Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: Vanessa G. P. Severino

45 Chemical Study of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCS) from Xylopia aromatica (LAM.) Mart (Annonaceae)

Authors: Vanessa G. P. Severino, JOÃO Gabriel M. Junqueira, Michelle N. G. do Nascimento, Francisco W. B. Aquino, João B. Fernandes, Ana P. Terezan

Abstract:

The scientific interest in analyzing VOCs represents a significant modern research field as a result of importance in most branches of the present life and industry. Therefore it is extremely important to investigate, identify and isolate volatile substances, since they can be used in different areas, such as food, medicine, cosmetics, perfumery, aromatherapy, pesticides, repellents and other household products through methods for extracting volatile constituents, such as solid phase microextraction (SPME), hydrodistillation (HD), solvent extraction (SE), Soxhlet extraction, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), stream distillation (SD) and vacuum distillation (VD). The Chemometrics is an area of chemistry that uses statistical and mathematical tools for the planning and optimization of the experimental conditions, and to extract relevant chemical information multivariate chemical data. In this context, the focus of this work was the study of the chemical VOCs by SPME of the specie X. aromatica, in search of constituents that can be used in the industrial sector as well as in food, cosmetics and perfumery, since these areas industrial has a considerable role. In addition, by chemometric analysis, we sought to maximize the answers of this research, in order to search for the largest number of compounds. The investigation of flowers from X. aromatica in vitro and in alive mode proved consistent, but certain factors supposed influence the composition of metabolites, and the chemometric analysis strengthened the analysis. Thus, the study of the chemical composition of X. aromatica contributed to the VOCs knowledge of the species and a possible application.

Keywords: Chemometrics, Flowers, HS-SPME, Xylopia aromatica

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44 Complete Tripartite Graphs with Spanning Maximal Planar Subgraphs

Authors: Severino Gervacio, Velimor Almonte, Emmanuel Natalio

Abstract:

A simple graph is planar if it there is a way of drawing it in the plane without edge crossings. A planar graph which is not a proper spanning subgraph of another planar graph is a maximal planar graph. We prove that for complete tripartite graphs of order at most 9, the only ones that contain a spanning maximal planar subgraph are K1,1,1, K2,2,2, K2,3,3, and K3,3,3. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition for the complete tripartite graph Kx,y,z to contain a spanning maximal planar subgraph.

Keywords: graph, complete tripartite graph, maximal planar graph, planar graph, subgraph

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43 Chemical and Biological Studies of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. (Calophyllaceae) Based on Ethnobotanical Survey of Rural Community from Brazil

Authors: Vanessa G. P. Severino, Eliangela Cristina Candida Costa, Nubia Alves Mariano Teixeira Pires Gomides, Lucilia Kato, Afif Felix Monteiro, Maria Anita Lemos Vasconcelos Ambrosio, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins

Abstract:

One of the biomes present in Brazil is known as Cerrado, which is a vast tropical savanna ecoregion, particularly in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Tocantins and Minas Gerais. Many species of plants are characterized as endemic and they have therapeutic value for a large part of the population, especially to the rural communities. Given that, the southeastern region of the state of Goiás contains about 21 rural communities, which present a form of organization based on the use of natural resources available. One of these rural communities is named of Coqueiros, where the knowledge about the medicinal plants was very important to this research. Thus, this study focuses on the ethnobotanical survey of this community on the use of Kielmeyera coriacea to treat diseases. From the 37 members interviewed, 76% indicated this species for the treatment of intestinal infection, leukemia, anemia, gastritis, gum pain, toothache, cavity, arthritis, arthrosis, healing, vermifuge, rheumatism, antibiotic, skin problems, mycoses and all kinds of infections. The medicinal properties attributed during the interviews were framed in the body system (disease categories), adapted from ICD 10; thus, 20 indications of use were obtained, among five body systems. Therefore, the root of this species was select to chemical and biological (antioxidant and antimicrobial) studies. From the liquid-liquid extraction of ethanolic extract of root (EER), the hexane (FH), ethyl acetate (FAE), and hydro alcoholic (FHA) fractions were obtained. The chemical profile study of these fractions was performed by LC-MS, identifying major compounds such as δ-tocotrienol, prenylated acylphoroglucinol, 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyxanthone and quercitrin. EER, FH, FAE and FHA were submitted to biological tests. FHA presented the best antioxidant action (EC50 201.53 μg mL-1). EER inhibited the bacterial growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, microorganisms associated with rheumatism, at Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 6.25 μg mL-1. In addition, the FH-10 subfraction, obtained from FH fractionation, presented MIC of 1.56 μg mL-1 against S. pneumoniae; EER also inhibited the fungus Candida glabrata (MIC 7.81 μg mL- 1). The FAE-4.7.3 fraction, from the fractionation of FAE, presented MIC of 200 μg mL-1 against Lactobacillus casei, which is one of the causes of caries and oral infections. By the correlation of the chemical and biological data, it is possible to note that the FAE-4.7.3 and FH-10 are constituted 4-hydroxy-2,3-methylenedioxy xanthone, 3-hydroxy-1,2-dimethoxy xanthone, lupeol, prenylated acylphoroglucinol and quercitrin, which could be associated with the biological potential found. Therefore, this study provides an important basis for further investigations regarding the compounds present in the active fractions of K. coriacea, which will permit the establishment of a correlation between ethnobotanical survey and bioactivity.

Keywords: Biological Activity, ethnobotanical survey, Kielmeyera coriacea Mart, LC-MS profile

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42 Association of Leptin Gene T3469C Polymorphism on Reproductive Performance of Purebred Sows

Authors: Mariedel Autriz, Angel Lambio, Renato Vega, Severino Capitan, Rita Laude

Abstract:

The study was conducted to associate genetic polymorphism of the leptin gene T3469C with reproductive performance in purebred sows. DNA were isolated from hair follicles of 29 Landrace and 24 Large White sows. Amplification of the leptin gene was done followed by Hinf1digestion to determine the base at the T3469C site. Electrophoresis of the digestion products revealed that there were 25 Landrace and 15 Large White sows with the TT genotype while there were 3 Landrace and 6 Large White TC. There was 1 CC for Landrace and 3 for Large White. Significant genotype associations were observed for total litter size born and total born alive. Significant breed differences, on the other hand, was observed for gestation length and average birth weight. Significant breed by genotype interaction was observed in litter size total born and litter size born alive.

Keywords: Swine, genetic polymorphism, leptin, T3469C

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41 Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized Using Sugar Cane as a Percursor

Authors: Deyse Carpenter, Vanessa Romanovicz, Beatriz A. Berns, Stephen D. Carpenter

Abstract:

This article deals with the carbon nanotubes (CNT) synthesized from a novel precursor, sugar cane and Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO). The objective was to produce CNTs to be used as catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membranes. The influence of temperature, inert gas flow rate and concentration of the precursor is presented. The CNTs prepared were characterized using TEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and the surface area determined by BET. The results show that it is possible to form CNT from sugar cane by pyrolysis and the CNTs are the type multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The MWCNTs are short and closed at the two ends with very small surface area of SBET = 3.691m,/g.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Fuel Cell, sugar cane, catalyst support

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40 Market Acceptance of Irradiated Food in the City of Piracicaba, Brazil

Authors: Fabrício José Piacente, Vanessa de Cillos Silva, Sônia Maria De Stefano Piedade, Valter Arthur

Abstract:

The increasing concern in relation to safety and hygiene of food consumption makes it so that food conservation is studied. Food radiation is a technique used for conservation, but many consumers associate this technique with dangers such as environmental contamination and development of diseases. This research had the objective of evaluating the acceptance of radiated products by the consumer market in the city of Piracicaba/SP-Brasil. The methodology adopted was the application of a questionnaire in the city’s supermarkets. After the application, the data was tabulated and analyzed. It was observed that the majority of interviewees would not eat irradiated food. The unfamiliarity and questions about the safety of irradiated food were the main causes of your rejection.

Keywords: Storage, questionnaire, irradiation, market acceptance

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39 Simulator Dynamic Positioning System with Azimuthal Thruster

Authors: Robson C. Santos, Christian N. Barreto, Gerson G. Cunha, Severino J. C. Neto

Abstract:

This paper aims to project the construction of a prototype azimuthal thruster, mounted with materials of low cost and easy access, testing in a controlled environment to measure their performance, characteristics and feasibility of future projects. The construction of the simulation of dynamic positioning software, responsible for simulating a vessel and reposition it when necessary . Tests for partial and full validation of the model were conducted, operates independently of the control system and executes the commands and commands of the helix of rotation azimuth. The system provides an interface to the user and simulates the conditions unfavorable positioning of a vessel, accurately calculates the azimuth angle, the direction of rotation of the helix and the time that this should be turned on so that the vessel back to position original. There is a serial communication that connects the Simulation Dynamic Positioning System with Embedded System causing the user-generated data to simulate the DP system arrives in the form of control signals to the motors of the propellant. This article addresses issues in the marine industry employees.

Keywords: Embedded system, dynamic positioning, azimuthal thruster, simulator dynamic positioning

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38 Accounting Performance of the Leading Companies in the Construction Sector in Brazil during the Period 2009-2012

Authors: Fabrício José Piacente, Vanessa de Cillos Silva, Thiago Luiz Mello Melato

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The construction industry has been demonstrating increased growth and importance in Brazil’s national economic development. This study aims to evaluate the financial performance of the leading companies in the construction sector in Brazil in the period from 2009 to 2012. An analysis is made of the capital structure, liquidity, and profitability of the six largest companies in the construction sector in Brazil: Brookfield, Cyrela, Gafisa, MRV, PDG and Rossi. The results are then compared with standard industry ratios. It was found that among the companies analyzed, MRV and Cyrela showed the best relative performance in the period under consideration.

Keywords: Construction, Financial Performance, Brazil, accounting ratios

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37 Definition of a Computing Independent Model and Rules for Transformation Focused on the Model-View-Controller Architecture

Authors: Vanessa Matias Leite, Jandira Guenka Palma, Flávio Henrique de Oliveira

Abstract:

This paper presents a model-oriented development approach to software development in the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural standard. This approach aims to expose a process of extractions of information from the models, in which through rules and syntax defined in this work, assists in the design of the initial model and its future conversions. The proposed paper presents a syntax based on the natural language, according to the rules agreed in the classic grammar of the Portuguese language, added to the rules of conversions generating models that follow the norms of the Object Management Group (OMG) and the Meta-Object Facility MOF.

Keywords: Transformation, UML, model driven architecture, BNF Syntax, model-view-controller

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36 Paper-Based Detection Using Synthetic Gene Circuits

Authors: Vanessa Funk, Steven Blum, Stephanie Cole, Jorge Maciel, Matthew Lux

Abstract:

Paper-based synthetic gene circuits offer a new paradigm for programmable, fieldable biodetection. We demonstrate that by freeze-drying gene circuits with in vitro expression machinery, we can use complimentary RNA sequences to trigger colorimetric changes upon rehydration. We have successfully utilized both green fluorescent protein and luciferase-based reporters for easy visualization purposes in solution. Through several efforts, we are aiming to use this new platform technology to address a variety of needs in portable detection by demonstrating several more expression and reporter systems for detection functions on paper. In addition to RNA-based biodetection, we are exploring the use of various mechanisms that cells use to respond to environmental conditions to move towards all-hazards detection. Examples include explosives, heavy metals for water quality, and toxic chemicals.

Keywords: Detection, In vitro, cell-free lysates, gene circuits

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35 Production and Mechanical Properties of Alkali–Activated Inorganic Binders Made from Wastes Solids

Authors: Sonia Vanessa Campos Moreira

Abstract:

The aim of this research is the production and mechanical properties of Alkali-Activated Inorganic Binders (AAIB) made from The Basic Oxygen Furnace Slag (BOF Slag) and Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display (TFT-LCD), glass powder (waste and industrial by-products). Many factors have an influence on the production of AAIB like the glass powder finesses, the alkaline equivalent content (AE %), water binder ratios (w/b ratios) and the differences curing process. The findings show different behavior in the AAIB related to the factors mentioned, the best results are given with a glass powder fineness of 4,500 cm²/g, w/b=0.30, a curing temperature of 70 ℃, curing duration of 4 days and an aging duration of 14 days results in the highest compressive strength of 18.51 MPa.

Keywords: alkaline activators, BOF slag, glass powder fineness, TFT-LCD, w/b ratios

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34 Heavy Metal Contamination of Mining-Impacted Mangrove Sediments and Its Correlation with Vegetation and Sediment Attributes

Authors: Jumel Christian P. Nicha, Severino G. Salmo III

Abstract:

This study investigated the concentration of heavy metals (HM) in mangrove sediments of Lake Uacon, Zambales, Philippines. The relationship among the studied HM (Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe) and the mangrove vegetation and sediment characteristics were assessed. Fourteen sampling plots were designated across the lake (10 vegetated and 4 un-vegetated) based on distance from the mining effluents. In each plot, three sediment cores were collected at 20 cm depth. Among the dominant mangrove species recorded were (in order of dominance): Sonneratia alba, Rhizophora stylosa, Avicennia marina, Excoecaria agallocha and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Sediment samples were digested with aqua regia, and the HM concentrations were quantified using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that HM concentrations were higher in the vegetated plots as compared to the un-vegetated sites. Vegetated sites had high Ni (mean: 881.71 mg/kg) and Cr (mean: 776.36 mg/kg) that exceeded the threshold values (cf. by the United States Environmental Protection Agency; USEPA). Fe, Pb, Cu and Cd had a mean concentration of 2597.92 mg/kg, 40.94 mg/kg, 36.81 mg/kg and 2.22 mg/kg respectively. Vegetation variables were not significantly correlated with HM concentration. However, the HM concentration was significantly correlated with sediment variables particularly pH, redox, particle size, nitrogen, phosphorus, moisture and organic matter contents. The Pollution Load Index (PLI) indicated moderate to high pollution in the lake. Risk assessment and management should be designed in order to mitigate the ecological risk posed by HM. The need of a regular monitoring scheme for lake and mangrove rehabilitation programs and management should be designed.

Keywords: Mining, Heavy Metals, Sediment, Philippines, mangrove vegetation

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33 Effect of Inulin-Substituted Ice Cream on Waist Circumference and Blood Pressure of Adolescents with Abdominal Obesity

Authors: Nur H. Ahmad, Silvia S. Inge, Vanessa A. Julliete, A. Veraditias, Laila F. Febinda

Abstract:

Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and mostly found in adolescents. Waist circumference is related to abdominal obesity which has a significant effect on the increase of blood pressure. Inulin is one of prebiotic, that has health benefits by offering the potential for lipid management, that can be useful to decrease the risk factor of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the research is to evaluate the effect of 10 gram inulin-substituted ice cream in waist circumference and blood pressure of abdominal obesity adolescents. Inulin had the ability to produce Short Chain Fatty Acid which can improve blood pressure and waist circumference. Systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in the treatment group (p=0.028) with the mean of reduction 7.35 ± 11.59 mmHg. However, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference showed no significant effect. Waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was decreased in control group. These results suggest that inulin-substituted ice cream used as therapeutics and prevention for the early onset of metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Blood Pressure, inulin, waist circumference

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32 A Lesson in the Social Welfare System in Mexico: Limited Resources for Unlimited Needs

Authors: Vanessa L. Haro

Abstract:

Beginning with a historical foundation of Mexico, this marks the start of a close examination of this major Latin American country by providing the context needed to understand the reasons for Mexico’s strengths and struggles today, specific to their response to the issue of gender violence. Responding to the challenge of combating gender violence and inequality, Mexico has created social programs and initiatives in hopes of addressing these issues and modernizing their gender norms, which currently disempower and dehumanize women, while simultaneously denying women the necessary tools needed to fight back or bring balance to the gender scales. Nevertheless, women in Mexico have made their voices heard with the most salient image of that of the mothers protesting while holding the photos of their young daughters who lost their lives. This case study on gender issues in Mexico works to acknowledge the diverse forces that contribute to the issue of gender violence, and to make a statement that this is a crisis that requires a more dynamic response within Mexico’s social welfare policies, and should not be allowed to continue to progress as a normative phenomenon. As the advocacy groups and protesters cry out, “Ni una menos! (Not one less), meaning we will not lose one more woman and making the statement that all women’s lives matter.

Keywords: Poverty, Social welfare, Gender Issues, Mexico

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31 Effect of Capillary Forces on Wet Granular Avalanches

Authors: Stefan Luding, Ahmed Jarray, Vanessa Magnanimo

Abstract:

Granular avalanches are ubiquitous in nature and occur in numerous industrial processes associated with particulate systems. When a small amount of liquid is added to a pile of particles, pendular bridges form and the particles are attracted by capillary forces, creating complex structure and flow behavior. We have performed an extensive series of experiments to investigate the effect of capillary force and particle size on wet granular avalanches, and we established a methodology that ensures the control of the granular flow in a rotating drum. The velocity of the free surface and the angle of repose of the particles in the rotating drum are determined using particle tracking method. The capillary force between the particles is significantly reduced by making the glass beads hydrophobic via chemical silanization. We show that the strength of the capillary forces between two adjacent particles can be deliberately manipulated through surface modification of the glass beads, thus, under the right conditions; we demonstrate that the avalanche dynamics can be controlled. The results show that the avalanche amplitude decreases when increasing the capillary force. We also find that liquid-induced cohesion increases the width of the gliding layer and the dynamic angle of repose, however, it decreases the velocity of the free surface.

Keywords: granular material, granular flow, capillary force, avalanche dynamics

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30 Evaluation of the Patient Identification Process in Healthcare Facilities in a Brazilian City Area

Authors: Carmen Silvia Gabriel, Maria de Fátima Paiva Brito, Mariane de Paula Candido, Vanessa Barato Oliveira

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Patient identification is a necessary practice to ensure patient safety in any healthcare environment, including emergency care units, test laboratories, home care and clinics. The present study aimed to provide evidence that can effectively contribute to practices concerning patient identification. Its objective was to investigate patient identification in basic healthcare units through patient safety standards. To do so, a descriptive and non-experimental research outline study was carried out to inquire how patient identification takes place in a particular situation. All technical manager nurses from the chosen healthcare facilities were included in the sample for the study. Data was collected in September of 2014 after approval from the Committee of Ethics. All researched institutions fit the same profile: they’re public facilities for general care with observation beds. None of them has a wristband identification protocol or policy. Only one institution mentioned using some kind of visual identification; namely, body tags separated by colors according to the type of care, but it still does not apply the recommended tags by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. This study allowed the authors to acknowledge how important the commitment from the whole healthcare team in the patient identification process is and also acknowledge how necessary it is to implement institutional policies that may aid the healthcare units in this area to promote a quality and safe patient care.

Keywords: Identification, Nursing, Patient Safety, emergency care units

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29 Split Intein Technology: A Universal Purification Template for Non-mAb Proteins

Authors: Vanessa Kohl, Tatjana Best, Andrea Baier-Frey, Oliver Rammo

Abstract:

Currently, the purification of “non-standardized” or non-mAb proteins remains challenging and is associated with spending a significant effort in developing a downstream scheme for each new molecule individually. With the split intein technology, we will bring a change to the market while introducing a generic downstream template to simplify this purification procedure. Due to the cleaving ability of inteins, the N-terminal intein is immobilized as the affinity ligand on the chromatographic support, whereas the C-terminal intein is fused to the target as a tag. The high affinity between both inteins enables the tagged target to be purified from the lysate. The intein-mediated C-terminal cleavage reaction triggered by a change in buffer conditions causes a tagless release of the target into the eluate. The tag can be regenerated from the column and does not need to be further removed from the target; such it is often the case using conventional tag purification schemes e.g., His-tag. In numerous case studies, we will present on the integrity of the C-terminal intein tag in upstream and discuss its impact on various microbial and mammalian expressed molecules(e.g., expression titer, solubility, and biological activity). Further, we will focus on the efficiency of the split intein downstream scheme in different process modes leading to a purity >90% of the tagless eluted target from crude feedstocks. The results clearly show the Proof of Concept, that the Split Intein technology is a novel affinity media for non-mab molecules, yielding in high purity in a single chromatographic step.

Keywords: Chromatography, intein, split intein, affinity purification, recombinant protein separation, affinity tag

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28 [Keynote Talk]: Green Supply Chain Management Concepts Applied on Brazilian Animal Nutrition Industries

Authors: Maico R. Severino, Laura G. Caixeta

Abstract:

One of the biggest challenges that the industries find nowadays is to incorporate sustainability practices into its operations. The Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) concept assists industries in such incorporation. For the full application of this concept is important that enterprises of a same supply chain have the GSCM practices coordinated among themselves. Note that this type of analyses occurs on the context of developed countries and sectors considered big impactors (as automotive, mineral, among others). The propose of this paper is to analyze as the GSCM concepts are applied on the Brazilian animal nutrition industries. The method used was the Case Study. For this, it was selected a supply chain relationship composed by animal nutrition products manufacturer (Enterprise A) and its supplier of animal waste, such as blood, viscera, among others (Enterprise B). First, a literature review was carried out to identify the main GSCM practices. Second, it was done an individual analysis of each one selected enterprise of the application of GSCM concept. For the observed practices, the coordination of each practice in this supply chain was studied. And, it was developed propose of GSCM applications for the practices no observed. The findings of this research were: a) the systematization of main GSCM practices, as: Internal Environment Management, Green Consumption, Green Design, Green Manufacturing, Green Marketing, Green Packaging, Green Procurement, Green Recycling, Life Cycle Analysis, Consultation Selection Method, Environmental Risk Sharing, Investment Recovery, and Reduced Transportation Time; b) the identification of GSCM practices on Enterprise A (7 full application, 3 partial application and 3 no application); c) the identification of GSCM practices on Enterprise B (2 full application, 2 partial application and 9 no application); d) the identification of how is the incentive and the coordination of the GSCM practices on this relationship by Enterprise A; e) proposals of application and coordination of the others GSCM practices on this supply chain relationship. Based on the study, it can be concluded that its possible apply GSCM on animal nutrition industries, and when occurs the motivation on the application of GSCM concepts by a supply chain echelon, these concepts are deployed for the others supply chain echelons by the coordination (orchestration) of the first echelon.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Sustainability, coordination, green supply chain management, animal nutrition industries

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27 Factors Associated with Weight Loss Maintenance after an Intervention Program

Authors: Filipa Cortez, Vanessa Pereira

Abstract:

Introduction: The main challenge of obesity treatment is long-term weight loss maintenance. The 3 phases method is a weight loss program that combines a low carb and moderately high-protein diet, food supplements and a weekly one-to-one consultation with a certified nutritionist. Sustained weight control is the ultimate goal of phase 3. Success criterion was the minimum loss of 10% of initial weight and its maintenance after 12 months. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with successful weight loss maintenance after 12 months at the end of 3 phases method. Methods: The study included 199 subjects that achieved their weight loss goal (phase 3). Weight and body mass index (BMI) were obtained at the baseline and every week until the end of the program. Therapeutic adherence was measured weekly on a Likert scale from 1 to 5. Subjects were considered in compliance with nutritional recommendation and supplementation when their classification was ≥ 4. After 12 months of the method, the current weight and number of previous weight-loss attempts were collected by telephone interview. The statistical significance was assumed at p-values < 0.05. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS TM software v.21. Results: 65.3% of subjects met the success criterion. The factors which displayed a significant weight loss maintenance prediction were: greater initial percentage weight loss (OR=1.44) during the weight loss intervention and a higher number of consultations in phase 3 (OR=1.10). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the percentage weight loss during the weight loss intervention and the number of consultations in phase 3 may facilitate maintenance of weight loss after the 3 phases method.

Keywords: Obesity, dietary supplements, weight maintenance, low-carbohydrate diet

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26 Therapeutic Potential of mAb KP52 in Human and Feline Cancers

Authors: Abigail Tan, Heng Liang Tan, Vanessa Ding, James Hui, Eng Hin Lee, Andre Choo

Abstract:

Introduction: Comparative oncology investigates the similarities in spontaneous carcinogenesis between humans and animals, in order to identify treatments that can benefit these patients. Companion animals (CA), like canines and felines, are of special interest when it comes to studying human cancers due to their exposure to the same environmental factors and develop tumours with similar features. The purpose of this study is to explore the cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) across cancers in humans and CA. Material and Methods: A panel of CA mAbs generated in the lab was screened on multiple human cancer cell lines through flow cytometry to identify for positive binders. Shortlisted candidates were then characterised by biochemical and functional assays e.g., antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) and western blot assays, including glycan studies. Results: Candidate mAb KP52 was generated from whole-cell immunisation using feline mammary carcinoma. KP52 showed strong positive binding to human cancer cells, such as breast cancer and ovarian cancer. Furthermore, KP52 demonstrated strong killing ( > 50%) as an ADC with Saporin as the payload. Western blot results revealed the molecular weight of the antigen targets to be approximately 45kD and 50kD under reduced conditions. Glycan studies suggest that the epitope is glycan in nature, specifically an O-linked glycan. Conclusion: Candidate mAb KP52 has a therapeutic potential as an ADC against feline mammary cancer, human ovarian cancer, human mammary cancer, human pancreatic cancer, and human gastric cancer.

Keywords: Therapeutic, Comparative Oncology, ADC, MAb

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25 Obtainment of Systems with Efavirenz and Lamellar Double Hydroxide as an Alternative for Solubility Improvement of the Drug

Authors: Pedro J. Rolim-Neto, Leslie R. M. Ferraz, Salvana P. M. Costa, Amanda C. Q. M. Vieira, Larissa A. Rolim, Giovanna C. R. M. Schver, Ping I. Lee, José L. Soares-Sobrinho, Danilo A. F. Fontes, Magaly A. M.Lyra, Maria L. C. Moura, Severino Alves-Júnior

Abstract:

Efavirenz (EFV) is a first-choice drug in antiretroviral therapy with high efficacy in the treatment of infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus, which causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). EFV has low solubility in water resulting in a decrease in the dissolution rate and, consequently, in its bioavailability. Among the technological alternatives to increase solubility, the Lamellar Double Hydroxides (LDH) have been applied in the development of systems with poorly water-soluble drugs. The use of analytical techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) allowed the elucidation of drug interaction with the lamellar compounds. The objective of this work was to characterize and develop the binary systems with EFV and LDH in order to increase the solubility of the drug. The LDH-CaAl was synthesized by the method of co-precipitation from salt solutions of calcium nitrate and aluminum nitrate in basic medium. The systems EFV-LDH and their physical mixtures (PM) were obtained at different concentrations (5-60% of EFV) using the solvent technique described by Takahashi & Yamaguchi (1991). The characterization of the systems and the PM’s was performed by XRD techniques, IR, DSC and dissolution test under non-sink conditions. The results showed improvements in the solubility of EFV when associated with LDH, due to a possible change in its crystal structure and formation of an amorphous material. From the DSC results, one could see that the endothermic peak at 173°C, temperature that correspond to the melting process of EFZ in the crystal form, was present in the PM results. For the EFZ-LDH systems (with 5, 10 and 30% of drug loading), this peak was not observed. XRD profiles of the PM showed well-defined peaks for EFV. Analyzing the XRD patterns of the systems, it was found that the XRD profiles of all the systems showed complete attenuation of the characteristic peaks of the crystalline form of EFZ. The IR technique showed that, in the results of the PM, there was the appearance of one band and overlap of other bands, while the IR results of the systems with 5, 10 and 30% drug loading showed the disappearance of bands and a few others with reduced intensity. The dissolution test under non-sink conditions showed that systems with 5, 10 and 30% drug loading promoted a great increase in the solubility of EFV, but the system with 10% of drug loading was the only one that could keep substantial amount of drug in solution at different pHs.

Keywords: solubility, Efavirenz, Lamellar Double Hydroxides, Pharmaceutical Techonology

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24 The Plant Hormone Auxin Impacts the Profile of Aroma Compounds in Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum)

Authors: Bruna Lima Gomes, Vanessa Caroline De Barros Bonato, Luciano Freschi, Eduardo Purgatto

Abstract:

The plant hormone ethylene is closely related to the metabolic changes that occur during fruit ripening, including volatile biosynthesis. Although knowledge about the biochemistry pathways that produce flavor compounds and the importance of ethylene to these processes are extensively covered, little is known about the regulation mechanisms. In addition, growing body of evidences indicates that auxin is also involved in controlling ripening. However, there is scarce information about the involvement of auxin in fruit volatile production. This study aimed to assess auxin-ethylene interactions and its influence on tomato fruit volatile profile. Fruits from tomato cultivar Micro-Tom were treated with IAA and ethylene, separately and in combination. The hormonal treatment was performed by injection (IAA) or gas exposure (ethylene) and the volatiles were extracted by Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by GC-MS. Ethylene levels and color were measured by gas chromatography and colorimetry, respectively. The results indicate that the treatment with IAA (even in the presence of high concentrations of exogenous ethylene), impacted the profile of volatile compounds derived from fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and isoprenoids. Ethylene is a well-known regulator of the transition from green to red color and also is implicated in the biosynthesis of characteristic volatile compounds of tomato fruit. The effects observed suggest the existence of a crosstalk between IAA and ethylene in the aroma volatile formation in the fruit. A possible interference of IAA in the ethylene sensitivity in the fruit flesh is discussed. The data suggest that auxin plays an important role in the volatile synthesis in the tomato fruit and introduce a new level of complexity in the regulation of the fruit aroma formation during ripening.

Keywords: fruit quality, Fruit Ripening, Phytohormones, aroma compounds

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23 Iodine Nutritional Knowledge of Food Handlers: A Capricorn and Waterberg District Study, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Solomon Ngoako Mabapa, Selekane Ananias Motadi, Nteseng Mailula, Hlekani Vanessa Mbhatsani, Lindelani Fhumudzani Mushaphi

Abstract:

Background: South Africa has indeed made good progress towards IDD elimination, as far as implementation of salt iodization and coverage of iodized salt are concerned, the education and promotion aspects of the iodized salt intervention are seriously lacking. Objective: To determine the iodine nutritional knowledge of food handlers at primary schools under the National School Nutrition Programme in Capricorn and Waterberg district. Design: This study included 300 food handlers recruited from 95 primary schools in Capricorn district and 105 primary schools in Waterberg district, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Primary schools and study participants where conveniently selected. The data was collected by means of a structured questionnaire. Information obtained was on the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, general knowledge on salt fortification and knowledge test. Results: The iodine knowledge for the food handlers in two districts was poor with the entire population’s iodine nutritional knowledge of 12% on the Lickert scale. The mean score on the Lickert scale for Capricorn and Waterberg districts was 17% and 8.6% respectively indicated poor iodine nutritional knowledge. Conclusion: The two districts had poor iodine nutritional knowledge. Giving nutrition education to the public on the importance of iodine and the consequences of iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) and continue advocacy on mass media on the iodine fortification as an intervention strategy to combat the escalating problem of micronutrient malnutrition control.

Keywords: nutritional knowledge, iodine, food handlers, National School Nutrition Programme

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22 Modern Seismic Design Approach for Buildings with Hysteretic Dampers

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Vanessa A. Segovia

Abstract:

The use of energy dissipation systems for seismic applications has increased worldwide, thus it is necessary to develop practical and modern criteria for their optimal design. Here, a direct displacement-based seismic design approach for frame buildings with hysteretic energy dissipation systems (HEDS) is applied. The building is constituted by two individual structural systems consisting of: 1) A main elastic structural frame designed for service loads and 2) A secondary system, corresponding to the HEDS, that controls the effects of lateral loads. The procedure implies to control two design parameters: A) The stiffness ratio (α=K_frame/K_(total system)), and B) The strength ratio (γ= V_damper / V_(total system)). The proposed damage-controlled approach contributes to the design of a more sustainable and resilient building because the structural damage is concentrated on the HEDS. The reduction of the design displacement spectrum is done by means of a damping factor (recently published) for elastic structural systems with HEDS, located in Mexico City. Two limit states are verified: Serviceability and near collapse. Instead of the traditional trial-error approach, a procedure that allows the designer to establish the preliminary sizes of the structural elements of both systems is proposed. The design methodology is applied to an 8-story steel building with buckling restrained braces, located in soft soil of Mexico City. With the aim of choosing the optimal design parameters, a parametric study is developed considering different values of α and γ. The simplified methodology is for preliminary sizing, design, and evaluation of the effectiveness of HEDS, and it constitutes a modern and practical tool that enables the structural designer to select the best design parameters.

Keywords: damage-controlled buildings, direct displacement-based seismic design, optimal hysteretic energy dissipation systems, hysteretic dampers

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21 [Keynote Talk]: Production Flow Coordination on Supply Chains: Brazilian Case Studies

Authors: Maico R. Severino, Laura G. Caixeta, Nadine M. Costa, Raísa L. T. Napoleão, Éverton F. V. Valle, Diego D. Calixto, Danielle Oliveira

Abstract:

One of the biggest barriers that companies find nowadays is the coordination of production flow in their Supply Chains (SC). In this study, coordination is understood as a mechanism for incorporating the entire production channel, with everyone involved focused on achieving the same goals. Sometimes, this coordination is attempted by the use of logistics practices or production plan and control methods. No papers were found in the literature that presented the combined use of logistics practices and production plan and control methods. The main objective of this paper is to propose solutions for six case studies combining logistics practices and Ordering Systems (OS). The methodology used in this study was a conceptual model of decision making. This model contains six phases: a) the analysis the types and characteristics of relationships in the SC; b) the choice of the OS; c) the choice of the logistics practices; d) the development of alternative proposals of combined use; e) the analysis of the consistency of the chosen alternative; f) the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the impact on the coordination of the production flow and the verification of applicability of the proposal in the real case. This study was conducted on six Brazilian SC of different sectors: footwear, food and beverages, garment, sugarcane, mineral and metal mechanical. The results from this study showed that there was improvement in the coordination of the production flow through the following proposals: a) for the footwear industry the use of Period Bath Control (PBC), Quick Response (QR) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP); b) for the food and beverage sector firstly the use of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), ERP, Continuous Replenishment (CR) and Drum-Buffer-Rope Order (DBR) (for situations in which the plants of both companies are distant), and secondly EDI, ERP, Milk-Run and Review System Continues (for situations in which the plants of both companies are close); c) for the garment industry the use of Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR) and Constant Work-In-Process (CONWIP) System; d) for the sugarcane sector the use of EDI, ERP and CONWIP System; e) for the mineral processes industry the use of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI), EDI and MaxMin Control System; f) for the metal mechanical sector the use of CONWIP System and Continuous Replenishment (CR). It should be emphasized that the proposals are exclusively recommended for the relationship between client and supplier studied. Therefore, it cannot be generalized to other cases. However, what can be generalized is the methodology used to choose the best practices for each case. Based on the study, it can be concluded that the combined use of OS and logistics practices enable a better coordination of flow production on SC.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, production flow coordination, logistics practices, ordering systems

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20 Best Combination of Design Parameters for Buildings with Buckling-Restrained Braces

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Vanessa A. Segovia, Ángel de J. López-Pérez

Abstract:

Buildings vulnerability due to seismic activity has been highly studied since the middle of last century. As a solution to the structural and non-structural damage caused by intense ground motions, several seismic energy dissipating devices, such as buckling-restrained braces (BRB), have been proposed. BRB have shown to be effective in concentrating a large portion of the energy transmitted to the structure by the seismic ground motion. A design approach for buildings with BRB elements, which is based on a seismic Displacement-Based formulation, has recently been proposed by the coauthors in this paper. It is a practical and easy design method which simplifies the work of structural engineers. The method is used here for the design of the structure-BRB damper system. The objective of the present study is to extend and apply a methodology to find the best combination of design parameters on multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structural frame – BRB systems, taking into account simultaneously: 1) initial costs and 2) an adequate engineering demand parameter. The design parameters considered here are: the stiffness ratio (α = Kframe/Ktotal), and the strength ratio (γ = Vdamper/Vtotal); where K represents structural stiffness and V structural strength; and the subscripts "frame", "damper" and "total" represent: the structure without dampers, the BRB dampers and the total frame-damper system, respectively. The selection of the best combination of design parameters α and γ is based on an initial costs analysis and on the structural dynamic response of the structural frame-damper system. The methodology is applied to a 12-story 5-bay steel building with BRB, which is located on the intermediate soil of Mexico City. It is found the best combination of design parameters α and γ for the building with BRB under study.

Keywords: best combination of design parameters, BRB, buildings with energy dissipating devices, buckling-restrained braces, initial costs

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19 Polymer Nanocomposite Containing Silver Nanoparticles for Wound Healing

Authors: Patrícia Severino, Luciana Nalone, Daniele Martins, Marco Chaud, Classius Ferreira, Cristiane Bani, Ricardo Albuquerque

Abstract:

Hydrogels produced with polymers have been used in the development of dressings for wound treatment and tissue revitalization. Our study on polymer nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles shows antimicrobial activity and applications in wound healing. The effects are linked with the slow oxidation and Ag⁺ liberation to the biological environment. Furthermore, bacterial cell membrane penetration and metabolic disruption through cell cycle disarrangement also contribute to microbial cell death. The silver antimicrobial activity has been known for many years, and previous reports show that low silver concentrations are safe for human use. This work aims to develop a hydrogel using natural polymers (sodium alginate and gelatin) combined with silver nanoparticles for wound healing and with antimicrobial properties in cutaneous lesions. The hydrogel development utilized different sodium alginate and gelatin proportions (20:80, 50:50 and 80:20). The silver nanoparticles incorporation was evaluated at the concentrations of 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mM. The physico-chemical properties of the formulation were evaluated using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The morphological characterization was made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Human fibroblast (L2929) viability assay was performed with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment as well as an in vivo cicatrizant test. The results suggested that sodium alginate and gelatin in the (80:20) proportion with 4 mM of AgNO₃ in the (UV-Vis) exhibited a better hydrogel formulation. The nanoparticle absorption spectra of this analysis showed a maximum band around 430 - 450 nm, which suggests a spheroidal form. The TG curve exhibited two weight loss events. DSC indicated one endothermic peak at 230-250 °C, due to sample fusion. The polymers acted as stabilizers of a nanoparticle, defining their size and shape. Human fibroblast viability assay L929 gave 105 % cell viability with a negative control, while gelatin presented 96% viability, alginate: gelatin (80:20) 96.66 %, and alginate 100.33 % viability. The sodium alginate:gelatin (80:20) exhibited significant antimicrobial activity, with minimal bacterial growth at a ratio of 1.06 mg.mL⁻¹ in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 0.53 mg.mL⁻¹ in Staphylococcus aureus. The in vivo results showed a significant reduction in wound surface area. On the seventh day, the hydrogel-nanoparticle formulation reduced the total area of injury by 81.14 %, while control reached a 45.66 % reduction. The results suggest that silver-hydrogel nanoformulation exhibits potential for wound dressing therapeutics.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Wound Healing, Hydrogel, silver nanoparticle

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18 Use of SUDOKU Design to Assess the Implications of the Block Size and Testing Order on Efficiency and Precision of Dulce De Leche Preference Estimation

Authors: Jéssica Ferreira Rodrigues, Júlio Silvio De Sousa Bueno Filho, Vanessa Rios De Souza, Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluate the implications of the block size and testing order on efficiency and precision of preference estimation for Dulce de leche samples. Efficiency was defined as the inverse of the average variance of pairwise comparisons among treatments. Precision was defined as the inverse of the variance of treatment means (or effects) estimates. The experiment was originally designed to test 16 treatments as a series of 8 Sudoku 16x16 designs being 4 randomized independently and 4 others in the reverse order, to yield balance in testing order. Linear mixed models were assigned to the whole experiment with 112 testers and all their grades, as well as their partially balanced subgroups, namely: a) experiment with the four initial EU; b) experiment with EU 5 to 8; c) experiment with EU 9 to 12; and b) experiment with EU 13 to 16. To record responses we used a nine-point hedonic scale, it was assumed a mixed linear model analysis with random tester and treatments effects and with fixed test order effect. Analysis of a cumulative random effects probit link model was very similar, with essentially no different conclusions and for simplicity, we present the results using Gaussian assumption. R-CRAN library lme4 and its function lmer (Fit Linear Mixed-Effects Models) was used for the mixed models and libraries Bayesthresh (default Gaussian threshold function) and ordinal with the function clmm (Cumulative Link Mixed Model) was used to check Bayesian analysis of threshold models and cumulative link probit models. It was noted that the number of samples tested in the same session can influence the acceptance level, underestimating the acceptance. However, proving a large number of samples can help to improve the samples discrimination.

Keywords: acceptance, block size, mixed linear model, testing order

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17 Evaluation of Methods for Simultaneous Extraction and Purification of Fungal and Bacterial DNA from Vaginal Swabs

Authors: Vanessa De Carvalho, Chad MacPherson, Julien Tremblay, Julie Champagne, Stephanie-Anne Girard

Abstract:

Background: The interactions between bacteria and fungi in the human vaginal microbiome are fundamental to the concept of health and disease. The means by which the microbiota and mycobiota interact is still poorly understood and further studies are necessary to properly characterize this complex ecosystem. The aim of this study was to select a DNA extraction method capable of recovering high qualities of fungal and bacterial DNA from a single vaginal swab. Methods: 11 female volunteers ( ≥ 20 to < 55 years old) self-collected vaginal swabs in triplicates. Three commercial extraction kits: Masterpure Yeast Purification kit (Epicenter), PureLink™ Microbiome DNA Purification kit (Invitrogen), and Quick-DNA™ Fecal/Soil Microbe Miniprep kit (Zymo) were evaluated on the ability to recover fungal and bacterial DNA simultaneously. The extraction kits were compared on the basis of recovery, yield, purity, and the community richness of bacterial (16S rRNA - V3-V4 region) and fungal (ITS1) microbiota composition by Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing. Results: Recovery of bacterial DNA was achieved with all three kits while fungal DNA was only consistently recovered with Masterpure Yeast Purification kit (yield and purity). Overall, all kits displayed similar microbiota profiles for the top 20 OTUs; however, Quick-DNA™ Fecal/Soil Microbe Miniprep kit (Zymo) showed more species richness than the other two kits. Conclusion: In the present study, Masterpure Yeast purification kit proved to be a good candidate for purification of high quality fungal and bacterial DNA simultaneously. These findings have potential benefits that could be applied in future vaginal microbiome research. Whilst the use of a single extraction method would lessen the burden of multiple swab sampling, decrease laboratory workload and off-set costs associated with multiple DNA extractions, thoughtful consideration must be taken when selecting an extraction kit depending on the desired downstream application.

Keywords: Women’s Health, microbiota, DNA extraction, vagina, bacterial vaginosis, mycobiota, vulvovaginal candidiasis

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16 New Insights into Ethylene and Auxin Interplay during Tomato Ripening

Authors: Bruna Lima Gomes, Vanessa Caroline De Barros Bonato, Luciano Freschi, Eduardo Purgatto

Abstract:

Plant hormones are long known to be tightly associated with fruit development and are involved in controlling various aspects of fruit ripening. For fleshy fruits, ripening is characterized for changes in texture, color, aroma and other parameters that markedly contribute to its quality. Ethylene is one of the major players regulating the ripening-related processes, but emerging evidences suggest that auxin is also part of this dynamic control. Thus, the aim of this study was providing new insights into the auxin role during ripening and the hormonal interplay between auxin and ethylene. For that, tomato fruits (Micro-Tom) were collected at mature green stage and separated in four groups: one for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) treatment, one for ethylene, one for a combination of IAA and ethylene, and one for control. Hormone solution was injected through the stylar apex, while mock samples were injected with buffer only. For ethylene treatments, fruits were exposed to gaseous hormone. Then, fruits were left to ripen under standard conditions and to assess ripening development, hue angle was reported as color indicator and ethylene production was measured by gas chromatography. The transcript levels of three ripening-related ethylene receptors (LeETR3, LeETR4 and LeETR6) were evaluated by RT-qPCR. Results showed that ethylene treatment induced ripening, stimulated ethylene production, accelerated color changes and induced receptor expression, as expected. Nonetheless, auxin treatment showed the opposite effect once fruits remained green for longer time than control group and ethylene perception has changed, taking account the reduced levels of receptor transcripts. Further, treatment with both hormones revealed that auxin effect in delaying ripening was predominant, even with higher levels of ethylene. Altogether, the data suggest that auxin modulates several aspects of the tomato fruit ripening modifying the ethylene perception. The knowledge about hormonal control of fruit development will help design new strategies for effective manipulation of ripening regarding fruit quality and brings a new level of complexity on fruit ripening regulation.

Keywords: Ethylene, Fruit Ripening, auxin, hormonal crosstalk

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