Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5227

Search results for: heat stress

5227 Strategies to Improve Heat Stress Tolerance in Chickpea and Dissecting the Cross Talk Mechanism

Authors: Renu Yadav, Sanjeev Kumar

Abstract:

In northern India, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) come across with terminal high-temperature stress during reproductive stage which leads to reduced yield. Hence, stable production of chickpea will depend on the development of new methods like ‘priming’ which allow improved adaptation to the drought and heat stress. In the present experiment, 11-day chickpea seedling was primed with mild drought stress and put on recovery stage by irrigating and finally 30-day seedlings were exposed to heat stress 38°C (4 hours), 35°C (8 hours) and 32°C (12 hours). To study the effect of combinatorial stress, heat and drought stress was applied simultaneously. Analyses of various physiological parameters like membrane damage assay, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidative enzyme, total sugars were estimated at all stages. To study the effect of heat stress on the metabolites of the plants, GC-MS and HPLC were performed, while at transcriptional level Real-Time PCR of predicted heat stress-related genes was done. It was concluded that the heat stress significantly affected the chickpea plant at physiological and molecular level in all the five varieties. Results also show less damaging effect in primed plants by increasing the activity of antioxidative enzymes and increased expression of heat shock proteins and heat shock factors.

Keywords: chickpea, combinatorial stress, heat stress, oxidative stress, priming, RT-PCR

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5226 An Improved Heat Transfer Prediction Model for Film Condensation inside a Tube with Interphacial Shear Effect

Authors: V. G. Rifert, V. V. Gorin, V. V. Sereda, V. V. Treputnev

Abstract:

The analysis of heat transfer design methods in condensing inside plain tubes under existing influence of shear stress is presented in this paper. The existing discrepancy in more than 30-50% between rating heat transfer coefficients and experimental data has been noted. The analysis of existing theoretical and semi-empirical methods of heat transfer prediction is given. The influence of a precise definition concerning boundaries of phase flow (it is especially important in condensing inside horizontal tubes), shear stress (friction coefficient) and heat flux on design of heat transfer is shown. The substantiation of boundary conditions of the values of parameters, influencing accuracy of rated relationships, is given. More correct relationships for heat transfer prediction, which showed good convergence with experiments made by different authors, are substantiated in this work.

Keywords: film condensation, heat transfer, plain tube, shear stress

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5225 Trehalose Application Increased Membrane Stability and Cell Viability to Affect Growth of Wheat Genotypes under Heat Stress

Authors: S. K. Thind, Aparjot Kaur

Abstract:

Heat stress is one of the major environmental factors drastically reducing wheat production. Crop heat tolerance can be enhanced by preconditioning of plants by exogenous application of osmoprotectants. Presently, the effect of trehalose pretreatment (at 1 mM, and 1.5 nM) under heat stress of 35±2˚C (moderate) and 40±2˚ (severe) for four and eight hour was conducted in wheat (Tricticum aestivum L.) genotypes viz. HD2967, PBW 175, PBW 343, PBW 621, and PBW 590. Heat stress affects wide spectrum of physiological processes within plants that are irreversibly damaged by stress. Membrane thermal stability (MTS) and cell viability was significantly decreased under heat stress for eight hours. Pretreatment with trehalose improved MTS and cell viability under stress and this effect was more promotory with higher concentration. Thermal stability of photosynthetic apparatus differed markedly between genotypes and Hill reaction activity was recorded more in PBW621 followed by C306 as compared with others. In all genotypes photolysis of water showed decline with increase in temperature stress. Trehalose pretreatment helped in sustaining Hill reaction activity probably by stabilizing the photosynthetic apparatus against heat-induced photo inhibition. Both plant growth and development were affected by temperature in both shoot and root under heat stress. The reduction was compensated partially by trehalose (1.5 mM) application. Adaption to heat stress is associated with the metabolic adjustment which led to accumulation of soluble sugars including non-reducing and reducing for their role in adaptive mechanism. Higher acid invertase activity in shoot of tolerant genotypes appeared to be a characteristic for stress tolerance. As sucrose synthase play central role in sink strength and in studied wheat genotype was positively related to dry matter accumulation. The duration of heat stress for eight hours had more severe effect on these parameters and trehalose application at 1.5 mM ameliorated it to certain extent.

Keywords: heat stress, Triticum aestivum, trehalose, membrane thermal stability, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, reduction test, growth, sugar metabolism

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5224 Standardized Black Ginseng Extract Improving a Suppressed Immunomodulatory Effect Induced by Heat Stress

Authors: Byung Wook Yang, Jong Dae Park, Wang Soo Shin, Ji-Hyeon Song, Seo-Yun Choi, Boo-Yong Lee, Young Tae Hahm

Abstract:

Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is frequently taken orally as a traditional herbal medicine with ginsenosides as the main pharmacological component in Asian countries, and its use is increasing worldwide. Recently, the increase in global temperature has been reported to cause various kinds of biological disorders induced by heat stress in human. The standardized black ginseng extract (SBGE; KGR-BG1) was developed in our biological screening experiment on the thermo-regulation, whose chemical characteristics were evaluated as ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Rg3(S), as well as Re, Rf, Rg2(S), Rh1(S), Rh2(S), and Rg5+Rk1. Heat stress responses such as body weight, food intake, water consumption have been measured when treated with Standardized Black Ginseng Extract (SBGE) in the animal experiment and also, biomarkers. SBGE treated group has been found to inhibit a decrease in body weight, a decrease in food intake and an increase in the water consumption when compared with non-treated group against environmental heat stress. These results suggest that SBGE might have a protective effect against environmental heat stress. And also, the several factors of stress response on the immune system need to be done for further studies and its evaluation is in progress.

Keywords: ginseng, ginsenoside, standardization, heat stress, immunomodulatory effect

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5223 Heat and Mass Transfer of Triple Diffusive Convection in a Rotating Couple Stress Liquid Using Ginzburg-Landau Model

Authors: Sameena Tarannum, S. Pranesh

Abstract:

A nonlinear study of triple diffusive convection in a rotating couple stress liquid has been analysed. It is performed to study the effect of heat and mass transfer by deriving Ginzburg-Landau equation. Heat and mass transfer are quantified in terms of Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers, which are obtained as a function of thermal and solute Rayleigh numbers. The obtained Ginzburg-Landau equation is Bernoulli equation, and it has been elucidated numerically by using Mathematica. The effects of couple stress parameter, solute Rayleigh numbers, and Taylor number on the onset of convection and heat and mass transfer have been examined. It is found that the effects of couple stress parameter and Taylor number are to stabilize the system and to increase the heat and mass transfer.

Keywords: couple stress liquid, Ginzburg-Landau model, rotation, triple diffusive convection

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5222 Response of Yield and Morphological Characteristic of Rice Cultivars to Heat Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Karbalaei Aghamolki, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Fateh Chand Oad, Hamed Zakikhani, Hawa Zee Jaafar, Sharifh Kharidah, Mohamed Hanafi Musa, Shahram Soltani

Abstract:

The high temperatures during sensitive growth phases are changing rice morphology as well as influencing yield. In the glass house study, the treatments were: growing conditions [normal growing (32oC+2) and heat stress (38oC+2) day time and 22oC+2 night time], growth stages (booting, flowering and ripening) and four cultivars (Hovaze, Hashemi, Fajr, as exotic and MR219 as indigenous). The heat chamber was prepared covered with plastic, and automatic heater was adjusted at 38oC+2 (day) and 22oC+2 (night) for two weeks in every growth stages. Rice morphological and yield under the influence of heat stress during various growth stages showed taller plants in Hashsemi due to its tall character. The total tillers per hill were significantly higher in Fajr receiving heat stress during booting stage. In all growing conditions and growth stages, Hashemi recorded higher panicle exertion and flag leaf length. The flag leaf width in all situations was found higher in Hovaze. The total tillers per hill were more in Fajr, although heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering stages. The indigenous MR219 in all situations of growing conditions, growth stages recorded higher grain yield. However, its grain yield slightly decreased when heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering. Similar results were found in all other exotic cultivars recording to lower grain yield in the heat stress condition during booting and flowering. However, plants had no effect on heat stress during ripening stage.

Keywords: rice, growth, heat, temperature, stress, morphology, yield

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5221 The Effect of Heat Stress on the Gastro-Intestinal Microbiota of Pigs

Authors: Yadnyavalkya Patil, Ravi Gooneratne, Xiang-Hong Ju

Abstract:

Heat stress (HS) negatively affects the physiology of pigs. In this study, 6 pigs will be subjected to temperatures of 35 ± 2℃ for 12 hrs/day for a duration of 21 days. The changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota will be observed by analyzing the freshly collected faeces on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. The changes will be compared to faeces from a set of 6 control pigs kept simultaneously at temperatures of 26 ± 2℃ for the same duration of 21 days. Different types of stresses such a weaning have a detrimental effect on GIT microflora. Similarly, HS is expected to have a harmful effect on the microbial diversity of the GIT. How these changes affect the immune system of the pigs will be studied and therapeutics to reduce the negative effects of HS will be developed.

Keywords: GIT microbiota, heat stress, immune system, therapeutics

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5220 Developing Drought and Heat Stress Tolerant Chickpea Genotypes

Authors: Derya Yucel, Nigar Angın, Dürdane Mart, Meltem Turkeri, Volkan Catalkaya, Celal Yucel

Abstract:

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with high protein content is a vital food, especially in under-developed and developing countries for the people who do not consume enough meat due to low-income level. The objective of the proposed study is to evaluate growing, yield and yield components of chickpea genotypes under Mediterranean condition so determine tolerance of chickpea genotypes against drought and heat stress. For this purpose, a total of 34 chickpea genotypes were used as material. The experiment was conducted according to factorial randomized complete block design with 3 reps at the Eastern Mediterranean Research Institute, Adana, TURKEY for 2014-15 growing season under three different growing conditions (Winter sowing, irrigated-late sowing and non-irrigated- late sowing). According to results of this experiment, vegetative period, flowering time, poding time, maturity time, plant height, height of first pod, seed yield and 100 seed weight were ranged between 68.33 to 78.77 days, 94.22 to 85.00 days, 94.11 to 106.44 days, 198.56 to 214.44 days, 37.18 to 64.89 cm, 18.33 to 34.83 cm, 417.1 to 1746.4 kg/ha and 14.02 to 45.02 g, respectively. Among the chickpea genotypes, the Aksu, Arda, Çakır, F4 09 (X 05 TH 21-16189), FLIP 03-108 were least affected by drought and heat stress. Therefore, these genotypes can be used as sources of drought and heat tolerance in further breeding programme for evolving the drought and heat tolerant genotypes in chickpea.

Keywords: chickpea, drought stress, heat stress, yield

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5219 Development of a New Method for the Evaluation of Heat Tolerant Wheat Genotypes for Genetic Studies and Wheat Breeding

Authors: Hameed Alsamadany, Nader Aryamanesh, Guijun Yan

Abstract:

Heat is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting wheat production worldwide. To identify heat tolerant genotypes, a newly designed system involving a large plastic box holding many layers of filter papers positioned vertically with wheat seeds sown in between for the ease of screening large number of wheat geno types was developed and used to study heat tolerance. A collection of 499 wheat geno types were screened under heat stress (35ºC) and non-stress (25ºC) conditions using the new method. Compared with those under non-stress conditions, a substantial and very significant reduction in seedling length (SL) under heat stress was observed with an average reduction of 11.7 cm (P<0.01). A damage index (DI) of each geno type based on SL under the two temperatures was calculated and used to rank the genotypes. Three hexaploid geno types of Triticum aestivum [Perenjori (DI= -0.09), Pakistan W 20B (-0.18) and SST16 (-0.28)], all growing better at 35ºC than at 25ºC were identified as extremely heat tolerant (EHT). Two hexaploid genotypes of T. aestivum [Synthetic wheat (0.93) and Stiletto (0.92)] and two tetraploid genotypes of T. turgidum ssp dicoccoides [G3211 (0.98) and G3100 (0.93)] were identified as extremely heat susceptible (EHS). Another 14 geno types were classified as heat tolerant (HT) and 478 as heat susceptible (HS). Extremely heat tolerant and heat susceptible geno types were used to develop re combinant inbreeding line populations for genetic studies. Four major QTLs, HTI4D, HTI3B.1, HTI3B.2 and HTI3A located on wheat chromosomes 4D, 3B (x2) and 3A, explaining up to 34.67 %, 28.93 %, 13.46% % and 11.34% phenotypic variation, respectively, were detected. The four QTLs together accounted for 88.40% of the total phenotypic variation. Random wheat geno types possessing the four heat tolerant alleles performed significantly better under the heat condition than those lacking the heat tolerant alleles indicating the importance of the four QTLs in conferring heat tolerance in wheat. Molecular markers are being developed for marker assisted breeding of heat tolerant wheat.

Keywords: bread wheat, heat tolerance, screening, RILs, QTL mapping, association analysis

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5218 Heat Stress Adaptive Urban Design Intervention for Planned Residential Areas of Khulna City: Case Study of Sonadanga

Authors: Tanjil Sowgat, Shamim Kobir

Abstract:

World is now experiencing the consequences of climate change such as increased heat stress due to high temperature rise. In the context of changing climate, this study intends to find out the planning interventions necessary to adapt to the current heat stress in the planned residential areas of Khulna city. To carry out the study Sonadanga residential area (phase I) of Khulna city has been taken as the study site. This residential neighbourhood covering an area of 30 acres has 206 residential plots. The study area comprises twelve access roads, one park, one playfield, one water body and two street furniture’s. This study conducts visual analysis covering green, open space, water body, footpath, drainage and street trees and furniture and questionnaire survey deals with socio-economic, housing tenancy, experience of heat stress and urban design interventions. It finds that the current state that accelerates the heat stress condition such as lack of street trees and inadequate shading, maximum uses are not within ten minutes walking distance, no footpath for the pedestrians and lack of well-maintained street furniture. It proposes that to adapt to the heat stress pedestrian facilities, buffer sidewalk with landscaping, street trees and open spaces, soft scape, natural and man-made water bodies, green roofing could be effective urban design interventions. There are evidences of limited number of heat stress adaptive planned residential area. Since current sub-division planning practice focuses on rigid land use allocation, it partly addresses the climatic concerns through creating open space and street trees. To better respond to adapt to the heat stress, urban design considerations in the context of sub-division practice would bring more benefits.

Keywords: climate change, urban design, adaptation, heat stress, water-logging

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5217 Evaluation on Heat and Drought Tolerance Capacity of Chickpea

Authors: Derya Yucel, Nigar Angın, Dürdane Mart, Meltem Turkeri, Volkan Catalkaya, Celal Yucel

Abstract:

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the important legumes widely grown for dietery proteins in semi-arid Mediteranean climatic conditions. To evaluate the genetic diversity with improved heat and drought tolerance capacity in chickpea, thirty-four selected chickpea genotypes were tested under different field-growing conditions (rainfed winter sowing, irrigated-late sowing and rainfed-late sowing) in 2015 growing season. A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with 3 reps was conducted at the Eastern Mediterranean Research Institute Adana, Turkey. Based on grain yields under different growing conditions, several indices were calculated to identify economically higher-yielding chickpea genotypes with greater heat and drought tolerance capacity. Average across chickpea genotypes, the values of tolerance index, mean productivity, yield index, yield stability index, stress tolerance index, stress susceptibility index, and geometric mean productivity were ranged between 1.1 to 218, 38 to 202, 0.3 to 1.7, 0.2 to 1, 0.1 to 1.2, 0.02 to 1.4, and 36 to 170 for drought stress and 3 to 54, 23 to 118, 0.3 to 1.7, 0.4 to 0.9, 0.2 to 2, 0.2to 2.3, and 23 to 118 for heat stress, respectively. There were highly significant differences observed among the tested chickpea genotypes response to drought and heat stresses. Among the chickpea genotypes, the Aksu, Arda, Çakır, F4 09 (X 05 TH 21-16189), FLIP 03-108 were identified with a higher drought and heat tolerance capacity. Based on our field studies, it is suggested that the drought and heat tolerance indicators of plants can be used by breeders to select stress-resistant economically productive chickpea genotypes suitable to grow under Mediteranean climatic conditions.

Keywords: irrigation, rainfed, stress susceptibility, tolerance indice

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5216 Effect of Different Levels of Vitamin E and L-Carnitine on Performance of Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

Authors: S. Salari, M. A. Shirali, S. Tabatabaei, M. Sari, R. Jahanian

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of vitamin E and L-carnitine on performance, blood parameters and immune responses of broilers under heat stress. For this purpose 396 one- day- old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 9 treatments with 4 replicates (11 birds in each replicate). Dietary treatments consisted of three levels of vitamin E (0, 100 and 200 mg/ kg) and three levels of L-carnitine (0, 50 and 100 mg/ kg) that was done in completely randomized design with 3X3 factorial arrangement for 42 days. During the first three weeks, chickens were reared at normal temperature. From the beginning of the fourth week, all chickens were maintenance in a temperature range from 24-38 ° C for heat stress. Performance parameters including average feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. The results showed that the levels of vitamin E had no significant effect on feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the experiment. The use of L-carnitine decreased feed intake during the experiment (P < 0/05). But did not affect average daily gain and feed conversion ratio. Also, there was not significant interaction between vitamin E and L-carnitine for performance parameters except average daily gain during the starter period. The results of this study indicate that the use of different levels of vitamin E and L-carnitine under heat stress did not affected performance parameters of broiler chickens.

Keywords: broiler, heat stress, l-carnitine, performance

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5215 Efficacy of Vitamins A, C and E on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Heat Stress

Authors: Desierin Rodrin, Magdalena Alcantara, Cristina Olo

Abstract:

The increase in environmental temperatures brought about by climate change impacts negatively the growth performance of broilers that may be solved by manipulating the diet of the animals. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different vitamin supplements on the growth performance of broiler chickens subjected to ambient (31°C) and heat stress (34°C) temperatures. The treatments were: I- Control (no vitamin supplement), II- Vitamin A (4.5 mg/kg of feed), III- Vitamin C (250 mg/kg of feed), IV- Vitamin E (250 mg/kg of feed), V- Vitamin C and E (250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VI- Vitamin A and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VII- Vitamin A and C (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), and VIII- Vitamin A, C and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed, 250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed). The birds (n=240) were distributed randomly into eight treatments replicated three times, with each replicates having five birds. Ambient temperature was maintained using a 25 watts bulb for every 20 birds, while heat stress condition was sustained at 34°C for about 9 hours daily by using a 50 watts bulb per 5 birds. The interaction of vitamin supplements and temperatures did not significantly (P>0.05) affected body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the growing period. Similarly, supplementation of different vitamins did not improve (P>0.05) the overall production performance of birds throughout the rearing period. Birds raised in heat stress (34°C) condition had significantly lower ((P<0.05) body weight, average daily gain, and feed consumption compared to birds raised in ambient temperature at weeks 3, 4 and 5 of rearing. Supplementation of vitamins A, C, and E in the diet of broilers did not alleviate the effect of heat stress in the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: broiler growth performance, heat stress, vitamin supplementation, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E

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5214 Eco-Friendly Electricity Production from the Waste Heat of Air Conditioners

Authors: Anvesh Rajak

Abstract:

This is a new innovation that can be developed. Here I am going to use the waste heat of air conditioner so as to produce the electricity by using the Stirling engine because this waste heat creates the thermal pollution in the environment. The waste heat from the air conditioners has caused a temperature rise of 1°–2°C or more on weekdays in the Tokyo office areas. This heating promotes the heat-island phenomenon in Tokyo on weekdays. Now these air conditioners creates the thermal pollution in the environment and hence rising the temperature of the environment. Air conditioner generally emit the waste heat air whose temperature is about 50°C which heat the environment. Today the demand of energy is increasing tremendously, but available energy lacks in supply. Hence, there is no option for proper and efficient utilization and conservation of energy. In this paper the main stress is given on energy conservation by using technique of utilizing waste heat from Air-conditioning system. Actually the focus is on the use of the waste heat rather than improving the COP of the air- conditioners; if also we improve the COP of air conditioners gradually it would emit some waste heat so I want that waste heat to be used up. As I have used air conditioner’s waste heat to produce electricity so similarly there are various other appliances which emit the waste heat in the surrounding so here also we could use the Stirling engines and Geothermal heat pump concept to produce the electricity and hence can reduce the thermal pollution in the environment.

Keywords: stirling engine, geothermal heat pumps, waste heat, air conditioners

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5213 Optimization Analysis of Controlled Cooling Process for H-Shape Steam Beams

Authors: Jiin-Yuh Jang, Yu-Feng Gan

Abstract:

In order to improve the comprehensive mechanical properties of the steel, the cooling rate, and the temperature distribution must be controlled in the cooling process. A three-dimensional numerical model for the prediction of the heat transfer coefficient distribution of H-beam in the controlled cooling process was performed in order to obtain the uniform temperature distribution and minimize the maximum stress and the maximum deformation after the controlled cooling. An algorithm developed with a simplified conjugated-gradient method was used as an optimizer to optimize the heat transfer coefficient distribution. The numerical results showed that, for the case of air cooling 5 seconds followed by water cooling 6 seconds with uniform the heat transfer coefficient, the cooling rate is 15.5 (℃/s), the maximum temperature difference is 85℃, the maximum the stress is 125 MPa, and the maximum deformation is 1.280 mm. After optimize the heat transfer coefficient distribution in control cooling process with the same cooling time, the cooling rate is increased to 20.5 (℃/s), the maximum temperature difference is decreased to 52℃, the maximum stress is decreased to 82MPa and the maximum deformation is decreased to 1.167mm.

Keywords: controlled cooling, H-Beam, optimization, thermal stress

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5212 Numerical Modeling of Film Cooling of the Surface at Non-Uniform Heat Flux Distributions on the Wall

Authors: M. V. Bartashevich

Abstract:

The problem of heat transfer at thin laminar liquid film is solved numerically. A thin film of liquid flows down an inclined surface under conditions of variable heat flux on the wall. The use of thin films of liquid allows to create the effective technologies for cooling surfaces. However, it is important to investigate the most suitable cooling regimes from a safety point of view, in order, for example, to avoid overheating caused by the ruptures of the liquid film, and also to study the most effective cooling regimes depending on the character of the distribution of the heat flux on the wall, as well as the character of the blowing of the film surface, i.e., the external shear stress on its surface. In the statement of the problem on the film surface, the heat transfer coefficient between the liquid and gas is set, as well as a variable external shear stress - the intensity of blowing. It is shown that the combination of these factors - the degree of uniformity of the distribution of heat flux on the wall and the intensity of blowing, affects the efficiency of heat transfer. In this case, with an increase in the intensity of blowing, the cooling efficiency increases, reaching a maximum, and then decreases. It is also shown that the more uniform the heating of the wall, the more efficient the heat sink. A separate study was made for the flow regime along the horizontal surface when the liquid film moves solely due to external stress influence. For this mode, the analytical solution is used for the temperature at the entrance region for further numerical calculations downstream. Also the influence of the degree of uniformity of the heat flux distribution on the wall and the intensity of blowing of the film surface on the heat transfer efficiency was also studied. This work was carried out at the Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS (Russia) and supported by FASO Russia.

Keywords: Heat Flux, Heat Transfer Enhancement, External Blowing, Thin Liquid Film

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5211 Fatigue Crack Initiation of Al-Alloys: Effect of Heat Treatment Condition

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab

Abstract:

In this investigation an empirical study was made on fatigue crack initiation on 7075 T6 and 7075 T71 al-alloys under constant amplitude loading. At initiation stage, local strain approach at the notch was applied. Single Edge Notch Tensile specimen with semi circular notch is used. Based on experimental results, effect of mean stress, is highlights on fatigue initiation life. Results show that fatigue life initiation is affected by notch geometry and mean stress.

Keywords: fatigue crack initiation, al-alloy, mean stress, heat treatment state

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5210 Counteract Heat Stress on Broiler Chicks by Adding Anti-Heat Stress Vitamins (Vitamin C and E) with Organic Zinc

Authors: Omnia Y. Shawky, Asmaa M. Megahed, Alaa E. ElKomy, A. E. Abd-El-Hamid, Y. A. Attia

Abstract:

This study was carried out to elevate the broilers physiological response against heat stress and reduce this impact by adding vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) alone/or with organic zinc (Zn) to chicks’ rations. A total of 192, 26-day-old Arbor Acers male chicks were randomly divided into equal 8 groups (4 replicates for each). All experimental groups were treated as follow: Group 2 was served as a heat stress control that reared at 37ºC with relative humidity 53 ± 8% for 6 hours/day for three successive days/week and fed the basal diet only. Groups 3-8 were heat stressed in a like manner to group 2 and fed basal diet inclusion 200mg VC (group 3), 200mg VE (group 4), 200mg VC+200mg VE (group 5), 200mg VC+30mg Zn (group 6), 200mg VE+30mg Zn (group 7) and 200mg VC+200mg VE+30mg Zn (group 8) /kg feed, while Group 1 was served as a positive control that reared on a neutral temperature (NT) (approximately 21ºC) and fed the basal diet only. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were boosted of HS chicks (80.8 breath/min and 41.97ºC) compared to NT group (60.12 breath/min and 40.9ºC), while, adding VC alone and with VE or Zn resulted in decrease these measurements. Heat stress had a significantly negative effect on chicks body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio compared to the NT group, this harmful effect could be overcome by adding VC and VE individually or with Zn. Chicks exposed to heat stress showed slightly increase hemoglobin concentration compared to NT group, while, adding VC, VE individually or with Zn alleviated this effect. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly increased in HS group than the NT group, but adding VC, VE individually or with Zn resulted in a reduction plasma glucose level, which it was still higher than the NT group. Heat stress caused an increase in plasma total lipids and cholesterol concentration compared to the NT group and inclusion VC or VE alone or with Zn was not able to reduce this effect. The increased liver enzymes activities (AST and ALT) that observed in HS group compared to NT group were removed by adding VC and VE individually or with Zn. As well, exposure of broiler chicks to heat stress resulted in a slightly decrease in plasma total antioxidant capacity level (TAC) superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes activities, while inclusion VC and VE individually or with Zn in chicks rations caused an increased in these measurements. Broiler chicks that exposed to HS revealed a significant increase in heat shock protein (Hsp 70) compared to the NT group, while, adding VC or VE individually or with Zn resulted in a significant decrease in Hsp70 than the HS group and VE alone or with VC had the greatest effect. In conclusion, it could be overcome the harmful and the negative effect of heat stress on broiler chicks’ productive performance and physiological status by inclusion VC (200mg) or VE (200mg) individual or in a combination with organic zinc (30 mg) in chicks’ rations.

Keywords: heat stress, broiler, vitamin C, vitamin E, organic zinc

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5209 A Review: Role of Chromium in Broiler

Authors: Naveed Zahra, Zahid Kamran, Shakeel Ahmad

Abstract:

Heat stress is one of the most important environmental stressors challenging poultry production worldwide. The detrimental effect of heat stress results in reduction in the productive performance of poultry with high incidences of mortality. Researchers have made efforts to prevent such damage to poultry production through dietary manipulation. Supplementation with Chromium (Cr) might have some positive effects on some aspect of blood parameters and broilers performance. Chromium (Cr) the element whose trivalent Cr (III) organic state is present in trace amounts in animal feed and water is found to be a key element in evading heat stress and thus cutting down the heavy expenditure on air conditioning in broiler sheds. Chromium, along with other essential minerals is lost due to increased excretion during heat stress and thus its inclusion in broiler diet is kind of mandatory in areas of hot climate. Chromium picolinate in broiler diet has shown a hike in growth rate including muscle gain with body fat reduction under environmental stress. Fat reduction is probably linked to the ability of chromium to increase the sensitivity of the insulin receptors on tissues and thus the uptake of sugar from blood increases which decreases the amount of glucose to be converted to amino acids and stored in adipose tissue as triglycerides. Organic chromium has also shown to increase lymphocyte proliferation rate and antioxidant levels. So, the immune competency, muscle gain and fat reduction along with evasion of heat stress are good enough signs that indicate the fruitful inclusion of dietary chromium for broiler. This promising element may bring the much needed break in the local poultry industry. The task is now to set the exact dose of the element in the diet that would be useful enough and still not toxic to broiler. In conclusion there is a growing body of evidence which suggest that chromium may be an essential trace element for livestock and poultry. The nutritional requirement for chromium may vary with different species and physiological state within a species.

Keywords: broiler, chromium, heat stress, performance

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5208 Determination of Optimum Parameters for Thermal Stress Distribution in Composite Plate Containing a Triangular Cutout by Optimization Method

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Bayati Chaleshtari, Hadi Khoramishad

Abstract:

Minimizing the stress concentration around triangular cutout in infinite perforated plates subjected to a uniform heat flux induces thermal stresses is an important consideration in engineering design. Furthermore, understanding the effective parameters on stress concentration and proper selection of these parameters enables the designer to achieve a reliable design. In the analysis of thermal stress, the effective parameters on stress distribution around cutout include fiber angle, flux angle, bluntness and rotation angle of the cutout for orthotropic materials. This paper was tried to examine effect of these parameters on thermal stress analysis of infinite perforated plates with central triangular cutout. In order to achieve the least amount of thermal stress around a triangular cutout using a novel swarm intelligence optimization technique called dragonfly optimizer that inspired by the life method and hunting behavior of dragonfly in nature. In this study, using the two-dimensional thermoelastic theory and based on the Likhnitskiiʼ complex variable technique, the stress analysis of orthotropic infinite plate with a circular cutout under a uniform heat flux was developed to the plate containing a quasi-triangular cutout in thermal steady state condition. To achieve this goal, a conformal mapping function was used to map an infinite plate containing a quasi- triangular cutout into the outside of a unit circle. The plate is under uniform heat flux at infinity and Neumann boundary conditions and thermal-insulated condition at the edge of the cutout were considered.

Keywords: infinite perforated plate, complex variable method, thermal stress, optimization method

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5207 The Crack Propagation on Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage

Authors: Jehnming Lin

Abstract:

In the laser cleavage of glass, the laser is mostly adopted as a heat source to generate a thermal stress state on the substrates. The crack propagation of the soda-lime glass in the laser thermal cleavage with the straight-turning paths was investigated in this study experimentally and numerically. The crack propagation was visualized by a high speed camera with the off-line examination on the micro-crack propagation. The temperature and stress distributions induced by the laser heat source were calculated by ANSYS software based on the finite element method (FEM). With the cutting paths in various turning directions, the experimental and numerical results were in comparison and verified. The fracture modes due to the normal and shear stresses were verified at the turning point of the laser cleavage path. It shows a significant variation of the stress profiles along the straight-turning paths and causes a change on the fracture modes.

Keywords: laser cleavage, glass, fracture, stress analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
5206 Occupational Heat Stress Condition According to Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index in Textile Processing Unit: A Case Study of Surat, Gujarat, India

Authors: Dharmendra Jariwala, Robin Christian

Abstract:

Thermal exposure is a common problem in every manufacturing industry where heat is used in the manufacturing process. In developing countries like India, a lack of awareness regarding the proper work environmental condition is observed among workers. Improper planning of factory building, arrangement of machineries, ventilation system, etc. play a vital role in the rise of temperature within the manufacturing areas. Due to the uncontrolled thermal stress, workers may be subjected to various heat illnesses from mild disorder to heat stroke. Heat stress is responsible for the health risk and reduction in production. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index and relative humidity are used to evaluate heat stress conditions. WBGT index is a weighted average of natural wet bulb temperature, globe temperature, dry bulb temperature, which are measured with standard instrument QuestTemp 36 area stress monitor. In this study textile processing units have been selected in the industrial estate in the Surat city. Based on the manufacturing process six locations were identified within the plant at which process was undertaken at 120°C to 180°C. These locations were jet dying machine area, stenter machine area, printing machine, looping machine area, washing area which generate process heat. Office area was also selected for comparision purpose as a sixth location. Present Study was conducted in the winter season and summer season for day and night shift. The results shows that average WBGT index was found above Threshold Limiting Value (TLV) during summer season for day and night shift in all three industries except office area. During summer season highest WBGT index of 32.8°C was found during day shift and 31.5°C was found during night shift at printing machine area. Also during winter season highest WBGT index of 30°C and 29.5°C was found at printing machine area during day shift and night shift respectively.

Keywords: relative humidity, textile industry, thermal stress, WBGT

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
5205 Insights of Interaction Studies between HSP-60, HSP-70 Proteins and HSF-1 in Bubalus bubalis

Authors: Ravinder Singh, C Rajesh, Saroj Badhan, Shailendra Mishra, Ranjit Singh Kataria

Abstract:

Heat shock protein 60 and 70 are crucial chaperones that guide appropriate folding of denatured proteins under heat stress conditions. HSP60 and HSP70 provide assistance in correct folding of a multitude of denatured proteins. The heat shock factors are the family of some transcription factors which controls the regulation of gene expression of proteins involved in folding of damaged or improper folded proteins during stress conditions. Under normal condition heat shock proteins bind with HSF-1 and act as its repressor as well as aids in maintaining the HSF-1’s nonactive and monomeric confirmation. The experimental protein structure for all these proteins in Bubalus bubalis is not known till date. Therefore computational approach was explored to identify three-dimensional structure analysis of all these proteins. In this study, an extensive in silico analysis has been performed including sequence comparison among species to comparative modeling of Bubalus bubalis HSP60, HSP70 and HSF-1 protein. The stereochemical properties of proteins were assessed by utilizing several scrutiny bioinformatics tools to ensure model accuracy. Further docking approach was used to study interactions between Heat shock proteins and HSF-1.

Keywords: Bubalus bubalis, comparative modelling, docking, heat shock protein

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
5204 Vitamin C Status and Nitric Oxide in Buffalo Ovarian Follicular Fluid in Relation to Seasonal Heat Stress and Phase of Estrous Cycle

Authors: H. F. Hozyen, A. M. Abo-El Maaty

Abstract:

Heat stress is a recognized problem causing huge economic losses to the buffalo breeders as well as dairy industry. The aim of the present work was to study the pattern of vitamin C and nitric oxide in follicular fluid of buffalo during different seasons of the year considering phase of estrous cycle. This study was conducted on 208 cyclic buffaloes slaughtered at Al-Qaliobia governorate, Egypt, over one year. The obtained results revealed that vitamin C in follicular fluid was significantly lower in summer than winter and spring. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) was significantly higher in summer and autumn than winter and spring. Both vitamin C and NO did not differ significantly between follicular and luteal phases. In conclusion, the present study revealed that alterations in concentrations of follicular fluid vitamin C and NO that occur in summer could be related to low summer fertility in buffalo.

Keywords: Buffalo, follicular fluid, vitamin C, nitric oxide, heat stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
5203 Performance Evaluation of Extruded-type Heat sinks Used in Inverter for Solar Power Generation

Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, heat release performances of the three extruded-type heat sinks can be used in the inverter for solar power generation were evaluated. Numbers of fins in the heat sinks (namely E-38, E-47 and E-76) were 38, 47 and 76, respectively. Heat transfer areas of them were 1.8, 1.9 and 2.8 m2. The heat release performances of E-38, E-47, and E-76 heat sinks were measured as 79.6, 81.6, and 83.2%, respectively. The results of heat release performance show that the larger amount of heat transfer area the higher heat release rate. While on the other, in this experiment, variations of the mass flow rates caused by different cross-sectional areas of the three heat sinks may not be the major parameter of the heat release. Despite the 47.4% increment of heat transfer area of E-76 heat sink than that of E-47 one, its heat release rate was higher by only 2.0%; this suggests that its heat transfer area need to be optimized.

Keywords: solar Inverter, heat sink, forced convection, heat transfer, performance evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
5202 Energy Metabolites Show Cross-Protective Plastic Responses for Stress Resistance in a Circumtropical Drosophila Species

Authors: Ankita Pathak, Ashok Munjal, Ravi Parkash

Abstract:

Plastic responses to multiple environmental stressors in wet or dry seasonal populations of tropical Drosophila species have received less attention. We tested plastic effects of heat hardening, acclimation to drought or starvation; and changes in trehalose, proline and body lipids in D. ananassae flies reared under wet or dry season specific conditions. Wet season flies revealed significant increase in heat knockdown, starvation resistance and body lipids after heat hardening. However, accumulation of proline was observed only after desiccation acclimation of dry season flies while wet season flies elicited no proline but trehalose only. Therefore, drought-induced proline can be a marker metabolite for dry season flies. Further, partial utilization of proline and trehalose under heat hardening reflects their possible thermoprotective effects. Heat hardening elicited cross-protection to starvation stress. Stressor-specific accumulation or utilization, as well as rates of metabolic change for each energy metabolite, were significantly higher in wet season flies than dry season flies. Energy metabolite changes due to inter-related stressors (heat vs. desiccation or starvation) resulted in possible maintenance of energetic homeostasis in wet or dry season flies. Thus, low or high humidity induced plastic changes in energy metabolites can provide cross-protection to seasonally varying climatic stressors.

Keywords: wet-dry seasons, plastic changes, stress related traits, energy metabolites, cross protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
5201 Numerical Study of Heat Release of the Symmetrically Arranged Extruded-Type Heat Sinks

Authors: Man Young Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this numerical study, we want to present the design of highly efficient extruded-type heat sink. The symmetrically arranged extruded-type heat sinks are used instead of a single extruded or swaged-type heat sink. In this parametric study, the maximum temperatures, the base temperatures between heaters, and the heat release rates were investigated with respect to the arrangements of heat sources, air flow rates, and amounts of heat input. Based on the results we believe that the use of both side of heat sink is to be much better for release the heat than the use of single side. Also from the results, it is believed that the symmetric arrangement of heat sources is recommended to achieve a higher heat transfer from the heat sink.

Keywords: heat sink, forced convection, heat transfer, performance evaluation, symmetrical arrangement

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
5200 Effect of T6 and Re-Aging Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of 7055 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: M. Esmailian, M. Shakouri, A. Mottahedi, S. G. Shabestari

Abstract:

Heat treatable aluminium alloys such as 7075 and 7055, because of high strength and low density, are used widely in aircraft industry. For best mechanical properties, T6 heat treatment has recommended for this regards, but this temper treatment is sensitive to corrosion induced and Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) damage. For improving this property, the over-aging treatment (T7) applies to this alloy, but it decreases the mechanical properties up to 30 percent. Hence, to increase the mechanical properties, without any remarkable decrease in SCC resistant, Retrogression and Re-Aging (RRA) heat treatment is used. This treatment performs in a relatively short time. In this paper, the RRA heat treatment was applied to 7055 aluminum alloy and then effect of RRA time on the mechanical properties of 7055 has been investigated. The results show that the 40 minute time is suitable time for retrogression of 7055 aluminum alloy and ultimate strength increases up to 625MPa.

Keywords: 7055 Aluminum alloy, mechanical properties, SCC resistance, heat Treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
5199 Alterations of Malondialdehyde and Heat Shock Protein-27 in Sheep with Naturally Infected Liver Cystic Echinococcosis

Authors: K. Azimzadeh, S. Rasouli

Abstract:

The present study investigates whether malondialdehyde (MDA) and heat shock protein-27 (HSP-27) are altered in sheep with cystic echinococcosis (CE). For this purpose, forty parasitized and thirty healthy sheep were selected based on severe cystic form observation in liver and lack of blood parasite along with no cystic conformation in carcass respectively. The results revealed a significant decrease (p<0.01) in albumin (Alb) and total plasma protein (TPP) and a significant increase (p<0.01) in HSP-27, MDA, total bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin in the infected group compared with healthy ones.The results indicate low levels of TPP and Alb reveal liver damage in suffered sheep and MDA elevation demonstrates oxidative stress in infected group. In addition, HSP-27 enhancement may attribute to disease-induced stress conditions.

Keywords: malondialdehyde, heat shock protein-27, Echinococcosis, blood parasites

Procedia PDF Downloads 492
5198 Effect of Flow Holes on Heat Release Performance of Extruded-Type Heat Sink

Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the enhancement of the heat release performance of an extruded-type heat sink to prepare the large-capacity solar inverter thru the flow holes in the base plate near the heat sources was investigated. Optimal location and number of the holes in the baseplate were determined by using a commercial computation program. The heat release performance of the shape-modified heat sink was measured experimentally and compared with that of the simulation. The heat sink with 12 flow holes in the 18-mm-thick base plate has a 8.1% wider heat transfer area, a 2.5% more mass flow of air, and a 2.7% higher heat release rate than those of the original heat sink. Also, the surface temperature of the base plate was lowered 1.5°C by the holes.

Keywords: heat sink, forced convection, heat transfer, performance evaluation, flow holes

Procedia PDF Downloads 357