Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 178

Search results for: crystallinity

178 Enhancing Power Conversion Efficiency of P3HT/PCBM Polymer Solar Cells

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Mahmoud Algazzar

Abstract:

In this research, n-dodecylthiol was added to P3HT/PC70BM polymer solar cells to improve the crystallinity of P3HT and enhance the phase separation of P3HT/PC70BM. The improved crystallinity of P3HT/PC70BM doped with 0-5% by volume of n-dodecylthiol resulted in improving the power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells by 33%. In addition, thermal annealing of the P3HT/PC70MB/n-dodecylthiolcompound showed further improvement in crystallinity with n-dodecylthiol concentration up to 2%. The highest power conversion efficiency of 3.21% was achieved with polymer crystallites size L of 11.2nm, after annealing at 150°C for 30 minutes under a vacuum atmosphere. The smaller crystallite size suggests a shorter path of the charge carriers between P3HT backbones, which could be beneficial to getting a higher short circuit current in the devices made with the additive.

Keywords: n-dodecylthiol, congugated PSC, P3HT/PCBM, polymer solar cells

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177 Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from the Slurries of Magnesium Wastes by Microwave Energy

Authors: N. Tugrul, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

In this research, it is aimed not only microwave synthesis of magnesium borates but also evaluation of magnesium wastes. Synthesis process can be described with the reaction of Mg wastes and boric acid using microwave energy. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to synthesized minerals. According to XRD results, magnesium borate hydrate mixtures were obtained as mcallisterite (pdf# = 01-070-1902, Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)) at higher crystallinity properties was achieved at the mole ratio raw material 1:1. Also, other kinds of magnesium borate hydrates were obtained at lower crystallinity such as admontite (pdf # = 01-076-0540, MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)), inderite (pdf # = 01-072-2308, 2MgO.3B2O3.15(H2O)) and magnesium borate hydrates (pdf # = 01-076-0539, MgO(B2O3)3.6(H2O)). FT-IR spectrums indicated that minor changes were seen at the band values of characteristic stretching in each experiment. At the end of experiments it is seen that using microwave energy may contribute positive effects to design of synthesis process such as reducing reaction time and products at higher crystallinity.

Keywords: magnesium wastes, boric acid, magnesium borate, microwave energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
176 Effects of Surface Topography on Roughness of Glazed Ceramic Substrates

Authors: R. Sarjahani, M. Sheikhattar, S. Javadpour, B. Hashemi

Abstract:

Glazes and their surface characterization is an important subject for ceramic industries. Fabrication of a super smooth surface resistant to stains is a big improvement for those industries. In this investigation, surface topography of popular glazes such as Zircon and Titania based opaque glazes, calcium based matte glaze and transparent glaze has been analyzed by Marsurf M300, SEM, EDS and XRD. Results shows that surface roughness of glazes seriously depends on surface crystallinity, crystal size and shapes.

Keywords: crystallinity, glaze, surface roughness, topography

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175 Effect of Humidity on In-Process Crystallization of Lactose During Spray Drying

Authors: Amirali Ebrahimi, T. A. G. Langrish

Abstract:

The effect of various humidities on process yields and degrees of crystallinity for spray-dried powders from spray drying of lactose with humid air in a straight-through system have been studied. It has been suggested by Williams–Landel–Ferry kinetics (WLF) that a higher particle temperature and lower glass-transition temperature would increase the crystallization rate of the particles during the spray-drying process. Freshly humidified air produced by a Buchi-B290 spray dryer as a humidifier attached to the main spray dryer decreased the particle glass-transition temperature (Tg), while allowing the particle temperature (Tp) to reach higher values by using an insulated drying chamber. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and moisture sorption analysis were used to measure the degree of crystallinity for the spray-dried lactose powders. The results showed that higher Tp-Tg, as a result of applying humid air, improved the process yield from 21 ± 4 to 26 ± 2% and crystallinity of the particles by decreasing the latent heat of crystallization from 43 ± 1 to 30 ± 11 J/g and the sorption peak height from 7.3 ± 0.7% to 6 ± 0.7%.

Keywords: lactose, crystallization, spray drying, humid air

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174 Effect of Enzymatic Modification on the Crystallinity of Cellulose Pulps

Authors: J. Janicki, M. Rom, C. Slusarczyk, J. Fabia, M. Siika-aho, K. Marjamaa, K. Kruus, K. Langfelder, C. Steel, M. Paloheimo, T. Puranen, S. Mäkinen, D. Wawro

Abstract:

The cellulose is one of the most abundant polymers in the world, however, its application in the high-end value products such as films or fibres, it triggered by the cellulose properties. The noticeable presence of hydrogen bonding reflected with partially crystalline structure makes the cellulose insoluble in common solvents and not meltable. The existing technologies, such as viscose process, suffer from environmental and economical problems, because of the risk of harmful chemicals liberation during the spinning process. The enzymatic modification of cellulose with endoglucanase makes it directly alkali soluble in NaOH solution, giving the opportunities for film and fibers formation. As the effect of enzymatic treatment, there are observed changes in crystalline structure and accompanying changes of the affinity of cellulose to water, demonstrated by water retention value. The objective of the project ELMO - Novel carbohydrate modifying enzymes for fibre modification is is to develop new enzyme products for modification of dissolving grade pulps. The aim is to increase the reactivity of dissolving grade pulps and remove residual hemicellulose. The scientific aim of this paper is to present the effect of enzymatic treatment on the crystallinity and affinity to water of cellulose pulps modified with enzymes.

Keywords: cellulose, crystallinity, WAXS, enzyme

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173 A Unified Constitutive Model for the Thermoplastic/Elastomeric-Like Cyclic Response of Polyethylene with Different Crystal Contents

Authors: A. Baqqal, O. Abduhamid, H. Abdul-Hameed, T. Messager, G. Ayoub

Abstract:

In this contribution, the effect of crystal content on the cyclic response of semi-crystalline polyethylene is studied over a large strain range. Experimental observations on a high-density polyethylene with 72% crystal content and an ultralow density polyethylene with 15% crystal content are reported. The cyclic stretching does appear a thermoplastic-like response for high crystallinity and an elastomeric-like response for low crystallinity, both characterized by a stress-softening, a hysteresis and a residual strain, whose amount depends on the crystallinity and the applied strain. Based on the experimental observations, a unified viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model capturing the polyethylene cyclic response features is proposed. A two-phase representation of the polyethylene microstructure allows taking into consideration the effective contribution of the crystalline and amorphous phases to the intermolecular resistance to deformation which is coupled, to capture the strain hardening, to a resistance to molecular orientation. The polyethylene cyclic response features are captured by introducing evolution laws for the model parameters affected by the microstructure alteration due to the cyclic stretching.

Keywords: cyclic loading unloading, polyethylene, semi-crystalline polymer, viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model

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172 Impact of Natural Degradation of Low Density Polyethylene on Its Morphology

Authors: Meryem Imane Babaghayou, Asma Abdelhafidi, Salem Fouad Chabira, Mohammed Sebaa

Abstract:

A challenge of plastics industries is the realization of materials that resist the degradation in its application environment, and that to guarantee a longer life time therefore an optimal time of use. Blown extruded films of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) supplied by SABIC SAUDI ARABIA blown and extruded in SOFIPLAST company in Setif ALGERIA , have been subjected to climatic ageing in a sub-Saharan facility at Laghouat (Algeria) with direct exposure to sun. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques after prescribed amounts of time up to 8 months. It has been shown via these two techniques the impact of UV irradiation on the morphological development of a plastic material, especially the crystallinity degree which increases with exposure time. The reason of these morphological changes is related to photooxidative reactions leading to cross linking in the beginning and to chain scissions for an advanced stage of ageing this last ones are the first responsible. The crystallinity degree change is essentially controlled by the secondary crystallization of the amorphous chains whose mobility is enhanced by the chain scission processes. The diffusion of these short segments integrates the surface of the lamellae increasing in this way their thicknesses. The results presented highlight the complexity of the involved phenomena.

Keywords: Low Density poly (Ethylene), crystallinity, ageing, XRD, DSC

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171 Effect of the Binary and Ternary Exchanges on Crystallinity and Textural Properties of X Zeolites

Authors: H. Hammoudi, S. Bendenia, K. Marouf-Khelifa, R. Marouf, J. Schott, A. Khelifa

Abstract:

The ionic exchange of the NaX zeolite by Cu2+ and/or Zn2+ cations is progressively driven while following the development of some of its characteristic: crystallinity by XR diffraction, profile of isotherms, RI criterion, isosteric adsorption heat and microporous volume using both the Dubinin–Radushkevich (DR) equation and the t-plot through the Lippens–de Boer method which also makes it possible to determine the external surface area. Results show that the cationic exchange process, in the case of Cu2+ introduced at higher degree, is accompanied by crystalline degradation for Cu(x)X, in contrast to Zn2+-exchanged zeolite X. This degradation occurs without significant presence of mesopores, because the RI criterion values were found to be much lower than 2.2. A comparison between the binary and ternary exchanges shows that the curves of CuZn(x)X are clearly below those of Zn(x)X and Cu(x)X, whatever the examined parameter. On the other hand, the curves relating to CuZn(x)X tend towards those of Cu(x)X. This would again confirm the sensitivity of the crystalline structure of CuZn(x)X with respect to the introduction of Cu2+ cations. An original result is the distortion of the zeolitic framework of X zeolites at middle exchange degree, when Cu2+ competes with another divalent cation, such as Zn2+, for the occupancy of sites distributed within zeolitic cavities. In other words, the ternary exchange accentuates the crystalline degradation of X zeolites. An unexpected result also is the no correlation between crystal damage and the external surface area.

Keywords: adsorption, crystallinity, ion exchange, zeolite

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170 Tunable Crystallinity of Zinc Gallogermanate Nanoparticles via Organic Ligand-Assisted Biphasic Hydrothermal Synthesis

Authors: Sarai Guerrero, Lijia Liu

Abstract:

Zinc gallogermanate (ZGGO) is a persistent phosphor that can emit in the near infrared (NIR) range once dopped with Cr³⁺ enabling its use for in-vivo deep-tissue bio-imaging. Such a property also allows for its application in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Given this, work into developing a synthetic procedure that can be done using common laboratory instruments and equipment as well as understanding ZGGO overall, is in demand. However, the ZGGO nanoparticles must have a size compatible for cell intake to occur while still maintaining sufficient photoluminescence. The nanoparticle must also be made biocompatible by functionalizing the surface for hydrophilic solubility and for high particle uniformity in the final product. Additionally, most research is completed on doped ZGGO, leaving a gap in understanding the base form of ZGGO. It also leaves a gap in understanding how doping affects the synthesis of ZGGO. In this work, the first step of optimizing the particle size via the crystalline size of ZGGO was done with undoped ZGGO using the organic acid, oleic acid (OA) for organic ligand-assisted biphasic hydrothermal synthesis. The effects of this synthesis procedure on ZGGO’s crystallinity were evaluated using Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD). OA was selected as the capping ligand as experiments have shown it beneficial in synthesizing sub-10 nm zinc gallate (ZGO) nanoparticles as well as palladium nanocrystals and magnetite (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles. Later it is possible to substitute OA with a different ligand allowing for hydrophilic solubility. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier-Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) was used to investigate the surface of the nanoparticle to investigate and verify that OA had capped the nanoparticle. PXRD results showed that using this procedure led to improved crystallinity, comparable to the high-purity reagents used on the ZGGO nanoparticles. There was also a change in the crystalline size of the ZGGO nanoparticles. ATR-FTIR showed that once capped ZGGO cannot be annealed as doing so will affect the OA. These results point to this new procedure positively affecting the crystallinity of ZGGO nanoparticles. There are also repeatable implying the procedure is a reliable source of highly crystalline ZGGO nanoparticles. With this completed, the next step will be working on substituting the OA with a hydrophilic ligand. As these ligands effect the solubility of the nanoparticle as well as the pH that the nanoparticles can dissolve in, further research is needed to verify which ligand is best suited for preparing ZGGO for bio-imaging.

Keywords: biphasic hydrothermal synthesis, crystallinity, oleic acid, zinc gallogermanate

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169 Synthesis of KCaVO4:Sm³⁺/PMMA Luminescent Nanocomposites and Their Optical Property Measurements

Authors: Sumara Khursheed, Jitendra Sharma

Abstract:

The present work reports synthesis of nanocomposites (NCs) of phosphor (KCaVO4:Sm3+) embedded poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) using solution casting method and their optical properties measurements for their possible application in making flexible luminescent films. X-ray diffraction analyses were employed to obtain the structural parameters as crystallinity, shape and size of the obtained NCs. The emission and excitation spectra were obtained using Photoluminescence spectroscopy to quantify the spectral properties of these fluorescent polymer/phosphor films. Optical energy gap has been estimated using UV-VIS spectroscopy while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was exploited to measure the thermal properties of the NC films in terms of their thermal stability, glass transition temperature and degree of crystallinity etc.

Keywords: nanocomposites, luminescence, XRD, differential scanning calorimetry, PMMA

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168 Influence of Argon Gas Concentration in N2-Ar Plasma for the Nitridation of Si in Abnormal Glow Discharge

Authors: K. Abbas, R. Ahmad, I. A. Khan, S. Saleem, U. Ikhlaq

Abstract:

Nitriding of p-type Si samples by pulsed DC glow discharge is carried out for different Ar concentrations (30% to 90%) in nitrogen-argon plasma whereas the other parameters like pressure (2 mbar), treatment time (4 hr) and power (175 W) are kept constant. The phase identification, crystal structure, crystallinity, chemical composition, surface morphology and topography of the nitrided layer are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. The XRD patterns reveal the development of different diffraction planes of Si3N4 confirming the formation of polycrystalline layer. FTIR spectrum confirms the formation of bond between Si and N. Results reveal that addition of Ar into N2 plasma plays an important role to enhance the production of active species which facilitate the nitrogen diffusion.

Keywords: crystallinity, glow discharge, nitriding, sputtering

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167 Graft Copolymerization of Cellulose Acetate with Nitro-N-Amino Phenyl Maleimides

Authors: Azza. A. Al-Ghamdi, Abir. A. Abdel-Naby

Abstract:

The construction of Nitro -N-amino phenyl maleimide branches onto Cellulose acetate (CA) substrate by free radical graft copolymerization using benzoyl peroxide as initiator led to formation of highly thermal stable copolymers as shown from the results of gravimetric analysis (TGA). CA-g-2,4-dinitro amino phenyl maleimide exhibited higher thermal stability than the CA-g-4-nitro amino phenyl maleimide as shown from the initial decomposition temperature (To). This is due to the ability of nitro group to form hydrogen bonding with hydroxyl group of the glucopyranose ring which increases the crystallinity of polymeric matrix. The crystalline shapes representing the graft part are clearly distinct in the Emission scanning electron microscope (ESEM) morphology of the copolymer. A suggested reaction mechanism for the grafting process was also discussed.

Keywords: Cellulose acetate, Crystallinity, Graft copolymerization, Thermal properties

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166 Production and Characterization of Nanofibrillated Cellulose from Kenaf Core (Hibiscus cannabinus) via Ultrasonic

Authors: R. Rosazley, M. A. Izzati, A. W. Fareezal, M. Z. Shazana, I. Rushdan, M. A. Ainun Zuriyati

Abstract:

This study focuses on production and characterizations of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) from kenaf core. NFC was produced by employing ultrasonic treatments in aqueous solution. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used to study the size and morphology structure. The chemical and characteristics of the cellulose and NFC were studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and viscometer. Degrees of polymerization (DP) of cellulose and NFC were obtained via viscosity value. Results showed that 5 to 47 nm diameters of fibrils were measured. Moreover, the thermal stability of the NFC was increased as compared to the cellulose that confirmed by TGA analysis. It was also found that NFC had higher crystallinity and lower viscosity than the cellulose which were measured by XRD and viscometer, respectively. The NFC characteristics have enormous prospect related to bio-nanocomposite.

Keywords: crystallinity, kenaf core, nanofibrillated cellulose, ultrasonic

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165 Microstructure Study of NanoCrystalline Cellulose Obtained from Cotton Linter

Authors: Farid Amidi-Fazli

Abstract:

Problems and disadvantages of using conventional plastics are more apparent in recent years and have attracted researchers' attention. Polymers from natural resources or bio polymers represent a suitable replacement to overcome to the disadvantages of plastics. But due to the some flaws of bio polymers, using suitable filler almost seems necessary. Nanocrystalline cellulose with low cost and availability can be applied as appropriate filler. In this study nanocrystalline cellulose was produced from cotton Linter and was characterized. The cotton Linter was hydrolyzed in sulfuric acid then neutralized by the two different concentrations of NaOH. The resulted suspension was treated by ultrasound waves. Process efficiency was determined as 90%. The final product was studied using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction technique. The obtained diagram of XRD experiment confirmed that the produced material was nanocrystalline cellulose. Also percentage of crystallinity was calculated as 84% in the obtained material as well as the size of crystals. It can be said that the applied method is a rapid and easy method for the production of nanocrystalline cellulose.

Keywords: nanocrystalline cellulose, crystallinity, XRD, cotton linter

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164 Preparation and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Cellulose from Acacia mangium

Authors: Samira Gharehkhani, Seyed Farid Seyed Shirazi, Abdolreza Gharehkhani, Hooman Yarmand, Ahmad Badarudin, Rushdan Ibrahim, Salim Newaz Kazi

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) were prepared by acid hydrolysis and ultrasound treatment of bleached Acacia mangium fibers. The obtained rod-shaped nanocrystals showed a uniform size. The results showed that NCC with high crystallinity can be obtained using 64 wt% sulfuric acid. The effect of synthesis condition was investigated. Different reaction times were examined to produce the NCC and the results revealed that an optimum reaction time has to be used for preparing the NCC. Morphological investigation was performed using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity increased with successive treatments. The NCC suspension was homogeneous and stable and no sedimentation was observed for a long time.

Keywords: acid hydrolysis, nanocrystalline cellulose, nano material, reaction time

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163 PVDF-HFP Based Nanocomposite Gel Polymer Electrolytes Dispersed with Zro2 for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: R. Sharma, A. Sil, S. Ray

Abstract:

Nanocomposites gel polymer electrolytes are gaining more and more attention among the researchers worldwide due to their possible applications in various electrochemical devices particularly in solid-state Li-ion batteries. In this work we have investigated the effect of nanofibers on the electrical properties of PVDF-HFP based gel electrolytes. The nanocomposites polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by solution casting technique with 10wt% of ZrO2. By analysis of impedance spectroscopy it has been demonstrated that the incorporation of ZrO2 into PVDF-HFP–(PC+DEC)–LiClO4 gel polymer electrolyte system significantly enhances the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. The enhancement of ionic conductivity seems to be correlated with the fact that the dispersion of ZrO2 to PVDF-HFP prevents polymer chain reorganization due to the high aspect ratio of ZrO2, resulting in reduction in polymer crystallinity, which gives rise to an increase in ionic conductivity. The decrease of crystallinity of PVDF-HFP due the addition of ZrO2 has been confirmed by XRD. The interaction of ZrO2 with various constituents of polymer electrolytes has been studied by FTIR spectroscopy. TEM results show that the fillers (ZrO2) has distributed uniformly in the polymer electrolytes. Moreover, ZrO2 added gel polymer electrolytes offer better thermal stability as compared to that of ZrO2 free electrolytes as confirmed by TGA analysis.

Keywords: polymer electrolytes, ZrO2, ionic conductivity, FTIR

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162 Obtaining High Purity Hydroxyapatite from Bovine Bone: Effect of Chemical and Thermal Treatments

Authors: Hernandez Pardo Diego F., Guiza Arguello Viviana R., Coy Echeverria Ana, Viejo Abrante Fernando

Abstract:

The biological hydroxyapatite obtained from bovine bone arouses great interest in its application as a material for bone regeneration due to its better bioactive behavior in comparison with synthetic hydroxyapatite. For this reason, the objective of the present investigation was to determine the effect of chemical and thermal treatments in obtaining biological bovine hydroxyapatite of high purity and crystallinity. Two different chemical reagents were evaluated (NaOH and HCl) with the aim to remove the organic matrix of the bovine cortical bone. On the other hand, for analyzing the effect of thermal treatment temperature was ranged between 500 and 1000°C for a holding time of 4 hours. To accomplish the above, the materials before and after the chemical and thermal treatments were characterized by elemental compositional analysis (CHN), infrared spectroscopy by Fourier transform (FTIR), RAMAN spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results allowed to establish that NaOH is more effective in the removal of the organic matrix of the bone when compared to HCl, whereas a thermal treatment at 700ºC for 4 hours was enough to obtain biological hydroxyapatite of high purity and crystallinity.

Keywords: bovine bone, hydroxyapatite, biomaterials, thermal treatment

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161 Hot Air Flow Annealing of MAPbI₃ Perovskite: Structural and Optical Properties

Authors: Mouad Ouafi, Lahoucine Atourki, Larbi Laanab, Erika Vega, Miguel Mollar, Bernabe Marib, Boujemaa Jaber

Abstract:

Despite the astonishing emergence of the methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite as a promising light harvester for solar cells, their physical properties in solution-processed MAPbI₃ are still crucial and need to be improved. The objective of this work is to investigate the hot airflow effect during the growth of MAPbI₃ films using the spin-coating process on their structural, optical and morphological proprieties. The experimental results show that many physical proprieties of the perovskite strongly depend on the air flow temperature and the optimization which has a beneficial effect on the perovskite quality. In fact, a clear improvement of the crystallinity and the crystallite size of MAPbI₃ perovskite is demonstrated by the XRD analyses, when the airflow temperature is increased up to 100°C. Alternatively, as far as the surface morphology is concerned, SEM micrographs show that significant homogenous nucleation, uniform surface distribution and pin holes free with highest surface coverture of 98% are achieved when the airflow temperature reaches 100°C. At this temperature, the improvement is also observed when considering the optical properties of the films. By contrast, a remarkable degradation of the MAPbI₃ perovskites associated to the PbI₂ phase formation is noticed, when the hot airflow temperature is higher than 100°C, especially 300°C.

Keywords: hot air flow, crystallinity, surface coverage, perovskite morphology

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160 Thermal Diffusion of Photovoltaic Organic Semiconductors Determined by Scanning Photothermal Deflection Technique

Authors: K.L. Chiu, Johnny K. W. Ho, M. H. Chan, S. H. Cheung, K. H. Chan, S.K. So

Abstract:

Thermal diffusivity is an important quantity in heat conduction. It measures the rate of heat transfer from the hot side to the cold side of a material. In solid-state materials, thermal diffusivity reveals information related to morphologies and solid quality, as thermal diffusivity can be affected by microstructures. However, thermal diffusivity studies on organic semiconductors are very limited. In this study, scanning photothermal deflection (SPD) technique is used to study the thermal diffusivities of different classes of semiconducting polymers. The reliability of the technique was confirmed by crossing-checking our SPD derived experimental values of different reference materials with their known diffusivities from the literature. To show that thermal diffusivity determination is a potential tool for revealing microscopic properties of organic photovoltaic semiconductors, SPD measurements were applied to various organic semiconducting films with different crystallinities. It is observed that organic photovoltaic semiconductors possess low thermal diffusivity, with values in the range of 0.3mm²/s to 1mm²/s. It is also discovered that polymeric photovoltaic semiconductors with greater molecular planarity, stronger stacking and higher crystallinity would possess greater thermal diffusivities. Correlations between thermal, charge transport properties will be discussed.

Keywords: polymer crystallinity, photovoltaic organic semiconductors, photothermal deflection technique, thermal diffusion

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159 For Single to Multilayer Polyvinylidene Fluoride Based Polymer for Electro-Caloric Cooling

Authors: Nouh Zeggai, Lucas Debrux, Fabien Parrain, Brahim Dkhil, Martino Lobue, Morgan Almanza

Abstract:

Refrigeration and air conditioning are some of the most used energies in our daily life, especially vapor compression refrigeration. Electrocaloric material might appears as an alternative towards solid-state cooling. polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based polymer has shown promising adiabatic temperature change (∆T) and entropy change (∆S). There is practically no limit to the electric field that can be applied, except the one that the material can withstand. However, when working with a large surface as required in a device, the chance to have a defect is larger and can drastically reduce the voltage breakdown, thus reducing the electrocaloric properties. In this work, we propose to study how the characteristic of a single film are transposed when going to multilayer. The laminator and the hot press appear as two interesting processes that have been investigating to achieve a multilayer film. The study is mainly focused on the breakdown field and the adiabatic temperature change, but the phase and crystallinity have also been measured. We process one layer-based PVDF and assemble them to obtain a multilayer. Pressing at hot temperature method and lamination were used for the production of the thin films. The multilayer film shows higher breakdown strength, temperature change, and crystallinity (beta phases) using the hot press technique.

Keywords: PVDF-TrFE-CFE, multilayer, electrocaloric effect, hot press, cooling device

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158 Effect of Synthesis Parameters on Crystal Size and Perfection of Mordenite and Analcime

Authors: Zehui Du, Chaiwat Prapainainar, Paisan Kongkachuichay, Paweena Prapainainar

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to obtain small crystalline size and high crystallinity of mordenites and analcimes, by modifying the aging time, agitation, water content, crystallization temperature and crystallization time. Two different hydrothermal methods were studied. Both methods used Na2SiO3 as the silica source, NaAlO2 as the aluminum source, and NaOH as the alkali source. The first method used HMI as the template while the second method did not use the template. Mordenite crystals with spherical shape and bimodal in size of about 1 and 5 µm were obtained from the first method using conditions of 24 hr aging time, 170°C and 24 hr crystallization. Modernites with high crystallinity were formed using agitation system in the crystallization process. It was also found that the aging time of 2 hr and 24 hr did not much affect the formation of mordenite crystals. Analcime crystals were formed in spherical shape and facet on surface with the size between 13-15 µm by the second method using the conditions of 30 minutes aging time, 170°C and 24 hr crystallization without calcination. By increasing water content, the crystallization process was slowed down and resulted in smaller analcime crystals. Larger size of analcime crystals were observed when the samples were calcined at 300°C and 580°C. Higher calcination temperature led to higher crystal growth and resulted in larger crystal size. Finally, mordenite and analcime was used as fillers in zeolite/Nafion composite membrane to solve the fuel cross over problem in direct alcohol fuel cell.

Keywords: analcime, hydrothermal synthesis, mordenite, zeolite

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157 Characterisation of Fractions Extracted from Sorghum Byproducts

Authors: Prima Luna, Afroditi Chatzifragkou, Dimitris Charalampopoulos

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Sorghum byproducts, namely bran, stalk, and panicle are examples of lignocellulosic biomass. These raw materials contain large amounts of polysaccharides, in particular hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignins, which if efficiently extracted, can be utilised for the development of a range of added value products with potential applications in agriculture and food packaging sectors. The aim of this study was to characterise fractions extracted from sorghum bran and stalk with regards to their physicochemical properties that could determine their applicability as food-packaging materials. A sequential alkaline extraction was applied for the isolation of cellulosic, hemicellulosic and lignin fractions from sorghum stalk and bran. Lignin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were also investigated in the case of the lignin fraction. Thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of cellulose fraction of the stalk was ~78.33 oC at amorphous state (~65%) and water content of ~5%. In terms of hemicellulose, the Tg value of stalk was slightly lower compared to bran at amorphous state (~54%) and had less water content (~2%). It is evident that hemicelluloses generally showed a lower thermal stability compared to cellulose, probably due to their lack of crystallinity. Additionally, bran had higher arabinose-to-xylose ratio (0.82) than the stalk, a fact that indicated its low crystallinity. Furthermore, lignin fraction had Tg value of ~93 oC at amorphous state (~11%). Stalk-derived lignin fraction contained more phenolic compounds (mainly consisting of p-coumaric and ferulic acid) and had higher lignin content and antioxidant capacity compared to bran-derived lignin fraction.

Keywords: alkaline extraction, bran, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, stalk

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156 Crystallinity, Antimicrobial Activity and Dyeing Properties of Chitosan-G-Poly(N-Acryloyl Morpholine) Copolymer

Authors: Fakhreia A. Al Sagheer, Enas I. Ibrahim, Khaled D. Khalil

Abstract:

N-Acryloyl morpholine, NAM, was grafted onto chitosan utilizing homogeneous conditions with 1% acetic acid as the solvent, and potassium persulfate and sodium sulfite as the redox initiator. The effects of various reaction parameters, such as time, temperature, and monomer and initiator concentrations, on the percentage of grafting (G%) and the grafting efficiency (E%) were determined. The graft copolymer showed a remarkably improved crystallinity, as compared to the unmodified chitosan, based on the FESEM, XRD, and DSC results. Chitosan-g-poly(N-acryloyl morpholine) (Cs-PNAM), the copolymer obtained by using this procedure, was characterized by utilizing FTIR, FESEM, TGA, and XRD analysis. As expected, the results of an evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities show that the grafted chitosan copolymers exhibit stronger inhibitory effects against both types of microbes than does chitosan. Moreover, the size of the inhibition zone created by the graft copolymer was observed to be proportional to its G% corresponding to its morpholine content. Fortunately, the graft copolymer showed a marked growth inhibition against candidiasis (C.Albicans and C.Kefyr). We conclude that the graft copolymer may be highly effective in the prevention and treatment of candidiasis. In addition, the extent and pH dependence of uptake of different types of dyes (acidic: EBT, and MV; and basic: MB) by grafted chitosan in pH 6.5 aqueous solutions was determined. The results show that, the grafted copolymer exhibited a greater affinity to absorb the acid dyes more than the basic ones especially at relatively low temperature. Thus the modified chitosan can be used, in wastewater treatment, as efficient economic absorbent especially for anionic dyes from the industrial processing effluents.

Keywords: chitosan, N-Acryloyl morpholine, homogeneous grafting, antimicrobial activity, dye uptake

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155 Chemically Modified Chitosan Derivatives with Ameliorated Properties Appropriate for Drug Delivery

Authors: Georgia M. Michailidou, Nina-Maria S. Ainali, Eleftheria C. Xanthopoulou, Dimitrios N. Bikiaris

Abstract:

Polysaccharides are polymeric materials derived from nature. They are extensively used in pharmaceutical technology due to their low cost, their ready availability and their low toxicity. Chitosan is the product derived from the deacetylation of chitin usually obtained from arthropods. It is a linear polysaccharide which is composed of repeated units of N-deacetylated amino groups and some N-acetylated groups residues. Due to its excellent biological properties, it is an attractive natural polymer. It is biocompatible with low toxicity and complete biodegradability. Although it has excellent properties, the chemical modification of its structure results in new derivatives with ameliorated and more improved properties compared to the initial polymer. This is the exact purpose of the present study in which chitosan was modified with three different monomers, namely trans-aconitic acid, succinic anhydride and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. In chitosan’s modification with trans aconitic acid, EDC was utilized as an activator of the carboxylic groups of the monomer, and then a coupling reaction with the amino groups took place. Succinic anhydride reacted with chitosan through a ring opening reaction while 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate reacted through the addition of chitosan’s amino group to the double bond of the monomer. Through FTIR and NMR measurements the success of each reaction was confirmed, and the new structures of the derivatives were verified. X-ray diffraction was utilized in order to examine the effect of the modifications in chitosan’s crystallinity. Finally, swelling tests were conducted in order to assess the improved ability of the new polymeric materials to absorb water. Our results support the successful modification of chitosan’s macromolecular chains in all three reactions. Furthermore, the new derivatives appear to be amorphous concerning their crystallinity and have great ability in absorbing water.

Keywords: chitosan, derivatives, modification, polysaccharide

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154 Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate)/Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Phase-Separated Triblock Copolymers with Advanced Properties

Authors: Nikola Toshikj, Michel Ramonda, Sylvain Catrouillet, Jean-Jacques Robin, Sebastien Blanquer

Abstract:

Biodegradable and biocompatible block copolymers have risen as the golden materials in both medical and environmental applications. Moreover, if their architecture is of controlled manner, higher applications can be foreseen. In the meantime, organocatalytic ROP has been promoted as more rapid and immaculate route, compared to the traditional organometallic catalysis, towards efficient synthesis of block copolymer architectures. Therefore, herein we report novel organocatalytic pathway with guanidine molecules (TBD) for supported synthesis of trimethylene carbonate initiated by poly(caprolactone) as pre-polymer. Pristine PTMC-b-PCL-b-PTMC block copolymer structure, without any residual products and clear desired block proportions, was achieved under 1.5 hours at room temperature and verified by NMR spectroscopies and size-exclusion chromatography. Besides, when elaborating block copolymer films, further stability and amelioration of mechanical properties can be achieved via additional reticulation step of precedently methacrylated block copolymers. Subsequently, stimulated by the insufficient studies on the phase-separation/crystallinity relationship in these semi-crystalline block copolymer systems, their intrinsic thermal and morphology properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and atomic force microscopy. Firstly, by DSC measurements, the block copolymers with χABN values superior to 20 presented two distinct glass transition temperatures, close to the ones of the respecting homopolymers, demonstrating an initial indication of a phase-separated system. In the interim, the existence of the crystalline phase was supported by the presence of melting temperature. As expected, the crystallinity driven phase-separated morphology predominated in the AFM analysis of the block copolymers. Neither crosslinking at melted state, hence creation of a dense polymer network, disturbed the crystallinity phenomena. However, the later revealed as sensible to rapid liquid nitrogen quenching directly from the melted state. Therefore, AFM analysis of liquid nitrogen quenched and crosslinked block copolymer films demonstrated a thermodynamically driven phase-separation clearly predominating over the originally crystalline one. These AFM films remained stable with their morphology unchanged even after 4 months at room temperature. However, as demonstrated by DSC analysis once rising the temperature above the melting temperature of the PCL block, neither the crosslinking nor the liquid nitrogen quenching shattered the semi-crystalline network, while the access to thermodynamical phase-separated structures was possible for temperatures under the poly (caprolactone) melting point. Precisely this coexistence of dual crosslinked/crystalline networks in the same copolymer structure allowed us to establish, for the first time, the shape-memory properties in such materials, as verified by thermomechanical analysis. Moreover, the response temperature to the material original shape depended on the block copolymer emplacement, hence PTMC or PCL as end-block. Therefore, it has been possible to reach a block copolymer with transition temperature around 40°C thus opening potential real-life medical applications. In conclusion, the initial study of phase-separation/crystallinity relationship in PTMC-b-PCL-b-PTMC block copolymers lead to the discovery of novel shape memory materials with superior properties, widely demanded in modern-life applications.

Keywords: biodegradable block copolymers, organocatalytic ROP, self-assembly, shape-memory

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153 Structural and Morphological Characterization of the Biomass of Aquatics Macrophyte (Egeria densa) Submitted to Thermal Pretreatment

Authors: Joyce Cruz Ferraz Dutra, Marcele Fonseca Passos, Rubens Maciel Filho, Douglas Fernandes Barbin, Gustavo Mockaitis

Abstract:

The search for alternatives to control hunger in the world, generated a major environmental problem. Intensive systems of fish production can cause an imbalance in the aquatic environment, triggering the phenomenon of eutrophication. Currently, there are many forms of growth control aquatic plants, such as mechanical withdrawal, however some difficulties arise for their final destination. The Egeria densa is a species of submerged aquatic macrophyte-rich in cellulose and low concentrations of lignin. By applying the concept of second generation energy, which uses lignocellulose for energy production, the reuse of these aquatic macrophytes (Egeria densa) in the biofuels production can turn an interesting alternative. In order to make lignocellulose sugars available for effective fermentation, it is important to use pre-treatments in order to separate the components and modify the structure of the cellulose and thus facilitate the attack of the microorganisms responsible for the fermentation. Therefore, the objective of this research work was to evaluate the structural and morphological transformations occurring in the biomass of aquatic macrophytes (E.densa) submitted to a thermal pretreatment. The samples were collected in an intensive fish growing farm, in the low São Francisco dam, in the northeastern region of Brazil. After collection, the samples were dried in a 65 0C ventilation oven and milled in a 5mm micron knife mill. A duplicate assay was carried, comparing the in natural biomass with the pretreated biomass with heat (MT). The sample (MT) was submitted to an autoclave with a temperature of 1210C and a pressure of 1.1 atm, for 30 minutes. After this procedure, the biomass was characterized in terms of degree of crystallinity and morphology, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that there was a decrease of 11% in the crystallinity index (% CI) of the pretreated biomass, leading to the structural modification in the cellulose and greater presence of amorphous structures. Increases in porosity and surface roughness of the samples were also observed. These results suggest that biomass may become more accessible to the hydrolytic enzymes of fermenting microorganisms. Therefore, the morphological transformations caused by the thermal pretreatment may be favorable for a subsequent fermentation and, consequently, a higher yield of biofuels. Thus, the use of thermally pretreated aquatic macrophytes (E.densa) can be an environmentally, financially and socially sustainable alternative. In addition, it represents a measure of control for the aquatic environment, which can generate income (biogas production) and maintenance of fish farming activities in local communities.

Keywords: aquatics macrophyte, biofuels, crystallinity, morphology, pretreatment thermal

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152 Synthesis and Characterization of Water Soluble Ferulic Acid-Grafted Chitosan

Authors: Sarekha Woranuch, Rangrong Yoksan

Abstract:

Chitosan is a derivative of chitin, which is a second most naturally abundant polysaccharide found in crab shells, shrimp shells, and squid pens. The applications of chitosan in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and packaging industries have been reported owing to its general recognition as safe, excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility, as well as ability to form films, membranes, gels, beads, fibers and particles. Nevertheless, chitosan is an amino polysaccharide consisting of strong inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds which limit its solubility in neutral pH water resulting in restricted utilization. Chemical modification is an alternative way to impede hydrogen bond formation. The objective of the present research is to improve water solubility and antioxidant activity of chitosan by grafting with ferulic acid. Ferulic acid was grafted onto chitosan at the C-2 position via a carbodiimide-mediated coupling reaction. Different mole ratios of chitosan to ferulic acid (i.e. 1.0:0.0, 1.0:0.5, 1.0:1.0, 1.0:1.5, 1.0:2.0, and 1.0:2.5) and various reaction temperatures (i.e. 40, 60, and 80 °C) were used. The reaction was performed at different times (i.e. 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 h). The obtained ferulic acid-grafted chitosan was characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR technique. The influences of ferulic acid on crystallinity, solubility and radical scavenging activity of chitosan were also investigated. Ferulic acid grafted chitosan was successfully synthesized as confirmed from (i) the appearance of FTIR absorption band at 1517 cm-1 belonging to C=C aromatic ring of ferulic acid and the increased C–H stretching band intensity and (ii) the appearance of proton signals at δ = 6.31-7.67 ppm ascribing to methine protons of ferulic acid. The condition in which the reaction temperature of 60°C, reaction time of 3 h and the mole ratio of chitosan to ferulic acid of 1:1 gave the highest ferulic acid substitution degree, i.e. 0.37. The resulting ferulic acid grafted chitosan was soluble in water (1.3 mg/mL) due to its reduced crystallinity as compared with chitosan and also exhibited 90% greater radical scavenging activity than chitosan. The result suggested the utilization of ferulic acid grafted chitosan as an antioxidant material.

Keywords: antioxidant property, chitosan, ferulic acid, grafting

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151 Study of the Adsorptives Properties of Zeolites X Exchanged by the Cations Cu2 + and/or Zn2+

Authors: H. Hammoudi, S. Bendenia, I. Batonneau-Gener, A. Khelifa

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Applying growing zeolites is due to their intrinsic physicochemical properties: a porous structure, regular, generating a large free volume, a high specific surface area, acidic properties of interest to the origin of their activity, selectivity energy and dimensional, leading to a screening phenomenon, hence the name of molecular sieves is generally attributed to them. Most of the special properties of zeolites have been valued as direct applications such as ion exchange, adsorption, separation and catalysis. Due to their crystalline structure stable, their large pore volume and their high content of cation X zeolites are widely used in the process of adsorption and separation. The acidic properties of zeolites X and interesting selectivity conferred on them their porous structure is also have potential catalysts. The study presented in this manuscript is devoted to the chemical modification of an X zeolite by cation exchange. Ion exchange of zeolite NaX by Zn 2 + cations and / or Cu 2 + is gradually conducted by following the evolution of some of its characteristics: crystallinity by XRD, micropore volume by nitrogen adsorption. Once characterized, the different samples will be used for the adsorption of propane and propylene. Particular attention is paid thereafter, on the modeling of adsorption isotherms. In this vein, various equations of adsorption isotherms and localized mobile, some taking into account the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, are used to describe the experimental isotherms. We also used the Toth equation, a mathematical model with three parameters whose adjustment requires nonlinear regression. The last part is dedicated to the study of acid properties of Cu (x) X, Zn (x) X and CuZn (x) X, with the adsorption-desorption of pyridine followed by IR. The effect of substitution at different rates of Na + by Cu2 + cations and / or Zn 2 +, on the crystallinity and on the textural properties was treated. Some results on the morphology of the crystallites and the thermal effects during a temperature rise, obtained by scanning electron microscopy and DTA-TGA thermal analyzer, respectively, are also reported. The acidity of our different samples was also studied. Thus, the nature and strength of each type of acidity are estimated. The evaluation of these various features will provide a comparison between Cu (x) X, Zn (x) X and CuZn (x) X. One study on adsorption of C3H8 and C3H6 in NaX, Cu (x) X , Zn (x) x and CuZn (x) x has been undertaken.

Keywords: adsorption, acidity, ion exchange, zeolite

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150 Saccharification and Bioethanol Production from Banana Pseudostem

Authors: Elias L. Souza, Noeli Sellin, Cintia Marangoni, Ozair Souza

Abstract:

Among the different forms of reuse and recovery of agro-residual waste is the production of biofuels. The production of second-generation ethanol has been evaluated and proposed as one of the technically viable alternatives for this purpose. This research work employed the banana pseudostem as biomass. Two different chemical pre-treatment methods (acid hydrolisis with H2SO4 2% w/w and alkaline hydrolysis with NaOH 3% w/w) of dry and milled biomass (70 g/L of dry matter, ms) were assessed, and the corresponding reducing sugars yield, AR, (YAR), after enzymatic saccharification, were determined. The effect on YAR by increasing the dry matter (ms) from 70 to 100 g/L, in dry and milled biomass and also fresh, were analyzed. Changes in cellulose crystallinity and in biomass surface morphology due to the different chemical pre-treatments were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The acid pre-treatment resulted in higher YAR values, whether related to the cellulose content under saccharification (RAR = 79,48) or to the biomass concentration employed (YAR/ms = 32,8%). In a comparison between alkaline and acid pre-treatments, the latter led to an increase in the cellulose content of the reaction mixture from 52,8 to 59,8%; also, to a reduction of the cellulose crystallinity index from 51,19 to 33,34% and increases in RAR (43,1%) and YAR/ms (39,5%). The increase of dry matter (ms) bran from 70 to 100 g/L in the acid pre-treatment, resulted in a decrease of average yields in RAR (43,1%) and YAR/ms (18,2%). Using the pseudostem fresh with broth removed, whether for 70 g/L concentration or 100 g/L in dry matter (ms), similarly to the alkaline pre-treatment, has led to lower average values in RAR (67,2% and 42,2%) and in YAR/ms (28,4% e 17,8%), respectively. The acid pre-treated and saccharificated biomass broth was detoxificated with different activated carbon contents (1,2 and 4% w/v), concentrated up to AR = 100 g/L and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield values (YP/AR) and productivity (QP) in ethanol were determined and compared to those values obtained from the fermentation of non-concentrated/non-detoxificated broth (AR = 18 g/L) and concentrated/non-detoxificated broth (AR = 100 g/L). The highest average value for YP/AR (0,46 g/g) was obtained from the fermentation of non-concentrated broth. This value did not present a significant difference (p<0,05) when compared to the YP/RS related to the broth concentrated and detoxificated by activated carbon 1% w/v (YP/AR = 0,41 g/g). However, a higher ethanol productivity (QP = 1,44 g/L.h) was achieved through broth detoxification. This value was 75% higher than the average QP determined using concentrated and non-detoxificated broth (QP = 0,82 g/L.h), and 22% higher than the QP found in the non-concentrated broth (QP = 1,18 g/L.h).

Keywords: biofuels, biomass, saccharification, bioethanol

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149 Eu+3 Ion as a Luminescent Probe in ZrO2: Gd+3 Co-Doped Nanophosphor

Authors: S. Manjunatha, M. S. Dharmaprakash

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Well-defined 2D Eu+3 co-doped ZrO2: Gd+3 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by microwave assisted solution combustion technique for luminescent applications. The present investigation reports the rapid and effective method for the synthesis of the Eu+3 co-doped ZrO2:Gd+3 nanoparticles and study of the luminescence behavior of Eu+3 ion in ZrO2:Gd+3 nanostructures. The optical properties of the prepared nanostructures were investigated by using UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectra. The phase formation and the morphology of the nanoplatelets were studied by XRD, FESEM and HRTEM. The average grain size was found to be 45-50 nm. The presence of Gd3+ ion increases the crystallinity of the material and hence acts as a good nucleating agent. The ZrO2:Gd3+ co-doped with Eu+3 nanoplatelets gives an emission at 607 nm, a strong red emission under the excitation wavelength of 255 nm.

Keywords: nanoparticles, XRD, TEM, photoluminescence

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