boswellia papyrifera (DEL) in Rats

Authors: Y. Abdulmumin, K. I. Matazu, A. M. Wudil, A. J. Alhassan, A. A. Imam

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Phytochemical analysis of Boswellia papryfera confirms the presence of various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides in its aqueous stem bark extract at different concentration, with tannins being the highest (0.611 ± 0.002 g %). Acute toxicity test (LD50, oral, rat) of the extract showed no mortality at up to 5000 mg/kg and the animals were found active and healthy. The extract was declared as practically non-toxic, this suggest the safety of the extract in traditional medicine.

Keywords: acute toxicity, aqueous extract, boswellia papryfera, phytochemicals and stem bark

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121 Phytochemical Screening and Toxicological Studies of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Boswellia papyrifera (DEL) in Albino Rats

Authors: Y. Abdulmumin, K. I. Matazu, A. M. Wudil, A. J. Alhassan, A. A. Imam

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Phytochemical analysis of Boswellia papryfera confirms the presence of various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides in its aqueous stem bark extract at different concentration, with tannins being the highest (0.611 ± 0.002 g %). Acute toxicity test (LD50,oral, rat) of the extract showed no mortality at up to 5000 mg/kg and the animals were found active and healthy. The extract was declared as practically non-toxic, this suggest the safety of the extract in traditional medicine.

Keywords: acute toxicity, aqueous extract, boswellia papryfera, phytochemicals, stem bark extract

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120 Interaction of Phytochemicals Present in Green Tea, Honey and Cinnamon to Human Melanocortin 4 Receptor

Authors: Chinmayee Choudhury

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Human Melanocortin 4 Receptor (HMC4R) is one of the most potential drug targets for the treatment of obesity which controls the appetite. A deletion of the residues 88-92 in HMC4R is sometimes the cause of severe obesity in the humans. In this study, two homology models are constructed for the normal as well as mutated HMC4Rs and some phytochemicals present in Green Tea, Honey and Cinnamon have been docked to them to study their differential binding to the normal and mutated HMC4R as compared to the natural agonist α- MSH. Two homology models have been constructed for the normal as well as mutated HMC4Rs using the Modeller9v7. Some of the phytochemicals present in Green Tea, Honey, and Cinnamon, which have appetite suppressant activities are constructed, minimized and docked to these normal and mutated HMC4R models using ArgusLab 4.0.1. The mode of binding of the phytochemicals with the Normal and Mutated HMC4Rs have been compared. Further, the mode of binding of these phytochemicals with that of the natural agonist α- Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone(α-MSH) to both normal and mutated HMC4Rs have also been studied. It is observed that the phytochemicals Kaempherol, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) present in Green Tea and Honey, Isorhamnetin, Chlorogenic acid, Chrysin, Galangin, Pinocambrin present in Honey, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamyl acetate and Cinnamyl alcohol present in Cinnamon have capacity to form more stable complexes with the Mutated HMC4R as compared to α- MSH. So they may be potential agonists of HMC4R to suppress the appetite.

Keywords: HMC4R, α-MSH, docking, photochemical, appetite suppressant, homology modelling

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119 Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Ana R. B. Figueiredo, Paula M. R. Correia, Fernando J. Gonçalves

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The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial analysis that revealed that the bean, apple and cinnamon jam was globally better accepted. However, with this study, the consumers determined that the bean and carrot jam had the most attractive color and the bean and apple jam the better consistency. Additionally, it was possible to analyze the jams for their chemical components, namely fat, fiber, protein, sugars and antioxidant activity. The obtained results showed that the bean and carrot jam had the highest lipid content, while the bean, apple and cinnamon jam had the highest fiber content, when compared to the other two jams. Regarding the sugar content, both jams with apple revealed similar sugar values, which were higher than the sugar content of the bean and carrot jam. The antioxidant activity was on average 10 mg TE/g.

Keywords: Bean jam, chemical composition, sensorial analysis, product acceptability

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118 Micro/Nano-Sized Emulsions Exhibit Antifungal Activity against Cucumber Downy Mildew

Authors: Kai-Fen Tu, Jenn-Wen Huang, Yao-Tung Lin

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Cucumber is a major economic crop in the world. The global production of cucumber in 2017 was more than 71 million tonnes. Nonetheless, downy mildew, caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is a devastating and common disease on cucumber in around 80 countries and causes severe economic losses. The long-term usage of fungicide also leads to the occurrence of fungicide resistance and decreases host resistance. In this study, six types of oil (neem oil, moringa oil, soybean oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil, and camellia oil) were selected to synthesize micro/nano-sized emulsions, and the disease control efficacy of micro/nano-sized emulsions were evaluated. Moreover, oil concentrations (0.125% - 1%) and droplet size of emulsion were studied. Results showed cinnamon-type emulsion had the best efficacy among these oils. The disease control efficacy of these emulsions increased as the oil concentration increased. Both disease incidence and disease severity were measured by detached leaf and pot experiment, respectively. For the droplet size effect, results showed that the 114 nm of droplet size synthesized by 0.25% cinnamon oil emulsion had the lowest disease incidence (6.67%) and lowest disease severity (33.33%). The release of zoospore was inhibited (5.33%), and the sporangia germination was damaged. These results suggest that cinnamon oil emulsion will be a valuable and environmentally friendly alternative to control cucumber downy mildew. The economic loss caused by plant disease could also be reduced.

Keywords: downy mildew, emulsion, oil droplet size, plant protectant

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117 In Vitro Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities Against Human Oral Cancer and Human Laryngeal Cancer of Limonia acidissima L. Bark Extracts

Authors: Kriyapa lairungruang, Arunporn Itharat

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Limonia acidissima L. (LA) (Common name: wood apple, Thai name: ma-khwit) is a medicinal plant which has long been used in Thai traditional medicine. Its bark is used for treatment of diarrhea, abscess, wound healing and inflammation and it is also used in oral cancer. Thus, this research aimed to investigate antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the LA bark extracts produced by various extraction methods. Different extraction procedures were used to extract LA bark for biological activity testing: boiling in water, maceration with 95% ethanol, maceration with 50% ethanol and water boiling of each the 95% and the 50% ethanolic residues. All extracts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay, cytotoxic activity against human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells and human oral epidermoid carcinoma (KB) cells using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The results found that the 95% ethanolic extract of LA bark showed the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 values of 29.76±1.88 µg/ml. For cytotoxic activity, the 50% ethanolic extract showed the best cytotoxic activity against HEp-2 and KB cells with IC50 values of 9.55±1.68 and 18.90±0.86 µg/ml, respectively. This study demonstrated that the 95% ethanolic extract of LA bark showed moderate antioxidant activity and the 50% ethanolic extract provided potent cytotoxic activity against HEp-2 and KB cells. These results confirm the traditional use of LA for the treatment of oral cancer and laryngeal cancer, and also support its ongoing use.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cytotoxic activity, Laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma, Limonia acidissima L., oral epidermoid carcinoma

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116 Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Root Bark Extracts from Glossonema boveanum (Decne.)

Authors: Ahmed Jibrin Uttu, Maimuna Waziri

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The root bark of Glossonema boveanum (Decne), a member of Apocynaceae family, is used by traditional medicine practitioner to treat urinary and respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, diarrhea and stomach pain. This present study aims to validate the medicinal claims ascribed to the root bark of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical study of the root bark extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extracts) showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids, triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Antimicrobial study of the extracts showed activities against Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhii, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans while Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella Pneumoniae showed resistance to all the extracts. The inhibitory effect was compared with the standard drug ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. MIC and MBC for both extracts were also determined using the tube dilution method. This study concluded that the root bark of G. boveanum, used traditionally as a medicinal plant, has antimicrobial activities against some causative organisms.

Keywords: Glossonema boveanum (Decne.), phytochemical, antimicrobial, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
115 Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Punica Granatum L. Bark

Authors: H. Kadi, A. Moussaoui, A. Medah, N. Benayahia, Nahal Bouderba

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For thousands of years, Punica granatum L. has been used in traditional medicine all over the world and predate the introduction of antibacterial drugs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. bark obtained by decoction and maceration. The different extracts of Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae) bark have been tested for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus stearothermophilus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by disc diffusion method. The ethanolic macerate extract showed the strong in vitro antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zone inhibition of 24.4 mm. However, the results tests by disc diffusion method revealed the effectiveness of ethanolic decoctate against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus stearothermophilus) with diameter zone of inhibition varying with 21.1mm and 23.75 mm respectively.

Keywords: Punica granatum L. bark, antibacterial activity, maceration, decoction

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114 Effect of Microwave Radiations on Natural Dyes’ Application on Cotton

Authors: Rafia Asghar, Abdul Hafeez

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The current research was related with natural dyes’ extraction from the powder of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark and studied characterization of this dye under microwave radiation’s influence. Both cotton fabric and dyeing powder were exposed to microwave rays for different time intervals (2minutes, 4 minutes, 6 minutes, 8 minutes and 10 minutes) using conventional oven. Aqueous, 60% Methanol and Ethyl Acetate solubilized extracts obtained from Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark were also exposed to different time intervals (2minutes, 4 minutes, 6 minutes, 8 minutes and 10 minutes) of microwave rays exposure. Pre, meta and post mordanting with Alum (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) was done to improve color strength of the extracted dye. Exposure of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark extract and cotton to microwave rays enhanced the extraction process and dyeing process by reducing extraction time, dyeing time and dyeing temperature. Microwave rays treatment had a very strong influence on color fastness and color strength properties of cotton that was dyes using Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark for 30 minutes and dyeing cotton with that Neem bark extract for 75 minutes at 30°C. Among pre, meta and post mordanting, results indicated that 5% concentration of Alum in meta mordanting exhibited maximum color strength.

Keywords: dyes, natural dyeing, ecofriendly dyes, microwave treatment

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113 Diversity and Ecological Analysis of Vascular Epiphytes in Gera Wild Coffee Forest, Jimma Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

Authors: Bedilu Tafesse

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The diversity and ecological analysis of vascular epiphytes was studied in Gera Forest in southwestern Ethiopia at altitudes between 1600 and 2400 m.a.s.l. A total area of 4.5 ha was surveyed in coffee and non-coffee forest vegetation. Fifty sampling plots, each 30 m x 30 m (900 m2), were used for the purpose of data collection. A total of 59 species of vascular epiphytes were recorded, of which 34 (59%) were holo epiphytes, two (4%) were hemi epiphytes and 22 (37%) species were accidental vascular epiphytes. To study the altitudinal distribution of vascular epiphytes, altitudes were classified into higher >2000, middle 1800-2000 and lower 1600-1800 m.a.s.l. According to Shannon-Wiener Index (H/= 3.411) of alpha diversity the epiphyte community in the study area is medium. There was a statistically significant difference between host bark type and epiphyte richness as determined by one-way ANOVA p = 0.001 < 0.05. The post-hoc test shows that there is significant difference of vascular epiphytes richness between smooth bark with rough, flack and corky bark (P =0.001< 0.05), as well as rough and cork bark (p =0.43 <0.05). However, between rough and flack bark (p = 0.753 > 0.05) and between flack and corky bark (p = 0.854 > 0.05) no significant difference of epiphyte abundance was observed. Rough bark had 38%, corky 26%, flack 25%, and only 11% vascular epiphytes abundance occurred on smooth bark. The regression correlation test, (R2 = 0.773, p = 0.0001 < 0.05), showed that the number of species of vascular epiphytes and host DBH size are positively correlated. The regression correlation test (R2 = 0.28, p = 0.0001 < 0.05), showed that the number of species and host tree height positively correlated. The host tree preference of vascular epiphytes was recorded for only Vittaria volkensii species hosted on Syzygium guineense trees. The result of similarity analysis indicated that Gera Forest showed the highest vascular epiphytic similarity (0.35) with Yayu Forest and shared the least vascular epiphytic similarity (0.295) with Harenna Forest. It was concluded that horizontal stems and branches, large and rough, flack and corky bark type trees are more suitable for vascular epiphytes seedling attachments and growth. Conservation and protection of these phorophytes are important for the survival of vascular epiphytes and increase their ecological importance.

Keywords: accidental epiphytes, hemiepiphyte, holoepiphyte, phorophyte

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112 Evaluation of Chromium Fortified-Parboiled Rice Coated with Herbal Extracts: Resistant Starch, and Glycemic Index

Authors: Wisnu Adi Yulianto, Chatarina Lilis Suryani, Mamilisti Susiati, Hendy Indra Permana

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Parboiled rice was developed to produce rice that has low glycemic index, especially for diabetics. Yet, parboiled rice is not enough because diabetics also lack of chromium. The sign of chromium (Cr) deficiency in diabetics is impaired glucose tolerance. Cr fortification was done for increasing Cr content in rice. Naturally-occurring compounds that have been proven to improve insulin sensitivity include Cr and polyphenol found in cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. This research aimed to evaluate content of resistant starch and glycemic index of Cr - fortified - parboiled rice (Cr-PR) coated with herbal extracts. Variety of unhulled rice and forticant used in the experiment were Ciherang and CrCl3, respectively. Three herbal extracts used were cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. Each concentration of herbal extracts in the amount of 3%, 6%, and 9% were added in the coating substance to coat Cr-PR. Resistant starch (RS) content was determined by enzymatic process through glucooxydase method. Testing of the GI was conducted on 18 non-diabetic volunteers. RS content of Cr-PR coated with herbal extracts ranged between 8.27 – 8.84 % (dry weight). Cr-PR coated with all herbal extracts of 3% concentration had higher RS content than the ones with herbal extracts of 6% and 9% concentration (P <0.05). Value of the rice GI ranged 29 - 40. The lowest GI (29-30) was attained by the rice coated with enrichment of 6-9% cinnamon extract.

Keywords: coating, Cr-fortified-parboiled rice, glycemic index, herbal extracts, resistant starch

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111 Bioactivities and Phytochemical Studies of Petroleum Ether Extract of Pleiogynium timorense Bark

Authors: Gehan F. Abdel Raoof, Ataa A. Said, Khaled Y. Mohamed, Hala M. Mohammed

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Pleiogynium timorense(DC.) Leenh is one of the therapeutically active plants belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The bark of Pleiogynium timorense needs further studies to investigate its phytochemical and biological activities. This work was carried out to investigate the chemical composition of petroleum ether extract of Pleiogynium timorense bark as well as to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing test and carrageen hind paw oedema models in rats, respectively. The results showed that twenty one compounds in the unsaponifiable fraction were identified representing 92.54 % of the total beak area, the major compounds were 1-Heptene (35.32%), Butylated hydroxy toluene (19.42%) and phytol (12.53%), whereas fifteen compounds were identified in the fatty acid methyl esters fraction representing 94.15% of the total identified peak area. The major compounds were 9-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester (35.34%) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (29.32%). Moreover, petroleum ether extract showed a significant reduction in pain and inflammation in a dose dependent manner. This study aims to be the first step toward the use of petroleum ether extract of Pleiogynium timorense bark as analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug.

Keywords: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, bark, petroleum ether extract, Pleiogynium timorense

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110 Production of Polyurethane Foams from Bark Wastes

Authors: Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, Liliana Rodrigues, Idalina Domingos, José Ferreira, Luís Teixeira de Lemos, Bruno Esteves

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Currently, the polyurethanes industry is dependent on fossil resources to obtain their basic raw materials (polyols and isocyanate), as these are obtained from petroleum products. The aim of this work was to use biopolyols from liquefied Pseudotsuga (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) barks for the production of polyurethane foams and optimize the process. Liquefaction was done with glycerol catalyzed by KOH. Foams were produced following different formulations and using biopolyols from both barks. Subsequently, the foams were characterized according to their mechanical properties and the reaction of the foam formation was monitored by FTIR-ATR. The results show that it is possible to produce polyurethane foams using bio-based polyols and the liquefaction conditions are very important because they influence the characteristics of biopolyols and, consequently the characteristics of the foams. However, the process has to be further optimized so that it can obtain better quality foams.

Keywords: Bio-based polyol, mechanical tests, polyurethane foam, Pseudotsuga bark, renewable resources, Turkey oak bark

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109 Mechanism of in Vitro Inhibition of Alpha-Amylase, Alpha-Glucosidase by Ethanolic Extracts of Polyalthia Longifolia, Its in Vitro Cytotoxicity on L6, Vero Cell-Lines and Influence of Glucose Uptake by Rat Hemi-Diaphragm

Authors: P. Gayathri, G. P. Jeyanthi

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The bark of Polyalthia longifolia is used in ayurvedic system of medicine for the manangement of various ailments including diabetes mellitus. The bark of P. longifolia extracts was extracted using various polar and non-polar solvents and tested for inhibition of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase among which the ethanolic extracts were found to be more potent. The ethanolic extracts of the bark were tested for the in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase using starch as substrate and alpha-glucosidase using p-nitro phenyl alpha-D-gluco pyranoside as substrate to establish its in vitro antidiabetic effect. The mechanism of inhibition was determined by Dixon plot and Cornish-Bowden plot. The cytotoxic effect of the extract was tested on L6 and Vero cell-lines. The extract was partially purified by TLC. The individual effect of the ethanolic extract, TLC fractions and its combinatorial effect with insulin and glibenclamide on glucose uptake by rat hemi-diaphragm were studied.Results revealed that the ethanolic extracts of Polyalthia longifolia bark exhibited competitive inhibition of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The extracts were also found not to be cytotoxic at the highest dose of 1 mg/mL. Glucose uptake study revealed that the extract alone and when combined with insulin, decreased the glucose uptake when compared to insulin control, however the purified TLC fractions exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) glucose uptake by the rat hemi-diaphragm when compared to insulin. The study shows various possible mechanism of in vitro antidiabetic effect of the P. longifolia bark.

Keywords: alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, dixon, cornish-bowden, L6 , Vero cell-lines, glucose uptake, polyalthia longifolia bark, ethanolic extract, TLC fractions

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108 Quantitative Analysis of (+)-Catechin and (-)-Epicatechin in Pentace burmanica Stem Bark by HPLC

Authors: Thidarat Duangyod, Chanida Palanuvej, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi

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Pentace burmanica Kurz., belonging to the Malvaceae family, is commonly used for anti-diarrhea in Thai traditional medicine. A method for quantification of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in P. burmanica stem bark from 12 different Thailand markets by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was investigated and validated. The analysis was performed by a Shimadzu DGU-20A3 HPLC equipped with a Shimadzu SPD-M20A photo diode array detector. The separation was accomplished with an Inersil ODS-3 column (5 µm x 4.6 x 250 mm) using 0.1% formic acid in water (A) and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile (B) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1 ml/min. The isocratic was set at 20% B for 15 min and the column temperature was maintained at 40 ºC. The detection was at the wavelength of 280 nm. Both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin existed in the ethanolic extract of P. burmanica stem bark. The content of (-)-epicatechin was found as 59.74 ± 1.69 µg/mg of crude extract. In contrast, the quantitation of (+)-catechin content was omitted because of its small amount. The method was linear over a range of 5-200 µg/ml with good coefficients (r2 > 0.99) for (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Limit of detection values were found to be 4.80 µg/ml for (+)-catechin and 5.14 µg/ml for (-)-epicatechin. Limit of quantitation of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were of 14.54 µg/ml and 15.57 µg/ml respectively. Good repeatability and intermediate precision (%RSD < 3) were found in this study. The average recoveries of both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were obtained with good recovery in the range of 91.11 – 97.02% and 88.53 – 93.78%, respectively, with the %RSD less than 2. The peak purity indices of catechins were more than 0.99. The results suggested that HPLC method proved to be precise and accurate and the method can be conveniently used for (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin determination in ethanolic extract of P. burmanica stem bark. Moreover, the stem bark of P. burmanica was found to be a rich source of (-)-epicatechin.

Keywords: pentace burmanica, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, high performance liquid chromatography

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107 Profiling, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Acacia decurrens (Willd) an Invasive South Africa Tree

Authors: Joe Modise, Bamidel Joseph Okoli, Nas Molefe, Imelda Ledwaba

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The present study describes the chemical profile and antioxidant potential of the stem bark of Acacia decurrens. The methanol fraction of A. decurrens stem bark gave the highest yield (20 %), while the hexane fraction had the lowest yield (0.2 %). The GC-MS spectra of the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions confirm the presence of fifty two major compounds and the ICP-OES analysis of the stem bark was found to contain Co(0.41), Zn(1.75), Mn(3.69), Ca(8.67), Ni(10.54), Mg(12.98), Cr(24.38), K(47.88), Fe(154.62) ppm; which is an indication of hyper-accumulation capacity. The UV-Visible spectra of showed four absorption maxima for hexane fraction at 665 (0.028), 410 (0.116), 335 (0.278) and 250 (0.007) nm, three for chloroform fraction at 665 (0.028), 335 (0.278) and 250 (0.007) nm , three for ethyl acetate fraction at 665 (0.070), 390 (0.648) and 345 (0.663) nm and three for methanol fraction at 385 (0.508), 310 (0.886) and 295 (0.899) nm respectively. Quantitative phytochemical screening indicated that the alkaloid (0.6-3.3) % and saponins (5.1-8.6) % contents of the various fractions were significantly lower than the tannin (30.9-55.8) mg TAE/g, steroid(13.92-41.2) %, phenol (40.6-65.5) mgGAE/g and flavonoids (210.2 -284.9) mg RUE/g contents. The antioxidant activity of the fractions was analysed by different methods and revealed good to moderate antioxidant potential with different IC50 values viz. (42.2-49.6) mg/mL for ABTS and (37.8-75.0) μg/ml for DPPH respectively, compared to standard antioxidants. Based on obtained results, the A.decurrens stem bark fractions can be a source of safe, sustainable natural antioxidant drug and can be exploited as a source of controlled green-heavy metal cleaner.

Keywords: Acacia decurrens, antioxidant, DPPH, ABTS, hyperaccumulation, Menstruum, ICP-OES, GC-MS, UV/visible

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106 Effects of Fatty Acid Salts and Spices on Dermatophagoides farinae

Authors: Yumeho Obata, Mariko Era, Takayoshi Kawahara, Takahide Kanyama, Hiroshi Morita

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Dermatophagoides farinae is major mite allergens in indoors. D. farinae is often swarm over powder products (e.g. wheat flour), because it feeds on starch or protein that are included in them. Eating powder products which are mixed D.farinae causes various allergic symptoms. Therefore, the creation of food additive agents with high safety and control of mite effect is required. Fatty acid salts and spices are known that have pesticidal activities. This study describes the effects of fatty acid salts and spices against Dermatophagoides farinae. Materials and Methods: Potassium salts of 9 fatty acids (C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3) were prepared by mixing the fatty acid with the appropriate amount of KOH solution to a concentration of 175 mM and pH 10.5. C12Cu and C12Zn were selected as other fatty acid salts. Cayenne pepper, habanero, Japanese pepper, mustard, jalapeno pepper, curry aroma and cinnamon were selected as spices. D. farina, have been cultured in laboratory. To rear the mites, double-soled dishes containing of sterilized food were put on the big plastic container (30.0 × 20.0 × 20.0cm) which had 100% ammonium nitrate solution in the bottom. Plastic container was placed on incubator at 25 °C and 64 % relative humidity (RH) under dark condition. Sterilized food composed of dried bonito flakes and dried yeast (Ebios), 1:1 by weight. The antiproliferative method, sample and medium culture were mixed in double-soled dish and kept at 25 °C and 64 % RH. Decrease rates were determined 1 week and 4 week after treatment under microscope. D. farina was considered to be dead if appendages did not move when prodded with a pin. Results and Conclusions: The results show that the fatty acids potassium showed no antiproliferative effects against D. farinae. On the other hand, Japanese pepper, mustard, curry aroma and cinnamon were effective to decrease propagative rate (over 80 %) after treatment for 1 week against D. farina. Japanese pepper, curry aroma and cinnamon were effective to decrease propagative rate (approximately 100 %) after treatment for 4 weeks against D. farina. Especially, Japanese pepper and cinnamon showed the fasted and the most consecutive antiproliferative effects. These results indicate that Japanese pepper and cinnamon have high antiproliferative effects against D. farina and suggest spices will be used as a food additive agent.

Keywords: fatty acid salts, spices, antiproliferative effects, dermatophagoides farinae

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105 Statistical Design of Central Point for Evaluate the Combination of PH and Cinnamon Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Activity Using the ABTS Technique

Authors: H. Minor-Pérez, A. M. Mota-Silva, S. Ortiz-Barrios

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Substances of vegetable origin with antioxidant capacity have a high potential for application on the conservation of some foods, can prevent or reduce for example oxidation of lipids. However a food is a complex system whose wide variety of components wich can reduce or eliminate this antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant activity can be determined with the ABTS technique. The radical ABTS+ is generated from the acid 2, 2´ - Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). This radical is a composite color bluish-green, stable and with a spectrum of absorption into the UV-visible. The addition of antioxidants causes discoloration, value that can be reported as a percentage of inhibition of the cation radical ABTS+. The objective of this study was evaluated the effect of the combination of the pH and the essential oil of cinnamon (EOC) on inhibition of the radical ABTS+, using statistical design of central point (Design Expert) to obtain mathematical models that describe this phenomenon. Were evaluated 17 treatments with combinations of pH 5, 6 and 7 (citrate-phosphate buffer) and the concentration of essential oil of cinnamon (C): 0 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL and 200 µg/mL. The samples were analyzed using the ABTS technique. The reagent was dissolved in methanol 80% to standardized the absorbance to 0.7 +/- 0.1 at 754 nm. Then samples were mixed with reagent standardized ABTS and after 1 min and 7 min absorbance was read for each treatment at 754 nm. Was used a curve pattern with vitamin C and reported the values as inhibition (%) of radical ABTS+. The statistical analysis shows the experimental results were adjusted to a quadratic model, to the times of 1 min and 7 min. This model describes the influence of the factors investigated independently: pH and cinnamon essential oil (µg/mL) and the effect of the interaction between pH*C, as well as the square of the pH2 and C2. The model obtained was Y = 10.33684 - 3.98118*pH + 1.17031*C + 0.62745*pH2 - 3.26675*10-3*C2 - 0.013112*pH*C, where Y is the response variable. The coefficient of determination was 0.9949 for 1 min. The equation was obtained at 7 min and = - 10.89710 + 1.52341*pH + 1.32892*C + 0.47953*pH2 - 3.56605*10- *C2 - 0.034687*pH*C. The coefficient of determination was 0.9970. This means that only 1% of the total variation is not explained by the developed models. At 100 µg/mL of EOC was obtained an inhibition percentage of 80%, 84% and 97% for the pH values of 5,6 and 7 respectively, while a value of 200 µg/mL the inhibition (%) was very similar for the treatments. In these values of pH was obtained an inhibition close 97%. In conclusion the pH does not have a significant effect on the antioxidant capacity, while the concentration of EOC was decisive for the antioxidant capacity. The authors acknowledge the funding provided by the CONACYT for the project 131998.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, ABTS technique, essential oil of cinnamon, mathematical models

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104 Antiangiogenic Potential of Phellodendron amurense Bark Extract Observed on Chorioallantoic Membrane

Authors: Ľudmila Ballová, Slavomír Kurhajec, Eva Petrovová, Jarmila Eftimová

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Angiogenesis, a formation of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature, plays an important role in pathologic processes such as the growth and metastasis of tumours. Tumours cannot grow beyond a few millimetres without blood supply from the newly formed blood vessels from the host tissue, a process called tumour-induced angiogenesis. The successful research of antiangiogenic treatment of cancer has focused on nutraceuticals with angiogenesis-modulating properties. Berberine, as a major active component of the bark of Phellodendron amurense Rupr., has shown antitumour activity by intervening into different steps of carcinogenesis. The influence of ethanolic extract of Phellodendron amurese bark on the angiogenesis was tested in vivo on chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The irritancy of the CAM after the application of the crude bark extract dissolved in normal saline (10 mg/mL) was investigated on embryonic day 7. No significant signs of the irritancy, such as vasoconstriction, hyperaemia, haemorrhage or coagulation were observed which indicates the harmless character of the extract. A significant reduction in vessel sprouting and higher percentage of avascular zone was observed in the case of CAM treated with the extract in comparison with non-treated CAM (control), which is a proof of the antiangiogenic potential of the extract. These results could contribute to the development of novel drugs for the treatment of cancer or other diseases, in which angiogenesis plays a significant role.

Keywords: angiogenesis, berberine, chorioallantoic membrane, irritancy, phellodendron amurense

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103 Synergistic Studies of Liposomes of Clove and Cinnamon Oil in Oral Health Care

Authors: Sandhya Parameswaran, Prajakta Dhuri

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Despite great improvements in health care, the world oral health report states that dental problems still persist, particularly among underprivileged groups in both developing and developed countries. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are identified as the most important oral health problems globally. Acidic foods and beverages can affect natural teeth, and chronic exposure often leads to the development of dental erosion, abrasion, and decay. In recent years, there has been an increased interest toward essential oils. These are secondary metabolites and possess antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties. Essential oils are volatile and chemically unstable in the presence of air, light, moisture and high temperature. Hence many novel methods like a liposomal encapsulation of oils have been introduced to enhance the stability and bioavailability. This research paper focuses on two essential oils, clove and cinnamon oil. Clove oil was obtained from Syzygium aromaticum Linn using clavengers apparatus. It contains eugenol and β caryophyllene. Cinnamon oil, from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, contains cinnamaldehyde, The objective of the current research was to develop a liposomal carrier system containing clove and cinnamon oil and study their synergistic activity against dental pathogens when formulated as a gel. Methodology: The essential oil were first tested for their antimicrobial activity against dental pathogens, Lactobacillus acidophillus (MTCC No. 10307, MRS broth) and Streptococcus Mutans (MTCC No .890, Brain Heart Infusion agar). The oils were analysed by UV spectroscopy for eugenol and cinnamaldehyde content. Standard eugenol was linear between 5ppm to 25ppm at 282nm and standard cinnamaldehde from 1ppm to 5pmm at 284nm. The concentration of eugenol in clove oil was found to be 62.65 % w/w, and that of cinnamaldehyde was found to be 5.15%s w/w. The oils were then formulated into liposomes. Liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method using Phospholipid, Cholesterol, and other oils dissolved in a chloroform methanol (3:1) mixture. The organic solvent was evaporated in a rotary evaporator above lipid transition temperature. The film was hydrated with phosphate buffer (pH 5.5).The various batches of liposomes were characterized and compared for their size, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The prepared liposomes when evaluated for entrapment efficiency showed 65% entrapment for clove and 85% for cinnamon oil. They were also tested for their antimicrobial activity against dental pathogens and their synergistic activity studied. Based on the activity and the entrapment efficiency the amount of liposomes required to prepare 1gm of the gel was calculated. The gel was prepared using a simple ointment base and contained 0.56% of cinnamon and clove liposomes. A simultaneous method of analysis for eugenol and cinnamaldehyde.was then developed using HPLC. The prepared gels were then studied for their stability as per ICH guidelines. Conclusion: It was found that liposomes exhibited spherical shaped vesicles and protected the essential oil from degradation. Liposomes, therefore, constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile, unstable essential oil constituents.

Keywords: cinnamon oil, clove oil, dental caries, liposomes

Procedia PDF Downloads 95