Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 414

Search results for: Mark Wright

414 Social Freedom and Real Utopias: Making ‘Eroding Capitalism’ a Theme in Axel Honneth’s Theory of Socialism

Authors: Yotaro Natani

Abstract:

In his recent works, Frankfurt School theorist Axel Honneth elucidates an intersubjective notion of social freedom and outlines a vision of socialism as the realization of social freedom in the family, market economy, and public sphere. These arguments are part of his broader project of defending the tradition of immanent critique and normative reconstruction. In contrast, American Marxist sociologist Erik Olin Wright spells out a vision of socialism in terms of building real utopias -democratic, egalitarian, alternative institutions- through the exercise of civil society’s social power over the economy and state. Wright identifies ‘eroding capitalism’ as the framework for thinking about the strategic logics of gradually diminishing the dominance of capitalism. Both thinkers envision the transition toward socialism in terms of democratic experimentation; Honneth is more attentive to the immanent norms of social life, whereas Wright is better aware of the power of antagonistic structures. This paper attempts to synthesize the ideas of Honneth and Wright. It will show that Honneth’s critique of capitalism suffers from certain ambiguities because he attributes normative legitimacy to existing institutions, resulting in arguments that do not problematize aspects of capitalist structures. This paper will argue that incorporating the notion of power and thematizing the erosion of capitalism as a long-term goal for socialist change will allow Honneth to think more precisely about the conditions for realizing social freedom, in a manner that is still consistent with the immanent critique tradition. Such reformulation will result in a concept of social freedom that is less static and rooted in functional teleology and more oriented toward creative agency and experimental democracy.

Keywords: Axel Honneth, immanent critique, real utopias, social freedom, socialism

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413 Development of a Finite Element Model of the Upper Cervical Spine to Evaluate the Atlantoaxial Fixation Techniques

Authors: Iman Zafarparandeh, Muzammil Mumtaz, Paniz Taherzadeh, Deniz Erbulut

Abstract:

The instability in the atlantoaxial joint may occur due to cervical surgery, congenital anomalies, and trauma. There are different types of fixation techniques proposed for restoring the stability and preventing harmful neurological deterioration. Application of the screw constructs has become a popular alternative to the older techniques for stabilizing the joint. The main difference between the various screw constructs is the type of the screw which can be lateral mass screw, pedicle screw, transarticular screw, and translaminar screw. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of three popular screw constructs fixation techniques on the biomechanics of the atlantoaxial joint using the finite element (FE) method. A three-dimensional FE model of the upper cervical spine including the skull, C1 and C2 vertebrae, and groups of the existing ligaments were developed. The accurate geometry of the model was obtained from the CT data of a 35-year old male. Three screw constructs were designed to compare; Magerl transarticular screw (TA-Screw), Goel-Harms lateral mass screw and pedicle screw (LM-Screw and Pedicle-Screw), and Wright lateral mass screw and translaminar screw (LM-Screw and TL-Screw). Pure moments were applied to the model in the three main planes; flexion (Flex), extension (Ext), axial rotation (AR) and lateral bending (LB). The range of motion (ROM) of C0-C1 and C1-C2 segments for the implanted FE models are compared to the intact FE model and the in vitro study of Panjabi (1988). The Magerl technique showed less effect on the ROM of C0-C1 than the other two techniques in sagittal plane. In lateral bending and axial rotation, the Goel-Harms and Wright techniques showed less effect on the ROM of C0-C1 than the Magerl technique. The Magerl technique has the highest fusion rate as 99% in all loading directions for the C1-C2 segment. The Wright technique has the lowest fusion rate in LB as 79%. The three techniques resulted in the same fusion rate in extension loading as 99%. The maximum stress for the Magerl technique is the lowest in all load direction compared to other two techniques. The maximum stress in all direction was 234 Mpa and occurred in flexion with the Wright technique. The maximum stress for the Goel-Harms and Wright techniques occurred in lateral mass screw. The ROM obtained from the FE results support this idea that the fusion rate of the Magerl is more than 99%. Moreover, the maximum stress occurred in each screw constructs proves the less failure possibility for the Magerl technique. Another advantage of the Magerl technique is the less number of components compared to other techniques using screw constructs. Despite the benefits of the Magerl technique, there are drawbacks to using this method such as reduction of the C1 and C2 before screw placement. Therefore, other fixation methods such as Goel-Harms and Wright techniques find the solution for the drawbacks of the Magerl technique by adding screws separately to C1 and C2. The FE model implanted with the Wright technique showed the highest maximum stress almost in all load direction.

Keywords: cervical spine, finite element model, atlantoaxial, fixation technique

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412 Forensic Study on Personal Identification of Pakistani Population by Individualizing Characteristics of Footprints

Authors: Muneeba Butt

Abstract:

One of the most important physical evidence which leaves suspects at the crime scene is footprints. Analysis of footprints, which can provide useful information for personal identification, is helpful in crime scene investigation. For the current study, 200 samples collected (144 male and 56 female) from Pakistani population with a consent form. The footprints were collected by using black ink with an ink pad. The entire samples were photographed, and then the magnifying glass was used for visualization of individual characteristics including detail of toes, humps, phalange mark, and flat foot cracks in footprint patterns. The descriptive results of individualizing characteristics features were presented in tabular form with respective frequency and percentage. In the result in the male population, the prevalence of tibialis type (T-type) is highest. In the female population, the prevalence of midularis type (M-type) is highest. Humps on the first toe are more found in the male population rather than other humps. In the female population, humps on the third toe are more found rather than other humps. In the male population, the prevalence of phalange mark by toe 1 is highest followed by toe 3, toe 5, toe 2, toe 4 and in female population the prevalence of phalange mark by toe 1 is highest followed by toe 5, 4, 3 and 2. Creases marks are found highest in male population as compared to the female population.

Keywords: foot prints, toes, humps, cracks

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411 Biochar and Food Security in Central Uganda

Authors: Nataliya Apanovich, Mark Wright

Abstract:

Uganda is among the poorest but fastest growing populations in the world. Its annual population growth of 3% puts additional stress through land fragmentation, agricultural intensification, and deforestation on already highly weathered tropical (Ferralsol) soils. All of these factors lead to decreased agricultural yields and consequently diminished food security. The central region of Uganda, Buganda Kingdom, is especially vulnerable in terms of food security as its high population density coupled with mismanagement of natural resources led to gradual loss of its soil and even changes in microclimate. These changes are negatively affecting livelihoods of smallholder farmers who comprise 80% of all population in Uganda. This research focuses on biochar for soil remediation in Masaka District, Uganda. If produced on a small scale from locally sourced materials, biochar can increase the quality of soil in a cost and time effective manner. To assess biochar potential, 151 smallholder farmers were interviewed on the types of crops grown, agricultural residues produced and their use, as well as on attitudes towards biochar use and its production on a small scale. The interviews were conducted in 7 sub-counties, 32 parishes, and 92 villages. The total farmland covered by the study was 606.2 kilometers. Additional information on the state of agricultural development and environmental degradation in the district was solicited from four local government officials via informal interviews. This project has been conducted in collaboration with the international agricultural research institution, Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda. The results of this research can have implications on the way farmers perceive the value of their agricultural residues and what they decide to do with them. The underlying objective is to help smallholders in degraded soils increase their agricultural yields through the use of biochar without diverting the already established uses of agricultural residues to a new soil management practice.

Keywords: agricultural residues, biochar, central Uganda, food security, soil erosion, soil remediation

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410 Ethnobotanical Medicines for Treating Snakebites among the Indigenous Maya Populations of Belize

Authors: Kerry Hull, Mark Wright

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This paper brings light to ethnobotanical medicines used by the Maya of Belize to treat snake bites. The varying ecological zones of Belize boast over fifty species of snakes, nine of which are poisonous and dangerous to humans. Two distinct Maya groups occupy neighboring regions of Belize, the Q’eqchi’ and the Mopan. With Western medical care often far from their villages, what traditional methods are used to treat poisonous snake bites? Based primarily on data gathered with native consultants during the authors’ fieldwork with both groups, this paper details the ethnobotanical resources used by the Q’eqchi’ and Mopan traditional healers. The Q’eqchi’ and Mopan most commonly rely on traditional ‘bush doctors’ (ilmaj in Mopan), both male and female, and specialized ‘snake doctors’ to heal bites from venomous snakes. First, this paper presents each plant employed by healers for bites for the nine poisonous snakes in Belize along with the specific botanical recipes and methods of application for each remedy. Individual chemical and therapeutic qualities of some of those plants are investigated in an effort to explain their possible medicinal value for different toxins or the symptoms caused by those toxins. In addition, this paper explores mythological associations with certain snakes that inform local understanding regarding which plants are considered efficacious in each case, arguing that numerous oral traditions (recorded by the authors) help to link botanical medicines to episodes within their mythic traditions. Finally, the use of plants to counteract snakebites brought about through sorcery is discussed inasmuch as some snakes are seen as ‘helpers’ of sorcerers. Snake bites given under these circumstances can only be cured by those who know both the proper corresponding plant(s) and ritual prayer(s). This paper provides detailed documentation of traditional ethnomedicines and practices from the dying art of traditional Maya healers and argues for multi-faceted diagnostic techniques to determine toxin severity, the presence or absence of sorcery, and the appropriate botanical remedy.

Keywords: ethnobotany, Maya, medicine, snake bites

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409 Empirical Study of Running Correlations in Exam Marks: Same Statistical Pattern as Chance

Authors: Weisi Guo

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It is well established that there may be running correlations in sequential exam marks due to students sitting in the order of course registration patterns. As such, a random and non-sequential sampling of exam marks is a standard recommended practice. Here, the paper examines a large number of exam data stretching several years across different modules to see the degree to which it is true. Using the real mark distribution as a generative process, it was found that random simulated data had no more sequential randomness than the real data. That is to say, the running correlations that one often observes are statistically identical to chance. Digging deeper, it was found that some high running correlations have students that indeed share a common course history and make similar mistakes. However, at the statistical scale of a module question, the combined effect is statistically similar to the random shuffling of papers. As such, there may not be the need to take random samples for marks, but it still remains good practice to mark papers in a random sequence to reduce the repetitive marking bias and errors.

Keywords: data analysis, empirical study, exams, marking

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408 Using ROVs to Teach a Blended STEM Curriculum

Authors: Geoffrey A. Wright

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Over the past year we have developed and implemented a blended STEM curriculum based on ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) underwater technology with over 300 students in grades 2–9. This paper presents an overview of the curriculum, what we have learned from the development and implementation, with suggestions of how to build a similar statewide ROV program, and how we will continue and enhance the effort this next year with more than 300 additional students. The benefits of the program are the application and blending of STEM principles using inquiry based instruction, where students have shown to increase in STEM self-efficacy and interest.

Keywords: STEM, technology, engineering, ROV

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407 How Much for a Dancer? Culture Policy in Japan and Czech Republic towards Dance

Authors: Lucie Hayashi

Abstract:

This paper offers a view on a different approach towards a dancer´s career in two very dissimilar countries: on one hand Japan, an economic predator at the end of last century, but suffering under economic crisis from the beginning of the new century; and the Czech Republic, a post-communist country, caught up in capitalist fever from the 1990s on the other. The government’s approach towards culture and dance in these two countries not only has a different history and nature, but also presents a different take on the ideal future development in its respective dance scenes. The level of support from the state budget echoes in all the fields of a professional dance career, dance art and the education of the public towards dance. The message of the statistic data is clear: the production of an enormous number of well trained and expensively educated dancers with no jobs for them in Japan, and a lack of good dancers ready to fill state supported theatre companies in the Czech Republic (that gladly employs Japanese dancers). The paradigm leaves a big exclamation mark on the huge influence the policy has on dance in society, and a question mark on the ideal situation.

Keywords: culture policy, dance, education, employment, Czech Republic, Japan

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406 Determination of Critical Organ Doses for Liver Scintigraphy Using Cr-51

Authors: O. Maranci, A. B. Tugrul

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Scintigraphy is an imaging method of nuclear events provoked by collisions or charged current interactions with radiation. It is used for diagnostic test used in nuclear medicine via radiopharmaceuticals emitting radiation which is captured by gamma cameras to form two-dimensional images. Liver scintigraphy is widely used in nuclear medicine.Tc-99m and Cr-51 gamma radioisotopes can be used for this purpose. Cr-51 usage is more important for patients’ organ dose that has higher energy and longer half-life as compared to Tc-99m. In this study, it is aimed to determine the required dose for critical organs of patient through liver scintigraphy via Cr-51 gamma radioisotope. Experimental studies were conducted on patients even though conducting experimental studies on patients is extremely difficult for determination of critical organ doses. Torso phantom was utilized to simulate the liver scintigraphy by using 20 mini packages of Cr-51 that were placed on the organ. The radioisotope was produced by irradiation in central thimble of TRIGA MARK II Reactor at 250 KW power. As the results of the study, critical organ doses were determined and evaluated with different critic organs.

Keywords: critical organ doses, liver, scintigraphy, TRIGA Mark-II

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405 Cost Effective Real-Time Image Processing Based Optical Mark Reader

Authors: Amit Kumar, Himanshu Singal, Arnav Bhavsar

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In this modern era of automation, most of the academic exams and competitive exams are Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ). The responses of these MCQ based exams are recorded in the Optical Mark Reader (OMR) sheet. Evaluation of the OMR sheet requires separate specialized machines for scanning and marking. The sheets used by these machines are special and costs more than a normal sheet. Available process is non-economical and dependent on paper thickness, scanning quality, paper orientation, special hardware and customized software. This study tries to tackle the problem of evaluating the OMR sheet without any special hardware and making the whole process economical. We propose an image processing based algorithm which can be used to read and evaluate the scanned OMR sheets with no special hardware required. It will eliminate the use of special OMR sheet. Responses recorded in normal sheet is enough for evaluation. The proposed system takes care of color, brightness, rotation, little imperfections in the OMR sheet images.

Keywords: OMR, image processing, hough circle trans-form, interpolation, detection, binary thresholding

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404 Development of Instructional Material Using Scientific Approach to Make the Nature of Science (NOS) and Critical Thinking Explicit on Chemical Bonding and Intermolecular Forces Topics

Authors: Ivan Ashif Ardhana, Intan Mahanani

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Chemistry education tends to change from triplet representation among macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic to tetrahedron shape. This change set the aspect of human element on the top of learning. Meaning that students are expected to solve the problems involving the ethic, morality, and humanity through the class. Ability to solve the problems connecting either theories or applications is called scientific literacy which have been implemented in curriculum 2013 implicitly. Scientific literacy has an aspect of nature science and critical thinking. Both can be integrated to learning using scientific approach and scientific inquiry. Unfortunately, students’ ability of scientific literacy in Indonesia is far from expectation. A survey from PISA had proven it. Scientific literacy of Indonesian students is always at bottom five position from 2002 till 2012. Improving a scientific literacy needs many efforts against them. Developing an instructional material based on scientific approach is one kind of that efforts. Instructional material contains both aspect of nature of science and critical thinking which is instructed explicitly to improve the students’ understanding about science. Developing goal is to produce a prototype and an instructional material using scientific approach whose chapter is chemical bonding and intermolecular forces for high school students grade ten. As usual, the material is subjected to get either quantitative mark or suggestion through validation process using validation sheet instrument. Development model is adapted from 4D model containing four steps. They are define, design, develop, and disseminate. Nevertheless, development of instructional material had only done until third step. The final step wasn’t done because of time, cost, and energy limitations. Developed instructional material had been validated by four validators. They are coming from chemistry lecture and high school’s teacher which two at each. The result of this development research shown the average of quantitative mark of students’ book is 92.75% with very proper in criteria. Given at same validation process, teacher’s guiding book got the average mark by 96.98%, similar criteria with students’ book. Qualitative mark including both comments and suggestions resulted from validation process were used as consideration for the revision. The result concluded us how the instructional materials using scientific approach to explicit nature of science and critical thinking on the topic of chemical bonding and intermolecular forces are very proper if they are used at learning activity.

Keywords: critical thinking, instructional material, nature of science, scientific literacy

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403 Medium-Scale Multi-Juice Extractor for Food Processing

Authors: Flordeliza L. Mercado, Teresito G. Aguinaldo, Helen F. Gavino, Victorino T. Taylan

Abstract:

Most fruits and vegetables are available in large quantities during peak season which are oftentimes marketed at low price and left to rot or fed to farm animals. The lack of efficient storage facilities, and the additional cost and unavailability of small machinery for food processing, results to low price and wastage. Incidentally, processed fresh fruits and vegetables are gaining importance nowadays and health conscious people are also into ‘juicing’. One way to reduce wastage and ensure an all-season availability of crop juices at reasonable costs is to develop equipment for effective extraction of juice. The study was conducted to design, fabricate and evaluate a multi-juice extractor using locally available materials, making it relatively cheaper and affordable for medium-scale enterprises. The study was also conducted to formulate juice blends using extracted juices and calamansi juice at different blending percentage, and evaluate its chemical properties and sensory attributes. Furthermore, the chemical properties of extracted meals were evaluated for future applications. The multi-juice extractor has an overall dimension of 963mm x 300mm x 995mm, a gross weight of 82kg and 5 major components namely; feeding hopper, extracting chamber, juice and meal outlet, transmission assembly, and frame. The machine performance was evaluated based on juice recovery, extraction efficiency, extraction rate, extraction recovery, and extraction loss considering type of crop as apple and carrot with three replications each and was analyzed using T-test. The formulated juice blends were subjected to sensory evaluation and data gathered were analyzed using Analysis of Variance appropriate for Complete Randomized Design. Results showed that the machine’s juice recovery (73.39%), extraction rate (16.40li/hr), and extraction efficiency (88.11%) for apple were significantly higher than for carrot while extraction recovery (99.88%) was higher for apple than for carrot. Extraction loss (0.12%) was lower for apple than for carrot, but was not significantly affected by crop. Based on adding percentage mark-up on extraction cost (Php 2.75/kg), the breakeven weight and payback period for a 35% mark-up is 4,710.69kg and 1.22 years, respectively and for a 50% mark-up, the breakeven weight is 3,492.41kg and the payback period is 0.86 year (10.32 months). Results on the sensory evaluation of juice blends showed that the type of juice significantly influenced all the sensory parameters while the blending percentage including their respective interaction, had no significant effect on all sensory parameters, making the apple-calamansi juice blend more preferred than the carrot-calamansi juice blend in terms of all the sensory parameter. The machine’s performance is higher for apple than for carrot and the cost analysis on the use of the machine revealed that it is financially viable with a payback period of 1.22 years (35% mark-up) and 0.86 year (50% mark-up) for machine cost, generating an income of Php 23,961.60 and Php 34,444.80 per year using 35% and 50% mark-up, respectively. The juice blends were of good qualities based on the values obtained in the chemical analysis and the extracted meal could also be used to produce another product based on the values obtained from proximate analysis.

Keywords: food processing, fruits and vegetables, juice extraction, multi-juice extractor

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402 Modelling Asymmetric Magnetic Recording Heads with an Underlayer Using Superposition

Authors: Ammar Edress Mohamed, Mustafa Aziz, David Wright

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This paper analyses and calculates the head fields of asymmetrical 2D magnetic recording heads when the soft-underlayer is present using the appropriate Green's function to derive the surface potential/field by utilising the surface potential for asymmetrical head without underlayer. The results follow closely the corners, while the gap region shows a linear behaviour for d/g < 0.5 compared with the calculated fields from finite-element.

Keywords: magnetic recording, finite elements, asymmetrical magnetic heads, superposition, Laplace's equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
401 Brand Tips of Thai Halal Products

Authors: Pibool Waijittragum

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to analyze the marketing strategies of Thai Halal products which related to the way of life for Thai Muslims. The expected benefit is the marketing strategy for brand building process for Halal products in Thailand. 4 elements of marketing strategies which necessary for the brand identity creation is the research framework: Consists of Attributes, Benefits, Values and Personality. The research methodology was applied using qualitative and quantitative; 19 marketing experts with dynamic roles in Thai consumer products were interviewed. In addition, a field survey of 122 Thai Muslims selected from 175 Muslim communities in Bangkok was studied. Data analysis will be according to 5 categories of Thai Halal product: 1) Meat 2) Vegetable and Fruits 3) Instant foods and Garnishing ingredient 4) Beverages, desserts and snacks 5) Hygienic daily products; such as soap, shampoo and body lotion. The results will explain some suitable representation in the marketing strategies of Thai Halal products as are: 1) Benefit; the characteristics of the product with its benefit. Consumers will purchase this product with the reason of; it is beneficial nutrients product, there are no toxic or chemical residues. Fresh and clean materials 2) Attribute; the exterior images that attract to consumer. Consumers will purchase this product with the reason of; there is a standard proof mark, food and drug secure proof mark and Halal products mark. Packaging and its materials should be draw attention. Use an attractive graphic. Use outstanding images of product, material or ingredients. 3) Value; the value of products that affect to consumers perception; it is healthy products. Accumulate quality of life. It is a product of expertise, manufacturing of research result. Consumers are important. It’s sincere, honest and reliable to all. 4) Personality; reflection of consumers thought. The personality feedback to them after they were consumes this product; they are health care persons. They are the rational person, moral person, justice person and thoughtful person like a progressive thinking.

Keywords: marketing strategies, product identity, branding, Thai Halal products

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400 The Algorithm of Semi-Automatic Thai Spoonerism Words for Bi-Syllable

Authors: Nutthapat Kaewrattanapat, Wannarat Bunchongkien

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The purposes of this research are to study and develop the algorithm of Thai spoonerism words by semi-automatic computer programs, that is to say, in part of data input, syllables are already separated and in part of spoonerism, the developed algorithm is utilized, which can establish rules and mechanisms in Thai spoonerism words for bi-syllables by utilizing analysis in elements of the syllables, namely cluster consonant, vowel, intonation mark and final consonant. From the study, it is found that bi-syllable Thai spoonerism has 1 case of spoonerism mechanism, namely transposition in value of vowel, intonation mark and consonant of both 2 syllables but keeping consonant value and cluster word (if any). From the study, the rules and mechanisms in Thai spoonerism word were applied to develop as Thai spoonerism word software, utilizing PHP program. the software was brought to conduct a performance test on software execution; it is found that the program performs bi-syllable Thai spoonerism correctly or 99% of all words used in the test and found faults on the program at 1% as the words obtained from spoonerism may not be spelling in conformity with Thai grammar and the answer in Thai spoonerism could be more than 1 answer.

Keywords: algorithm, spoonerism, computational linguistics, Thai spoonerism

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399 On the Fractional Integration of Generalized Mittag-Leffler Type Functions

Authors: Christian Lavault

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In this paper, the generalized fractional integral operators of two generalized Mittag-Leffler type functions are investigated. The special cases of interest involve the generalized M-series and K-function, both introduced by Sharma. The two pairs of theorems established herein generalize recent results about left- and right-sided generalized fractional integration operators applied here to the M-series and the K-function. The note also results in important applications in physics and mathematical engineering.

Keywords: Fox–Wright Psi function, generalized hypergeometric function, generalized Riemann– Liouville and Erdélyi–Kober fractional integral operators, Saigo's generalized fractional calculus, Sharma's M-series and K-function

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398 Improving Mathematics and Engineering Interest through Programming

Authors: Geoffrey A. Wright

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In an attempt to address shortcomings revealed in international assessments and lamented in legislation, many schools are reducing or eliminating elective courses, applying the rationale that replacing "non-essential" subjects with core subjects, such as mathematics and language arts, will better position students in the global market. However, there is evidence that systematically pairing a core subject with another complementary subject may lead to greater overall learning in both subjects. In this paper, we outline the methods and preliminary findings from a study we conducted analyzing the influence learning programming has on student mathematical comprehension and ability. The purpose of this research is to demonstrate in what ways two subjects might complement each other, and to better understand the principles and conditions that encourage what we call lateral transfer, the synergistic effect that occurs when a learner studies two complementary subjects.

Keywords: programming, engineering, technology, complementary subjects

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397 The Study of Mirror Self-Recognition in Wildlife

Authors: Azwan Hamdan, Mohd Qayyum Ab Latip, Hasliza Abu Hassim, Tengku Rinalfi Putra Tengku Azizan, Hafandi Ahmad

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Animal cognition provides some evidence for self-recognition, which is described as the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals. The mirror self-recognition (MSR) or mark test is a behavioral technique to determine whether an animal have the ability of self-recognition or self-awareness in front of the mirror. It also describes the capability for an animal to be aware of and make judgments about its new environment. Thus, the objectives of this study are to measure and to compare the ability of wild and captive wildlife in mirror self-recognition. Wild animals from the Royal Belum Rainforest Malaysia were identified based on the animal trails and salt lick grounds. Acrylic mirrors with wood frame (200 x 250cm) were located near to animal trails. Camera traps (Bushnell, UK) with motion-detection infrared sensor are placed near the animal trails or hiding spot. For captive wildlife, animals such as Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) were selected from Zoo Negara Malaysia. The captive animals were also marked using odorless and non-toxic white paint on its forehead. An acrylic mirror with wood frame (200 x 250cm) and a video camera were placed near the cage. The behavioral data were analyzed using ethogram and classified through four stages of MSR; social responses, physical inspection, repetitive mirror-testing behavior and realization of seeing themselves. Results showed that wild animals such as barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) increased their physical inspection (e.g inspecting the reflected image) and repetitive mirror-testing behavior (e.g rhythmic head and leg movement). This would suggest that the ability to use a mirror is most likely related to learning process and cognitive evolution in wild animals. However, the sun bear’s behaviors were inconsistent and did not clearly undergo four stages of MSR. This result suggests that when keeping Malayan sun bear in captivity, it may promote communication and familiarity between conspecific. Interestingly, chimp has positive social response (e.g manipulating lips) and physical inspection (e.g using hand to inspect part of the face) when they facing a mirror. However, both animals did not show any sign towards the mark due to lost of interest in the mark and realization that the mark is inconsequential. Overall, the results suggest that the capacity for MSR is the beginning of a developmental process of self-awareness and mental state attribution. In addition, our findings show that self-recognition may be based on different complex neurological and level of encephalization in animals. Thus, research on self-recognition in animals will have profound implications in understanding the cognitive ability of an animal as an effort to help animals, such as enhanced management, design of captive individuals’ enclosures and exhibits, and in programs to re-establish populations of endangered or threatened species.

Keywords: mirror self-recognition (MSR), self-recognition, self-awareness, wildlife

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396 Impact of Coal Mining on River Sediment Quality in the Sydney Basin, Australia

Authors: A. Ali, V. Strezov, P. Davies, I. Wright, T. Kan

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The environmental impacts arising from mining activities affect the air, water, and soil quality. Impacts may result in unexpected and adverse environmental outcomes. This study reports on the impact of coal production on sediment in Sydney region of Australia. The sediment samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from three mines were taken, and 80 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against sediment quality based on presence of metals. The study revealed the increment of metal content in the sediment downstream of the reference locations. In many cases, the sediment was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international sediment quality guidelines value (SQGV). The major outliers to the guidelines were nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn).

Keywords: coal mine, environmental impact, produced water, sediment quality guidelines value (SQGV)

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395 Primary Cryptococcal Pneumonia in an HIV Positive Filipino Patient

Authors: Mark Andrew Tu, Raymond Olazo, Cybele Abad

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Cryptococcosis is an invasive infection most commonly found in patients who are immuno compromised. However, patients with this infection usually present with meningitis and rarely pulmonary infection in isolation. We present a case of a Filipino HIV patient who developed cryptococcal pneumonia without meningitis.

Keywords: Cryptococcal Pneumonia, HIV, Filipino, immune system

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394 Corruption in the Financial Services Industry: Is Regulation the Panacea?

Authors: Maria Krambia-Kapardis, Elisavet Charalambous

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Corruption has given rise to extensive discussion due to its notorious consequences. It undermines democracy, brings in inequalities and imbalances and weakens governance. With the recent financial turmoil pinpointing that corruption has played a vital part, lessons have to be learned and actions have to be taken. Regulation can be the means for doing so as it advances transparency and accountability, leaving no space for corruption to flourish. Much depends though on the culture of a state and how determined it is to mark the end of corruption.

Keywords: banking regulation, corruption, culture, European Union

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393 Stress and Rhythm in the Educated Nigerian Accent of English

Authors: Nkereke M. Essien

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The intention of this paper is to examine stress in the Educated Nigerian Accent of English (ENAE) with the aim of analyzing stress and rhythmic patterns of Nigerian English. Our aim also is to isolate differences and similarities in the stress patterns studied and also know what forms the accent of these Educated Nigerian English (ENE) which marks them off from other groups or English’s of the world, to ascertain and characterize it and to provide documented evidence for its existence. Nigerian stress and rhythmic patterns are significantly different from the British English stress and rhythmic patterns consequently, the educated Nigerian English (ENE) features more stressed syllables than the native speakers’ varieties. The excessive stressed of syllables causes a contiguous “Ss” in the rhythmic flow of ENE, and this brings about a “jerky rhythm’ which distorts communication. To ascertain this claim, ten (10) Nigerian speakers who are educated in the English Language were selected by a stratified Random Sampling technique from two Federal Universities in Nigeria. This classification belongs to the education to the educated class or standard variety. Their performance was compared to that of a Briton (control). The Metrical system of analysis was used. The respondents were made to read some words and utterance which was recorded and analyzed perceptually, statistically and acoustically using the one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The Turky-Kramer Post Hoc test, the Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed Ranks test, and the Praat analysis software were used in the analysis. It was revealed from our findings that the Educated Nigerian English speakers feature more stressed syllables in their productions by spending more time in pronouncing stressed syllables and sometimes lesser time in pronouncing the unstressed syllables. Their overall tempo was faster. The ENE speakers used tone to mark prominence while the native speaker used stress to mark pronounce, typified by the control. We concluded that the stress pattern of the ENE speakers was significantly different from the native speaker’s variety represented by the control’s performance.

Keywords: accent, Nigerian English, rhythm, stress

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392 Novel Framework for MIMO-Enhanced Robust Selection of Critical Control Factors in Auto Plastic Injection Moulding Quality Optimization

Authors: Seyed Esmail Seyedi Bariran, Khairul Salleh Mohamed Sahari

Abstract:

Apparent quality defects such as warpage, shrinkage, weld line, etc. are such an irresistible phenomenon in mass production of auto plastic appearance parts. These frequently occurred manufacturing defects should be satisfied concurrently so as to achieve a final product with acceptable quality standards. Determining the significant control factors that simultaneously affect multiple quality characteristics can significantly improve the optimization results by eliminating the deviating effect of the so-called ineffective outliers. Hence, a robust quantitative approach needs to be developed upon which major control factors and their level can be effectively determined to help improve the reliability of the optimal processing parameter design. Hence, the primary objective of current study was to develop a systematic methodology for selection of significant control factors (SCF) relevant to multiple quality optimization of auto plastic appearance part. Auto bumper was used as a specimen with the most identical quality and production characteristics to APAP group. A preliminary failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) was conducted to nominate a database of pseudo significant significant control factors prior to the optimization phase. Later, CAE simulation Moldflow analysis was implemented to manipulate four rampant plastic injection quality defects concerned with APAP group including warpage deflection, volumetric shrinkage, sink mark and weld line. Furthermore, a step-backward elimination searching method (SESME) has been developed for systematic pre-optimization selection of SCF based on hierarchical orthogonal array design and priority-based one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The development of robust parameter design in the second phase was based on DOE module powered by Minitab v.16 statistical software. Based on the F-test (F 0.05, 2, 14) one-way ANOVA results, it was concluded that for warpage deflection, material mixture percentage was the most significant control factor yielding a 58.34% of contribution while for the other three quality defects, melt temperature was the most significant control factor with a 25.32%, 84.25%, and 34.57% contribution for sin mark, shrinkage and weld line strength control. Also, the results on the he least significant control factors meaningfully revealed injection fill time as the least significant factor for both warpage and sink mark with respective 1.69% and 6.12% contribution. On the other hand, for shrinkage and weld line defects, the least significant control factors were holding pressure and mold temperature with a 0.23% and 4.05% overall contribution accordingly.

Keywords: plastic injection moulding, quality optimization, FMEA, ANOVA, SESME, APAP

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391 Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG)

Authors: María González Alriols, Itziar Egües, María A. Andrés, Mirari Antxustegi

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Several collaborative learning proposals were prepared to be applied in the laboratory sessions of chemistry in the first course of engineering studies. The aim was to engage the students from the beginning and to avoid absenteeism as well as to reach a more homogeneous level in the class. The students, divided into small groups of four or five mates, were asked to do an exercise before having the practical session in the lab. Precisely, each one of the groups was asked to study the theoretical fundamentals and the practical aspects of one lab session and to prepare a didactical video with this content, including the materials, equipment and reactants required, and the detailed experimental procedure. Furthermore, they should include the performance of the experiment step by step, indicating the faced difficulties and the obtained results and conclusions. After watching the video of this precise activity, the other groups of students would go to the lab to put into practice the session following the commands explained in the video. The evaluation of the video activity that is worth the 50% of the total mark of the laboratory sessions, is done depending on the success that the other groups of students had while doing the practical session that was explained in the video. This means that the successful transmission of knowledge to the rest of the mates in the class through the video was compulsory to pass the practical sessions and the subject. The other 50% of the mark depended on the understanding of the other students’ explanations and the success in the corresponding practical sessions. The experience was found to be very positive, as the engagement level was considerably higher, the absenteeism lower and the attitude in the laboratory much more responsible. The materials, reactants and equipment were used carefully, and no incidents were registered. Furthermore, the fact of having peer experts was useful to encourage critical thinking in a more relaxed way, with the teacher figure in a secondary position. Finally, the academic achievements were satisfactory as well, with a high percentage of students over the level required for passing the subject.

Keywords: collaborative learning, engineering instruction, chemistry, laboratory sessions

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390 Gender Construction in Contemporary Dystopian Fiction in Young Adult Literature: A South African Example

Authors: Johan Anker

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The purpose of this paper is to discuss the nature of gender construction in modern dystopian fiction, the development of this genre in Young Adult Literature and reasons for the enormous appeal on the adolescent readers. A recent award winning South African text in this genre, The Mark by Edith Bullring (2014), will be used as example while also comparing this text to international bestsellers like Divergent (Roth:2011), The Hunger Games (Collins:2008) and others. Theoretical insights from critics and academics in the field of children’s literature, like Ames, Coats, Bradford, Booker, Basu, Green-Barteet, Hintz, McAlear, McCallum, Moylan, Ostry, Ryan, Stephens and Westerfield will be referred to and their insights used as part of the analysis of The Mark. The role of relevant and recurring themes in this genre, like global concerns, environmental destruction, liberty, self-determination, social and political critique, surveillance and repression by the state or other institutions will also be referred to. The paper will shortly refer to the history and emergence of dystopian literature as genre in adult and young adult literature as part of the long tradition since the publishing of Orwell’s 1984 and Huxley’s Brave New World. Different factors appeal to adolescent readers in the modern versions of this hybrid genre for young adults: teenage protagonists who are questioning the underlying values of a flawed society like an inhuman or tyrannical government, a growing understanding of the society around them, feelings of isolation and the dynamic of relationships. This unease leads to a growing sense of the potential to act against society (rebellion), and of their role as agents in a larger community and independent decision-making abilities. This awareness also leads to a growing sense of self (identity and agency) and the development of romantic relationships. The specific modern tendency of a female protagonist as leader in the rebellion against state and state apparatus, who gains in agency and independence in this rebellion, an important part of the identification with and construction of gender, while being part of the traditional coming-of-age young adult novel will be emphasized. A comparison between the traditional themes, structures and plots of young adult literature (YAL) with adult dystopian literature and those of recent dystopian YAL will be made while the hybrid nature of this genre and the 'sense of unease' but also of hope, as an essential part of youth literature, in the closure to these novels will be discussed. Important questions about the role of the didactic nature of these texts and the political issues and the importance of the formation of agency and identity for the young adult reader, as well as identification with the protagonists in this genre, are also part of this discussion of The Mark and other YAL novels.

Keywords: agency, dystopian literature, gender construction, young adult literature

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389 Language Politics and Identity in Translation: From a Monolingual Text to Multilingual Text in Chinese Translations

Authors: Chu-Ching Hsu

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This paper focuses on how the government-led language policies and the political changes in Taiwan manipulate the languages choice in translations and what translation strategies are employed by the translator to show his or her language ideology behind the power struggles and decision-making. Therefore, framed by Lefevere’s theoretical concept of translating as rewriting, and carried out a diachronic and chronological study, this paper specifically sets out to investigate the language ideology and translator’s idiolect of Chinese language translations of Anglo-American novels. The examples drawn to explore these issues were taken from different versions of Chinese renditions of Mark Twain’s English-language novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in which there are several different dialogues originally written in the colloquial language and dialect used in the American state of Mississippi and reproduced in Mark Twain’s works. Also, adapted corpus methodology, many examples are extracted as instances from the translated texts and source text, to illuminate how the translators in Taiwan deal with the dialectal features encoded in Twain’s works, and how different versions of Chinese translations are employed by Taiwanese translators to confirm the language polices and to express their language identity textually in different periods of the past five decades, from the 1960s onward. The finding of this study suggests that the use of Taiwanese dialect and language patterns in translations does relate to the movement of the mother-tongue language and language ideology of the translator as well as to the issue of language identity raised in the island of Taiwan. Furthermore, this study confirms that the change of political power in Taiwan does bring significantly impact in language policy-- assimilationism, pluralism or multiculturalism, which also makes Taiwan from a monolingual to multilingual society, where the language ideology and identity can be revealed not only in people’s daily communication but also in written translations.

Keywords: language politics and policies, literary translation, mother-tongue, multiculturalism, translator’s ideology

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388 Model of Transhipment and Routing Applied to the Cargo Sector in Small and Medium Enterprises of Bogotá, Colombia

Authors: Oscar Javier Herrera Ochoa, Ivan Dario Romero Fonseca

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This paper presents a design of a model for planning the distribution logistics operation. The significance of this work relies on the applicability of this fact to the analysis of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of dry freight in Bogotá. Two stages constitute this implementation: the first one is the place where optimal planning is achieved through a hybrid model developed with mixed integer programming, which considers the transhipment operation based on a combined load allocation model as a classic transshipment model; the second one is the specific routing of that operation through the heuristics of Clark and Wright. As a result, an integral model is obtained to carry out the step by step planning of the distribution of dry freight for SMEs in Bogotá. In this manner, optimum assignments are established by utilizing transshipment centers with that purpose of determining the specific routing based on the shortest distance traveled.

Keywords: transshipment model, mixed integer programming, saving algorithm, dry freight transportation

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387 Fundamental Solutions for Discrete Dynamical Systems Involving the Fractional Laplacian

Authors: Jorge Gonzalez Camus, Valentin Keyantuo, Mahamadi Warma

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In this work, we obtain representation results for solutions of a time-fractional differential equation involving the discrete fractional Laplace operator in terms of generalized Wright functions. Such equations arise in the modeling of many physical systems, for example, chain processes in chemistry and radioactivity. The focus is on the linear problem of the simplified Moore - Gibson - Thompson equation, where the discrete fractional Laplacian and the Caputo fractional derivate of order on (0,2] are involved. As a particular case, we obtain the explicit solution for the discrete heat equation and discrete wave equation. Furthermore, we show the explicit solution for the equation involving the perturbed Laplacian by the identity operator. The main tool for obtaining the explicit solution are the Laplace and discrete Fourier transforms, and Stirling's formula. The methodology mainly is to apply both transforms in the equation, to find the inverse of each transform, and to prove that this solution is well defined, using Stirling´s formula.

Keywords: discrete fractional Laplacian, explicit representation of solutions, fractional heat and wave equations, fundamental

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386 Cognitivism in Classical Japanese Art and Literature: The Cognitive Value of Haiku and Zen Painting

Authors: Benito Garcia-Valero

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This paper analyses the cognitivist value of traditional Japanese theories about aesthetics, art, and literature. These reflections were developed several centuries before actual Cognitive Studies, which started in the seventies of the last century. A comparative methodology is employed to shed light on the similarities between traditional Japanese conceptions about art and current cognitivist principles. The Japanese texts to be compared are Zeami’s treatise on noh art, Okura Toraaki’s Waranbe-gusa on kabuki theatre, and several Buddhist canonical texts about wisdom and knowledge, like the Prajnaparamitahrdaya or Heart Sutra. Japanese contemporary critical sources on these works are also referred, like Nishida Kitaro’s reflections on Zen painting or Ichikawa Hiroshi’s analysis of body/mind dualism in Japanese physical practices. Their ideas are compared with cognitivist authors like George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, Mark Turner and Margaret Freeman. This comparative review reveals the anticipatory ideas of Japanese thinking on body/mind interrelationship, which agrees with cognitivist criticism against dualism, since both elucidate the physical grounds acting upon the formation of concepts and schemes during the production of knowledge. It also highlights the necessity of recovering ancient Japanese treatises on cognition to continue enlightening current research on art and literature. The artistic examples used to illustrate the theory are Sesshu’s Zen paintings and Basho’s classical haiku poetry. Zen painting is an excellent field to demonstrate how monk artists conceived human perception and guessed the active role of beholders during the contemplation of art. On the other hand, some haikus by Matsuo Basho aim at factoring subjectivity out from artistic praxis, which constitutes an ideal of illumination that cannot be achieved using art, due to the embodied nature of perception; a constraint consciously explored by the poet himself. These ideas consolidate the conclusions drawn today by cognitivism about the interrelation between subject and object and the concept of intersubjectivity.

Keywords: cognitivism, dualism, haiku, Zen painting

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385 The Way Digitized Lectures and Film Presence Coaching Impact Academic Identity: An Expert Facilitated Participatory Action Research Case Study

Authors: Amanda Burrell, Tonia Gary, David Wright, Kumara Ward

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This paper explores the concept of academic identity as it relates to the lecture, in particular, the digitized lecture delivered to a camera, in the absence of a student audience. Many academics have the performance aspect of the role thrust upon them with little or no training. For the purpose of this study, we look at the performance of the academic identity and examine tailored film presence coaching for its contributions toward academic identity, specifically in relation to feelings of self-confidence and diminishment of discomfort or stage fright. The case is articulated through the lens of scholar-practitioners, using expert facilitated participatory action research. It demonstrates in our sample of experienced academics, all reported some feelings of uncertainty about presenting lectures to camera prior to coaching. We share how power poses and reframing fear, produced improvements in the ease and competency of all participants. We share exactly how this insight could be adapted for self-coaching by any academic when called to present to a camera and consider the relationship between this and academic identity.

Keywords: academic identity, digitized lecture, embodied learning, performance coaching

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