Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 100

Search results for: sputtering

100 Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells Using All Sputtering Process

Authors: Ching-Hua Li, Sheng-Hui Chen


Sputtering is a popular technique with many advantages for thin film deposition. To fabricate a hydrogenated silicon thin film using sputtering process for solar cell applications, the ion bombardment during sputtering will generate microstructures (voids and columnar structures) to form silicon dihydride bodings as defects. The properties of heterojunction silicon solar cells were studied by using boron grains and silicon-boron targets. Finally, an 11.7% efficiency of solar cell was achieved by using all sputtering process.

Keywords: solar cell, sputtering process, pvd, alloy target

Procedia PDF Downloads 484
99 Comparative Studies on Thin Film of ZnO Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis and Sputtering Technique

Authors: Musa Momoh, A. U. Moreh, A. M. Bayawa, Sanusi Abdullahi, I. Atiku


In this study, thin films of ZnO were synthesized by two techniques namely RF sputtering and spray pyrolysis. The films were deposited on corning glass. The primary materials used are 99.99% pure. The optical and structural properties of the samples were studied. It has been noted that the samples deposited by Spray pyrolysis have and average transmittance, refractive index and extinction coefficient as 80-90%, 1.33-1.44 and 13.11-27.52 respectively. Those deposited by sputtering method are 34-80%, 1.51-1.52 and 3.15-3.28. The XRD patterns of the samples show that they are polycrystalline.

Keywords: zinc oxide, spray pyrolysis, rf sputtering, optical properties, electrical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
98 Optimal Sputtering Conditions for Nickel-Cermet Anodes in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: Waqas Hassan Tanveer, Yoon Ho Lee, Taehyun Park, Wonjong Yu, Yaegeun Lee, Yusung Kim, Suk Won Cha


Nickel-Gadolinium Doped Ceria (Ni-GDC) cermet anodic thin films were prepared on Scandia Stabilized Zirconia (ScSZ) electrolyte supports by radio frequency (RF) sputtering, with a range of different sputtering powers (50 – 200W) and background Ar gas pressures (30 – 90mTorr). The effects of varying sputtering power and pressure on the properties of Ni-GDC films were studied using Focused Ion Beam (FIB), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques. The Ni content was found to be always higher than the Ce content, at all sputtering conditions. This increased Ni content was attributed to significantly higher energy transfer efficiency of Ni ions as compared to Ce ions with Ar background sputtering gas. The solid oxide fuel cell configuration was completed by using lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM/YSZ) cathodes on the other side of ScSZ supports. Performance comparison of cells was done by Voltage-Current-Power (VIP) curves, while the resistances of various cell components were observed by nyquist plots. Initial results showed that anode films made by higher powered RF sputtering performed better than lower powered ones for a specific Ar pressure. Interestingly, however, anodes made at highest power and pressure, were not the ones that showed the maximum power output at an intermediate solid oxide fuel cell temperature of 800°C. Finally, an optimal sputtering condition was reported for high performance Ni-GDC anodes.

Keywords: intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells, nickel-cermet anodic thin films, nyquist plots, radio frequency sputtering

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
97 Structure and Properties of Intermetallic NiAl-Based Coatings Produced by Magnetron Sputtering Technique

Authors: Tatiana S. Ogneva


Aluminum and nickel-based intermetallic compounds have attracted the attention of scientific community as promising materials for heat-resistant and wear-resistant coatings in such manufacturing areas as microelectronics, aircraft and rocket building and chemical industries. Magnetron sputtering makes possible to coat materials without formation of liquid phase and improves the mechanical and functional properties of nickel aluminides due to the possibility of nanoscale structure formation. The purpose of the study is the investigation of structure and properties of intermetallic coatings produced by magnetron sputtering technique. The feature of this work is the using of composite targets for sputtering, which were consisted of two semicircular sectors of cp-Ni and cp-Al. Plates of alumina, silicon, titanium and steel alloys were used as substrates. To estimate sputtering conditions on structure of intermetallic coatings, a series of samples were produced and studied in detail using scanning and transition electron microcopy and X-Ray diffraction. Besides, nanohardness and scratching tests were carried out. The varying parameters were the distance from the substrate to the target, the duration and the power of the sputtering. The thickness of the obtained intermetallic coatings varied from 0.05 to 0.5 mm depending on the sputtering conditions. The X-ray diffraction data indicated that the formation of intermetallic compounds occurred after sputtering without additional heat treatment. Sputtering at a distance not closer than 120 mm led to the formation of NiAl phase. Increase in the power of magnetron from 300 to 900 W promoted the increase of heterogeneity of the phase composition and the appearance of intermetallic phases NiAl, Ni₂Al₃, NiAl₃, and Al under the aluminum side, and NiAl, Ni₃Al, and Ni under the nickel side of the target. A similar trend is observed with increasing the distance of sputtering from 100 to 60 mm. The change in the phase composition correlates with the changing of the atomic composition of the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the coatings have a nanoscale grain structure. In this case, the substrate material and the distance from the substrate to the magnetron have a significant effect on the structure formation process. The size of nanograins differs from 10 to 83 nm and depends not only on the sputtering modes but also on material of a substrate. Nanostructure of the material influences the level of mechanical properties. The highest level of nanohardness of the coatings deposited during 30 minutes on metallic substrates at a distance of 100 mm reached 12 GPa. It was shown that nanohardness depends on the grain size of the intermetallic compound. Scratching tests of the coatings showed a high level of adhesion of the coating to substrate without any delamination and cracking. The results of the study showed that magnetron sputtering of composite targets consisting of nickel and aluminum semicircles makes it possible to form intermetallic coatings with good mechanical properties directly in the process of sputtering without additional heat treatment.

Keywords: intermetallic coatings, magnetron sputtering, mechanical properties, structure

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96 Growth of Metal Oxide (Tio2/Ag) Thin Films Sputtered by Hipims Effective in Bacterial Inactivation: Plasma Chemistry and Energetic

Authors: O. Baghriche, A. Zertal, C. Pulgarin, J. Kiwi, R. Sanjines


High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) is a technology that belongs to the field of Ionized PVD of thin films. This study shows the first complete report on ultrathin TiO2/Ag nano-particulate films sputtered by highly ionized pulsed plasma magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) leading to fast bacterial loss of viability. The Ag and the TiO2/Ag sputtered films induced complete Escherichia coli inactivation in the dark, which was not observed in the case of TiO2. When Ag was present, the bacterial inactivation was accelerated under low intensity solar simulated light and this has implications for a potential for a practical technology. The design, preparation, testing and surface characterization of these innovative films are described in this study. The HIPIMS sputtered composite films present an appreciable savings in metals compared to films obtained by conventional sputtering methods. HIPIMS sputtering induces a strong interaction with the rugous polyester 3-D structure due to the higher fraction of the Ag-ions (M+) attained in the magnetron chamber. The immiscibility of Ag and TiO2 in the TiO2/Ag films is shown by High Angular Dark Field (HAADF) microscopy. The ionization degree of the film forming species is significantly increased and film growth is assisted by an intense ion flux. Reports have revealed the significant enhancement of the film properties as the HIPIMS technology is used. However, a decrease of the deposition rate, as compared to the conventional DC magnetron sputtering Pulsed (DCMSP) process is commonly observed during HIPIMS.

Keywords: E. coli, HIPIMS, inactivation bacterial, sputtering

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95 Decoration of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by CdS Nanoparticles Using Magnetron Sputtering Method

Authors: Z. Ghorannevis, E. Akbarnejad, B. Aghazadeh, M. Ghoranneviss


Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified with semiconductor nanocrystalline particles may find wide applications due to their unique properties. Here Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles were successfully grown on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) via a magnetron sputtering method for the first time. The CdS/MWNTs sample was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopies (SEM/TEM) and four point probe. The obtained images show clearly the decoration of the MWNTs by the CdS nanoparticles, and the XRD measurements indicate the CdS structure as hexagonal type. Moreover, the physical properties of the CdS/MWNTs were compared with the physical properties of the CdS nanoparticles grown on the silicon. Electrical measurements of CdS and CdS/MWNTs reveal that CdS/MWNTs has lower resistivity than the CdS sample which may be due to the higher carrier concentrations.

Keywords: CdS, MWNTs, HRTEM, magnetron sputtering

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94 Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ Alloys with Tuneable Energy Band Gap on GaAs (100) Substrate Manufactured by a Modified Magnetron Co-Sputtering

Authors: Li Qian, Jinchao Tong, Daohua Zhang, Weijun Fan, Fei Suo


Photonic applications based on group IV semiconductors have always been an interest but also a challenge for the research community. We report manufacturing group IV Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ alloys with tuneable energy band gap on (100) GaAs substrate by a modified radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering. Images were taken by atomic force microscope, and scanning electron microscope clearly demonstrates a smooth surface profile, and Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ nano clusters are with the size of several tens of nanometers. Transmittance spectra were measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy that showed changing energy gaps with the variation in elementary composition. Calculation results by 8-band k.p method are consistent with measured gaps. Our deposition system realized direct growth of Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ thin film on GaAs (100) substrate by sputtering. This simple deposition method was modified to be able to grow high-quality photonic materials with tuneable energy gaps. This work provides an alternative and successful method for fabricating Group IV photonic semiconductor materials.

Keywords: GeSn, crystal growth, sputtering, photonic

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93 Synthesis and Tribological Properties of the Al-Cr-N/MoS₂ Self-Lubricating Coatings by Hybrid Magnetron Sputtering

Authors: Tie-Gang Wang, De-Qiang Meng, Yan-Mei Liu


Ternary AlCrN coatings were widely used to prolong cutting tool life because of their high hardness and excellent abrasion resistance. However, the friction between the workpiece and cutter surface was increased remarkably during machining difficult-to-cut materials (such as superalloy, titanium, etc.). As a result, a lot of cutting heat was generated and cutting tool life was shortened. In this work, an appropriate amount of solid lubricant MoS₂ was added into the AlCrN coating to reduce the friction between the tool and the workpiece. A series of Al-Cr-N/MoS₂ self-lubricating coatings with different MoS₂ contents were prepared by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering (Pulsed DC) compound system. The MoS₂ content in the coatings was changed by adjusting the sputtering power of the MoS₂ target. The composition, structure and mechanical properties of the Al-Cr-N/MoS2 coatings were systematically evaluated by energy dispersive spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, nano-indenter tester, scratch tester, and ball-on-disk tribometer. The results indicated the lubricant content played an important role in the coating properties. As the sputtering power of the MoS₂ target was 0.1 kW, the coating possessed the highest hardness 14.1GPa, the highest critical load 44.8 N, and the lowest wear rate 4.4×10−3μm2/N.

Keywords: self-lubricating coating, Al-Cr-N/MoS₂ coating, wear rate, friction coefficient

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92 The Microstructure of Aging ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films

Authors: Zue Chin Chang, Shih-Chang Liang


RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The electric conduction mechanism of the AZO and GZO films came mainly from the Al and Ga, the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitial atoms, and Al and/or Ga interstitial atoms. AZO and GZO films achieved higher conduction than did ZnO film, it being ion vacant and nonstoichiometric. The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films.

Keywords: ZnO, AZO, GZO, doped, sputtering

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91 Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition of Inorganic-Fluoropolymer Nano-Coatings for Real-Life Applications

Authors: M. Valentini, D. Melisi, M. A. Nitti, R A. Picca, M. C. Sportelli, E. Bonerba, G. Casamassima, N. Cioffi, L. Sabbatini, G. Tantillo, A. Valentini


In recent years antimicrobial coatings are receiving increasing attention due to their high demand in medical applications as well as in healthcare and hygiene. Research and technology are constantly involved to develop advanced finishing which can provide bacteriostatic growth without compromising the other typical properties of a textile as durability and non-toxicity, just to cite a few. Here we report on the antimicrobial coatings obtained, at room temperature and without the use of solvents, by means of the ion beam co-sputtering technique of an Ag target and a polytetrafluoroethylene one. In particular, such method allows to conjugate the well-known antimicrobial action of silver with the anti-stain and water-repellent properties of the fluoropolymer. Moreover, different Ag nanoparticle loadings (φ) were prepared by tuning the material deposition conditions achieving a fine control on film thickness and their antimicrobial/anti-stain properties.

Keywords: antimicrobial, ion beam sputtering, nanocoatings, anti-stain

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90 Fabrication of Profile-Coated Rhodium X-Ray Focusing Mirror

Authors: Bing Shi, Raymond A. Conley, Jun Qian, Xianbo Shi, Steve Heald, Lahsen Assoufid


A pair of Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors were designed and fabricated for experiments within a hard x-ray energy range lower than 20 kev at beamline 20-ID in a synchrotron radiation facility, Advanced Photon Source (APS). The KB mirrors were deposited with Rhodium thin films using a customized designed and self-built magnetron sputtering system. The purpose of these mirrors is to focus the x-ray beam down to 1 micron. This is the first pair of Rhodium-coated KB mirrors with elliptical shape that was fabricated using the profile coating technique. The profile coating technique is to coat the substrate with designed shape using masks during the deposition. The mirrors were equipped at the beamline and achieved the designed focusing requirement. The details of the mirror design, the fabrication process, and the customized magnetron sputtering deposition system will be discussed.

Keywords: magnetron-sputtering deposition, focusing optics, x-ray, rhodium thin film

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
89 Response Surface Methodology for Optimum Hardness of TiN on Steel Substrate

Authors: R. Joseph Raviselvan, K. Ramanathan, P. Perumal, M. R. Thansekhar


Hard coatings are widely used in cutting and forming tool industries. Titanium Nitride (TiN) possesses good hardness, strength and corrosion resistant. The coating properties are influenced by many process parameters. The coatings were deposited on steel substrate by changing the process parameters such as substrate temperature, nitrogen flow rate and target power in a D.C planer magnetron sputtering. The structure of coatings were analysed using XRD. The hardness of coatings was found using Micro hardness tester. From the experimental data, a regression model was developed and the optimum response was determined using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

Keywords: hardness, RSM, sputtering, TiN XRD

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88 Wear Resistance and Thermal Stability of Tungsten Boride Layers Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

Authors: Justyna Chrzanowska, Jacek Hoffman, Dariusz Garbiec, Łukasz Kurpaska, Piotr Denis, Tomasz Moscicki, Zygmunt Szymanski


Tungsten and boron compounds belong to the group of superhard materials and its hardness could exceed 40 GPa. In this study, the properties of the tungsten boride (WB) layers deposited in magnetron sputtering process are investigated. The sputtering process occurred from specially prepared targets that were composed of boron and tungsten mixed in molar ratio of 2.5 or 4.5 and sintered in spark plasma sintering process. WB layers were deposited on silicon (100) and stainless steel 304 substrates at room temperature (RT) or in 570 °C. Layers deposited in RT and in elevated temperature varied considerably. Layers deposited in RT are amorphous and have low adhesion. In contrast, the layers deposited in 570 °C are crystalline and have good adhesion. All deposited layers have a hardness about 40 GPa. Moreover, the friction coefficient of crystalline layers is 0.22 and wear rate is about 0.67•10-6 mm3N-1m-1. After material characterization the WB layers were annealed in argon atmosphere in 1000 °C for 1 hour. On the basis of X-Ray Diffraction analysis, it has been noted that the crystalline layers are thermally stable and do not change their phase composition, whereas the amorphous layers change their phase composition. Moreover, after annealing, on the surface of WB layers some cracks were observed. It is probably connected with the differences of the thermal expansion between the layer and the substrate. Despite of the presence of cracks, the wear resistance of annealed layers is still higher than the wear resistance of uncoated substrate. The analysis of the structure and properties of tungsten boride layers lead to the discussion about the application area of this material.

Keywords: hard coatings, hard materials, magnetron sputtering, mechanical properties, tungsten boride

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87 Properties of Nanostructured MgB₂ Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

Authors: T. A. Prikhna, A. V. Shaternik, V. E. Moshchil, M. Eisterer, V. E. Shaternik


The paper presents the results of studying the structure, phase composition, relief, and superconducting characteristics of oxygen-containing thin films of magnesium diboride (MgB₂) deposited on a dielectric substrate by magnetron sputtering of diboride-magnesium targets. The possibility of forming films of varying degrees of crystalline perfection and phase composition in the process of precipitation and annealing is shown, depending on the conditions of deposition and annealing. In the films, it is possible to realize various combinations of the Abrikosov vortex pinning centers (in the places of fluctuations of the critical temperature of the superconducting transition (T

Keywords: critical current density, diboride, superconducting thin films, upper critical field

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86 Analysis of Structural and Photocatalytical Properties of Anatase, Rutile and Mixed Phase TiO2 Films Deposited by Pulsed-Direct Current and Radio Frequency Magnetron Co-Sputtering

Authors: S. Varnagiris, M. Urbonavicius, S. Tuckute, M. Lelis, K. Bockute


Amongst many water purification techniques, TiO2 photocatalysis is recognized as one of the most promising sustainable methods. It is known that for photocatalytical applications anatase is the most suitable TiO2 phase, however heterojunction of anatase/rutile phases could improve the photocatalytical activity of TiO2 even further. Despite the relative simplicity of TiO2 different synthesis methods lead to the highly dispersed crystal phases and photocatalytic activity of the corresponding samples. Accordingly, suggestions and investigations of various innovative methods of TiO2 synthesis are still needed. In this work structural and photocatalytical properties of TiO2 films deposited by the unconventional method of simultaneous co-sputtering from two magnetrons powered by pulsed-Direct Current (pDC) and Radio Frequency (RF) power sources with negative bias voltage have been studied. More specifically, TiO2 film thickness, microstructure, surface roughness, crystal structure, optical transmittance and photocatalytical properties were investigated by profilometer, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffractometer and UV-Vis spectrophotometer respectively. The proposed unconventional two magnetron co-sputtering based TiO2 film formation method showed very promising results for crystalline TiO2 film formation while keeping process temperatures below 100 °C. XRD analysis revealed that by using proper combination of power source type and bias voltage various TiO2 phases (amorphous, anatase, rutile or their mixture) can be synthesized selectively. Moreover, strong dependency between power source type and surface roughness, as well as between the bias voltage and band gap value of TiO2 films was observed. Interestingly, TiO2 films deposited by two magnetron co-sputtering without bias voltage had one of the highest band gap values between the investigated films but its photocatalytic activity was superior compared to all other samples. It is suggested that this is due to the dominating nanocrystalline anatase phase with various exposed surfaces including photocatalytically the most active {001}.

Keywords: films, magnetron co-sputtering, photocatalysis, TiO₂

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85 Influence of Thickness on Electrical and Structural Properties of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Films Prepared by RF Sputtering Technique

Authors: M. Momoh, S. Abdullahi, A. U. Moreh


Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared on corning (7059) glass substrates at a thickness of 75.5 and 130.5 nm by RF sputtering technique. The deposition was carried out at room temperature after which the samples were annealed in open air at 150°C. The electrical and structural properties of these films were studied. The electrical properties of the films were monitored by four-point probe method while the structural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the electrical resistance of the films decreases with increase in the thickness of the films. The XRD analysis of the films showed that the films have a peak located at 34.31°-34.35° with hkl (002). Other parameters calculated include the stress (σ) and the grain size (D).

Keywords: electrical properties, film thickness, structural properties, zinc oxide

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84 Deposition of Cr-doped ZnO Thin Films and Their Ferromagnetic Properties

Authors: Namhyun An, Byungho Lee, Hwauk Lee, Youngmin Lee, Deuk Young Kim, Sejoon Lee


In this study, the Cr-doped ZnO thin films have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering method with different Cr-contents (1.0at.%, 2.5at.% and 12.5at.%) and their ferromagnetic properties have been characterized. All films revealed clear ferromagnetism above room temperature. However, the spontaneous magnetization of the films was observed to depend on the Cr contents in the films. Namely, the magnitude of effective magnetic moment (per each Cr ion) was exponentially decreased with increasing the Cr contents. We attributed the decreased spontaneous magnetization to the degraded crystal magnetic anisotropy. In other words, we found out that the high concentration of magnetic ions causes the lattice distortion in the magnetic ion-doped thin film, and it consequently degrades ferromagnetic channeling in the solid-state material system.

Keywords: Cr-doped ZnO, ferromagnetic properties, magnetization, sputtering, thin film

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83 Influence of Thickness on Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Radio Frequency (RF) Sputtering Technique

Authors: S. Abdullahi, M. Momoh, K. U. Isah


Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of 75.5 nm and 130.5 nm were deposited at room temperature onto chemically and ultrasonically cleaned corning glass substrate by radio frequency technique and annealed at 150°C under nitrogen atmosphere for 60 minutes. The optical properties of the films were ascertained by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry. Influence of the thickness of the films on the optical properties was studied keeping other deposition parameters constant. The optical transmittance spectra reveal a maximum transmittance of 81.49% and 84.26% respectively. The band gap of the films is found to be direct allowed transition and decreases with the increase in thickness of the films. The band gap energy (Eg) is in the range of 3.28 eV to 3.31 eV, respectively. These thin films are suitable for solar cell applications.

Keywords: optical constants, RF sputtering, Urbach energy, zinc oxide thin film

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82 Structural and Optical Properties of RF-Sputtered ZnS and Zn(S,O) Thin Films

Authors: Ould Mohamed Cheikh, Mounir Chaik, Hind El Aakib, Mohamed Aggour, Abdelkader Outzourhit


Zinc sulfide [ZnS] and oxygenated zinc sulfide Zn(O,S) thin films were deposited on glass substrates, by reactive cathodic radio-frequency (RF) sputtering. The substrates power and percentage of oxygen were varied in the range of 100W to 250W and from 5% to 20% respectively. The structural, morphological and optical properties of these thin films were investigated. The optical properties (mainly the refractive index, absorption coefficient and optical band gap) were examined by optical transmission measurements in the ultraviolet-visible-near Infrared wavelength range. XRD analysis indicated that all sputtered ZnS films were a single phase with a preferential orientation along the (111) plane of zinc blend (ZB). The crystallite size was in the range of 19.5 nm to 48.5 nm, the crystallite size varied with RF power reaching a maximum at 200 W. The Zn(O,S) films, on the other hand, were amorphous. UV-Visible, measurements showed that the ZnS film had more than 80% transmittance in the visible wavelength region while that of Zn(O,S is 85%. Moreover, it was observed that the band gap energy of the ZnS films increases slightly from 3.4 to 3.52 eV as the RF power was increased. The optical band gap of Zn(O,S), on the other hand, decreased from 4.2 to 3.89 eV as the oxygen partial pressure is increased in the sputtering atmosphere at a fixed RF-power. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed smooth surfaces for both type of films. The X-ray reflectometry measurements on the ZnS films showed that the density of the films (3.9 g/cm3) is close that of bulk ZnS.

Keywords: thin films Zn(O, S) properties, Zn(O, S) by Rf-sputtering, ZnS for solar cells, thin films for renewable energy

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81 Benefits of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) Method for Preparation of Transparent Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (IGZO) Thin Films

Authors: Pavel Baroch, Jiri Rezek, Michal Prochazka, Tomas Kozak, Jiri Houska


Transparent semiconducting amorphous IGZO films have attracted great attention due to their excellent electrical properties and possible utilization in thin film transistors or in photovoltaic applications as they show 20-50 times higher mobility than that of amorphous silicon. It is also known that the properties of IGZO films are highly sensitive to process parameters, especially to oxygen partial pressure. In this study we have focused on the comparison of properties of transparent semiconducting amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films prepared by conventional sputtering methods and those prepared by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) method. Furthermore we tried to optimize electrical and optical properties of the IGZO thin films and to investigate possibility to apply these coatings on thermally sensitive flexible substrates. We employed dc, pulsed dc, mid frequency sine wave and HiPIMS power supplies for magnetron deposition. Magnetrons were equipped with sintered ceramic InGaZnO targets. As oxygen vacancies are considered to be the main source of the carriers in IGZO films, it is expected that with the increase of oxygen partial pressure number of oxygen vacancies decreases which results in the increase of film resistivity. Therefore in all experiments we focused on the effect of oxygen partial pressure, discharge power and pulsed power mode on the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of IGZO thin films and also on the thermal load deposited to the substrate. As expected, we have observed a very fast transition between low- and high-resistivity films depending on oxygen partial pressure when deposition using conventional sputtering methods/power supplies have been utilized. Therefore we established and utilized HiPIMS sputtering system for enlargement of operation window for better control of IGZO thin film properties. It is shown that with this system we are able to effectively eliminate steep transition between low and high resistivity films exhibited by DC mode of sputtering and the electrical resistivity can be effectively controlled in the wide resistivity range of 10-² to 10⁵ Ω.cm. The highest mobility of charge carriers (up to 50 cm2/V.s) was obtained at very low oxygen partial pressures. Utilization of HiPIMS also led to significant decrease in thermal load deposited to the substrate which is beneficial for deposition on the thermally sensitive and flexible polymer substrates. Deposition rate as a function of discharge power and oxygen partial pressure was also systematically investigated and the results from optical, electrical and structure analysis will be discussed in detail. Most important result which we have obtained demonstrates almost linear control of IGZO thin films resistivity with increasing of oxygen partial pressure utilizing HiPIMS mode of sputtering and highly transparent films with low resistivity were prepared already at low pO2. It was also found that utilization of HiPIMS technique resulted in significant improvement of surface smoothness in reactive mode of sputtering (with increasing of oxygen partial pressure).

Keywords: charge carrier mobility, HiPIMS, IGZO, resistivity

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80 Growth Mechanism, Structural and Compositional Properties of Cu₂ZnSnS₄ (CZTS) Thin Films Deposited by Sputtering Method from a Compound Target

Authors: Sanusi Abdullahi, Musa Momoh, Abubakar Umar Moreh, Aminu Muhammad Bayawa, Olubunmi Popoola


Kesterite-type Cu₂ZnSnS₄ (CZTS) thin films were deposited on corning glass from a single quaternary target. In this study, we investigated the growth mechanism and the influence of thin film thickness on the structural and compositional properties of CZTS films. All the four samples (as-deposited inclusive) show peaks corresponding to kesterite-type structure. The diffraction peaks of (112) are sharp and the small characteristics peaks of the kesterite structure such as (220)/ (204) and (312)/ (116) are also clearly observed in X-ray diffraction pattern. These results indicate that the quaternary CZTS would be a potential candidate for solar cell applications.

Keywords: RF sputtering, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film, annealing, growth mechanism, annealing, growth mechanism, renewable energy

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79 Multipass Scratch Characterization of TiNbVN Thin Coatings Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

Authors: Hikmet Cicek


Transition metal nitrides are widely used as protective coatings on machine parts and cutting tools to protect the surfaces from abrasion and corrosion for decades. In this study, the ternary TiNbVN thin coatings were produced with closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system and their structural, mechanical and fatigue-like (multi-pass scratch test) properties were investigated. Two different substrates (M2 and H13 steels) were used to explore substrates effects. X-Ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used for the structural and chemical analysis of the coatings. Nanohardness tests were proceed for mechanical properties. The fatigue-like properties of the coatings obtained from the multi-scratch test under three different cycle passes. The results showed that TiNbVN films have excellent fatigue resistance and the coatings deposited on M2 steel substrate have higher hardness and better fatigue resistance.

Keywords: physical vapor deposition, fatigue, metal nitride, multipass scratch test

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78 Highly Sensitive and Selective H2 Gas Sensor Based on Pd-Pt Decorated Nanostructured Silicon Carbide Thin Films for Extreme Environment Application

Authors: Satyendra Mourya, Jyoti Jaiswal, Gaurav Malik, Brijesh Kumar, Ramesh Chandra


Present work describes the fabrication and sensing characteristics of the Pd-Pt decorated nanostructured silicon carbide (SiC) thin films on anodized porous silicon (PSi) substrate by RF magnetron sputtering. The gas sensing performance of Pd-Pt/SiC/PSi sensing electrode towards H2 gas under low (10–400 ppm) detection limit and high operating temperature regime (25–600 °C) were studied in detail. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited high selectivity, good sensing response, fast response/recovery time with excellent stability towards H2 at high temperature. The selectivity measurement of the sensing electrode was done towards different oxidizing and reducing gases and proposed sensing mechanism discussed in detail. Therefore, the investigated Pd-Pt/SiC/PSi structure may be a highly sensitive and selective hydrogen gas sensing electrode for deployment in extreme environment applications.

Keywords: RF Sputtering, silicon carbide, porous silicon, hydrogen gas sensor

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77 Adhesion of Sputtered Copper Thin Films Deposited on Flexible Substrates

Authors: Rwei-Ching Chang, Bo-Yu Su


Adhesion of copper thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthAdhesion of copper thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrate by direct current sputtering with different sputtering parameters is discussed in this work. The effects of plasma treatment with 0, 5, and 10 minutes on the thin film properties are investigated first. Various argon flow rates at 40, 50, 60 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm), deposition power at 30, 40, 50 W, and film thickness at 100, 200, 300 nm are also discussed. The 3-dimensional surface profilometer, micro scratch machine, and optical microscope are used to characterize the thin film properties. The results show that the increase of the plasma treatment time on the polyethylene terephthalate surface affects the roughness and critical load of the films. The critical load increases as the plasma treatment time increases. When the plasma treatment time was adjusted from 5 minutes to 10 minutes, the adhesion increased from 8.20 mN to 13.67 mN. When the argon flow rate is decreased from 60 sccm to 40 sccm, the adhesion increases from 8.27 mN to 13.67 mN. The adhesion is also increased by the condition of higher power, where the adhesion increased from 13.67 mN to 25.07 mN as the power increases from 30 W to 50 W. The adhesion of the film increases from 13.67 mN to 21.41mN as the film thickness increases from 100 nm to 300 nm. Comparing all the deposition parameters, it indicates the change of the power and thickness has much improvement on the film adhesion.alate substrate by direct current sputtering with different sputtering parameters is discussed in this work. The effects of plasma treatment with 0, 5, and 10 minutes on the thin film properties are investigated first. Various argon flow rates at 40, 50, 60 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm), deposition power at 30, 40, 50 W, and film thickness at 100, 200, 300 nm are also discussed. The 3-dimensional surface profilometer, micro scratch machine, and optical microscope are used to characterize the thin film properties. The results show that the increase of the plasma treatment time on the polyethylene terephthalate surface affects the roughness and critical load of the films. The critical load increases as the plasma treatment time increases. When the plasma treatment time was adjusted from 5 minutes to 10 minutes, the adhesion increased from 8.20 mN to 13.67 mN. When the argon flow rate is decreased from 60 sccm to 40 sccm, the adhesion increases from 8.27 mN to 13.67 mN. The adhesion is also increased by the condition of higher power, where the adhesion increased from 13.67 mN to 25.07 mN as the power increases from 30 W to 50 W. The adhesion of the film increases from 13.67 mN to 21.41mN as the film thickness increases from 100 nm to 300 nm. Comparing all the deposition parameters, it indicates the change of the power and thickness has much improvement on the film adhesion.

Keywords: flexible substrate, sputtering, adhesion, copper thin film

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76 The Formation of Thin Copper Films on Graphite Surface Using Magnetron Sputtering Method

Authors: Zydrunas Kavaliauskas, Aleksandras Iljinas, Liutauras Marcinauskas, Mindaugas Milieska, Vitas Valincius


The magnetron sputtering deposition method is often used to obtain thin film coatings. The main advantage of magnetron vaporization compared to other deposition methods is the high rate erosion of the cathode material (e.g., copper, aluminum, etc.) and the ability to operate under low-pressure conditions. The structure of the formed coatings depends on the working parameters of the magnetron deposition system, which is why it is possible to influence the properties of the growing film, such as morphology, crystal orientation, and dimensions, stresses, adhesion, etc. The properties of these coatings depend on the distance between the substrate and the magnetron surface, the vacuum depth, the gas used, etc. Using this deposition technology, substrates are most often placed near the anode. The magnetic trap of the magnetrons for localization of electrons in the cathode region is formed using a permanent magnet system that is on the side of the cathode. The scientific literature suggests that, after insertion of a small amount of copper into graphite, the electronic conductivity of graphite increase. The aim of this work is to create thin (up to 300 nm) layers on a graphite surface using a magnetron evaporation method, to investigate the formation peculiarities and microstructure of thin films, as well as the mechanism of copper diffusion into graphite inner layers at different thermal treatment temperatures. The electron scanning microscope was used to investigate the microrelief of the coating surface. The chemical composition is determined using the EDS method, which shows that, with an increase of the thermal treatment of the copper-carbon layer from 200 °C to 400 °C, the copper content is reduced from 8 to 4 % in atomic mass units. This is because the EDS method captures only the amount of copper on the graphite surface, while the temperature of the heat treatment increases part of the copper because of the diffusion processes penetrates into the inner layers of the graphite. The XRD method shows that the crystalline copper structure is not affected by thermal treatment.

Keywords: carbon, coatings, copper, magnetron sputtering

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75 Temperature Dependent Magneto-Transport Properties of MnAl Binary Alloy Thin Films

Authors: Vineet Barwal, Sajid Husain, Nanhe Kumar Gupta, Soumyarup Hait, Sujeet Chaudhary


High perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and low damping constant (α) in ferromagnets are one of the few necessary requirements for their potential applications in the field of spintronics. In this regards, ferromagnetic τ-phase of MnAl possesses the highest PMA (Ku > 107 erg/cc) at room temperature, high saturation magnetization (Ms~800 emu/cc) and a Curie temperature of ~395K. In this work, we have investigated the magnetotransport behaviour of this potentially useful binary system MnₓAl₁₋ₓ films were synthesized by co-sputtering (pulsed DC magnetron sputtering) on Si/SiO₂ (where SiO₂ is native oxide layer) substrate using 99.99% pure Mn and Al sputtering targets. Films of constant thickness (~25 nm) were deposited at the different growth temperature (Tₛ) viz. 30, 300, 400, 500, and 600 ºC with a deposition rate of ~5 nm/min. Prior to deposition, the chamber was pumped down to a base pressure of 2×10⁻⁷ Torr. During sputtering, the chamber was maintained at a pressure of 3.5×10⁻³ Torr with the 55 sccm Ar flow rate. Films were not capped for the purpose of electronic transport measurement, which leaves a possibility of metal oxide formation on the surface of MnAl (both Mn and Al have an affinity towards oxide formation). In-plane and out-of-plane transverse magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on films sputtered under optimized growth conditions revealed non-saturating behavior with MR values ~6% and 40% at 9T, respectively at 275 K. Resistivity shows a parabolic dependence on the field H, when the H is weak. At higher H, non-saturating positive MR that increases exponentially with the strength of magnetic field is observed, a typical character of hopping type conduction mechanism. An anomalous decrease in MR is observed on lowering the temperature. From the temperature dependence of reistivity, it is inferred that the two competing states are metallic and semiconducting, respectively and the energy scale of the phenomenon produces the most interesting effects, i.e., the metal-insulator transition and hence the maximum sensitivity to external fields, at room temperature. Theory of disordered 3D systems effectively explains the crossover temperature coefficient of resistivity from positive to negative with lowering of temperature. These preliminary findings on the MR behavior of MnAl thin films will be presented in detail. The anomalous large MR in mixed phase MnAl system is evidently useful for future spintronic applications.

Keywords: magnetoresistance, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, spintronics, thin films

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74 Structure and Tribological Properties of Moisture Insensitivity Si Containing Diamond-Like Carbon Film

Authors: Mingjiang Dai, Qian Shi, Fang Hu, Songsheng Lin, Huijun Hou, Chunbei Wei


A diamond-like carbon (DLC) is considered as a promising protective film since its high hardness and excellent tribological properties. However, DLC films are very sensitive to the environmental condition, its friction coefficient could dramatic change in high humidity, therefore, limited their further application in aerospace, the watch industry, and micro/nano-electromechanical systems. Therefore, most studies focus on the low friction coefficient of DLC films at a high humid environment. However, this is out of satisfied in practical application. An important thing was ignored is that the DLC coated components are usually used in the diversed environment, which means its friction coefficient may evidently change in different humid condition. As a result, the invalidation of DLC coated components or even sometimes disaster occurred. For example, DLC coated minisize gears were used in the watch industry, and the customer may frequently transform their locations with different weather and humidity even in one day. If friction coefficient is not stable in dry and high moisture conditions, the watch will be inaccurate. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the stable tribological behavior of DLC films in various environments. In this study, a-C:H:Si films were deposited by multi-function magnetron sputtering system, containing one ion source device and a pair of SiC dual mid-frequent targets and two direct current Ti/C targets. Hydrogenated carbon layers were manufactured by sputtering the graphite target in argon and methane gasses. The silicon was doped in DLC coatings by sputtering silicon carbide targets and the doping content were adjusted by mid-frequent sputtering current. The microstructure of the film was characterized by Raman spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy while its friction behavior under different humidity conditions was studied using a ball-on-disc tribometer. The a-C:H films with Si content from 0 to 17at.% were obtained and the influence of Si content on the structure and tribological properties under the relative humidity of 50% and 85% were investigated. Results show that the a-C:H:Si film has typical diamond-like characteristics, in which Si mainly existed in the form of Si, SiC, and SiO2. As expected, the friction coefficient of a-C:H films can be effectively changed after Si doping, from 0.302 to 0.176 in RH 50%. The further test shows that the friction coefficient value of a-C:H:Si film in RH 85% is first increase and then decrease as a function of Si content. We found that the a-C:H:Si films with a Si content of 3.75 at.% show a stable friction coefficient of 0.13 in different humidity environment. It is suggestion that the sp3/sp2 ratio of a-C:H films with 3.75 at.% Si was higher than others, which tend to form the silica-gel-like sacrificial layers during friction tests. Therefore, the films deliver stable low friction coefficient under controlled RH value of 50 and 85%.

Keywords: diamond-like carbon, Si doping, moisture environment, table low friction coefficient

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73 A Neural Network System for Predicting the Hardness of Titanium Aluminum Nitrite (TiAlN) Coatings

Authors: Omar M. Elmabrouk


The cutting tool, in the high-speed machining process, is consistently dealing with high localized stress at the tool tip, tip temperature exceeds 800°C and the chip slides along the rake face. These conditions are affecting the tool wear, the cutting tool performances, the quality of the produced parts and the tool life. Therefore, a thin film coating on the cutting tool should be considered to improve the tool surface properties while maintaining its bulks properties. One of the general coating processes in applying thin film for hard coating purpose is PVD magnetron sputtering. In this paper, the prediction of the effects of PVD magnetron sputtering coating process parameters, sputter power in the range of (4.81-7.19 kW), bias voltage in the range of (50.00-300.00 Volts) and substrate temperature in the range of (281.08-600.00 °C), were studied using artificial neural network (ANN). The results were compared with previously published results using RSM model. It was found that the ANN is more accurate in prediction of tool hardness, and hence, it will not only improve the tool life of the tool but also significantly enhances the efficiency of the machining processes.

Keywords: artificial neural network, hardness, prediction, titanium aluminium nitrate coating

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72 A 1T1R Nonvolatile Memory with Al/TiO₂/Au and Sol-Gel Processed Barium Zirconate Nickelate Gate in Pentacene Thin Film Transistor

Authors: Ke-Jing Lee, Cheng-Jung Lee, Yu-Chi Chang, Li-Wen Wang, Yeong-Her Wang


To avoid the cross-talk issue of only resistive random access memory (RRAM) cell, one transistor and one resistor (1T1R) architecture with a TiO₂-based RRAM cell connected with solution barium zirconate nickelate (BZN) organic thin film transistor (OTFT) device is successfully demonstrated. The OTFT were fabricated on a glass substrate. Aluminum (Al) as the gate electrode was deposited via a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system. The barium acetate, zirconium n-propoxide, and nickel II acetylacetone were synthesized by using the sol-gel method. After the BZN solution was completely prepared using the sol-gel process, it was spin-coated onto the Al/glass substrate as the gate dielectric. The BZN layer was baked at 100 °C for 10 minutes under ambient air conditions. The pentacene thin film was thermally evaporated on the BZN layer at a deposition rate of 0.08 to 0.15 nm/s. Finally, gold (Au) electrode was deposited using an RF magnetron sputtering system and defined through shadow masks as both the source and drain. The channel length and width of the transistors were 150 and 1500 μm, respectively. As for the manufacture of 1T1R configuration, the RRAM device was fabricated directly on drain electrodes of TFT device. A simple metal/insulator/metal structure, which consisting of Al/TiO₂/Au structures, was fabricated. First, Au was deposited to be a bottom electrode of RRAM device by RF magnetron sputtering system. Then, the TiO₂ layer was deposited on Au electrode by sputtering. Finally, Al was deposited as the top electrode. The electrical performance of the BZN OTFT was studied, showing superior transfer characteristics with the low threshold voltage of −1.1 V, good saturation mobility of 5 cm²/V s, and low subthreshold swing of 400 mV/decade. The integration of the BZN OTFT and TiO₂ RRAM devices was finally completed to form 1T1R configuration with low power consumption of 1.3 μW, the low operation current of 0.5 μA, and reliable data retention. Based on the I-V characteristics, the different polarities of bipolar switching are found to be determined by the compliance current with the different distribution of the internal oxygen vacancies used in the RRAM and 1T1R devices. Also, this phenomenon can be well explained by the proposed mechanism model. It is promising to make the 1T1R possible for practical applications of low-power active matrix flat-panel displays.

Keywords: one transistor and one resistor (1T1R), organic thin-film transistor (OTFT), resistive random access memory (RRAM), sol-gel

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71 Al-Ti-W Metallic Glass Thin Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering Technology to Protect Steel Against Hydrogen Embrittlement

Authors: Issam Lakdhar, Akram Alhussein, Juan Creus


With the huge increase in world energy consumption, researchers are working to find other alternative sources of energy instead of fossil fuel one causing many environmental problems as the production of greenhouse effect gases. Hydrogen is considered a green energy source, which its combustion does not cause environmental pollution. The transport and the storage of the gas molecules or the other products containing this smallest chemical element in metallic structures (pipelines, tanks) are crucial issues. The dissolve and the permeation of hydrogen into the metal lattice lead to the formation of hydride phases and the embrittlement of structures. To protect the metallic structures, a surface treatment could be a good solution. Among the different techniques, magnetron sputtering is used to elaborate micrometric coatings capable of slowing down or stop hydrogen permeation. In the plasma environment, the deposition parameters of new thin-film metallic glasses Al-Ti-W were optimized and controlled in order to obtain, hydrogen barrier. Many characterizations were carried out (SEM, XRD and Nano-indentation…) to control the composition and understand the influence of film microstructure and chemical composition on the hydrogen permeation through the coatings. The coating performance was evaluated under two hydrogen production methods: chemical and electrochemical (cathodic protection) techniques. The hydrogen quantity absorbed was experimentally determined using the Thermal-Desorption Spectroscopy method (TDS)). An ideal ATW thin film was developed and showed excellent behavior against the diffusion of hydrogen.

Keywords: thin films, hydrogen, PVD, plasma technology, electrochemical properties

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