Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3067

Search results for: electrical discharge plasma

3067 The Effect of Electrical Discharge Plasma on Inactivation of Escherichia Coli MG 1655 in Pure Culture

Authors: Zoran Herceg, Višnja Stulić, Anet Režek Jambrak, Tomislava Vukušić


Electrical discharge plasma is a new non-thermal processing technique which is used for the inactivation of contaminating and hazardous microbes in liquids. Plasma is a source of different antimicrobial species including UV photons, charged particles, and reactive species such as superoxide, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide and ozone. Escherichia coli was studied as foodborne pathogen. The aim of this work was to examine inactivation effects of electrical discharge plasma treatment on the Escherichia coli MG 1655 in pure culture. Two types of plasma configuration and polarity were used. First configuration was with titanium wire as high voltage needle and another with medical stainless steel needle used to form bubbles in treated volume and titanium wire as high voltage needle. Model solution samples were inoculated with Escerichia coli MG 1655 and treated by electrical discharge plasma at treatment time of 5 and 10 min, and frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz. With the first configuration after 5 minutes of treatment at frequency of 120 Hz the inactivation rate was 1.3 log₁₀ reduction and after 10 minutes of treatment the inactivation rate was 3.0 log₁₀ reduction. At the frequency of 90 Hz after 10 minutes inactivation rate was 1.3 log₁₀ reduction. With the second configuration after 5 minutes of treatment at frequency of 120 Hz the inactivation rate was 1.2 log₁₀ reduction and after 10 minutes of treatment the inactivation rate was also 3.0 log₁₀ reduction. In this work it was also examined the formation of biofilm, nucleotide and protein leakage at 260/280 nm, before and after treatment and recuperation of treated samples. Further optimization of method is needed to understand mechanism of inactivation.

Keywords: electrical discharge plasma, escherichia coli MG 1655, inactivation, point-to-plate electrode configuration

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3066 2D RF ICP Torch Modelling with Fluid Plasma

Authors: Mokhtar Labiod, Nabil Ikhlef, Keltoum Bouherine, Olivier Leroy


A numerical model for the radio-frequency (RF) Argon discharge chamber is developed to simulate the low pressure low temperature inductively coupled plasma. This model will be of fundamental importance in the design of the plasma magnetic control system. Electric and magnetic fields inside the discharge chamber are evaluated by solving a magnetic vector potential equation. To start with, the equations of the ideal magnetohydrodynamics theory will be presented describing the basic behaviour of magnetically confined plasma and equations are discretized with finite element method in cylindrical coordinates. The discharge chamber is assumed to be axially symmetric and the plasma is treated as a compressible gas. Plasma generation due to ionization is added to the continuity equation. Magnetic vector potential equation is solved for the electromagnetic fields. A strong dependence of the plasma properties on the discharge conditions and the gas temperature is obtained.

Keywords: direct-coupled model, magnetohydrodynamic, modelling, plasma torch simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
3065 Temperature Calculation for an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet by Optical Emission Spectroscopy

Authors: H. Lee, Jr., L. Bo-ot, R. Tumlos, H. Ramos


The objective of the study is to be able to calculate excitation and vibrational temperatures of a 2.45 GHz microwave-induced atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The plasma jet utilizes Argon gas as a primary working gas, while Nitrogen is utilized as a shroud gas for protecting the quartz tube from the plasma discharge. Through Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES), various emission spectra were acquired from the plasma discharge. Selected lines from Ar I and N2 I emissions were used for the Boltzmann plot technique. The Boltzmann plots yielded values for the excitation and vibrational temperatures. The various values for the temperatures were plotted against varying parameters such as the gas flow rates.

Keywords: plasma jet, OES, Boltzmann plots, vibrational temperatures

Procedia PDF Downloads 618
3064 Inactivation of Rhodotorula spp. 74 with Cold Atmospheric Plasma

Authors: Zoran Herceg, Višnja Stulić, Tomislava Vukušić, Anet Režek Jambrak


High voltage electrical discharge is a new technology used for inactivation of pathogen microorganisms. Pathogen yeasts can cause diseases in humans if they are ingested. Nowadays new technologies have become the focus of researching all over the world. Rhodotorula is known as yeast that can cause diseases in humans. The aim of this study was to examine whether the high voltage electrical discharge treatment generated in gas phase has an influence on yeast reduction and recovery of Rhodotorula spp 74 in pure culture. Rhodotorula spp. 74 was treated in 200 mL of model solution. Treatment time (5 and 10 min), frequency (60 and 90 Hz) and injected gas (air or argon 99,99%) were changed. Titanium high voltage needle was used as high voltage electrode (positive polarity) through which air or argon was injected at the gas flow of 0.6 L/min. Experimental design and statistical analyses were obtained by Statgraphics Centurion software (StatPoint Technologies, Inc., VA, USA). The best inactivation rate 1.7 log10 reduction was observed after the 10 min of treatment, frequency of 90 Hz and injected air. Also with a longer treatment time inactivation rate was higher. After the 24 h recovery of treated samples was observed. Therefore the further optimization of method is needed to understand the mechanism of yeasts inactivation and cells recovery after the treatment. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project ‘Application of electrical discharge plasma for preservation of liquid foods’.

Keywords: rhodotorula spp. 74, electrical discharge plasma, inactivation, stress response

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3063 Reforming of CO₂-Containing Natural Gas by Using an AC Gliding Arc Discharge Plasma System

Authors: Krittiya Pornmai, Sumaeth Chavadej


The increasing in global energy demand has affected the climate change caused by the generation of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate a direct production of synthesis gas from a CO₂-containing natural gas by using gliding arc discharge plasma technology. In this research, the effects of steam reforming, combined steam reforming and partial oxidation, and using multistage gliding arc discharge system on the process performance have been discussed. The simulated natural gas used in this study contains 70% methane, 5% ethane, 5% propane, and 20% carbon dioxide. In comparison with different plasma reforming processes (under their optimum conditions), the steam reforming provides the highest H₂ selectivity resulting from the cracking reaction of steam. In addition, the combined steam reforming and partial oxidation process gives a very high CO production implying that the addition of both oxygen and steam can offer the acceptably highest synthesis gas production. The stage number of plasma reactor plays an important role in the improvement of CO₂ conversion. Moreover, 3 stage number of plasma reactor is considered as an optimum stage number for the reforming of CO₂-containing natural gas with steam and partial oxidation in term of providing low energy consumption as compared with other plasma reforming processes.

Keywords: natural gas, reforming process, gliding arc discharge, plasma technology

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3062 Degradation of Different Organic Contaminates Using Corona Discharge Plasma

Authors: A. H. El-Shazly, A. El-Tayeb, M. F. Elkady, Mona G. E. Ibrahim, Abdelazim M. Negm


In this paper, corona discharge plasma reactor was used for degradation of organic pollution in aqueous solutions in batch reactor. This work examines the possibility of increasing the organic pollution removal efficiency from wastewater using non-thermal plasma. Three types of organic pollution phenol, acid blue 25 and methylene blue are presented to investigate experimentally the amount of organic pollution removal efficiency from wastewater. Measurement results for phenol degradation percentage are 71% in 35 min and 96% when its residence time is 60 min. In addition, the degradation behavior of acid blue 25 utilizing dual pin-to-plate corona discharge plasma system displays a removal efficiency of 82% in 11 min. The complete decolorization was accomplished in 35 min for concentration of acid blue 25 up to 100 ppm. Furthermore, the methylene blue degradation touched up to 85% during 35 min treatment in corona discharge plasma a batch reactor system. The decolorization ratio, conductivity, corona current and discharge energy are considered at various concentration molarity for AlCl3, CaCl2, KCl and NaCl under different molar concentration. It was observed that the attendance of salts at the same concentration level considerably diminished the rate and the extent of decolorization. The research presented that the corona system could be positively utilized in a diversity of organically contaminated at diverse concentrations. Energy consumption requirements for decolorization was considered. The consequences will be valuable for designing the plasma treatment systems appropriate for industrial wastewaters.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, corona discharge, non-thermal plasma, organic pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
3061 Effect of Plasma Discharge Power on Activation Energies of Plasma Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Thin Films

Authors: Sahin Yakut, H. Kemal Ulutas, Deniz Deger


Plasma Assisted Physical Vapor Deposition (PAPVD) method used to produce Poly(ethylene oxide) (pPEO) thin films. Depositions were progressed at various plasma discharge powers as 0, 2, 5 and 30 W for pPEO at 500nm film thicknesses. The capacitance and dielectric dissipation of the thin films were measured at 0,1-107 Hz frequency range and 173-353 K temperature range by an impedance analyzer. Then, alternative conductivity (σac) and activation energies were derived from capacitance and dielectric dissipation. σac of conventional PEO (PEO precursor) was measured to determine the effect of plasma discharge. Differences were observed between the alternative conductivity of PEO’s and pPEO’s depending on plasma discharge power. By this purpose, structural characterization techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied on pPEO thin films. Structural analysis showed that density of crosslinking is plasma power dependent. The crosslinking density increases with increasing plasma discharge power and this increase is displayed as increasing dynamic glass transition temperatures at DSC results. Also, shifting of frequencies of some type of bond vibrations, belonging to bond vibrations produced after fragmentation because of plasma discharge, were observed at FTIR results. The dynamic glass transition temperatures obtained from alternative conductivity results for pPEO consistent with the results of DSC. Activation energies exhibit Arrhenius behavior. Activation energies decrease with increasing plasma discharge power. This behavior supports the suggestion expressing that long polymer chains and long oligomers are fragmented into smaller oligomers or radicals.

Keywords: activation energy, dielectric spectroscopy, organic thin films, plasma polymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
3060 Cracking of Tar Analogue in N₂ Carrier Gas Using Non-Thermal Plasma Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

Authors: Faisal Saleem, Kui Zhang, Adam Harvey


The role of N₂ carrier gas towards the conversion of tar analogue was studied in a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The important parameters such as power (5-40W), residence time (1.41-4.23 s), concentration (20-82 g/Nm³), and temperature (Ambient-400°C) were explored. The present study demonstrated that plasma power and residence time played a key role in the decomposition of toluene, and almost complete removal of toluene was observed at 40w and 4.23 s. H₂ is obtained as a major gaseous product with a maximum selectivity of 40% along with some lighter hydrocarbons (5.5%). The removal efficiency of toluene slightly decreases with increasing the concentration of toluene from 20 g/Nm³ to 82 g/Nm³. The solid residue formation takes place inside the plasma reactor. The selectivity of LHC (lower hydrocarbons) increased up to 15% by increasing the temperature to 400°C. Introducing H₂ to the gas at elevated temperature opens up new reaction routes to raise the selectivity to lower hydrocarbons. The selectivity to methane reaches to 42% using 35% H₂ at 400°C and total selectivity of LHC increases to 57%.

Keywords: biomass gasification tar, non-thermal plasma, dielectric barrier discharge, residence time

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3059 Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration Produced by Cold Atmospheric Plasma on Inactivation of Escherichia Coli in Water

Authors: Zohreh Rashmei


Introduction: Plasma inactivation is one of the emerging technologies in biomedical field and has been applied to the inactivation of microorganisms in water. The inactivation effect has been attributed to the presence of active plasma species, i.e. OH, O, O3, H2O2, UV and electric fields, generated by the discharge of plasma. Material and Method: To evaluate germicidal effects of plasma, the electric spark discharge device was used. After the effect of the plasma samples were collected for culture medium agar plate count. In addition to biological experiments, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide was also measured. Results: The results showed that Plasma is able to inactivate a high concentration of E. coli. After a short period of plasma radiation on the surface of water, the amount log8 reduced the microbial load. Starting plasma radiation on the surface of the water, the measurements show of production and increasing the amount of hydrogen peroxide in water. So that at the end of the experiment, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide to about 100 mg / l increased. Conclusion: Increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is directly related to the reduction of microbial load. The results of E. coli culture in media containing certain concentrations of H2O2 showed that E. coli can not to grow in a medium containing more than 2/5 mg/l of H2O2. Surely we can say that the main cause of killing bacteria is a molecule of H2O2.

Keywords: plasma, hydrogen peroxide, disinfection, E. coli

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3058 Influence of Argon Gas Concentration in N2-Ar Plasma for the Nitridation of Si in Abnormal Glow Discharge

Authors: K. Abbas, R. Ahmad, I. A. Khan, S. Saleem, U. Ikhlaq


Nitriding of p-type Si samples by pulsed DC glow discharge is carried out for different Ar concentrations (30% to 90%) in nitrogen-argon plasma whereas the other parameters like pressure (2 mbar), treatment time (4 hr) and power (175 W) are kept constant. The phase identification, crystal structure, crystallinity, chemical composition, surface morphology and topography of the nitrided layer are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. The XRD patterns reveal the development of different diffraction planes of Si3N4 confirming the formation of polycrystalline layer. FTIR spectrum confirms the formation of bond between Si and N. Results reveal that addition of Ar into N2 plasma plays an important role to enhance the production of active species which facilitate the nitrogen diffusion.

Keywords: crystallinity, glow discharge, nitriding, sputtering

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3057 Generation and Diagnostics of Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Argon/Air

Authors: R. Shrestha, D. P. Subedi, R. B. Tyata, C. S. Wong,


In this paper, a technique for the determination of electron temperatures and electron densities in atmospheric pressure Argon/air discharge by the analysis of optical emission spectra (OES) is reported. The discharge was produced using a high voltage (0-20) kV power supply operating at a frequency of 27 kHz in parallel electrode system, with glass as dielectric. The dielectric layers covering the electrodes act as current limiters and prevent the transition to an arc discharge. Optical emission spectra in the range of (300nm-850nm) were recorded for the discharge with different inter electrode gap keeping electric field constant. Electron temperature (Te) and electron density (ne) are estimated from electrical and optical methods. Electron density was calculated using power balance method. The optical methods are related with line intensity ratio from the relative intensities of Ar-I and Ar-II lines in Argon plasma. The electron density calculated by using line intensity ratio method was compared with the electron density calculated by stark broadening method. The effect of dielectric thickness on plasma parameters (Te and ne) have also been studied and found that Te and ne increases as thickness of dielectric decrease for same inter electrode distance and applied voltage.

Keywords: electron density, electron temperature, optical emission spectra,

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3056 A Computational Diagnostics for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

Authors: Zainab D. Abd Ali, Thamir H. Khalaf


In this paper, the characteristics of electric discharge in gap between two (parallel-plate) dielectric plates are studies, the gap filled with Argon gas in atm pressure at ambient temperature, the thickness of gap typically less than 1 mm and dielectric may be up 10 cm in diameter. One of dielectric plates a sinusoidal voltage is applied with Rf frequency, the other plates is electrically grounded. The simulation in this work depending on Boltzmann equation solver in first few moments, fluid model and plasma chemistry, in one dimensional modeling. This modeling have insight into characteristics of Dielectric Barrier Discharge through studying properties of breakdown of gas, electric field, electric potential, and calculating electron density, mean electron energy, electron current density ,ion current density, total plasma current density. The investigation also include: 1. The influence of change in thickness of gap between two plates if we doubled or reduced gap to half. 2. The effect of thickness of dielectric plates. 3. The influence of change in type and properties of dielectric material (gass, silicon, Teflon).

Keywords: computational diagnostics, Boltzmann equation, electric discharge, electron density

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3055 Atmospheric Plasma Treatment to Improve Water and Oil Repellent Finishing for PET and PET/Spandex Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan


In this study, the effects of an atmospheric plasma treatment on the durability of water and oil repellent finishes of PET and PET/Spandex fabrics were tested. Fabrics were treated with a low-frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharge. After plasma treatments, the water and oil repellent finishes were applied using pad-dry-cure method. It was observed that plasma treatments improved the durability finish for all fabrics.

Keywords: atmospheric plasma, durable coating, oil repellency, PET/spandex fabrics, water repellency

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3054 Plasma-Induced Modification of Biomolecules: A Tool for Analysis of Protein Structures

Authors: Yuting Wu, Faraz Choudhury, Daniel Benjamin, James Whalin, Joshua Blatz, Leon Shohet, Michael Sussman, Mark Richards


Plasma-Induced Modification of Biomolecules (PLIMB) has been developed as a technology, which, together with mass spectrometry, measures three-dimensional structural characteristics of proteins. This technique uses hydroxyl radicals generated by atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge to react with the solvent-accessible side chains of protein in an aqueous solution. In this work, we investigate the three-dimensional structure of hemoglobin and myoglobin using PLIMB. Additional modifications to these proteins, such as oxidation, fragmentations, and conformational changes caused by PLIMB are also explored. These results show that PLIMB, coupled with mass spectrometry, is an effective way to determine solvent access to hemoproteins. Furthermore, we show that many factors, including pH and the electrical parameters used to generate the plasma, have a significant influence on solvent accessibility.

Keywords: plasma, hemoglobin, myoglobin, solvent access

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3053 A Study on the Water and Oil Repellency Characteristics of Plasma-Treated Pet and Pet/Elastane Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan


New orientations have emerged in the textile sector as a result of increasing global competition and environmental problems. Under the scope of new understandings, it is required to bring forward multi-functional, simple and environmentally friendly methods that will meet tight economic and ecological demands of today. Plasma technology has become a significant alternative in this sense. This technology may provide great advantages in case it is developed, however, it does not receive adequate consideration. In this study, plasma treatment was applied by using glow discharge plasma system to 100% polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and 95% PET/5% elastane fabrics and then the effects of plasma polymerization on fabric surface was tested and analyzed using water and oil repellent finishes.

Keywords: plasma, polyester, elastane, water repellency, oil repellency

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3052 Characteristics of Ozone Generated from Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators

Authors: R. Osada, S. Ogata, T. Segawa


Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators (DBD-PAs) have been developed for active flow control devices. However, it is necessary to reduce ozone produced by DBD toward practical applications using DBD-PAs. In this study, variations of ozone concentration, flow velocity, power consumption were investigated by changing exposed electrodes of DBD-PAs. Two exposed electrode prototypes were prepared: span-type with exposed electrode width of 0.1 mm, and normal-type with width of 5 mm. It was found that span-type shows lower power consumption and higher flow velocity than that of normal-type at Vp-p = 4.0-6.0 kV. Ozone concentration of span-type higher than normal-type at Vp-p = 4.0-8.0 kV. In addition, it was confirmed that catalyst located in downstream from the exposed electrode can reduce ozone concentration between 18 and 42% without affecting the induced flow.

Keywords: dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators, ozone diffusion, PIV measurement, power consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
3051 Behavior of Printing Inks on Historical Documents Subjected to Cold RF Plasma Discharges

Authors: Dorina Rusu, Emil Ghiocel Ioanid, Marta Ursescu, Ana Maria Vlad, Mihaela Popescu


During the last decades the cold plasma discharges made the subject of numerous studies concerning the applications in the cultural heritage field, especially concentrated on ecological and non-invasive aspect of these conservation procedures. The conservation treatment using cold plasma is based, on the one hand, on the well-known property of plasma discharges to inactivate the contaminant biological species and, on the other hand, on the surface cleaning effect. Moreover the plasma discharge produces the functionalization of the treated surface, allowing subsequent deposition of protective layers. The paper presents the behavior of printing inks on historical documents treated in cold RF plasma. Two types of printing inks were studied, namely red and black ink, used on a religious book published in 19 century. SEM-EDX analysis results in the identification of the two inks as carbon black ink (C presence in the EDX spectrum) and cinnabar based red ink (Hg and S lines in the spectrum), result confirmed by XRF analysis. The experiments have been performed on paper samples written with laboratory- made inks, of similar composition with the inks identified on historical documents. The samples were subjected to RF plasma discharge, operating in nitrogen gaseous medium, at 1.2 MHz frequency and low-pressure (0.5 mbar), performed in a self-designed equipment for the application of conservation treatments on naturally aged paper supports. The impact of plasma discharge on the inks has been evaluated by SEM, XRD and color analysis. The color analysis revealed a slight discoloration of cinnabar ink on the historical document. SEM and XRD analyses have been carried out in an attempt to elucidate the process responsable for color modification.

Keywords: RF plasma, printing inks, historical documents, surface cleaning effect

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3050 Chaotic Response of Electrical Insulation System with Gaseous Dielectric under High AC and DC Voltages

Authors: Arijit Basuray


It is well known that if an electrical insulation system is stressed under high voltage then discharge may occur in various form and if the system is made of composite dielectric having interfaces of materials having different dielectric constant discharge may occur due to gross mismatch of dielectric constant causing intense local field in the interfaces. Here author has studied, firstly, behavior of discharges in gaseous dielectric circuit under AC and DC voltages. A gaseous dielectric circuit is made such that a pair of electrode of typical geometry is used to make the discharges occur under application of AC and DC voltages. Later on, composite insulation system with air gap is also studied. Discharge response of the dielectric circuit is measured across a typically designed impedance. The time evolution of the discharge characteristics showed some interesting chaotic behavior. Author here proposed some analysis of such behavior of the discharge pattern and discussed about the possibility of presence of such discharge circuit in lumped electric circuit.

Keywords: electrical insulation system, EIS, composite dielectric, discharge, chaos

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3049 Design and Development of Power Sources for Plasma Actuators to Control Flow Separation

Authors: Himanshu J. Bahirat, Apoorva S. Janawlekar


Plasma actuators are essential for aerodynamic flow separation control due to their lack of mechanical parts, lightweight, and high response frequency, which have numerous applications in hypersonic or supersonic aircraft. The working of these actuators is based on the formation of a low-temperature plasma between a pair of parallel electrodes by the application of a high-voltage AC signal across the electrodes, after which air molecules from the air surrounding the electrodes are ionized and accelerated through the electric field. The high-frequency operation is required in dielectric discharge barriers to ensure plasma stability. To carry out flow separation control in a hypersonic flow, the optimal design and construction of a power supply to generate dielectric barrier discharges is carried out in this paper. In this paper, it is aspired to construct a simplified circuit topology to emulate the dielectric barrier discharge and study its various frequency responses. The power supply can generate high voltage pulses up to 20kV at the repetitive frequency range of 20-50kHz with an input power of 500W. The power supply has been designed to be short circuit proof and can endure variable plasma load conditions. Its general outline is to charge a capacitor through a half-bridge converter and then later discharge it through a step-up transformer at a high frequency in order to generate high voltage pulses. After simulating the circuit, the PCB design and, eventually, lab tests are carried out to study its effectiveness in controlling flow separation.

Keywords: aircraft propulsion, dielectric barrier discharge, flow separation control, power source

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3048 Plasma-Assisted Decomposition of Cyclohexane in a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

Authors: Usman Dahiru, Faisal Saleem, Kui Zhang, Adam Harvey


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are atmospheric contaminants predominantly derived from petroleum spills, solvent usage, agricultural processes, automobile, and chemical processing industries, which can be detrimental to the environment and human health. Environmental problems such as the formation of photochemical smog, organic aerosols, and global warming are associated with VOC emissions. Research showed a clear relationship between VOC emissions and cancer. In recent years, stricter emission regulations, especially in industrialized countries, have been put in place around the world to restrict VOC emissions. Non-thermal plasmas (NTPs) are a promising technology for reducing VOC emissions by converting them into less toxic/environmentally friendly species. The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is of interest due to its flexibility, moderate capital cost, and ease of operation under ambient conditions. In this study, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor has been developed for the decomposition of cyclohexane (as a VOC model compound) using nitrogen, dry, and humidified air carrier gases. The effect of specific input energy (1.2-3.0 kJ/L), residence time (1.2-2.3 s) and concentration (220-520 ppm) were investigated. It was demonstrated that the removal efficiency of cyclohexane increased with increasing plasma power and residence time. The removal of cyclohexane decreased with increasing cyclohexane inlet concentration at fixed plasma power and residence time. The decomposition products included H₂, CO₂, H₂O, lower hydrocarbons (C₁-C₅) and solid residue. The highest removal efficiency (98.2%) was observed at specific input energy of 3.0 kJ/L and a residence time of 2.3 s in humidified air plasma. The effect of humidity was investigated to determine whether it could reduce the formation of solid residue in the DBD reactor. It was observed that the solid residue completely disappeared in humidified air plasma. Furthermore, the presence of OH radicals due to humidification not only increased the removal efficiency of cyclohexane but also improves product selectivity. This work demonstrates that cyclohexane can be converted to smaller molecules by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) non-thermal plasma reactor by varying plasma power (SIE), residence time, reactor configuration, and carrier gas.

Keywords: cyclohexane, dielectric barrier discharge reactor, non-thermal plasma, removal efficiency

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3047 An Efficient Automated Radiation Measuring System for Plasma Monopole Antenna

Authors: Gurkirandeep Kaur, Rana Pratap Yadav


This experimental study is aimed to examine the radiation characteristics of different plasma structures of a surface wave-driven plasma antenna by an automated measuring system. In this study, a 30 cm long plasma column of argon gas with a diameter of 3 cm is excited by surface wave discharge mechanism operating at 13.56 MHz with RF power level up to 100 Watts and gas pressure between 0.01 to 0.05 mb. The study reveals that a single structured plasma monopole can be modified into an array of plasma antenna elements by forming multiple striations or plasma blobs inside the discharge tube by altering the values of plasma properties such as working pressure, operating frequency, input RF power, discharge tube dimensions, i.e., length, radius, and thickness. It is also reported that plasma length, electron density, and conductivity are functions of operating plasma parameters and controlled by changing working pressure and input power. To investigate the antenna radiation efficiency for the far-field region, an automation-based radiation measuring system has been fabricated and presented in detail. This developed automated system involves a combined setup of controller, dc servo motors, vector network analyzer, and computing device to evaluate the radiation intensity, directivity, gain and efficiency of plasma antenna. In this system, the controller is connected to multiple motors for moving aluminum shafts in both elevation and azimuthal plane whereas radiation from plasma monopole antenna is measured by a Vector Network Analyser (VNA) which is further wired up with the computing device to display radiations in polar plot forms. Here, the radiation characteristics of both continuous and array plasma monopole antenna have been studied for various working plasma parameters. The experimental results clearly indicate that the plasma antenna is as efficient as a metallic antenna. The radiation from plasma monopole antenna is significantly influenced by plasma properties which provides a wider range in radiation pattern where desired radiation parameters like beam-width, the direction of radiation, radiation intensity, antenna efficiency, etc. can be achieved in a single monopole. Due to its wide range of selectivity in radiation pattern; this can meet the demands of wider bandwidth to get high data speed in communication systems. Moreover, this developed system provides an efficient and cost-effective solution for measuring the radiation pattern in far-field zone for any kind of antenna system.

Keywords: antenna radiation characteristics, dynamically reconfigurable, plasma antenna, plasma column, plasma striations, surface wave

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3046 RF Plasma Discharge Equipment for Conservation Treatments of Paper Supports

Authors: Emil Ghiocel Ioanid, Viorica Frunză, Dorina Rusu, Ana Maria Vlad, Catalin Tanase, Simona Dunca


The application of cold radio-frequency (RF) plasma in the conservation of cultural heritage became important in the last decades due to the positive results obtained in decontamination treatments. This paper presents an equipment especially designed for RF cold plasma application on paper documents, developed within a research project. The equipment allows the application of decontamination and cleaning treatments on any type of paper support, as well as the coating with a protective polymer. The equipment consists in a Pyrex vessel, inside which are placed two plane-parallel electrodes, capacitively coupled to a radio-frequency generator. The operating parameters of the equipment are: 1.2 MHz frequency, 50V/cm electric field intensity, current intensity in the discharge 100 mA, 40 W power in the discharge, the pressure varying from 5∙10-1 mbar to 5.5∙10-1 mbar, depending on the fragility of the material, operating in gaseous nitrogen. In order to optimize the equipment treatments in nitrogen plasma have been performed on samples infested with microorganisms, then the decontamination and the changes in surface properties (color, pH) were assessed. The analyses results presented in the table revealed only minor modifications of surface pH the colorimetric analysis showing a slight change to yellow. The equipment offers the possibility of performing decontamination, cleaning and protective coating of paper-based documents in successive stages, thus avoiding the recontamination with harmful biological agents.

Keywords: nitrogen plasma, cultural heritage, paper support, radio-frequency

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3045 Experimental Parameters’ Effects on the Electrical Discharge Machining Performances (µEDM)

Authors: Asmae Tafraouti, Yasmina Layouni, Pascal Kleimann


The growing market for Microsystems (MST) and Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) is driving the research for alternative manufacturing techniques to microelectronics-based technologies, which are generally expensive and time-consuming. Hot-embossing and micro-injection modeling of thermoplastics appear to be industrially viable processes. However, both require the use of master models, usually made in hard materials such as steel. These master models cannot be fabricated using standard microelectronics processes. Thus, other micromachining processes are used, as laser machining or micro-electrical discharge machining (µEDM). In this work, µEDM has been used. The principle of µEDM is based on the use of a thin cylindrical micro-tool that erodes the workpiece surface. The two electrodes are immersed in a dielectric with a distance of a few micrometers (gap). When an electrical voltage is applied between the two electrodes, electrical discharges are generated, which cause material machining. In order to produce master models with high resolution and smooth surfaces, it is necessary to well control the discharge mechanism. However, several problems are encountered, such as a random electrical discharge process, the fluctuation of the discharge energy, the electrodes' polarity inversion, and the wear of the micro-tool. The effect of different parameters, such as the applied voltage, the working capacitor, the micro-tool diameter, the initial gap, has been studied. This analysis helps to improve the machining performances, such: the workpiece surface condition and the lateral crater's gap.

Keywords: craters, electrical discharges, micro-electrical discharge machining (µEDM), microsystems

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3044 BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene) Degradation by Cold Plasma

Authors: Anelise Leal Vieira Cubas, Marina de Medeiros Machado, Marília de Medeiros Machado


The volatile organic compounds - BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene) petroleum derivatives, have high rates of toxicity, which may carry consequences for human health, biota and environment. In this direction, this paper proposes a method of treatment of these compounds by using corona discharge plasma technology. The efficiency of the method was tested by analyzing samples of BTEX after going through a plasma reactor by gas chromatography method. The results show that the optimal residence time of the sample in the reactor was 8 minutes.

Keywords: BTEX, degradation, cold plasma, ecological sciences

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3043 Inactivation and Stress Response of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium lt21 upon Cold Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Zoran Herceg, Tomislava Vukušić, Anet Režek Jambrak, Višnja Stulić


Today one of the greatest challenges are directed to the safety of food supply. If food pathogens are ingested they can cause human illnesses. Because of that new technologies that are effective in microbial reduction are developing to be used in food industries. One of such technology is cold gas phase plasma. Salmonella enterica was studied as one of the pathogenes that can be found in food. The aim of this work was to examine the inactivation rate and stress response of plasma treated cells of Salmonella enterica inoculated in apple juice. After the treatment cellular leakage, phenotypic changes in plasma treated cells-biofilm formation and degree of recovery were conducted. Sample volume was inoculated with 5 mL of pure culture of Salmonella enterica and 15 mL of apple juice. Statgraphics Centurion software (StatPoint Technologies, Inc., VA, USA) was used for experimental design and statistical analyses. Treatment time (1, 3, 5 min) and gas flow (40, 60, 80 L/min) were changed. Complete inactivation and 0 % of recovery after the 48 h was observed at these experimental treatments: 3 min; 40 L/min, 3 min; 80 L/min, 5 min; 40 L/min. Biofilm reduction was observed at all treated samples. Also, there was an increase in cellular leakage with a longer plasma treatment. Although there were a significant reduction and 0 % of recovery after the plasma treatments further investigation of the method is needed to clarify whether there are sensorial, physical and chemical changes in juices after the plasma treatment. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for the preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium lt21, gas-phase plasma treatment, inactivation, stress response

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3042 FEDBD Plasma, A Promising Approach for Skin Rejuvenation

Authors: P. Charipoor, M. Khani, H. Mahmoudi, E. Ghasemi, P. Akbartehrani, B. Shokri


Cold air plasma could have a variety of effects on cells and living organisms and also shows good results in medical and cosmetic cases. Herein, plasma floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge (FEDBD) plasma was designed for mouse skin rejuvenation purposes. It is safe and easy to use in clinics, laboratories, and homes. The effects of this device were investigated on mouse skin. Vitamin C ointment in combination with plasma was also used as a new method to improve FEDBD results. In this study, 20 Wistar rats were evaluated in four groups. The first group received high-dose plasma, the second group received moderate-dose plasma (with vitamin C cream), the third group received low-dose plasma (with vitamin C cream) for 6 minutes, and the fourth group received only vitamin C cream. This process was done 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Skin temperature was monitored to evaluate the thermal effect of plasma. The presence of reactive species was also demonstrated using optical spectroscopy. Mechanical assays were performed to evaluate the effect of plasma and vitamin C on the mechanical strength of the tissue, which showed a positive effect of plasma on the treated tissue compared to the control group. Using pathological and biometric skin tests, an increase in collagen levels, epidermal thickness, and an increase in fibroblasts was observed in rat skin, as well as increased skin elasticity. This study showed the positive effect of using the FEDBD plasma device on the effective parameters in skin rejuvenation.

Keywords: plasma, skin rejuvenation, collagen, epidermal thickness

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3041 Study of Tool Shape during Electrical Discharge Machining of AISI 52100 Steel

Authors: Arminder Singh Walia, Vineet Srivastava, Vivek Jain


In Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) operations, the workpiece confers to the shape of the tool. Further, the cost of the tool contributes the maximum effect on total operation cost. Therefore, the shape and profile of the tool become highly significant. Thus, in this work, an attempt has been made to study the effect of process parameters on the shape of the tool. Copper has been used as the tool material for the machining of AISI 52100 die steel. The shape of the tool has been evaluated by determining the difference in out of roundness of tool before and after machining. Statistical model has been developed and significant process parameters have been identified which affect the shape of the tool. Optimum process parameters have been identified which minimizes the shape distortion.

Keywords: discharge current, flushing pressure, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, out of roundness, electrical discharge machining

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3040 Determination of Inactivation and Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells after the Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Z. Herceg, V. Stulic, T. Vukusic, A. Rezek Jambrak


Gas phase plasma treatment is a new nonthermal technology used for food and water decontamination. In this study, we have investigated influence of the gas phase plasma treatment on yeast cells of S. cerevisiae. Sample was composed of 10 mL of yeast suspension and 190 mL of 0.01 M NaNO₃ with a medium conductivity of 100 µS/cm. Samples were treated in a glass reactor with a point- to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire in the gas phase and grounded electrode in the liquid phase). Air or argon were injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min and positive polarity were defined parameters. Inactivation was higher with the applied higher frequency, longer treatment time and injected argon. Inactivation was not complete which resulted in complete recovery. Cellular leakage (260 nm and 280 nm) was higher with a longer treatment time and higher frequency. Leakage at 280 nm which defines a leakage of proteins was higher than leakage at 260 nm which defines a leakage of nucleic acids. The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivation, gas-phase plasma treatment, cellular leakage

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3039 Study of Synergetic Effect by Combining Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma and Photocatalysis for Abatement of Pollutants in Air Mixture System: Influence of Some Operating Conditions and Identification of Byproducts

Authors: Wala Abou Saoud, Aymen Amine Assadi, Monia Guiza, Abdelkrim Bouzaza, Wael Aboussaoud, Abdelmottaleb Ouederni, Dominique Wolbert


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) constitute one of the most important families of chemicals involved in atmospheric pollution, causing damage to the environment and human health, and need, consequently, to be eliminated. Among the promising technologies, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma - photocatalysis coupling reveals very interesting prospects in terms of process synergy of compounds mineralization’s, with low energy consumption. In this study, the removal of organic compounds such butyraldehyde (BUTY) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) (exhaust gasses from animal quartering centers.) in air mixture using DBD plasma coupled with photocatalysis was tested, in order to determine whether or not synergy effect was present. The removal efficiency of these pollutants, a selectivity of CO₂ and CO, and byproducts formation such as ozone formation were investigated in order to evaluate the performance of the combined process. For this purpose, a series of experiments were carried out in a continuous reactor. Many operating parameters were also investigated such as the specific energy of discharge, the inlet concentration of pollutant and the flowrate. It appears from this study that, the performance of the process has enhanced and a synergetic effect is observed. In fact, we note an enhancement of 10 % on removal efficiency. It is interesting to note that the combined system leads to better CO₂ selectivity than for plasma. Consequently, intermediates by-products have been reduced due to various other species (O•, N, OH•, O₂•-, O₃, NO₂, NOx, etc.). Additionally, the behavior of combining DBD plasma and photocatalysis has shown that the ozone can be easily also decomposed in presence of photocatalyst.

Keywords: combined process, DBD plasma, photocatalysis, pilot scale, synergetic effect, VOCs

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3038 A One Dimensional Particle in Cell Model for Excimer Lamps

Authors: W. Benstaali, A. Belasri


In this work we study a planar lamp filled with neon-xenon gas. We use a one-dimensional particle in a cell with Monte Carlo simulation (PIC-MCC) to investigate the effect xenon concentration on the energy deposited on excitation, ionization and ions. A Xe-Ne discharge is studied for a gas pressure of 400 torr. The results show an efficient Xe20-Ne mixture with an applied voltage of 1.2KV; the xenon excitation energy represents 65% form total energy dissipated in the discharge. We have also studied electrical properties and the energy balance a discharge for Xe50-Ne which needs a voltage of 2kv; the xenon energy is than more important.

Keywords: dielectric barrier discharge, efficiency, excitation, lamps

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