Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6537

Search results for: biological activity

6537 Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Salvia nemorosa L.

Authors: Abdol-Hassan Doulah


In this study, antimicrobial activity of essential oil and ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. nemorosa were examined against some species of bacteria and fungi. The essential oil of the aerial part of S. nemorosa was examined by GC and GC-MS. In the essential oil of S. nemorosa 26 Compounds have been identified. 2-Nonanone (44.09 %), 2-Undecanone (33.79 %), E-Caryophyllene (3.74 %) and 2-Decanone (2.89 %) were the main components of the essential oil. The essential oil analysis showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.3 μg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (9.3 μg/ml). The ethyl acetate showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis (106.7 μg/ml), Candida albicans (5.3 μg/ml) and ether extract showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Klebseilla pneumoniae (10.7 μg/ml) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7 μg/ml). In conclusion, we suggest that the antimicrobial activity of S. nemorosa may be due to its content of germacrene and linalool.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, Salvia nemorosa L., essential oils, biological activity

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6536 Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of Derris scandens

Authors: Devarakonda Ramadevi, Dasari Rambabu, K. Suresh Babu, Battu Ganga Rao, Lakshmi Sirisha Kotikalapudi


The phytochemical and biological evaluation of the whole plant of Derris scandens is belonging to the family fabaceae. The dried plant of D.scandens was procured from the tirumala. The completely dried powder of the whole plant was taken and ground to a coarse powder which was then subjected to Soxhlet extraction with hexane and chloroform successively for 36 hrs. Chloroform extract was filtered and concentrated by using rotary evaporator an about 100g extract was obtained. The chloroform extract was subjected to column chromatographed over silicagel. From the column chromatography seven compounds were isolated named as osajin, scandinone, scandenone, 4,5,7-tri hydroxy biprenyl isoflavone, derris isoflavone-A, scandenin and isoscandinone. D.scandens resulting in the isolation of seven compounds in the plant was confirmed by spectral data (1H NMR, 13C NMR, ESI-MS and FTIR). The isolated compounds were screened for antioxidant activity, antidiabetic activity, α-glucosidase (inhibitory activity) and anti-bacterial activity. The isolated seven compounds were tested for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity. All the seven compounds showed good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and moderate antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Derris scandens, phytochemical, antioxident, antidiabetic, antibacterial activity

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6535 Synthesis and Pharmacological Activity of Some Oxyindole Derivatives

Authors: Vivek Singh Bhadauria, Abhishek Pandey


Indole-2,3-diones are known for their various biological activities. By suitable control of a substituent, different novel indole-2,3-diones were synthesized. In this present study, various Schiff and Mannich bases were synthesized and characterized, and evaluated their for different pharmacological activities. The compounds were prepared by reacting indole-2,3-dione with benzyl chloride and 4-substituted thiosemicarbazides. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by the TLC, MP, Elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectroscopy. The compounds have been evaluated for their anticancer, antituberculosis, anticonvulsant, antiinflammatory as well as anti-SARS activity and the results are presented. Some of compounds possessed different pharmacological activity at a concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight and even at lower concentration.

Keywords: indoles, isatin, NMR, biological activities

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6534 Synthesis of [1-(Substituted-Sulfonyl)-Piperidin-4-yl]-(2,4-Difluoro-Phenyl)-Methanone Oximes and Their Biological Activity

Authors: L. Mallesha, C. S. Karthik, P. Mallu


A series of new [1-(substituted-benzoyl)-piperidin-4-yl]-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-methanone oxime derivatives, 3(a-f) were synthesized and characterized by different spectral studies. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against bacterial strains. These compounds were screened for their antioxidant activity by DPPH• and Fe2+ chelating assay. Antiproliferative effects were evaluated using the MTT assay method against two human cancer cell lines and one astrocytoma brain tumor cell line. Compound 3b exhibited moderate antibacterial activity when compared with other compounds. All the compounds showed antioxidant activity, where compound 3f was the best radical scavenger and Fe2+ ion scavenger. Compounds, 3b, and 3d showed good activity on all cell lines, whereas the other compounds in the series exhibited moderate activity.

Keywords: Piperidine, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiproliferative

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6533 Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Studies on Chiral Chloroquine Analogues as Antimalarial Agents

Authors: Srinivasarao Kondaparla, Utsab Debnath, Awakash Soni, Vasantha Rao Dola, Manish Sinha, Kumkum Kumkum Srivastava, Sunil K. Puri, Seturam B. Katti


In a focused exploration, we have designed synthesized and biologically evaluated chiral conjugated new chloroquine (CQ) analogs with substituted piperazines as antimalarial agents. In vitro as well as in vivo studies revealed that compound 7c showed potent activity [for in vitro IC₅₀= 56.98nM (3D7), 97.76nM (K1); for in vivo (up to at the dose of 12.5 mg/kg); SI = 3510] as a new lead of antimalarial agent. Other compounds 6b, 6d, 7d, 7h, 8c, 8d, 9a, and 9c are also showing moderate activity against CQ-sensitive (3D7) strain and superior activity against resistant (K1) strain of P. falciparum. Furthermore, we have carried out docking and 3D-QSAR studies of all in-house data sets (168 molecules) of chiral CQ analogs to explain the structure activity relationships (SAR). Our new findings specified the significance of H-bond interaction with the side chain of heme for biological activity. In addition, the 3D-QSAR study against 3D7 strain indicated the favorable and unfavorable sites of CQ analogs for incorporating steric, hydrophobic and electropositive groups to improve the antimalarial activity.

Keywords: piperazines, CQ-sensitive strain-3D7, in-vitro and in-vivo assay, docking, 3D-QSAR

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6532 Isolation, Structure Elucidation, and Biological Evaluation of Acetylated Flavonoid Glycosides from Centaurium spicatum

Authors: Abdelaaty A. Shahat, Mansour S. Alsaid


Four Acetylated flavonol glycosides were isolated from Centaurium spicatum (L.) Fritsch (Gentianaceae). Structure elucidation, especially the localization of the acetyl groups, and complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments of these biologically active compounds were carried out using one- and two-dimensional NMR methods, including CNMR, DEPT-135 and DEPT-90 and gradient-assisted experiments such as DQF-COSY, TOCSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments. The antioxidant activities of the new acetylated flavonoid glycosides using DPPH• assay were determined. The compounds tested showed a good DPPH• activity compared with control, but their activity was lower than that of their corresponding aglycone, quercetin.

Keywords: Centaurium spicatum, flavonoids, biological activity, isolation, glycosides

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6531 A New Phenolic Compound Isolated from Laurus nobilis from Lebanon and Comparison of Antioxidant Activity of Different Parts

Authors: Turk Ayman, Ahn Jong Hoon, Khalife K. Hala, Gali-Muhtasib Hala, Lee Mi Kyeong


Laurus nobilis is an aromatic plant widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. The leaves of this plant are frequently used as a spice and as a traditional medicine for several diseases. In our present study, the methanolic extract of L. nobilis leaves showed antioxidant activity. Chromatographic separations of the EtOAc fraction which had the highest antioxidant activity led to the isolation of 12 compounds. Among them, there was a new phenylpropanoid derivative, which was identified by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, as well as high resolution mass spectrometry. In addition, two major compounds, catechin and epicatechin, which showed strong antioxidant activity may be responsible for the antioxidant activity of L. nobilis leaves. Since different plant parts may contain different types of constituents which contribute to the biological activities, we investigated the antioxidant activity of different parts of L. nobilis such as leaves, stems and fruits. Stems of L. nobilis showed the most potent antioxidant activity, followed by leaves. Further quantitation of total phenol and flavonoids contents revealed a positive correlation between the content of these compounds and antioxidant activity. Taken together, phenolic compounds including flavonoids are responsible for antioxidant activity of L. nobilis. In addition, stem parts of L. nobilis are suggested as good sources for antioxidant activity. Conclusively, L. nobilis might be effective in several free radical mediated diseases.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, different parts, Laurus nobilis, phenolic compound

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6530 Biological Activities of Gentiana brachyphylla Vill. Herba from Turkey

Authors: Hulya Tuba Kiyan, Nilgun Ozturk


Gentiana, a member of Gentianaceae, is represented by approximately 400 species in the world and 12 species in Turkey. Flavonoids, iridoids, triterpenoids and also xanthones are the major compounds of this genus, have been previously reported to have antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, hypotensive, hypoglycaemic, DNA repair and immunomodulatory properties. The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gentiana brachyphylla Vill. from Turkey was evaluated for its biological activities and its total phenolic content in the present study. According to the antioxidant activity results, G. brachyphylla methanolic extract showed very strong anti-DNA damage antioxidant activity with an inhibition of 81.82%. It showed weak ferric-reducing power with a EC50 value of 0.65 when compared to BHT (EC50 = 0.2). Also, at 0.5 mg/ml concentration, the methanolic extract inhibited ABTS radical cation activity with an inhibition of 20.13% when compared to Trolox (79.01%). Chelating ability of G. brachyphylla was 44.71% whereas EDTA showed 78.87% chelating activity at 0.2 mg/ml. Also G. brachyphylla showed weak 27.21% AChE, 20.23% BChE, strong 67.86% MAO-A and moderate 50.06% MAO-B, weak 19.14% COX-1, 29.11% COX-2 inhibitory activities at 0.25 mg/ml. The total phenolic content of G. brachyphylla was 156.23 ± 2.73 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g extract.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cholinesterase inhibitory activity, Gentiana brachyphylla Vill., total phenolic content

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6529 Antioxidant Activity of the Algerian Traditional Kefir Supernatant

Authors: H. Amellal-Chibane, N. Dehdouh, S. Ait-Kaki, F. Halladj


Kefir is fermented milk that is produced by adding Kefir grains, consisting of bacteria and yeasts, to milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the kefir supernatant and the raw milk. The Antioxidant activity assays of kefir supernatant and raw milk were evaluated by assessing the DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Kefir supernatant demonstrated high antioxidant activity (87.75%) compared to the raw milk (70.59 %). These results suggest that the Algerian kefir has interesting antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, kefir, kefir supernatant, raw milk

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6528 Quinazolino-Thiazoles: Fused Pharmacophores as Antimicrobial Agents

Authors: Sanjay Bari, Vinod Ugale, Kamalkishor Patil


Over the past several years the emergence of micro-organisms resistant to nearly all the class of antimicrobial agents has become a serious public health concern. In the present research, we report the synthesis and in-vitro antimicrobial activity of a new series of novel quinazolino-thiadiazoles 3 (a-j). The synthesized compounds were confirmed by melting point, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectroscopy. In general, the results of the in-vitro antibacterial activity are encouraging, as out of 10 compounds tested, Compound 3f and 3i with a 4-chloro phenyl and 4-nitro phenyl at C-2 of thiadiazolyl of quinazolino-thiadiazoles, displayed the excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities against all the tested microorganisms (Bacterial and Fungal strain) with MIC values of 62.5 μg/mL. It is worth to mention that the combination of two biologically active moieties quinazoline and thiadiazole profoundly influences the biological activity. While evaluating the antimicrobial activity, it was observed that compounds having electron withdrawing groups on thiazole has shown profound activity in comparison to compounds having electron releasing groups. As a result of this study, it can be concluded that halogen substituent on thiazole ring increases antimicrobial activity. Possible improvements in the antimicrobial activity can be further achieved by slight modifications in the substituent’s and/or additional structural activity investigations to have good antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: antifungal, antimicrobial, quinazolino-thiazoles, synthesis

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6527 Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Some Quinoline Derivatives as Antimalarial Agents

Authors: M. Ouassaf, S. Belaid


A series of quinoline derivatives with antimalarial activity were subjected to two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR) studies. Three models were implemented using multiple regression linear MLR, a regression partial least squares (PLS), nonlinear regression (MNLR), to see which descriptors are closely related to the activity biologic. We relied on a principal component analysis (PCA). Based on our results, a comparison of the quality of, MLR, PLS, and MNLR models shows that the MNLR (R = 0.914 and R² = 0.835, RCV= 0.853) models have substantially better predictive capability because the MNLR approach gives better results than MLR (R = 0.835 and R² = 0,752, RCV=0.601)), PLS (R = 0.742 and R² = 0.552, RCV=0.550) The model of MNLR gave statistically significant results and showed good stability to data variation in leave-one-out cross-validation. The obtained results suggested that our proposed model MNLR may be useful to predict the biological activity of derivatives of quinoline.

Keywords: antimalarial, quinoline, QSAR, PCA, MLR , MNLR, MLR

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6526 Biological Activity of Bilberry Pomace

Authors: Gordana S. Ćetković, Vesna T. Tumbas Šaponjac, Sonja M. Djilas, Jasna M. Čanadanović-Brunet, Sladjana M. Stajčić, Jelena J. Vulić


Bilberry is one of the most important dietary sources of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavonol glycosides and flavan-3-ols. These phytochemicals have different biological activities and therefore may improve our health condition. Also, anthocyanins are interesting to the food industry as colourants. In the present study, bilberry pomace, a by-product of juice processing, was used as a potential source of bioactive compounds. The contents of total phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins in bilberry pomace were determined by HPLC/UV-Vis. The biological activities of bilberry pomace were evaluated by reducing power (RP) and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential (α-GIP), and expressed as RP0.5 value (the effective concentration of bilberry pomace extract assigned at 0.5 value of absorption) and IC50 value (the concentration of bilberry pomace extract necessary to inhibit 50% of α-glucosidase enzyme activity). Total phenolic acids content was 807.12 ± 25.16 mg/100 g pomace, flavonoids 54.36 ± 1.83mg/100 g pomace and anthocyanins 3426.18 ± 112.09 mg/100 g pomace. The RP0.5 value of bilberry pomace was 0.38 ± 0.02 mg/ml, while IC50 value was 1.82 ± 0.11 mg/ml. These results have revealed the potential for valorization of bilberry juice production by-products for further industrial use as a rich source of bioactive compounds and natural colourants (mainly anthocyanins).

Keywords: bilberry pomace, phenolics, antioxidant activity, reducing power, α-glucosidase enzyme activity

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6525 Contribution to the Study of Some Phytochemicals and Biological Aspects of Artemisia absinthium L

Authors: Sihem Benmimoune, Abdelbaki Lemgharbi, Ahmed Ait Yahia, Abdelkrim Kameli


Our study is based on chemical and phytochemical characterization of Artemisia absinthium L and in vitro tests to demonstrate the biological activities of essential oil and natural extract. A qualitative and quantitative comparison of the essential oil extracted by two extraction procedures was performed by analysis of CG/SM and the yield calculation. The method of hydrodistillation has a chemical composition and provides oil content than the best training water vapor. These oils are composed mainly of thujone followed chamazulene and ρ-cymene. The antimicrobial activity of wormwood oil was tested in vitro by two methods (agar diffusion and microdilution) on four plant pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus sp, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum and Helminthosporium sp). The study of the antifungal effect showed that this oil has an inhibitory effect counterpart the microorganisms tested in particular the strain Botrytis cinerea. Otherwise, this activity depends on the nature of the oil and the germ itself. The antioxidant activity in vitro was studied with the DPPH method. The activity test shows that the oil and extract of Artemisia absinthium have a very low antioxidant capacity compared to the antioxidants used as a reference. The extract has a potentially high antiradical power not from its oil. The quantitative determinations of phenolic compounds by the Folin-Ciocalteu revealed that absinthe is low in total polyphenols and tannins.

Keywords: artemisia absinthium, biological activities, essential oil, extraction processes

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6524 Anti-Microbial Activity of Senna garrettiana Extract

Authors: Pun Jankrajangjaeng


Senna garrettiana is a climatic tropical plant in Southeast Asia. Senna garrettiana (Craib) is used as a medicinal plant in Thailand, in which the experiment reported that the plant contains triterpenoids, ligans, phenolics, and fungal metabolites. Thus, it is also reported that the plant possesses interesting biological activity such as antioxidant activity. Therefore, Senna garrettiana is selected to examine the antimicrobial activity. The purpose of this study is to examine the antimicrobial activity of Senna garrettiana (crab) extract against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Salmonella typhi, and the fungus Candida albicans. This study performed the agar disk-diffusion method and broth microdilution by using five concentrations of plant extract to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of S. garrettiana extract. The result showed that S. garrettiana extract gave the maximum zone inhibition of 11.7 mm, 13.7 mm, and 14.0 mm against S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans, respectively. The MIC value of S. garrettiana against S. aureus was 125 µg/mL while the MIC in S. typhi and C. albicans greater than 2000 µg/mL. To conclude, S. garrettiana extract showed higher sensitivity of antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the plant extracts also possessed antifungal activity. Therefore, further investigation to confirm the mechanism of action of antimicrobial activity in S. garrettiana extract should be performed to identify the target of the antimicrobial action.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, Candida albicans, Salmonella typhi, Senna garrettiana, Staphylococcus aureus

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6523 One Step Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Biological Activity

Authors: Samy M. Shaban, Ismail Aiad, Mohamed M. El-Sukkary, E. A. Soliman, Moshira Y. El-Awady


In situ and green synthesis of cubic and spherical silver nanoparticles were developed using sun light as reducing agent in the presence of newly prepared cationic surfactant which acting as capping agents. The morphology of prepared silver nanoparticle was estimated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the size distribution determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The hydrophobic chain length of the prepared surfactant effect on the stability of the prepared silver nanoparticles as clear from zeta-potential values. Also by increasing chain length of the used capping agent the amount of formed nanoparticle increase as indicated by increasing the absorbance. Both prepared surfactants and surfactants capping silver nanoparticles showed high antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Keywords: photosynthesis, hexaonal shapes, zetapotential, biological activity

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6522 Chemical and Biological Examination of De-Oiled Indian Propolis

Authors: Harshada Vaidya-Kannur, Dattatraya Naik


Propolis, one of the beehive products also referred as bee-glue is sticky dark coloured complex mixture of compounds. The volatile oil can be isolated from the propolis by hydrodistillation. The mark that is left behind after the removal of volatile oil is referred as the de-oiled propolis. Antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory properties of total ethanolic extract of de-oiled propolis (TEEDP) was investigated. Another lot of deoiled propolis was successively exacted with hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. Activities of these fractions were also determined. Antioxidant activity was determined by studying ABTS, DPPH and NO radical scavenging. Determination of anti-inflammatory activity was carried out by topical TPA induced mouse ear oedema model. It is noteworthy that ethyl acetate fraction of deoiled propolis (EAFDP) exhibited 49.45 % TEAC activity at the concentration 0.2 mg/ml which is equivalent to the activity of trolox at the concentration 0.2 mg/ml. Its DPPH scavenging activity (72.56%) was closely comparable to that of trolox (75%). However its NO scavenging activity was comparatively low. From IC50 values it could be concluded that the efficiency of scavenging ABTS radicals by the de-oiled propolis was more pronounced as compared to scavenging of other radicals. Studies by TPA induced mouse ear inflammation model indicated that the de-oiled propolis of Indian origin had significant topical anti-inflammatory activity. The EAFDP was found to be the most active fraction for this activity also. The purification of EAFP yielded six pure crystalline compounds. These compounds were identified by their physical data and spectral data.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory activity, anti-oxidant activity, column chromatography, de-oiled propolis

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6521 The Investigation of Enzymatic Activity in the Soils Under the Impact of Metallurgical Industrial Activity in Lori Marz, Armenia

Authors: T. H. Derdzyan, K. A. Ghazaryan, G. A. Gevorgyan


Beta-glucosidase, chitinase, leucine-aminopeptidase, acid phosphomonoestearse and acetate-esterase enzyme activities in the soils under the impact of metallurgical industrial activity in Lori marz (district) were investigated. The results of the study showed that the activities of the investigated enzymes in the soils decreased with increasing distance from the Shamlugh copper mine, the Chochkan tailings storage facility and the ore transportation road. Statistical analysis revealed that the activities of the enzymes were positively correlated (significant) to each other according to the observation sites which indicated that enzyme activities were affected by the same anthropogenic factor. The investigations showed that the soils were polluted with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, As, Co, Ni, Zn) due to copper mining activity in this territory. The results of Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between heavy metal pollution degree (Nemerow integrated pollution index) and soil enzyme activity. All of this indicated that copper mining activity in this territory causing the heavy metal pollution of the soils resulted in the inhabitation of the activities of the enzymes which are considered as biological catalysts to decompose organic materials and facilitate the cycling of nutrients.

Keywords: Armenia, metallurgical industrial activity, heavy metal pollutionl, soil enzyme activity

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6520 Biological Activities of Protease Inhibitors from Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus limensis

Authors: Tooba N. Shamsi, Romana Perveen, Sadaf Fatima


Protease Inhibitors (PIs) are widespread in nature, produced by animals, plants and microorganisms. They play vital role in various biological activities by keeping a check on activity of proteases. Present study aims to investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of PPI from Cajanus cajan (CCTI) and Phaseolus limensis (LBTI). PPI was purified from C. cajan (PUSA-992) by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography. The anti-oxidant activity was analyzed by two most common radical scavenging assays of FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and DPPH (1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl). Also, in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using albumin denaturation assay and membrane stabilization assay at different concentrations. Ascorbic acid and aspirin were used as a standards for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays respectively. The PPIs were also checked for antimicrobial activity against a number of bacterial strains. The CCTI and LBTI showed DPPH radical scavenging activity in a concentration–dependent manner with IC50 values 544 µg/ml and 506 µg/ml respectively comparative to ascorbic acid which was 258 µg/ml. Following FRAP assay, it was evaluated that LBTI had 87.5% and CCTI showed 84.4% antioxidant activity, taking value of standard ascorbic acid to be 100%. The PPIs also showed in-vitro anti‐inflammatory activity by inhibiting the heat induced albumin denaturation with IC50 values of 686 µg/ml and 615 µg/ml for CCTI and LBTI respectively compared to the standard (aspirin) which was 70.8 µg/ml. Red blood cells membrane stabilization with IC50 values of 641 µg/ml and 587 µg/ml for CCTI and LBTI respectively against aspirin which showed IC50 value of 70.4 µg/ml. PPIs showed antibacterial activity against 7 known strains while there was apparently no action against fungi.

Keywords: Cajanus cajan, Phaseolus limensis, Lima beans, protein protease inhibitor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activity

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6519 Evaluation of Mutagenic and Antimutagenic Activities of Some Biological Active Benzoxazoles in the Ames Test

Authors: Özlem Arpacı, Zeliha Soysal, Nuran Diril


Benzoxazoles are heterocyclic compounds that have a fused benzene and an oxazole ring. These heterocyclic compounds are reported to have antibacterial, antitubercular, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and anticancer activities. In this study, some benzoxazole derivatives that have broad antimicrobial and potent antitumoral activities, are investigated their mutagenic activities with using the Ames Test. The Ames test was conducted using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and TA102 tester strains in the standard plate incorporation assay in the absence of liver S9 fraction. The results are evaluated using SPSS and none of the benzoxazole derivatives showed mutagenic activity using the Ames test in the absence of S9 liver fraction.

Keywords: benzoxazoles, ames test, mutagenic activity, antimutagenic activity, antitumoral activity

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6518 Comparison of Phenolic and Urushiol Contents of Different Parts of Rhus verniciflua and Their Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Jae Young Jang, Jong Hoon Ahn, Jae-Woong Lim, So Young Kang, Mi Kyeong Lee


Rhus verniciflua is commonly known as a lacquer tree in Korea. Stem barks of R. verniciflua have been used as an immunostimulator in traditional medicine. It contains phenolic compounds and is known for diverse biological activities such as antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. However, it also causes allergic dermatitis due to urushiols derivatives. For the development of active natural resources with less toxicity, the content of phenolic compounds and urushiols of different parts of R. verniciflua such as stem barks, lignum and leaves were quantitated by colorimetric assay and HPLC analysis. The urushiols content were the highest in stem barks, and followed by leaves. The lignum contained trace amount of urushiols. The phenolic contents, however, were the most abundant in lignum, and followed by leaves and stem barks. These results clear showed that the content of urushiols and phenolic differs depending on the parts of R. verniciflua. Antimicrobial activity of different parts of R. verniciflua against fish pathogenic bacteria was also investigated using Edwardsiella tarda. Lignum of R. verniciflua was the most effective in antimicrobial activity against E. tarda and phenolic constituents are suggested to be active constituents for activity. Taken together, phenolic compounds are responsible for antimicrobial activity of R. verniciflua. The lignum of R. verniciflua contains high content of phenolic compounds with less urushiols, which suggests efficient antimicrobial activity with less toxicity. Therefore, lignum of R. verniciflua are suggested as good sources for antimicrobial activity against fish bacterial diseases.

Keywords: different parts, phenolic compounds, Rhus verniciflua, urushiols

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6517 In Vitro Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities Against Human Oral Cancer and Human Laryngeal Cancer of Limonia acidissima L. Bark Extracts

Authors: Kriyapa lairungruang, Arunporn Itharat


Limonia acidissima L. (LA) (Common name: wood apple, Thai name: ma-khwit) is a medicinal plant which has long been used in Thai traditional medicine. Its bark is used for treatment of diarrhea, abscess, wound healing and inflammation and it is also used in oral cancer. Thus, this research aimed to investigate antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the LA bark extracts produced by various extraction methods. Different extraction procedures were used to extract LA bark for biological activity testing: boiling in water, maceration with 95% ethanol, maceration with 50% ethanol and water boiling of each the 95% and the 50% ethanolic residues. All extracts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay, cytotoxic activity against human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells and human oral epidermoid carcinoma (KB) cells using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The results found that the 95% ethanolic extract of LA bark showed the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 values of 29.76±1.88 µg/ml. For cytotoxic activity, the 50% ethanolic extract showed the best cytotoxic activity against HEp-2 and KB cells with IC50 values of 9.55±1.68 and 18.90±0.86 µg/ml, respectively. This study demonstrated that the 95% ethanolic extract of LA bark showed moderate antioxidant activity and the 50% ethanolic extract provided potent cytotoxic activity against HEp-2 and KB cells. These results confirm the traditional use of LA for the treatment of oral cancer and laryngeal cancer, and also support its ongoing use.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cytotoxic activity, Laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma, Limonia acidissima L., oral epidermoid carcinoma

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6516 Synthesis and Theoretical Calculations of Carbazole Substituted Pyridopyrimidine Urea/Thioure Derivatives and Studies Their PPO Enzyme Activity

Authors: Arleta Rifati Nixha, Mustafa Arslan, Adem Ergün, Nahit Gencer


Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), sometimes referred to as phenol oxidase, catecholase, phenolase, catechol oxidase, or even tyrosinase, is considered to be an o-dipenol. PPO (EC, a multifunctional copper containing enzyme, is widely distributed in nature. It catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis: a hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (monophenolase activity) and an oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase activity), both using molecular oxygen. Additionaly, investigation demonstrated that various dermatological disorders, such as age spots and freckle, were caused by the accumulation of an excessive level of epidermal pigmentation. Tyrosinase has also been linked to Parkinson’s and other neurodegenerative diseases. Nitrogen heterocycles have received a great deal of attention in the literature because of biological properties. Especially, among these heterocyclic systems, pyridine containing compounds have been the subject of expanding research efforts in heteroaromatic and biological chemistry. The pyrido [2,3-d] pyrimidine heterocycles, which are those annelated to a pyrimidine ring, are important because of their wide range of biological and pharmaceutical applications (i.e., bronchodilators, vasodilators) and their anti-allergic, cardiotonic, antihypertensive, and hepatoprotective activities. In this study series of 12 new carbazole substituted pyridopyrimidine urea(thiourea) derivatives were synthesized and evaluated effect on PPO. Additionally, we presented structure-activity relationship analyses and theoretical calculations of the compounds.

Keywords: carbazole, pyridopyrimidine, urea, thiourea, tyrosinase inhibitors

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6515 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Artemisia herba-alba Asso Essential Oil Growing in M’sila (Algeria)

Authors: Asma Meliani, S. Lakehal, F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia


There is an increasing interest in phytochemicals as new source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. Many researchers have reported various biological and/or pharmacological properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. The present study describes antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (M’sila) was analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 0.7%. The major components were found to be camphor, chrysanthenone et 1,8-cineole. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against four bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and three fungi using the diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity. In addition, antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test, and high activity was found for Artemisia herba-alba oil.

Keywords: Artemisia herba-alba, essential oil, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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6514 Phytochemistry and Biological Activity of Extracts of the Red Raspberry Rubus rosifolius

Authors: Theresa Campbell, Camille Bowen-Forbes, William Aalbersberg


Differences in the sensory properties of two subtly distinct varieties of Rubus rosifolius lead to the examination of their anthocyanin, essential oil and polyphenol profiles. In both cases, notable differences were identified. Pelargonidin-3-rhutinoside (17.2 mg/100 g FW) and Cyanidin-3-glucoside (66.2 mg/100g FW) proved to be the dominant anthocyanins in the red and wine red varieties respectively. Linalool and terpineol were the major constituents of the essential oil from the red variety; however, those of the wine red variety are unidentified. In regard to phenolic compounds, caffeic acid and quercetin were in a higher concentration in the red variety (1.85 and 0.73 mg/100g FW respectively, compared to 1.22 and 0.34 mg/100g FW respectively in the wine red fruits); while ellagic acid and ferulic acid were of a higher concentration in the wine red variety (0.92 and 0.84mg/100g FW respectively, compared to 0.15 and 0.48 mg/100g FW respectively in the red variety). The methanol extract of both fruit varieties showed great antioxidant activity. Analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the fruit extracts against the growth of drug resistant pathogens revealed that they are active against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), rifampicin resistant S. aureus (RRSA), wild-type S. aureus (WTSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF). Activity was also reported against several food-borne pathogens including two strains of E. coli, L. monocytogenes and Enterobacter aerogenes. The cytotoxicity of the various extracts was assessed and the essential oil extracts exhibited superior activity. The phenolic composition and biological activity of the fruits indicate that their consumption is beneficial to health and also that their incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals should be considered.

Keywords: phytochemicals, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, Rubus rosifolius

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6513 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia herba-alba Asso Essential Oil Growing in M’sila, Algeria

Authors: Asma Meliani, S. Lakehal, F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia


There is an increasing interest in phytochemicals as new source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. Many researchers have reported various biological and/or pharmacological properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. The present study describes antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (M’sila) was analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 0.7 %. The major components were found to be camphor, chrysanthenone et 1,8-cineole. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against four bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and one fungi using the diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity. In addition, antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test, and high activity was found for Artemisia herba-alba oil.

Keywords: Artemisia herba-alba, essential oil, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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6512 Antimicrobial Activity of Ilex paraguariensis Sub-Fractions after Liquid-Liquid Partitioning

Authors: Sabah El-Sawalhi, Elie Fayad, Roula M. Abdel-Massih


Ilex paraguariensis (Yerba Mate) is a medium to large tree commonly consumed by South Americans. Its leaves and stems are associated with different biological activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Yerba Mate against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and its action against some resistant bacteria with different resistance profiles. Yerba Mate aqueous extracts were prepared at 70°C for 2 hrs, and the microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Gram-positive bacteria exhibited a stronger antibacterial activity (MIC ranged between 0.468 mg/mL and 15 mg/mL) than Gram-negative bacteria. Yerba Mate was also extracted with acetone: water (1:1) and then further sub-fractionated with hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. MIC values against Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 0.78 to 2.5 mg/ml for the chloroform fraction, from 1.56 to 3.75 mg/ml for the ethyl acetate fraction, and 0.78 to 1.87 mg/ml for the water fraction. The water fraction also exhibited antibacterial activity against Salmonella species (MIC ranged from 1.56 mg/ml to 3.12 mg/ml). The water fraction exhibited the highest antibacterial activity among all the fractions obtained. More studies are needed to determine the molecule or molecules responsible for this activity.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, bacterial resistance, minimum inhibitory concentration, yerba mate

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6511 Screening of Antioxidant Activity of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria From Human Origin

Authors: Piña-Ronces Laura Gabriela, Reyes-Escogido María de Lourdes


Exist a large variability in Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by LAB depending on carbon source, they have multiple applications in food industry mainly, but they have become important for the health. In this study, we identified EPS-producing strains belonging to the BAL group; they were previously isolated from humans. After that, we extracted and evaluated the antioxidant activity of EPS produced by all strains. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH method using ascorbic acid as standard for both comparison and quantification. 31 strains (51.66 %) produced EPS at concentrations between 451 and 1.561 mg/l, 16 of EPS extracted showed antioxidant effect superior to ascorbic acid at the same concentrations. EPS-producing strains were L. plantarum, L. sp and L. fermentum corresponding to Lactobacillus genus and, E. faecium, E. durans, and E. hirae of Enterococcus genus. Antioxidant activity showed by EPS from 3 strains of L. plantarum and 3 strains of E. faecium was different into specie, while the antioxidant activity determined for EPS obtained from the other strains did not show difference at specie level, but was superior to ascorbic acid. EPS produced by L. plantarum and E. hirae had the best activity, it could be considerate for selection them as a possible new alternative for therapy or treatment of diseases related whit oxidative stress. Further studies about biological functions of EPS have to be conducted for new applications in health.

Keywords: oxidative stress, lactic acid bacteria, exopolysaccharides, antioxidant activity

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6510 A contribution to Phytochemical and Biological Studies of Ailanthus Alitssima Swingle Cultivated in Egypt

Authors: Ahmed Samy Elnoby


Ailanthus altissima native to Asia which belongs to the family Simaroubaceae was subjected to phytochemical screening and biological investigations. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, sterols, flavonoids and traces of saponins. In addition, quantitative determination of phenolics and flavonoid content were performed. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of the leaves was determined against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria in addition to fungi using a modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method that was compared with standard discs ampicillin which acts as an antibacterial agent and amphotericin B which acts as an antifungal agent. A high potency was observed against gram-positive bacteria mainly staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacteria mainly Escherichia coli and showed no potency against fungi mainly Aspergillus flavus and candida albicans. On the other hand, the antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-2- diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH). A very low potency was shown by using DPPH for the antioxidant effect so IC50 = 0 ug/ml, IC90 =0 ug /ml and remark gave 47.2 % at 100 ug/ml which is very weak. Cytotoxic activity was determined by using MTT assay (3-4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) against MCF7 (Human Caucasian breast adenocarcinoma) cell line. A moderate potency was shown by using MCF7 cell line for cytotoxic effect so LC50= 90.2 ug/ml, LC90=139.9 ug/ml and the remark gave 55.2% at 100 ug/ml which is of moderate activity so, Ailanthus altissima can be considered to be a promising antimicrobial agent from natural origin.

Keywords: Ailanthus altissima, TLC, HPLC, anti-microbial activity, antifungal activity, antioxidant, cytotoxic activity

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6509 Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Some Pyrazole Derivatives

Authors: Afifa Hafidh, Hedia Chaabane


This work mainly focused on the synthetic strategies and biological activities associated with pyrazoles. Pyrazole derivatives have been successfully synthesized by simple and facile method and studied for their antibacterial activity. These compounds were prepared from pyrazolic difunctional compounds as starting materials, by reaction with salicylic acid, paracetamol and thiosemicarbazide respectively. Structure of all the prepared compounds confirmation were proved using (FT-IR), (1H-NMR) and (13C-NMR) spectra in addition to melting points. The screening of the antimicrobial activity of the pyrazolic derivatives was examined against different microorganisms in the present study. They were screened for their antimicrobial activities against gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria and Candida albicans. The synthesized compounds were found to exhibit high antibacterial and antifungal efficiency against several tested bacterial strains, using agar diffusion method and filter paper disc-diffusion method. Ampicillin was used as positive control for all strains except Candida albicans for which Nystatin was used. The obtained results reveal that the antibacterial activity of some pyrazolic derivatives is comparable to that observed for the control samples (Ampicilin and Nystatin), suggesting a strong antibacterial activity. The analysis of these results shows that synthesized products react on the surfaces cell walls that are disrupted. When these products are in contact with the bacteria, they damage the membrane, leading to the perturbation of different cellular processes and then leakage of cytoplasm, resulting in the death of the cells. The results will be presented in details. The obtained products constitute effective antibacterial agents and important compounds for biological systems.

Keywords: salicylic acid, antimicrobial activities, antioxidant activity, paracetamol, pyrazole, thiosemicarbazide

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6508 Synthesis of Quinazoline Derivatives as Selective Inhibitors of Cyclooxygenase-1 Enzyme

Authors: Marcela Dvorakova, Lenka Langhansova, Premysl Landa


A series of quinazoline derivatives bearing aromatic rings in 2- and 4-positions were prepared and tested for their biological activity. Firstly, the compounds were evaluated for their potential to inhibit various kinases, such as autophagy activating kinase ULK1, 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1, and TANK-binding kinase 1. None of the compounds displayed any activity on these kinases. Secondly, the compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity expressed as cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition. Three of the compounds showed significant selectivity towards COX-1 isoform (COX-2/COX-1 SI = 20-30). They inhibited COX-1 in a single-digit µM range. There was also one compound that exhibited inhibitory activity towards all three tested enzymes in µM range (IC50COX-1 = 1.9 µM; IC50COX-2 and 5-LOX = 10.1µM. COX-1 inhibition was until recently considered undesirable due to COX-1 constitutive expression in most cell types and tissues. Thus, there are not many compounds known with selective COX-1 activity. However, it is now believed that COX-1 plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several acute and chronic disorders, including cancer or neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the discovery of effective COX-1 selective inhibitors is desirable and important.

Keywords: cyclooxygenases, kinases, lipoxygenases, quinazolines

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