Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8388

Search results for: activation energy

8388 Research of the Activation Energy of Conductivity in P-I-N SiC Structures Fabricated by Doping with Aluminum Using the Low-Temperature Diffusion Method

Authors: Ilkham Gafurovich Atabaev, Khimmatali Nomozovich Juraev


The activation energy of conductivity in p-i-n SiC structures fabricated by doping with Aluminum using the new low-temperature diffusion method is investigated. In this method, diffusion is stimulated by the flux of carbon and silicon vacancies created by surface oxidation. The activation energy of conductivity in the p - layer is 0.25 eV and it is close to the ionization energy of Aluminum in 4H-SiC from 0.21 to 0.27 eV for the hexagonal and cubic positions of aluminum in the silicon sublattice for weakly doped crystals. The conductivity of the i-layer (measured in the reverse biased diode) shows 2 activation energies: 0.02 eV and 0.62 eV. Apparently, the 0.62 eV level is a deep trap level and it is a complex of Aluminum with a vacancy. According to the published data, an analogous level system (with activation energies of 0.05, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.67 eV) was observed in the ion Aluminum doped 4H-SiC samples.

Keywords: activation energy, aluminum, low temperature diffusion, SiC

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8387 Study of the Microstructural Evolution and Precipitation Kinetic in AZ91 Alloys

Authors: A. Azizi, M. Toubane, L. Chetibi


Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a widely used technique for the study of phase transformations, particularly in the study of precipitation. The kinetic of the precipitation and dissolution is always related to the concept of activation energy Ea. The determination of the activation energy gives important information about the kinetic of the precipitation reaction. In this work, we were interested in the study of the isothermal and non-isothermal treatments on the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in the alloy AZ91 (Mg-9 Al-Zn 1-0.2 Mn. mass fraction %), using Differential Calorimetric method. Through this method, the samples were heat treated up to 425° C, using different rates. To calculate the apparent activation energies associated with the formation of precipitated phases, we used different isoconversional methods. This study was supported by other analysis: X-ray diffraction and microhardness measurements.

Keywords: calorimetric, activation energy, AZ91 alloys, microstructural evolution

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8386 Energy Consumption in Biodiesel Production at Various Kinetic Reaction of Transesterification

Authors: Sariah Abang, S. M. Anisuzzaman, Awang Bono, D. Krishnaiah, S. Rasmih


Biodiesel is a potential renewable energy due to biodegradable and non-toxic. The challenge of its commercialization is associated with high production cost due to its feedstock also useful in various food products. Non-competitive feedstock such as waste cooking oils normally contains a large amount of free fatty acids (FFAs). Large amount of fatty acid degrades the alkaline catalyst in the biodiesel production, thereby decreasing the biodiesel production rate. Generally, biodiesel production processes including esterification and trans-esterification are conducting in a mixed system, in which the hydrodynamic effect on the reaction could not be completely defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of variation rate constant and activation energy on energy consumption of biodiesel production. Usually, the changes of rate constant and activation energy depend on the operating temperature and the degradation of catalyst. By varying the activation energy and kinetic rate constant, the effects can be seen on the energy consumption of biodiesel production. The result showed that the energy consumption of biodiesel is dependent on the changes of rate constant and activation energy. Furthermore, this study was simulated using Aspen HYSYS.

Keywords: methanol, palm oil, simulation, transesterification, triolein

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8385 Kinetic Studies on CO₂ Gasification of Low and High Ash Indian Coals in Context of Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Geeta Kumari, Prabu Vairakannu


Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts unmineable coals into calorific valuable gases. This technology avoids ash disposal, coal mining, and storage problems. CO₂ gas can be a potential gasifying medium for UCG. CO₂ is a greenhouse gas and, the liberation of this gas to the atmosphere from thermal power plant industries leads to global warming. Hence, the capture and reutilization of CO₂ gas are crucial for clean energy production. However, the reactivity of high ash Indian coals with CO₂ needs to be assessed. In the present study, two varieties of Indian coals (low ash and high ash) are used for thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Two low ash north east Indian coals (LAC) and a typical high ash Indian coal (HAC) are procured from the coal mines of India. Low ash coal with 9% ash (LAC-1) and 4% ash (LAC-2) and high ash coal (HAC) with 42% ash are used for the study. TGA studies are carried out to evaluate the activation energy for pyrolysis and gasification of coal under N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. Coats and Redfern method is used to estimate the activation energy of coal under different temperature regimes. Volumetric model is assumed for the estimation of the activation energy. The activation energy estimated under different temperature range. The inherent properties of coals play a major role in their reactivity. The results show that the activation energy decreases with the decrease in the inherent percentage of coal ash due to the ash layer hindrance. A reverse trend was observed with volatile matter. High volatile matter of coal leads to the estimation of low activation energy. It was observed that the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere at 400-600°C is less as compared to N₂ inert atmosphere. At this temperature range, it is estimated that 15-23% reduction in the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere. This shows the reactivity of CO₂ gas with higher hydrocarbons of the coal volatile matters. The reactivity of CO₂ with the volatile matter of coal might occur through dry reforming reaction in which CO₂ reacts with higher hydrocarbon, aromatics of the tar content. The observed trend of Ea in the temperature range of 150-200˚C and 400-600˚C is HAC > LAC-1 >LAC-2 in both N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. At the temperature range of 850-1000˚C, higher activation energy is estimated when compared to those values in the temperature range of 400-600°C. Above 800°C, char gasification through Boudouard reaction progressed under CO₂ atmosphere. It was observed that 8-20 kJ/mol of activation energy is increased during char gasification above 800°C compared to volatile matter pyrolysis between the temperature ranges of 400-600°C. The overall activation energy of the coals in the temperature range of 30-1000˚C is higher in N₂ atmosphere than CO₂ atmosphere. It can be concluded that higher hydrocarbons such as tar effectively undergoes cracking and reforming reactions in presence of CO₂. Thus, CO₂ gas is beneficial for the production of high calorific value syngas using high ash Indian coals.

Keywords: clean coal technology, CO₂ gasification, activation energy, underground coal gasification

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8384 Kinetic Parameter Estimation from Thermogravimetry and Microscale Combustion Calorimetry

Authors: Rhoda Afriyie Mensah, Lin Jiang, Solomon Asante-Okyere, Xu Qiang, Cong Jin


Flammability analysis of extruded polystyrene (XPS) has become crucial due to its utilization as insulation material for energy efficient buildings. Using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, the degradation kinetics of two pure XPS from the local market, red and grey ones, were obtained from the results of thermogravity analysis (TG) and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) experiments performed under the same heating rates. From the experiments, it was discovered that red XPS released more heat than grey XPS and both materials showed two mass loss stages. Consequently, the kinetic parameters for red XPS were higher than grey XPS. A comparative evaluation of activation energies from MCC and TG showed an insignificant degree of deviation signifying an equivalent apparent activation energy from both methods. However, different activation energy profiles as a result of the different chemical pathways were presented when the dependencies of the activation energies on extent of conversion for TG and MCC were compared.

Keywords: flammability, microscale combustion calorimetry, thermogravity analysis, thermal degradation, kinetic analysis

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8383 Determination of Natural Logarithm of Diffusion Coefficient and Activation Energy of Thin Layer Drying Process of Ginger Rhizome Slices

Authors: Austin Ikechukwu Gbasouzor, Sam Nna Omenyi, Sabuj Malli


This study is an extension of the previous work done with ARS-680 Environmental Chamber. Drying is a complex operation that demands much energy and time. Drying is essentially important for preservation of ginger rhizome. Drying of ginger was modeled, and then the effective diffusion coefficient and activation energy where determined. For this purpose, the experiments were done at six levels of varied temperature ranging from (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60°C). The average effective diffusion coefficient for their studies samples for temperature range of 40°C to 70°C was 4.48 x10-10m²/s, 4.96 x10-10m²/s, and 5.31 x10-10m²/s for 0.8, 1.5 and 3m/s drying air velocity respectively. These values closely agreed with the values of effective diffusion coefficients obtained in these studies for the variously treated ginger rhizomes and test conducted.

Keywords: activation energy, diffusion coefficients, drying model, drying time, ginger rhizomes, moisture ratio, thin layer

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8382 Convective Hot Air Drying of Different Varieties of Blanched Sweet Potato Slices

Authors: M. O. Oke, T. S. Workneh


Drying behaviour of blanched sweet potato in a cabinet dryer using different five air temperatures (40-80oC) and ten sweet potato varieties sliced to 5 mm thickness were investigated. The drying data were fitted to eight models. The Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data obtained during the drying of all the varieties while Newton (Lewis) and Wang and Singh models gave the least fit. The values of Deff obtained for Bophelo variety (1.27 x 10-9 to 1.77 x 10-9 m2/s) was the least while that of S191 (1.93 x 10-9 to 2.47 x 10-9 m2/s) was the highest which indicates that moisture diffusivity in sweet potato is affected by the genetic factor. Activation energy values ranged from 0.27-6.54 kJ/mol. The lower activation energy indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method. The drying behavior of blanched sweet potato was investigated in a cabinet dryer. Drying time decreased considerably with increase in hot air temperature. Out of the eight models fitted, the Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data on all the varieties while Newton, Wang and Singh models gave the least. The lower activation energy (0.27-6.54 kJ/mol) obtained indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method.

Keywords: sweet potato slice, drying models, moisture ratio, moisture diffusivity, activation energy

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8381 Catalytic Effect of Graphene Oxide on the Oxidation of Paraffin-Based Fuels

Authors: Lin-Lin Liu, Song-Qi Hu, Yin Wang


Paraffin-based fuels are regarded to be a promising fuel of hybrid rocked motor because of the high regression rate, low price, and environmental friendliness. Graphene Oxide (GO) is an attractive energetic material which is expected to be widely used in propellants, explosives, and some high energy fuels. Paraffin-based fuels with paraffin and GO as raw materials were prepared, and the oxidation process of the samples was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC) under oxygen (O₂) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) atmospheres. The oxidation reaction kinetics of the fuels was estimated through the non-isothermal measurements and model-free isoconversional methods based on the experimental results of TGA. The results show that paraffin-based fuels are easier oxidized under O₂ rather than N₂O with atmospheres due to the lower activation energy; GO plays a catalytic role for the oxidation of paraffin-based fuels under the both atmospheres, and the activation energy of the oxidation process decreases with the increase of GO; catalytic effect of GO on the oxidation of paraffin-based fuels are more obvious under O₂ atmospheres than under N₂O atmospheres.

Keywords: graphene oxide, paraffin-based fuels, oxidation, activation energy, TGA

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8380 Thermal Degradation Kinetics of Field-Dried and Pelletized Switchgrass

Authors: Karen E. Supan


Thermal degradation kinetics of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) from the field, as well as in a pellet form, are presented. Thermogravimetric analysis tests were performed at heating rates of 10-40 K min⁻¹ in an inert atmosphere. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor were calculated using the Ozawa/Flynn/Wall method as suggested by the ASTM Standard Test Method for Decomposition Kinetics by Thermogravimetry. Four stages were seen in the degradation: dehydration, active pyrolysis of hemicellulose, active pyrolysis of cellulose, and passive pyrolysis. The derivative mass loss peak for active pyrolysis of cellulose in the field-dried sample was much higher than the pelletized. The range of activation energy in the 0.15 – 0.70 conversion interval was 191 – 242 kJ mol⁻¹ for the field-dried and 130-192 kJ mol⁻¹ for the pellets. The highest activation energies were achieved at 0.50 conversion and were 242 kJ mol⁻¹ and 192 kJ mol⁻¹ for the field-dried and pellets, respectively. The thermal degradation and activation energies were comparable to switchgrass and other biomass reported in the literature.

Keywords: biomass, switchgrass, thermal degradation, thermogravimetric analysis

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8379 Thin-Layer Drying Characteristics and Modelling of Instant Coffee Solution

Authors: Apolinar Picado, Ronald Solís, Rafael Gamero


The thin-layer drying characteristics of instant coffee solution were investigated in a laboratory tunnel dryer. Drying experiments were carried out at three temperatures (80, 100 and 120 °C) and an air velocity of 1.2 m/s. Drying experimental data obtained are fitted to six (6) thin-layer drying models using the non-linear least squares regression analysis. The acceptability of the thin-layer drying model has been based on a value of the correlation coefficient that should be close to one, and low values for root mean square error (RMSE) and chi-square (x²). According to this evaluation, the most suitable model for describing drying process of thin-layer instant coffee solution is the Page model. Further, the effective moisture diffusivity and the activation energy were computed employing the drying experimental data. The effective moisture diffusivity values varied from 1.6133 × 10⁻⁹ to 1.6224 × 10⁻⁹ m²/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 162.62 J/mol.

Keywords: activation energy, diffusivity, instant coffee, thin-layer models

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8378 Time Temperature Indicator for Monitoring Freshness of Packed Pasteurized Milk

Authors: Rajeshwar S. Matche, Subhash V. Pawde, Suraj P, Sachin R. Chaudhari


Time Temperature Indicator’s (TTI) are trending approach in a food packaging that will be insightful to have safe and hygienic food products. Currently, available TTI in the market are mostly a product specific and sometime even difficult to handle especially in supply chain as these are pre-activated and require specific storage conditions. In the present study, research focus is on the development of a cost-effective lactic acid based TTI that can work over a wide range of temperature and can be activated at time of packaging or on demand. The correlation between activation energies of colour change of the developed indicator and packed pasteurized milk spoilage with respect to time and temperature was established. Developed lactic acid based TTI strips have range of activation energy from 10.13 to 24.20 KJ/mol. We found that the developed TTI strip’s with activation energy 12.42, and 14.41KJ/mol can be correlated with spoilage activation energy of packed pasteurized milk which was 25.71 KJ/mol with factor of 2 at storage temperature 4°C. The implementation of these TTI on packed pasteurized milk allow us see visual colour change during the storage and can be fruitful to monitoring quality of the milk and understand its freshness especially in a cold supply chain, viz distributor and road vendor etc.

Keywords: pasteurised packed milk, time temperature indicator, spoilage, freshness

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8377 Activation Parameters of the Low Temperature Creep Controlling Mechanism in Martensitic Steels

Authors: M. Münch, R. Brandt


Martensitic steels with an ultimate tensile strength beyond 2000 MPa are applied in the powertrain of vehicles due to their excellent fatigue strength and high creep resistance. However, the creep controlling mechanism in martensitic steels at ambient temperatures up to 423 K is not evident. The purpose of this study is to review the low temperature creep (LTC) behavior of martensitic steels at temperatures from 363 K to 523 K. Thus, the validity of a logarithmic creep law is reviewed and the stress and temperature dependence of the creep parameters α and β are revealed. Furthermore, creep tests are carried out, which include stepped changes in temperature or stress, respectively. On one hand, the change of the creep rate due to a temperature step provides information on the magnitude of the activation energy of the LTC controlling mechanism and on the other hand, the stress step approach provides information on the magnitude of the activation volume. The magnitude, the temperature dependency, and the stress dependency of both material specific activation parameters may deliver a significant contribution to the disclosure of the nature of the LTC rate controlling mechanism.

Keywords: activation parameters, creep mechanisms, high strength steels, low temperature creep

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8376 The Utilization of Tea Residues for Activated Carbon Preparation

Authors: Jiazhen Zhou, Youcai Zhao


Waste tea is commonly generated in certain areas of China and its utilization has drawn a lot of concern nowadays. In this paper, highly microporous and mesoporous activated carbons were produced from waste tea by physical activation in the presence of water vapor in a tubular furnace. The effect of activation temperature on yield and pore properties of produced activated carbon are studied. The yield decreased with the increase of activation temperature. According to the Nitrogen adsorption isotherms, the micropore and mesopore are both developed in the activated carbon. The specific surface area and the mesopore volume fractions of the activated carbon increased with the raise of activation temperature. The maximum specific surface area attained 756 m²/g produced at activation temperature 900°C. The results showed that the activation temperature had a significant effect on the micro and mesopore volumes as well as the specific surface area.

Keywords: activated carbon, nitrogen adsorption isotherm, physical activation, waste tea

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8375 Activation of Caspase 3 by Terpenoids and Flavonoids in Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Nusrat Masood, Vijaya Dubey, Suaib Luqman


Caspase 3, a member of cysteine-aspartic acid protease family, is an imperative indicator for cell death particularly when substantiating apoptosis. Thus, caspase 3 is an interesting target for the discovery and development of anticancer agent. We adopted a four level assessment of both terpenoids and flavonoids and thus experimentally performed the enzymatic assay in cell free system as well as in cancer cell line which was validated through real time expression and molecular interaction studies. A significant difference was observed with both the class of natural products indicating terpenoids as better activators of caspase 3 compared to flavonoids both in the cell free system as well as in cell lines. The expression analysis, activation constant and binding energy also correlate well with the enzyme activity. Overall, terpenoids had an unswerving effect on caspase 3 in all the tested system while flavonoids indirectly affect enzyme activity.

Keywords: Caspase 3, terpenoids, flavonoids, activation constant, binding energy

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8374 Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Current (TSDC) and Transient Current Study in Polysulfone (PSF) and Polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) Blends

Authors: S. Patel, T. Mitra, R. Dubey, J. Keller


In the present investigations, an attempt has been made to study the charge storage mechanism and mechanism for the flow of transient charging and discharging current in an amorphous polymer (Polysulfone) (PSF) and a semi-crystalline polar Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blends in ratio PSF: PVDF: 80:20;85:15;90:10 and 95:05 at various poling temperatures (i.e. 60, 75, 90 and 1150C) and with field strength (100, 150, 200 and 250kVcm⁻¹). Thermally stimulated depolarizing current TSDC thermograms for (Polysulfone (PSF) and Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) Blends sample have been obtained under different polarizing conditions. Peaks are found at high-temperature side. The variation of structure on blending and poling condition affects the magnitude of TSDC. The activation energy values have been calculated using the initial rise method of Garlick and Gibson. The transient current with the similar polarizing condition has been investigated over a period of 3X10³ sec. The observed characteristics obey Curie-Von Schweidler law in the studied temperature range. The charging current versus polarizing temperature curves at a constant time, i.e., isochronal current characteristics were studied and the activation energies were calculated. The activation energy in transient thermograms calculated by different methods is in good agreement with the values obtained from TSDC studies.

Keywords: activation energy, polysulfone (PSF), polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF), thermally stimulated depolarizing current (TSDC)

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8373 Kinetic Study on Extracting Lignin from Black Liquor Using Deep Eutectic Solvents

Authors: Fatemeh Saadat Ghareh Bagh, Srimanta Ray, Jerald Lalman


Lignin, the largest inventory of organic carbon with a high caloric energy value is a major component in woody and non-woody biomass. In pulping mills, a large amount of the lignin is burned for energy. At the same time, the phenolic structure of lignin enables it to be converted to value-added compounds.This study has focused on extracting lignin from black liquor using deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Therefore, three choline chloride (ChCl)-DESs paired with lactic acid (LA) (1:11), oxalic acid.2H₂O (OX) (1:4), and malic acid (MA) (1:3) were synthesized at 90oC and atmospheric pressure. The kinetics of lignin recovery from black liquor using DES was investigated at three moderate temperatures (338, 353, and 368 K) at time intervals from 30 to 210 min. The extracted lignin (acid soluble lignin plus Klason lignin) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR studies included comparing the extracted lignin with a model Kraft lignin. The extracted lignin was characterized spectrophotometrically to determine the acid soluble lignin (ASL) [TAPPI UM 250] fraction and Klason lignin was determined gravimetrically using TAPPI T 222 om02. The lignin extraction reaction using DESs was modeled by first-order reaction kinetics and the activation energy of the process was determined. The ChCl:LA-DES recovered lignin was 79.7±2.1% at 368K and a DES:BL ratio of 4:1 (v/v). The quantity of lignin extracted for the control solvent, [emim][OAc], was 77.5+2.2%. The activation energy measured for the LA-DES system was 22.7 KJ mol⁻¹, while the activation energy for the OX-DES and MA-DES systems were 7.16 KJ·mol⁻¹ and 8.66 KJ·mol⁻¹ when the total lignin recovery was 75.4 ±0.9% and 62.4 ±1.4, % respectively.

Keywords: black liquor, deep eutectic solvents, kinetics, lignin

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8372 Improving Cyclability and Capacity of Lithium Oxygen Batteries via Low Rate Pre-Activation

Authors: Zhihong Luo, Guangbin Zhu, Lulu Guo, Zhujun Lyu, Kun Luo


Cycling life has become the threshold for the prospective application of Li-O₂ batteries, and the protection of Li anode has recently regarded as the key factor to the performance. Herein, a simple low rate pre-activation (20 cycles at 0.5 Ag⁻¹ and a capacity of 200 mAh g⁻¹) was employed to effectively improve the performance and cyclability of Li-O₂ batteries. The charge/discharge cycles at 1 A g⁻¹ with a capacity of 1000 mAh g⁻¹ were maintained for up to 290 times versus 55 times for the cell without pre-activation. The ultimate battery capacity and high rate discharge property were also largely enhanced. Morphology, XRD and XPS analyses reveal that the performance improvement is in close association with the formation of the smooth and compact surface layer formed on the Li anode after low rate pre-activation, which apparently alleviated the corrosion of Li anode and the passivation of cathode during battery cycling, and the corresponding mechanism was also discussed.

Keywords: lithium oxygen battery, pre-activation, cyclability, capacity

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8371 Synthesis and Characterization of Green Coke-Derived Activated Carbon by KOH Activation

Authors: Richard, Iyan Subiyanto, Chairul Hudaya


Activated carbon has been playing a significant role for many applications, especially in energy storage devices. However, commercially activated carbons generally require complicated processes and high production costs. Therefore, in this study, an activated carbon originating from green coke waste, that is economically affordable will be used as a carbon source. To synthesize activated carbon, KOH as an activator was employed with variation of C:KOH in ratio of 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively, with an activation temperature of 700°C. The characterizations of activated carbon are obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray, Raman Spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The optimal activated carbon sample with specific surface area of 2,024 m²/g with high carbon content ( > 80%) supported by the high porosity carbon image obtained by SEM was prepared at C:KOH ratio of 1:4. The result shows that the synthesized activated carbon would be an ideal choice for energy storage device applications. Therefore, this study is expected to reduce the costs of activated carbon production by expanding the utilization of petroleum waste.

Keywords: activated carbon, energy storage material, green coke, specific surface area

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8370 A Study on the Strategy for Domestic Space Industry Activation

Authors: Hangil Park, Hwayeon Song, Jingyung Sim


In this study, a business ecosystem of a domestic space industry is comprehensively analyzed to derive the influence factors. The priority level of each element as well as the disparity between the ideal and reality are investigated through a literature review and an expert survey. The three major influence factors determined are: (a) investment scale and approach, (b) propulsion system, and (c) industrialization with overseas expansion. Related issues based on the current status are evaluated, followed by a proposed activation strategy. This research's findings offer a direction for R&D budget allocation and law system maintenance for the activation of the domestic space industry.

Keywords: space industry, activation, strategy, business ecosystem

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8369 The Effect of Deformation Activation Volume, Strain Rate Sensitivity and Processing Temperature of Grain Size Variants

Authors: P. B. Sob, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen


The activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures on grain size variants. The deformation activation volume was computed on the basis of the relationship between the Boltzmann’s constant k, the testing temperatures, the material strain rate sensitivity and the material yield stress of grain size variants. The material strain rate sensitivity is computed as a function of yield stress and strain rate of grain size variants. The effect of the material strain rate sensitivity and the deformation activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum at different temperatures of 3-D grain are discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities and activation volume are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the activation volume vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results it is shown that the variation of activation volume increased and decreased with the testing temperature. It was revealed that, increased in strain rate sensitivity led to decrease in activation volume whereas increased in activation volume led to decrease in strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity, activation volume

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8368 Microstructural Evidences for Exhaustion Theory of Low Temperature Creep in Martensitic Steels

Authors: Nagarjuna Remalli, Robert Brandt


Down-sizing of combustion engines in automobiles are prevailed owing to required increase in efficiency. This leads to a stress increment on valve springs, which affects their intended function due to an increase in relaxation. High strength martensitic steels are used for valve spring applications. Recent investigations unveiled that low temperature creep (LTC) in martensitic steels obey a logarithmic creep law. The exhaustion theory links the logarithmic creep behavior to an activation energy which is characteristic for any given time during creep. This activation energy increases with creep strain due to barriers of low activation energies exhausted during creep. The assumption of the exhaustion theory is that the material is inhomogeneous in microscopic scale. According to these assumptions it is anticipated that small obstacles (e. g. ε–carbides) having a wide range of size distribution are non-uniformly distributed in the materials. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the presence of ε–carbides in high strength martensitic steels. In this study, high strength martensitic steels that are crept in the temperature range of 75 – 150 °C were investigated with the aid of a transmission electron microscope for the evidence of an inhomogeneous distribution of obstacles having different size to examine the validation of exhaustion theory.

Keywords: creep mechanisms, exhaustion theory, low temperature creep, martensitic steels

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8367 Saturation Misbehavior and Field Activation of the Mobility in Polymer-Based OTFTs

Authors: L. Giraudet, O. Simonetti, G. de Tournadre, N. Dumelié, B. Clarenc, F. Reisdorffer


In this paper we intend to give a comprehensive view of the saturation misbehavior of thin film transistors (TFTs) based on disordered semiconductors, such as most organic TFTs, and its link to the field activation of the mobility. Experimental evidence of the field activation of the mobility is given for disordered semiconductor based TFTs, when reducing the gate length. Saturation misbehavior is observed simultaneously. Advanced transport models have been implemented in a quasi-2D numerical TFT simulation software. From the numerical simulations it is clearly established that field activation of the mobility alone cannot explain the saturation misbehavior. Evidence is given that high longitudinal field gradient at the drain end of the channel is responsible for an excess charge accumulation, preventing saturation. The two combined effects allow reproducing the experimental output characteristics of short channel TFTs, with S-shaped characteristics and saturation failure.

Keywords: mobility field activation, numerical simulation, OTFT, saturation failure

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8366 Thermal Transformation and Structural on Se90Te7Cu3 Chalcogenide Glass

Authors: Farid M. Abdel-Rahim


In this study, Se90Te7Cu3 chalcogenide glass was prepared using the melt quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the as prepared samples was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Result of differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) under nonisothermal condition on composition bulk materials are reported and discussed. It shows that these glasses exhibit a single-stage glass transition and a single-stage crystallization on heating rates. The glass transition temperature (Tg), the onset crystallization (Tc), the crystallization temperature (Tp), were found by dependent on the composition and heating rates. Activation energy for glass transition (Et), activation energy of the amorphous –crystalline transformation (Ec), crystallization reaction rate constant (Kp), (n) and (m) are constants related to crystallization mechanism of the bulk samples have been determined by different formulations.

Keywords: chalcogenides, heat treatment, DSC, SEM, glass transition, thermal analysis

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8365 Effect of Removing Hub Domain on Human CaMKII Isoforms Sensitivity to Calcium/Calmodulin

Authors: Ravid Inbar


CaMKII (calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II) makes up 2% of the protein in our brain and has a critical role in memory formation and long-term potentiation of neurons. Despite this, research has yet to uncover the role of one of the domains on the activation of this kinase. The following proposes to express the protein without the hub domain in E. coli, leaving only the kinase and regulatory segment of the protein. Next, a series of kinase assays will be conducted to elucidate the role the hub domain plays on CaMKII sensitivity to calcium/calmodulin activation. The hub domain may be important for activation; however, it may also be a variety of domains working together to influence protein activation and not the hub alone. Characterization of a protein is critical to the future understanding of the protein's function, as well as for producing pharmacological targets in cases of patients with diseases.

Keywords: CaMKII, hub domain, kinase assays, kinase + reg seg

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8364 Drying Characteristics of Shrimp by Using the Traditional Method of Oven

Authors: I. A. Simsek, S. N. Dogan, A. S. Kipcak, E. Morodor Derun, N. Tugrul


In this study, the drying characteristics of shrimp are studied by using the traditional drying method of oven. Drying temperatures are selected between 60-80°C. Obtained experimental drying results are applied to eleven mathematical models of Alibas, Aghbashlo et al., Henderson and Pabis, Jena and Das, Lewis, Logaritmic, Midilli and Kucuk, Page, Parabolic, Wang and Singh and Weibull. The best model was selected as parabolic based on the highest coefficient of determination (R²) (0.999990 at 80°C) and the lowest χ² (0.000002 at 80°C), and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) (0.000976 at 80°C) values are compared to other models. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) values were calculated using the Fick’s second law’s cylindrical coordinate approximation and are found between 6.61×10⁻⁸ and 6.66×10⁻⁷ m²/s. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated using modified form of Arrhenius equation and is found as 18.315 kW/kg.

Keywords: activation energy, drying, effective moisture diffusivity, modelling, oven, shrimp

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8363 Evaluate the Kinetic Parameters and Characterize for Waste Prosopis juliflora Pods

Authors: Jean C. G. Silva, Kaline N. Ferreira, Rennio F. Sena, Flavio L. H. Silva


The Prosopis juliflora (called algaroba in Northeastern Region of Brazil) is a species of medium to large size that can reach 18 meters high, being typical of arid and semi-arid regions by to requirement less water to survive; this is a fundamental attribute from its adaptation. It's considered of multiple uses, because the trunk, the fruit, and the algaroba pods are utilized for several purposes, among them, the production of wood from lumber mill, charcoal, alcohol, animal and human consumption, being hence, a culture of economic and social value. The use of waste Prosopis juliflora can be carried out for like pyrolysis and gasification processes, in order to energy production in those regions where it is grown. Thus this study aims to characterize the residue of the algaroba pods and evaluate the kinetic parameters, activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential factor (k0), the devolatilization process through the data obtained from TG/DTG curves with different levels of heating rates. At work was used the heating rates of 5 K.min-1, 10 K.min-1, 15 K.min-1, 20 K.min-1 and 30 K.min-1, in inert nitrogen atmosphere (99.997%) under a flow of 40 ml.min-1. The kinetic parameters were obtained using the methods of Friedman and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall.

Keywords: activation energy, devolatilization, kinetic parameters, waste

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8362 Inhibitory Effects of PPARγ Ligand, KR-62980, on Collagen-Stimulated Platelet Activation

Authors: Su Bin Wang, Jin Hee Ahn, Tong-Shin Chang


The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are member of nuclear receptor superfamily that act as a ligand-activated transcription factors. Although platelets lack a nucleus, previous studies have shown that PPARγ agonists, rosiglitazone, inhibited platelet activation induced by collagen. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of KR-62980, a newly synthesized PPARγ agonist, on collagen receptor-stimulated platelet activation. The specific tyrosine phosphorylations of key components (Syk, Vav1, Btk and PLCγ2) for collagen receptor signaling pathways were suppressed by KR-62980. KR-62980 also attenuated downstream responses including cytosolic calcium elevation, P-selectin surface exposure, and integrin αIIbβ3 activation. PPARγ was found to associate with multiple proteins within the LAT signaling complex in collagen-stimulated platelets. This association was prevented by KR-62980, indicating a potential mechanism for PPARγ function in collagen-stimulated platelet activation. Furthermore, KR-62980 inhibited platelet aggregation and adhesion in response to collagen in vitro and prolonged in vivo thrombotic response in carotid arteries of mice. Collectively, these data suggest that KR-62980 inhibits collagen-stimulated platelet activation and thrombus formation through modulating the collagen receptor signaling pathways.

Keywords: KR-62980, PPARγ, antiplatelet, thrombosis

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8361 Ultrahigh Thermal Stability of Dielectric Permittivity in 0.6Bi(Mg₁/₂Ti₁/₂)O₃-0.4Ba₀.₈Ca₀.₂(Ti₀.₈₇₅Nb₀.₁₂₅)O₃

Authors: Kaiyuan Chena, Senentxu Lanceros-Méndeza, Laijun Liub, Qi Zhanga


0.6Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-0.4Ba0.8Ca0.2(Nb0.125Ti0.875)O3 (0.6BMT-0.4BCNT) ceramics with a pseudo-cubic structure and re-entrant dipole glass behavior have been investigated via X-ray diffraction and dielectric permittivity-temperature spectra. It shows an excellent dielectric-temperature stability with small variations of dielectric permittivity (± 5%, 420 - 802 K) and dielectric loss tangent (tanδ < 2.5%, 441 - 647 K) in a wide temperature range. Three dielectric anomalies are observed from 290 K to 1050 K. The low-temperature weakly coupled re-entrant relaxor behavior was described using Vogel-Fulcher law and the new glass model. The mid- and high-temperature dielectric anomalies are characterized by isothermal impedance and electrical modulus. The activation energy of both dielectric relaxation and conductivity follows the Arrhenius law in the temperature ranges of 633 - 753 K and 833 - 973 K, respectively. The ultrahigh thermal stability of the dielectric permittivity is attributed to the weakly coupling of polar clusters, the formation of diffuse phase transition (DPT) and the local phase transition of calcium-containing perovskite.

Keywords: permittivity, relaxor, electronic ceramics, activation energy

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8360 A Study on Energy-Saving Modular Housing Units Considering Environmental and Aesthetic Aspects

Authors: Jae Hee Chung, Tae Uk Kang, Byung Seo Kim


This study aims to propose design technologies for the energy-saving modular housing units considering environmental and aesthetic aspects. Modular houses are environmentally friendly based on 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) because they can dramatically reduce carbon dioxide and construction wastes generated during the construction, use, and disposal process by the pre-fabrication at the factory and the recyclability of the unit, compared to the existing construction methods. The existing modular housing, however, tends to focus on quantitative aspects of energy reduction, such as windows, insulation, and introduction of renewable energy, and there is not much research on energy-saving type units considering the environmental aspects such as daylighting and ventilation, and the design that goes beyond the standardized appearance. Therefore, this study conducts theoretical investigation and analytical case studies on the energy-saving methods through various architectural planning elements as well as materials like insulation considering the environmental and aesthetic aspects in the modular housing. Then, comparative analysis on the energy efficiency through the energy simulation is conducted. As a conclusion, the energy-saving modular housing units considering environmental and aesthetics aspects are proposed. It is expected that this study will contribute to the supply and activation of modular housing through deriving design technologies for the energy-saving modular housing units that consider not only quantitative aspects but also qualitative aspects.

Keywords: aesthetic aspects, energy-saving, environmental, modular housing

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8359 Determination of Material Constants and Zener-Hollomon Parameter of AA2017 Aluminium Alloy under Hot Compression Test

Authors: C. H. Shashikanth, M. J. Davidson, V. Suresh Babu


The formability of metals depends on a number of variables such as strain, strain rate, and temperature. Though most of the metals are formable at room temperature, few are not. To evaluate the workability of such metals at elevated temperatures, thermomechanical experiments should be carried out to find out the forming temperatures and strain rates. Though a number of constitutive relations are available to correlate the material parameters and the corresponding formability at elevated temperatures, the constitutive rule proposed by Arrhenius has been used in this work. Thus, in the present work, the material constants such as A (constant), α (stress multiplier), β (constant), and n (stress exponent) of AA 2017 has been found by conducting a series of hot compression tests at different temperatures such as 400°C, 450°C, 500°C, and 550°C and at different strain rates such as 0.16, 0.18, and 0.2. True stress (σt), true strains (εt) deformation activation energy (Q), and the Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z value) were also calculated. The results indicate that the value of ln (Z) decreases as the temperature increases and it increases as the strain rate increases.

Keywords: hot compression test, aluminium alloy, flow stress, activation energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 546