Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 200

Search results for: typhoid fever

200 An Unusual Occurrence: Typhoid Retinitis with Kyrieleis' Vasculitis

Authors: Aditya Sethi, Vaibhav Sethi, Shenouda Girgis

Abstract:

We present a case of a 31-year-old female who presented with a three week history of left eye blurry vision following a fever. She was diagnosed with Typhoid fever, confirmed by a positive Widal test report. On examination, her best corrected visual acuity in the right eye was 20/20 and in the left eye was 20/60. Fundus examination of the right eye showed a focal area of retinitis with retinal haemorrhages along the superior arcade within the macula. There was also focal area of retinitis with superficial retinal haemorrhages along the superior arcade vessels. There was also presence of multiple yellowish white exudates within the adjacent retinal artery arranged in a beaded pattern, suggestive of Kyrieleis' vasculitis. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) of the left eye demonstrated cystoid macula edema with serous foveal detachment.

Keywords: typhoid retinitis, Kyrieleis’ vasculitis, immune-mediated retinitis, post-fever retinitis, typhoid retinopathy, retinitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
199 Risk Factors for Severe Typhoid Fever in Children: A French Retrospective Study about 78 Cases from 2000-2017 in Six Parisian Hospitals

Authors: Jonathan Soliman, Thomas Cavasino, Virginie Pommelet, Lahouari Amor, Pierre Mornand, Simon Escoda, Nina Droz, Soraya Matczak, Julie Toubiana, François Angoulvant, Etienne Carbonnelle, Albert Faye, Loic de Pontual, Luu-Ly Pham

Abstract:

Background: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are systemic infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or paratyphi (A, B, C). Children traveling to tropical areas are at risk to contract these diseases which can be complicated. Methods: Clinical, biological and bacteriological data were collected from 78 pediatric cases reported between 2000 and 2017 in six Parisian hospitals. Children aged 0 to 18 years old, with a diagnosis of typhoid or paratyphoid fever confirmed by bacteriological exams, were included. Epidemiologic, clinical, biological features and presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria or intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (nalidixic acid resistant) were examined by univariate analysis and by logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors of severe typhoid in children. Results: 84,6% of the children were imported cases of typhoid fever (n=66/78) and 15,4% were autochthonous cases (n=12/78). 89,7% were caused by S.typhi (n=70/78) and 12,8% by S.paratyphi (n=10/78) including 2 co-infections. 19,2% were intrafamilial cases (n=15/78). Median age at diagnosis was 6,4 years-old [6 months-17,9 years]. 28,2% of the cases were complicated forms (n=22/78): digestive (n=8; 10,3%), neurological (n=7; 9%), pulmonary complications (n=4; 5,1%) and hemophagocytic syndrome (n=4; 5,1%). Only 5% of the children had prior immunization with typhoid non-conjugated vaccine (n=4/78). 28% of the cases (n=22/78) were caused by resistant bacteria. Thrombocytopenia and diagnosis delay was significantly associated with severe infection (p= 0.029 and p=0,01). Complicated forms were more common with MDR (p=0,1) and not statistically associated with a young age or sex in this study. Conclusions: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are not rare in children back from tropical areas. This multicentric pediatric study seems to show that thrombocytopenia, diagnosis delay, and multidrug resistant bacteria are associated with severe typhoid fever and complicated forms in children.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, children, Salmonella enterica typhi and paratyphi, severe typhoid

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198 Evaluation of Anti-Typhoid Effects of Azadirachta indica L. Fractions

Authors: A. Adetutu, T. M. Awodugba, O. A. Owoade

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The development of resistance to currently known conventional anti-typhoid drugs has necessitated search into cheap, more potent and less toxic anti-typhoid drugs of plant origin. Therefore, this study investigated the anti-typhoid activity of fractions of A. indica in Salmonella typhi infected rats. Leaves of A. indica were extracted in methanol and fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate, and aqueous fractions. The anti-salmonella potentials of fractions of A. indica were assessed via in-vitro inhibition of S. typhi using agar well diffusion, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and biofilm assays. The biochemical and haematological parameters were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The histological analysis was performed using Haematoxylin and Eosin staining methods. Data analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA. Results of this study showed that S. typhi was sensitive to aqueous and chloroform fractions of A. indica, and the fractions showed biofilm inhibition at concentrations of 12.50, 1.562, and 0.39 mg/mL. In the in-vivo study, the extract and chloroform fraction had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the number of viable S. typhi recovered from the blood and stopped salmonellosis after 6 days of treatment of rats at 500 mg/kg b.w. Treatments of infected rats with chloroform and aqueous fractions of A. indica normalized the haematological parameters in the animals. Similarly, treatment with fractions of the plants sustained a normal antioxidant status when compared with the normal control group. Chloroform and ethyl-acetate fractions of A. indica reversed the liver and intestinal degeneration induced by S. typhi infection in rats. The present investigation indicated that the aqueous and chloroform fractions of A. indica showed the potential to provide an effective treatment for salmonellosis, including typhoid fever. The results of the study may justify the ethno-medicinal use of the extract in traditional medicine for the treatment of typhoid and salmonella infections.

Keywords: Azadirachta indica L, salmonella, typhoid, leave fractions

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197 Ethnobotanical and Laboratory Investigations of Plants Used for the Treatment of Typhoid Fever in Gombe State, North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Abubakar Bello Usman, Alhassan Muhammad Gani, Kolo Ibrahim

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The use of botanical raw materials to produce pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, teas, spirits, cosmetics, sweets, dietary supplements, special industrial compounds and crude materials constitute an important global resource in terms of healthcare and economy. In Nigeria and other developing countries, the indigenous knowledge on the uses of plants lies with the older generation and the traditional healers. However, these custodians are decreasing in number due to death and other unforeseen occurrences. An Ethno-botanical survey was carried out to obtain information on the ethno medical values of wide range of plants used by the people of Gombe State, North-Eastern Nigeria, in the practice of healing and cure of typhoid (enteric) fever. Oral interviews were conducted so as to consider those with low literacy level who are involved in the practice of traditional medicine and thirty four (34) informants availed themselves for the interview and were consulted. All relevant information obtained from the respondents was recorded. A recent and valid nomenclature, along with local names, family names, part of the plant(s) used, methods of preparation and administration and fifty four (54) plant species belonging to 27 families as well as 7 unidentified species that are commonly used by the people of the state in ethnomedical treatment of the ailment were tabulated. Those interviewed included traditional practitioners, local herb sellers, traditional rulers, hunters, farmers and patients. Specific questions were asked and information supplied by informants was promptly documented. Results showed that the people of Gombe State are knowledgeable on herbal medicine in the treatment of diseases and ailments. Furthermore, the aqueous leaf extracts of Senna siamea, the plant species with the highest PPK (percentage of people who have knowledge about the use of a species for treating typhoid fever) in this ethnobotanical survey, was tested for its activity against clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi using the agar well diffusion method. The aqueous extracts showed some activity (zones of inhibition 11, 9, 7.5, 3.5, 1.3 mm) at 2000, 1800, 1600, 1400, 1200 µg/ml concentrations respectively. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the aqueous leaf extracts of the plant revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. Though a large number of traditionally used plants for the treatment of enteric fever were identified, further scientific validation of the traditional claims of anti-typhoid properties is imperative. This would establish their candidature for any possible future research for active principles and the possible development of new cheaper and more effective anti-typhoid drugs, as well as in the conservation of this rich diversity of medicinal plants.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, ethnobotany, gombe state, north-eastern Nigeria, phytochemical screening, senna siamea, typhoid fever

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196 Description of Reported Foodborne Diseases in Selected Communities within the Greater Accra Region-Ghana: Epidemiological Review of Surveillance Data

Authors: Benjamin Osei-Tutu, Henrietta Awewole Kolson

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Background: Acute gastroenteritis is one of the frequently reported Out-Patient Department (OPD) cases. However, the causative pathogens of these cases are rarely identified at the OPD due to delay in laboratory results or failure to obtain specimens before antibiotics is administered. Method: A retrospective review of surveillance data from the Adentan Municipality, Accra, Ghana that were recorded in the National foodborne disease surveillance system of Ghana, was conducted with the main aim of describing the epidemiology and food practice of cases reported from the Adentan Municipality. The study involved a retrospective review of surveillance data kept on patients who visited health facilities that are involved in foodborne disease surveillance in Ghana, from January 2015 to December 2016. Results: A total of 375 cases were reviewed and these were classified as viral hepatitis (hepatitis A and E), cholera (Vibrio cholerae), dysentery (Shigella sp.), typhoid fever (Salmonella sp.) or gastroenteritis. Cases recorded were all suspected case and the average cases recorded per week was 3. Typhoid fever and dysentery were the two main clinically diagnosed foodborne illnesses. The highest number of cases were observed during the late dry season (Feb to April), which marks the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season. Relatively high number of cases was also observed during the late wet seasons (Jul to Oct) when the rainfall is the heaviest. Home-made food and street vended food were the major sources of suspected etiological food, recording 49.01% and 34.87% of the cases respectively. Conclusion: Majority of cases recorded were classified as gastroenteritis due to the absence of laboratory confirmation. Few cases were classified as typhoid fever and dysentery based on clinical symptoms presented. Patients reporting with foodborne diseases were found to consume home meal and street vended foods as their predominant source of food.

Keywords: accra, etiologic food, food poisoning, gastroenteritis, illness, surveillance

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195 Risk Factors for Postoperative Fever in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Fusion

Authors: Bang Haeyong

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Purpose: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for postoperative fever after lumbar fusion. Methods: This study was a retrospective chart review of 291 patients who underwent lumbar fusion between March 2015 and February 2016 at the Asan Medical Center. Information was extracted from electronic medical records. Postoperative fever was measured at Tmax > 37.7 ℃ and Tmax > 38.3 ℃. The presence of postoperative fever, blood culture, urinary excretion, and/or chest x-ray were evaluated. Patients were evaluated for infection after lumbar fusion. Results: We found 222 patients (76.3%) had a postoperative temperature of 37.7 ℃, and 162 patients (55.7%) had a postoperative temperature of 38.3 ℃ or higher. The percentage of febrile patients trended down following the mean 1.8days (from the first postoperative day to seventh postoperative day). Infection rate was 9 patients (3.1%), respiratory virus (1.7%), urinary tract infection (0.3%), phlebitis (0.3%), and surgical site infection (1.4%). There was no correlation between Tmax > 37.7℃ or Tmax > 38.3℃, and timing of fever, positive blood or urine cultures, pneumonia, or surgical site infection. Risk factors for increased postoperative fever following surgery were confirmed to be delay of defecation (OR=1.37, p=.046), and shorten of remove drainage (OR=0.66, p=.037). Conclusions: The incidence of fever was 76.3% after lumbar fusion and the drainage time was faster in the case of fever. It was thought that the bleeding was absorbed at the operation site and fever occurred. The prevalence of febrile septicemia was higher in patients with long bowel movements before surgery than after surgery. Clinical symptoms should be considered because postoperative fever cannot be determined by fever alone because fever and infection are not significant.

Keywords: lumbar surgery, fever, postoperative, risk factor

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194 Haemoperitoneum in a Case of Dengue Fever

Authors: Sagarjyoti Roy

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Dengue is an arboviral infection, belonging to family flaviviridae, comprising of four serotypes; DENV1, DENV2, DENV3 and DENV4. All four serotypes are capable of causing full-spectrum of clinical features, ranging from self-limiting fever to severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Complications may affect any organ system, including those involving gastrointestinal system and serositis. We report a case, of a 28 years, non-alcoholic male, presenting with a 7 day history of fever and malaise followed by abdominal pain and distension, from 4th day of fever. He was admitted in medicine department of RG KAR medical college hospital. Dengue fever was confirmed by NS1 and dengue IgM positivity. Platelet count was 30,000/cc (1.5- 4 lac/cc) and haematocrit was 52% (38- 50% for men). Clinicoradiological findings revealed bilateral pleural effusion, ascites and splenomegaly. Ascitic fluid was hemorrhagic in nature, with a high protein and RBC content. Liver function tests revealed mild transaminitis with normal coagulation profile. Patient was managed conservatively. A diagnosis of dengue fever complicated by serositis and spontaneous haemoperitoneum was made. The symptoms subsided after a hospital stay of 10 days. The case highlights haemorrhage into peritoneal cavity as a possible complication of dengue fever. Although a definite explanation requires more detailed studies, platelet or endothelial cell dysfunction might be contributory.

Keywords: ascites, dengue, haemoperitoneum, serositis

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
193 Soft Computing Approach for Diagnosis of Lassa Fever

Authors: Roseline Oghogho Osaseri, Osaseri E. I.

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Lassa fever is an epidemic hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus, an extremely virulent arena virus. This highly fatal disorder kills 10% to 50% of its victims, but those who survive its early stages usually recover and acquire immunity to secondary attacks. One of the major challenges in giving proper treatment is lack of fast and accurate diagnosis of the disease due to multiplicity of symptoms associated with the disease which could be similar to other clinical conditions and makes it difficult to diagnose early. This paper proposed an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for the prediction of Lass Fever. In the design of the diagnostic system, four main attributes were considered as the input parameters and one output parameter for the system. The input parameters are Temperature on admission (TA), White Blood Count (WBC), Proteinuria (P) and Abdominal Pain (AP). Sixty-one percent of the datasets were used in training the system while fifty-nine used in testing. Experimental results from this study gave a reliable and accurate prediction of Lassa fever when compared with clinically confirmed cases. In this study, we have proposed Lassa fever diagnostic system to aid surgeons and medical healthcare practictionals in health care facilities who do not have ready access to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) diagnosis to predict possible Lassa fever infection.

Keywords: anfis, lassa fever, medical diagnosis, soft computing

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192 Eosinopenia: Marker for Early Diagnosis of Enteric Fever

Authors: Swati Kapoor, Rajeev Upreti, Monica Mahajan, Abhaya Indrayan, Dinesh Srivastava

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Enteric Fever is caused by gram negative bacilli Salmonella typhi and paratyphi. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Timely initiation of treatment is a crucial step for prevention of any complications. Cultures of body fluids are diagnostic, but not always conclusive or practically feasible in most centers. Moreover, the results of cultures delay the treatment initiation. Serological tests lack diagnostic value. The blood counts can offer a promising option in diagnosis. A retrospective study to find out the relevance of leucopenia and eosinopenia was conducted on 203 culture proven enteric fever patients and 159 culture proven non-enteric fever patients in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. The patient details were retrieved from the electronic medical records section of the hospital. Absolute eosinopenia was considered as absolute eosinophil count (AEC) of less than 40/mm³ (normal level: 40-400/mm³) using LH-750 Beckman Coulter Automated machine. Leucopoenia was defined as total leucocyte count (TLC) of less than 4 X 10⁹/l. Blood cultures were done using BacT/ALERT FA plus automated blood culture system before first antibiotic dose was given. Case and control groups were compared using Pearson Chi square test. It was observed that absolute eosinophil count (AEC) of 0-19/mm³ was a significant finding (p < 0.001) in enteric fever patients, whereas leucopenia was not a significant finding (p=0.096). Using Receiving Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, it was observed that patients with both AEC < 14/mm³ and TCL < 8 x 10⁹/l had 95.6% chance of being diagnosed as enteric fever and only 4.4% chance of being diagnosed as non-enteric fever. This result was highly significant with p < 0.001. This is a very useful association of AEC and TLC found in enteric fever patients of this study which can be used for the early initiation of treatment in clinically suspected enteric fever patients.

Keywords: absolute eosinopenia, absolute eosinophil count, enteric fever, leucopenia, total leucocyte count

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191 Spatial Point Process Analysis of Dengue Fever in Tainan, Taiwan

Authors: Ya-Mei Chang

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This research is intended to apply spatio-temporal point process methods to the dengue fever data in Tainan. The spatio-temporal intensity function of the dataset is assumed to be separable. The kernel estimation is a widely used approach to estimate intensity functions. The intensity function is very helpful to study the relation of the spatio-temporal point process and some covariates. The covariate effects might be nonlinear. An nonparametric smoothing estimator is used to detect the nonlinearity of the covariate effects. A fitted parametric model could describe the influence of the covariates to the dengue fever. The correlation between the data points is detected by the K-function. The result of this research could provide useful information to help the government or the stakeholders making decisions.

Keywords: dengue fever, spatial point process, kernel estimation, covariate effect

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190 Ethnomedicinal Assets of Plants Collected from Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria

Authors: Enock E. Goler, Emmanuel H. Kwon-Ndung, Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Terna T. Paul, Markus Musa, Joshua I. Waya, James H. Okogbaa

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An ethno-medicinal survey of plants used in treating various diseases and ailments was carried out in the study area of Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria to obtain information on their uses and potentials. The ethno-medicinal survey was administered through structured questionnaires among local inhabitants from areas with high plant density and diversity within the various Local Government Areas of the State. A total of 84 (Eighty four) plant species belonging to 45 (Forty five) families were found to be useful in treatment of various ailments such as diabetes, measles, fever, asthma, jaundice, pneumonia, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), aches, diarrhea, cough, arthritis, yellow fever, typhoid, erectile dysfunction and excessive bleeding. Different parts of the plant such as the roots, leaves and stems are used in preparing herbal remedies which could be from dry or freshly collected plants. The main methods of preparation are decoction or infusion, while in some cases the plant parts used are consumed directly. Residents in the study areas find the herbal remedy cheaper and more accessible and claimed that there are no side effects compared to orthodox medicine. This study has confirmed the need towards the conscious conservation of plant genetic resources in order to ensure sustained access to these ethno-medicinal plant materials.

Keywords: ethno-medicinal, Nasarawa, plants, survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
189 The Study of Dengue Fever Outbreak in Thailand Using Geospatial Techniques, Satellite Remote Sensing Data and Big Data

Authors: Tanapat Chongkamunkong

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The objective of this paper is to present a practical use of Geographic Information System (GIS) to the public health from spatial correlation between multiple factors and dengue fever outbreak. Meteorological factors, demographic factors and environmental factors are compiled using GIS techniques along with the Global Satellite Mapping Remote Sensing (RS) data. We use monthly dengue fever cases, population density, precipitation, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data. The scope cover study area under climate change of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicated by sea surface temperature (SST) and study area in 12 provinces of Thailand as remote sensing (RS) data from January 2007 to December 2014.

Keywords: dengue fever, sea surface temperature, Geographic Information System (GIS), remote sensing

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188 Molecular Evolutionary Relationships Between O-Antigens of Enteric Bacteria

Authors: Yuriy A. Knirel

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Enteric bacteria Escherichia coli is the predominant facultative anaerobe of the colonic flora, and some specific serotypes are associated with enteritis, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Shigella spp. are human pathogens that cause diarrhea and bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). They are in effect E. coli with a specific mode of pathogenicity. Strains of Salmonella enterica are responsible for a food-borne infection (salmonellosis), and specific serotypes cause typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever. All these bacteria are closely related in respect to structure and genetics of the lipopolysaccharide, including the O-polysaccharide part (O‑antigen). Being exposed to the bacterial cell surface, the O antigen is subject to intense selection by the host immune system and bacteriophages giving rise to diverse O‑antigen forms and providing the basis for typing of bacteria. The O-antigen forms of many bacteria are unique, but some are structurally and genetically related to others. The sequenced O-antigen gene clusters between conserved galF and gnd genes were analyzed taking into account the O-antigen structures established by us and others for all S. enterica and Shigella and most E. coli O-serogroups. Multiple genetic mechanisms of diversification of the O-antigen forms, such as lateral gene transfer and mutations, were elucidated and are summarized in the present paper. They include acquisition or inactivation of genes for sugar synthesis or transfer or recombination of O-antigen gene clusters or their parts. The data obtained contribute to our understanding of the origins of the O‑antigen diversity, shed light on molecular evolutionary relationships between the O-antigens of enteric bacteria, and open a way for studies of the role of gene polymorphism in pathogenicity.

Keywords: enteric bacteria, O-antigen gene cluster, polysaccharide biosynthesis, polysaccharide structure

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187 Qualitative Risk Assessment of Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Production

Authors: Mohammed E. Mansour, Tamador M. A. Elhassan, Nahid A. Ibrahim, Awatif A. Ahmed, Manal A. Abdalla

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Rift valley fever (RVF) is mosquito-borne disease. RVF is transboundary zoonotic disease. It has socioeconomic and public health importance. This paper describes qualitative risk of the RVF vaccine production. RVF is endemic in the Sudan. It has been reported in Sudan due to abundance of Ades Eqytie. Thus, there is huge effort to control it. Vaccination practices had significant role to control and manage RVF. The risk assessment explains the likelihood of a risk as likely. Thus, insecticides and repellents synergize the effort of the vaccination.

Keywords: qualitative analysis, risk assessment, rift valley fever vaccine, quality control

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186 Differential Diagnosis of Malaria and Dengue Fever on the Basis of Clinical Findings and Laboratory Investigations

Authors: Aman Ullah Khan, Muhammad Younus, Aqil Ijaz, Muti-Ur-Rehman Khan, Sayyed Aun Muhammad, Asif Idrees, Sanan Raza, Amar Nasir

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Dengue fever and malaria are important vector-borne diseases of public health significance affecting millions of people around the globe. Dengue fever is caused by Dengue virus while malaria is caused by plasmodium protozoan. Generally, the consequences of Malaria are less severe compared to dengue fever. This study was designed to differentiate dengue fever and malaria on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings and to compare the changes in both diseases having different causative agents transmitted by the common vector. A total of 200 patients of dengue viral infection (120 males, 80 females) were included in this prospective descriptive study. The blood samples of the individuals were first screened for malaria by blood smear examination and then the negative samples were tested by anti-dengue IgM strip. The strip positive cases were further screened by IgM capture ELISA and their complete blood count including hemoglobin estimation (Hb), total and differential leukocyte counts (TLC and DLC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and platelet counts were performed. On the basis of the severity of signs and symptoms, dengue virus infected patients were subdivided into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) comprising 70 and 100 confirmed patients, respectively. On the other hand, 30 patients were found infected with Malaria while overall 120 patients showed thrombocytopenia. The patients of DHF were found to have more leucopenia, raised hemoglobin level and thrombocytopenia < 50,000/µl compared to the patients belonging to DF and malaria. On the basis of the outcomes of the study, it was concluded that patients affected by DF were at a lower risk of undergoing haematological disturbance than suffering from DHF. While, the patients infected by Malaria were found to have no significant change in their blood components.

Keywords: dengue fever, blood, serum, malaria, ELISA

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185 A Comparative Study of Dengue Fever in Taiwan and Singapore Based on Open Data

Authors: Wei Wen Yang, Emily Chia Yu Su

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Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical infectious disease caused by the dengue virus. After infection, symptoms usually start from three to fourteen days. Dengue virus may cause a high fever and at least two of the following symptoms, severe headache, severe eye pain, joint pains, muscle or bone pain, vomiting, feature skin rash, and mild bleeding manifestation. In addition, recovery will take at least two to seven days. Dengue fever has rapidly spread in tropical and subtropical areas in recent years. Several phenomena around the world such as global warming, urbanization, and international travel are the main reasons in boosting the spread of dengue. In Taiwan, epidemics occur annually, especially during summer and fall seasons. On the other side, Singapore government also has announced the amounts number of dengue cases spreading in Singapore. As the serious epidemic of dengue fever outbreaks in Taiwan and Singapore, countries around the Asia-Pacific region are becoming high risks of susceptible to the outbreaks and local hub of spreading the virus. To improve public safety and public health issues, firstly, we are going to use Microsoft Excel and SAS EG to do data preprocessing. Secondly, using support vector machines and decision trees builds predict model, and analyzes the infectious cases between Taiwan and Singapore. By comparing different factors causing vector mosquito from model classification and regression, we can find similar spreading patterns where the disease occurred most frequently. The result can provide sufficient information to predict the future dengue infection outbreaks and control the diffusion of dengue fever among countries.

Keywords: dengue fever, Taiwan, Singapore, Aedes aegypti

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184 Impact of Television on the Coverage of Lassa Fever Disease in Nigeria

Authors: H. Shola Adeosun, F. Ajoke Adebiyi

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This study appraises the impact of television on the coverage of Lassa Fever disease. The objectives of the study are to find out whether television is an effective tool for raising awareness about Lassa fever shapes the perception of members of the public. The research work was based on the theoretical foundation of Agenda – setting and reinforcement theory. Survey research method was adopted in the study to elicit data from the residents of Obafemi Owode Local Government, area of Ogun state. Questionnaire and oral interview were adopted as a tool for data gathering. Simple random sampling techniques were used to draw a sample for this study. Out of filled 400 questionnaires distributed to the respondents. 37 of them were incorrectly filled and returned at the stipulated time. This is about (92.5% Tables, percentages, and figures were used to analyse and interpret the data and hypothesis formulation for this study revealed that Lassa fever diseases with higher media coverage were considered more serious and more representative of a disease and estimated to have lower incidents, than diseases less frequently found in the media. Thus, 92% of the respondents agree that they have access to television coverage of Lassa fever disease led to exaggerated perceptions of personal vulnerability. It, therefore, concludes that there is a need for relevant stakeholders to ensure better community health education and improved housing conditions in southwestern Nigeria, with an emphasis on slum areas and that Nigeria need to focus on the immediate response, while preparing for the future because a society or community is all about the people who inhabit. Therefore every effort must be geared towards their society and survival.

Keywords: impact, television, coverage, Lassa fever disease

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183 Seroepidemiology of Q Fever among Companion Dogs in Fars Province, South of Iran

Authors: Atefeh Esmailnejad, Mohammad Abbaszadeh Hasiri

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Coxiella burnetii is a gram-negative obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes Q fever, a significant zoonotic disease. Sheep, cattle, and goats are the most commonly reported reservoirs for the bacteria, but infected cats and dogs have also been implicated in the transmission of the disease to human. The aim of present study was to investigate the presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii among companion dogs in Fars province, South of Iran. A total of 181 blood samples were collected from asymptomatic dogs, mostly referred to Veterinary Hospital of Shiraz University for regular vaccination. The IgG antibody detection against Coxiella burnetii was made by indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), employing phase I and II Coxiella burnetii antigens. A logistic regression model was developed to analyze multiple risk factors associated with seropositivity. An overall seropositivity of 7.7% (n=14) was observed. Prevalence was significantly higher in adult dogs above five years (18.18 %) compared with dogs between 1 and five years (7.86 %) and less than one year (6.17%) (P=0.043). Prevalence was also higher in male dogs (11.21 %) than in female (2.7 %) (P=0.035). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of positive cases and breed, type of housing, type of food and exposure to other farm animals (P>0.05). The results of this study showed the presence of Coxiella burnetii infection among the companion dogs population in Fars province. To our knowledge, this is the first study regarding Q fever in dogs carried out in Iran. In areas like Iran, where human cases of Q fever are not common or remain unreported, the public health implications of Q fever seroprevalence in dogs are quite significant.

Keywords: Coxiella burnetii, dog, Iran, Q fever

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182 Surveillance for African Swine Fever and Classical Swine Fever in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: A. Asambe, A. K. B. Sackey, L. B. Tekdek

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A serosurveillance study was conducted to detect the presence of antibodies to African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Classical swine fever virus in pigs sampled from piggeries and Makurdi central slaughter slab in Benue State, Nigeria. 416 pigs from 74 piggeries across 12 LGAs and 44 pigs at the Makurdi central slaughter slab were sampled for serum. The sera collected were analysed using Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit to test for antibodies to ASFV, while competitive ELISA test kit was used to test for antibodies to CSFV. Of the 416 pigs from piggeries and 44 pigs sampled from the slaughter slab, seven (1.7%) and six (13.6%), respectively, tested positive to ASFV antibodies and was significantly associated (p < 0.0001). Out of the 12 LGAs sampled, Obi LGA had the highest ASFV antibody detection rate of (4.8%) and was significantly associated (p < 0.0001). None of the samples tested positive to CSFV antibodies. The study concluded that antibodies to CSFV were absent in the sampled pigs in piggeries and at the Makurdi central slaughter slab in Benue State, while antibodies to ASFV were present in both locations; hence, the need to keep an eye open for CSF too since both diseases may pose great risk in the study area. Further studies to characterise the ASFV circulating in Benue State and investigate the possible sources is recommended. Routine surveillance to provide a comprehensive and readily accessible data base to plan for the prevention of any fulminating outbreak is also recommended.

Keywords: African swine fever, classical swine fever, piggery, slaughter slab, surveillance

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181 Impact of Flooding on Food Calorie Intake and Health Outcomes among Small Holder Farm Households in Koton Karfe Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria

Authors: Cornelius Michael Ekenta, Aderonke Bashirat Mohammed, Sefi Ahmed

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The research examined the impact of flooding on food calorie intake and health challenges among smallholder farm households in Koton Karfe Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. Purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select 130 farm households in selected villages in the area. Primary data were generated through the administration of a well-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Double Difference Estimator (DDE), Calorie Intake Estimation Function, t-test, and multiple regressions. The result shows that farm households lost an average of 132, 950kg of selected crops amounting to about N20m ($56, 542) loose in income. Food daily calorie intake indicates a loss of an average of 715.18Kcal, showing a significant difference in calorie intake before and after flooding (t = 2.0629) at 5% probability. Furthermore, the health challenges most prevalent during flooding were malaria fever, typhoid fever, cholera, and dysentery. The determinants of daily calorie intake were age, household size, level of income, flooding, health challenges, and food price. The study concluded that flooding had negative impacts on crop output and income, daily food calorie intact, and health challenges of a farm household in the study area. It was recommended that the State Government should make adequate and proper arrangements to relocate residents of the area at the warning of possible flooding by the National Metrological Centre and should, through the State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA), provide relieve items to the residents to cushion the effects of the flooding.

Keywords: calorie, cholera, flooding, health challenges, impact

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180 Revisiting Classic Triad of Japanese Spotted Fever: A Case Series of Forty-Three Patients

Authors: Y. Kunitani, Y. Nakashima, S. Yamauchi, Y. Ishigami, K. Naito, K. Numata, M. Mizobe, Y. Homma, J. Takahashi, T. Inoue, T. Shiga, H. Funakoshi

Abstract:

Background: Japanese Spotted Fever (JSF) is one of the Rickettsial infections, caused by Rickettsia japonica, which is transmitted by ticks. JSF is seen in limited area, such as Japan and South Korea. Its clinical triad is rash, eschar and fever. It often shows leukocytopenia, thrombopenia, elevated transaminase and high C-reactive protein (CRP). Sometimes it can be life-threatening due to disseminated intravascular coagulation or multiple organ failure. Study Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the features of JSF, as this unique infection is rapidly growing in Japan. Methods: This is a case series of JSF from 2009 to 2016, in Mie Prefectural Hospital in Japan. We collected JSF cases, which were diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the skin or blood serum, or the elevation of the antibody titer of paired blood samples. Results: There were 43 JSF patients (19 male, 24 female) with a median age of 71 years [IQR:65-80]. The median body temperature was 38.1°C[IQR: 37.5-39.0]. 95% had a rash, 67% had eschar and 50% had fever. The median WBC count was 6,700 [IQR: 5,750-8,200] and leukocytopenia was observed in only 7%. The median platelet count was 14x104 [IQR10x104-17x104], thrombopenia was observed in 65%. The median aspartate transaminase (AST) was 53 IU/L [IQR: 41-93]; the median alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 34 IU/L [IQR: 24-54]; the median CRP was 10.4 mg/dL [IQR:7.2-13.9]; the median lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was 352IU/L [IQR:282-451]. CRP and LDH were elevated in almost all of the patients. Median length of stay in hospital was 8 days [IQR: 6-11]. All patients were treated with tetracycline and quinolone on the day of the presentation. There was no fatality from JSF. Conclusion: The patients with JSF classically presents with eschar, rash and fever. However, in this study, the half of the patients were afebrile. Although JSF is not a common infectious disease worldwide, if the patient had previously visited Japan or South Korea and presented with rash and eschar with or without fever, we should consider JSF as a potential diagnosis.

Keywords: infectious disease, Japanese spotted fever, Rickettsial disease, Rickettsia japonica

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179 The First Import of Yellow Fever Cases in China and Its Revealing Suggestions for the Control and Prevention of Imported Emerging Diseases

Authors: Chao Li, Lei Zhou, Ruiqi Ren, Dan Li, Yali Wang, Daxin Ni, Zijian Feng, Qun Li

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Background: In 2016, yellow fever had been first ever discovered in China, soon after the yellow fever epidemic occurred in Angola. After the discovery, China had promptly made the national protocol of control and prevention and strengthened the surveillance on passenger and vector. In this study, a descriptive analysis was conducted to summarize China’s experiences of response towards this import epidemic, in the hope of providing experiences on prevention and control of yellow fever and other similar imported infectious diseases in the future. Methods: The imported cases were discovered and reported by General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) and several hospitals. Each clinically diagnosed yellow fever case was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). The data of the imported yellow fever cases were collected by local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through field investigations soon after they received the reports. Results: A total of 11 imported cases from Angola were reported in China, during Angola’s yellow fever outbreak. Six cases were discovered by the AQSIQ, among which two with mild symptom were initiative declarations at the time of entry. Except for one death, the remaining 10 cases all had recovered after timely and proper treatment. All cases are Chinese, and lived in Luanda, the capital of Angola. 73% were retailers (8/11) from Fuqing city in Fujian province, and the other three were labors send by companies. 10 cases had experiences of medical treatment in Luanda after onset, among which 8 cases visited the same local Chinese medicine hospital (China Railway four Bureau Hospital). Among the 11 cases, only one case had an effective vaccination. The result of emergency surveillance for mosquito density showed that only 14 containers of water were found positive around places of three cases, and the Breteau Index is 15. Conclusions: Effective response was taken to control and prevent the outbreak of yellow fever in China after discovering the imported cases. However, though the similar origin of Chinese in Angola has provided an easy access for disease detection, information sharing, health education and vaccination on yellow fever; these conveniences were overlooked during previous disease prevention methods. Besides, only one case having effective vaccination revealed the inadequate capacity of immunization service in China. These findings will provide suggestions to improve China’s capacity to deal with not only yellow fever but also other similar imported diseases in China.

Keywords: yellow fever, first import, China, suggestion

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178 The Ebola Virus Disease and Its Outbreak in Nigeria

Authors: Osagiede Efosa Kelvin

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The Ebola virus disease (EVD); also Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a disease of humans and other primates caused by Ebola viruses. Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus as a fever, sore throat, muscle pain, and headaches. Then, vomiting, diarrhoea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys. At this time, some people begin to bleed both internally and externally. The first death in Nigeria was reported on 25 July 2014: a Liberian-American with Ebola flew from Liberia to Nigeria and died in Lagos soon after arrival. As part of the effort to contain the disease, possible contacts were monitored –353 in Lagos and 451 in Port Harcourt On 22 September, the World Health Organisation reported a total of 20 cases, including eight deaths. The WHO's representative in Nigeria officially declared Nigeria Ebola-free on 20 October after no new active cases were reported in the follow-up contact. This paper looks at the Ebola Virus in general and the measures taken by Nigeria to combat its spread.

Keywords: Ebola virus, hemorrhagic fever, Nigeria, outbreak

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177 Better Defined WHO International Classification of Disease Codes for Relapsing Fever Borreliosis, and Lyme Disease Education Aiding Diagnosis, Treatment Improving Human Right to Health

Authors: Mualla McManus, Jenna Luche Thaye

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World Health Organisation International Classification of Disease codes were created to define disease including infections in order to guide and educate diagnosticians. Most infectious diseases such as syphilis are clearly defined by their ICD 10 codes and aid/help to educate the clinicians in syphilis diagnosis and treatment globally. However, current ICD 10 codes for relapsing fever Borreliosis and Lyme disease are less clearly defined and can impede appropriate diagnosis especially if the clinician is not familiar with the symptoms of these infectious diseases. This is despite substantial number of scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals about relapsing fever and Lyme disease. In the USA there are estimated 380,000 people annually contacting Lyme disease, more cases than breast cancer and 6x HIV/AIDS cases. This represents estimated 0.09% of the USA population. If extrapolated to the global population (7billion), 0.09% equates to 63 million people contracting relapsing fever or Lyme disease. In many regions, the rate of contracting some form of infection from tick bite may be even higher. Without accurate and appropriate diagnostic codes, physicians are impeded in their ability to properly care for their patients, leaving those patients invisible and marginalized within the medical system and to those guiding public policy. This results in great personal hardship, pain, disability, and expense. This unnecessarily burdens health care systems, governments, families, and society as a whole. With accurate diagnostic codes in place, robust data can guide medical and public health research, health policy, track mortality and save health care dollars. Better defined ICD codes are the way forward in educating the diagnosticians about relapsing fever and Lyme diseases.

Keywords: WHO ICD codes, relapsing fever, Lyme diseases, World Health Organisation

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176 Evaluation of the Surveillance System for Rift Valley Fever in Ruminants in Mauritania, 2019

Authors: Mohamed El Kory Yacoub, Ahmed Bezeid El Mamy Beyatt, Djibril Barry, Yanogo Pauline, Nicolas Meda

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Introduction: Rift Valley Fever is a zoonotic arbovirosis that severely affects ruminants, as well as humans. It causes abortions in pregnant females and deaths in young animals. The disease occurs during heavy rains followed by large numbers of mosquito vectors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the surveillance system for Rift Valley Fever. Methods: We conducted an evaluation of the Rift Valley Fiver surveillance system. Data were collected from the analysis of the national database of the Mauritanian Network of Animal Disease Epidemiological Surveillance at the Ministry of Rural Development, of RVF cases notified from the whole national territory, of questionnaires and interviews with all persons involved in RVF surveillance at the central level. The quality of the system was assessed by analyzing the quantitative attributes defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: In 2019, 443 cases of RVF were notified by the surveillance system, of which 36 were positive. Among the notified cases of Rift Valley Fever, the 0- to the 3-year-old age group of small ruminants was the most represented with 49.21% of cases, followed by 33.33%, which was recorded in large ruminants in the 0 to 7-year-old age group, 11.11% of cases were older than seven years. The completeness of the data varied between 14.2% (age) and 100% (species). Most positive cases were recorded between October and November 2019 in seven different regions. Attribute analysis showed that 87% of the respondents were able to use the case definition well, and 78.8% said they were familiar with the reporting and feedback loop of the Rift Valley Fever data. 90.3% of the respondents found it easy, while 95% of them responded that it was easy for them to transmit their data to the next level. Conclusions: The epidemiological surveillance system for Rift Valley Fever in Mauritania is simple and representative. However, data quality, stability, and responsiveness are average, as the diagnosis of the disease requires laboratory confirmation and the average delay for this confirmation is long (13 days). Consequently, the lack of completeness of the recorded data and of description of cases in terms of time-place-animal, associated with the delay between the stages of the surveillance system can make prevention, early detection of epidemics, and the initiation of measures for an adequate response difficult.

Keywords: evaluation, epidemiological surveillance system, rift valley fever, mauritania, ruminants

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175 In vitro Susceptibility of Isolated Shigella flexneri and Shigella dysenteriae to the Ethanolic Extracts of Trachyspermum ammi and Peganum harmala

Authors: Ibrahim Siddig Hamid, Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb

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Trachyspermum ammi belongs to the family Apiaceae, is used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments, lack of appetite and bronchial problems as well used as antiseptic, antimicrobial, antipyretic, febrifugal and in the treatment of typhoid fever. Peganum harmala belongs to the family Zygophyllaceae it has been reported to have an antibacterial activity and used to treat depression and recurring fevers. It also used to kill algae, bacteria, intestinal parasites and molds. In Sudan, the combination of two plants are traditionally used for the treatment of bacillary dysentery. Bacillary dysentery is caused by one or more types of Shigella species bacteria mainly Shigella dysenteri and shigella flexneri. Bacillary dysentery is mainly found in hot countries like Sudan with poor hygiene and sanitation. Bacillary dysentery causes sudden onset of high fever and chills, abdominal pain, cramps and bloating, urgency to pass stool, weight loss, and dehydration and if left untreated it can lead to serious complications including delirium, convulsions and coma. A serious infection like this can be fatal within 24 hours. The objective of this study is to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Sh. flexneri and Sh. dysenteriae to the T. ammi and P. harmala. T. ammi and P. harmala were extracted by 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was investigated according to the disc diffusion method. The discs were prepared by soaking sterilized filter paper discs in 20 microliter of serially diluted solutions of each plant extract with the concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25mg/dl) then placing them on Muller Hinton Agar plates that were inoculated with bacterial suspension separately, the plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37c and the minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract which was the least concentration of the extract to inhibit fungal growth was determined. The results showed the high antimicrobial activity of T. ammi extract with an average diameter zone ranging from 18-20 mm and its minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be 25 mg/ml against the two shigella species. P. harmala extract was found to have slight antibacterial effect against the two bacteria. This result justified the Sudanese traditional use of Trachyspermum ammi plant for the treatment of bacillary dysentery.

Keywords: harmala, peganum, shigella, trachyspermum

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174 Modeling Karachi Dengue Outbreak and Exploration of Climate Structure

Authors: Syed Afrozuddin Ahmed, Junaid Saghir Siddiqi, Sabah Quaiser

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Various studies have reported that global warming causes unstable climate and many serious impact to physical environment and public health. The increasing incidence of dengue incidence is now a priority health issue and become a health burden of Pakistan. In this study it has been investigated that spatial pattern of environment causes the emergence or increasing rate of dengue fever incidence that effects the population and its health. The climatic or environmental structure data and the Dengue Fever (DF) data was processed by coding, editing, tabulating, recoding, restructuring in terms of re-tabulating was carried out, and finally applying different statistical methods, techniques, and procedures for the evaluation. Five climatic variables which we have studied are precipitation (P), Maximum temperature (Mx), Minimum temperature (Mn), Humidity (H) and Wind speed (W) collected from 1980-2012. The dengue cases in Karachi from 2010 to 2012 are reported on weekly basis. Principal component analysis is applied to explore the climatic variables and/or the climatic (structure) which may influence in the increase or decrease in the number of dengue fever cases in Karachi. PC1 for all the period is General atmospheric condition. PC2 for dengue period is contrast between precipitation and wind speed. PC3 is the weighted difference between maximum temperature and wind speed. PC4 for dengue period contrast between maximum and wind speed. Negative binomial and Poisson regression model are used to correlate the dengue fever incidence to climatic variable and principal component score. Relative humidity is estimated to positively influence on the chances of dengue occurrence by 1.71% times. Maximum temperature positively influence on the chances dengue occurrence by 19.48% times. Minimum temperature affects positively on the chances of dengue occurrence by 11.51% times. Wind speed is effecting negatively on the weekly occurrence of dengue fever by 7.41% times.

Keywords: principal component analysis, dengue fever, negative binomial regression model, poisson regression model

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173 Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Root Bark Extracts from Glossonema boveanum (Decne.)

Authors: Ahmed Jibrin Uttu, Maimuna Waziri

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The root bark of Glossonema boveanum (Decne), a member of Apocynaceae family, is used by traditional medicine practitioner to treat urinary and respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, diarrhea and stomach pain. This present study aims to validate the medicinal claims ascribed to the root bark of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical study of the root bark extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extracts) showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids, triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Antimicrobial study of the extracts showed activities against Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhii, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans while Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella Pneumoniae showed resistance to all the extracts. The inhibitory effect was compared with the standard drug ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. MIC and MBC for both extracts were also determined using the tube dilution method. This study concluded that the root bark of G. boveanum, used traditionally as a medicinal plant, has antimicrobial activities against some causative organisms.

Keywords: Glossonema boveanum (Decne.), phytochemical, antimicrobial, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration

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172 Quantitative Determination of Heavy Metals in Some Commonly Consumed Herbal Medicines in Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Aliyu Umar, Mohammed Yau, Faruruwa M. Dahiru, Saed Garba

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Evaluation of heavy metals in twelve commonly consumed herbal medicines/preparations in Kano State, Nigeria, was carried out. The samples comprised of five unregistered powdered medicines, namely, Zuwo, (ZW); Rai Dorai, (RD); Miyar Tsanya, (MTS); Bagaruwar Makka, (BM); and Madobiya, (M); five unregistered liquid herbal medicinal concussions for pile (MB), yellow fever (MS), typhoid (MT), stomach pain (MC), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); and two registered herbal medicines; Alif Powder (AP) and Champion Leaf (CL). The heavy metals evaluation was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and the result revealed the concentrations (ppm) ranges of the heavy metals as follows: Cadmium (0.0045 – 0.1601), Chromium (0.0418 – 0.2092), Cobalt (0.0038 – 0.0760), Copper (0.0547 – 0.2465), Iron (0.1197 – 0.3592), Manganese (0.0123 – 1.4462), Nickel (0.0073 – 0.0960), Lead (0.185 – 0.0927) and Zinc (0.0244 – 0.2444). Comparing the results obtained in this work with the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and permissible limits of other countries, the concentrations of heavy metals in the herbal medicine/preparations are within the allowed permissible limits range in herbal medicines and their use could be safe.

Keywords: Kano state, herbal medicines, registered, unregistered

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171 Burden of Dengue in Northern India

Authors: Ashutosh Biswas, Poonam Coushic, Kalpana Baruah, Paras Singla, A. C. Dhariwal, Pawana Murthy

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Burden of Dengue in Northern India Ashutosh Biswas, Poonam Coushic, Kalpana Baruah, Paras Singla, AC Dhariwal, Pawana Murthy. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, NVBDCP,WHO New Delhi, India Aim: This study was conducted to estimate the burden of dengue in capital region of India. Methodology:Seropositivity of Dengue for IgM Ab, NS1 Ag and IgG Ab were performed among the blood donors’ samples from blood bank, those who were coming to donate blood for the requirement of blood for the admitted patients in hospital. Blood samplles were collected through out the year to estimate seroprevalance of dengue with or without outbreak season. All the subjects were asymptomatic at the time of blood donation. Results: A total of 1558 donors were screened for the study. On the basis of inclusion/ exclusion criteria, we enrolled 1531subjects for the study.Twenty seven donors were excluded from the study, out of which 6 were detected HIV +ve, 11 were positive for HBsAg and 10 were found positive for HCV.Mean age was 30.51 ± 7.75 years.Of 1531subjects, 18 (1.18%) had a past history of typhoid fever, 28 (1.83%) had chikungunya fever, 9 (0.59%) had malaria and 43 subjects (2.81%) had a past history of symptomatic dengue infection.About 2.22% (34) of subjects were found to have sero-positive for NS1 Ag with a peak point prevalence of 7.14% in the month of October and sero-positive of IgM Ab was observed about 5.49% (84)with a peak point prevalence of 14.29% in the month of October. Sero-prevalnce of IgGwas detected in about 64.21% (983) of subjects. Conclusion: Acute asymptomatic dengue (NS1 Ag+ve) was observed in 7.14%, as the subjects were having no symptoms at the time of sampling. This group of subjects poses a potential public health threat for transmitting dengue infection through blood transfusion (TTI) in the community as evident by presence of active viral infection due to NS1Ag +VE. Therefore a policy may be implemented in the blood bank for testing NS1 Ag to look for active dengue infection for preventing dengue transmission through blood transfusion (TTI). Acute or Subacute dengue infection ( IgM Ab+ve) was observed from 5.49% to 14.29% which is a peak point prevalence in the month of October. About 64.21% of the population were immunized by natural dengue infection ( IgG Ab+ve) in theNorthern province of India. This might be helpful for implementing the dengue vaccine in a region. Blood samples in blood banks should be tested for dengue before transfusion to any other person to prevent transfusion transmitted dengue infection as we estimated upto 7.14% positivity of NS1 Ag in our study which indicates presence of dengue virus in blood donors’ samples.

Keywords: Dengue Burden, Seroprevalance, Asymptomatic dengue, Dengue transmission through blood transfusion

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