Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61

Search results for: VOCs

61 Analysis of the Volatile Organic Compounds of Tillandsia Flowers by HS-SPME/GC-MS

Authors: Alexandre Gonzalez, Zohra Benfodda, David Bénimélis, Jean-Xavier Fontaine, Roland Molinié, Patrick Meffre


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by flowers play an important role in plant ecology. However, the Tillandsia genus has been scarcely studied according to the VOCs emitted by flowers. Tillandsia are epiphytic flowering plants belonging to the Bromeliaceae family. The VOCs composition of twelve unscented and two faint-scented Tillandsia species was studied. The headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry method was used to explore the chemical diversity of the VOCs. This study allowed the identification of 65 VOCs among the fourteen species, and between six to twenty-five compounds were identified in each of the species.

Keywords: tillandsia, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), scentless flowers, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), PCA analysis, heatmap

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60 Quantifying Temporal Variation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Ozone Forming Potential at Rural Atmosphere in Delhi

Authors: Amit Kumar, Bhupendra Pratap Singh, Manoj Singh, Monika Punia, Krishan Kumar, V. K. Jain


Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in order to find out temporal variations and their ozone forming potentials (OFP) at rural site in Delhi National Capital Region during summer 2013. Sampling was performed for continuous five days, to identify the differences in working days and weekend VOCs concentration levels. Sampling and analytical procedure for VOCs were done using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard method. On each sampling day, VOCs samples were collected for 3-hours in the morning, afternoon and evening. There has been observed a noticeable contrast in the concentration of VOCs levels between working days and weekend. However, most of the VOCs showed diurnal fluctuations with higher concentrations in the morning and evening as compared to afternoon which might be due to change in meteorology. The results showed that mean toluene/benzene and m-/p-xylene/benzene ratios were higher in the afternoon while it was lower during morning and evening. The relative contribution of the VOCs to ozone formation, total propylene equivalent concentrations and OFP were calculated. Toluene was the most contributing organic contaminant to ozone formation as well as ambient VOCs concentrations. Results obtained in current study demonstrate that ozone formation at rural site in Delhi is probably limited by the emissions of VOCs.

Keywords: VOCs, rural, NIOSH, ozone forming potential, propylene equivalent concentration

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59 Relationship between Response of the Resistive Sensors on the Chosen Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Their Concentration

Authors: Marek Gancarz, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Robert Rusinek, Marcin Tadla


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the fungi metabolites in the gaseous form produced during improper storage of agricultural commodities (e.g. grain, food). The spoilt commodities produce a wide range of VOCs including alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, alkanes, alkenes, furans, phenols etc. The characteristic VOCs and odours can be determined by using electronic nose (e-Nose) which contains a matrix of different kinds of sensors e.g. resistive sensors. The aim of the present studies was to determine relationship between response of the resistive sensors on the chosen volatiles and their concentration. According to the literature, it was chosen volatiles characteristic for the cereals: ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and hexanal. Analysis of the sensor signals shows that a signal shape is different for the different substances. Moreover, each VOC signal gives information about a maximum of the normalized sensor response (R/Rmax), an impregnation time (tIM) and a cleaning time at half maximum of R/Rmax (tCL). These three parameters can be regarded as a ‘VOC fingerprint’. Seven resistive sensors (TGS2600-B00, TGS2602-B00, TGS2610-C00, TGS2611-C00, TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00, TGS2620-C00) produced by Figaro USA Inc., and one (AS-MLV-P2) produced by AMS AG, Austria were used. Two out of seven sensors (TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00) did not react to the chosen VOCs. The most responsive sensor was AS-MLV-P2. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.

Keywords: agricultural commodities, organic compounds, resistive sensors, volatile

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58 Diffusive Transport of VOCs Through Composite Liners

Authors: Christina Jery, R. K. Anjana, D. N. Arnepalli, R. Sobha


Modern landfills employ a composite liner consisting of a geomembrane overlying a compacted clay liner (CCL) or a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) as a barrier system. The primary function of a barrier system is to control the contaminant transport from the leachate (dissolved phase) and landfill gas (vapour phase) out of the landfill thereby minimizing the environmental impact. This study is undertaken to investigate the diffusive migration of VOCs through composite liners. VOCs are known hazardous air pollutants were often existing in both the vapour phase and dissolved phase. These compounds are known to diffuse readily through the polymeric geomembranes. The objective of the research is to develop a comprehensive data set of diffusive parameters involved in the diffusion of VOCs in the composite liner (1.5 mm HDPE geomembrane overlying a 30mm compacted clay layer). For this purpose, the study aims to develop a new experimental setup for determining the diffusion characteristics. The key parameters of diffusion (partitioning, diffusion and permeation coefficients) are examined. The diffusion tests are carried out both in aqueous and vapor phase. Finally, an attempt is also made to study the effect of low temperature on the diffusion characteristics.

Keywords: diffusion, sorption, organic compounds, composite liners, geomembrane

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57 Effect of Cabbage and Cauliflower Emitted Volatile Organic Compounds on Foraging Response of Plutella xylostella

Authors: Sumbul Farhat, Pratyay Vaibhav, Sarah Jain, Kapinder Kumar, Archna Kumar


The Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a major pest of cole crops that causes approximately 50% loss in global production. The utilization of inorganic pesticides is reflected in the development of resistance to this pest. Thus, there is a great need for an eco-friendly, sustainable strategy for the control of this pest. Although this pest, several natural enemies are reported worldwide, none of them can control it efficiently. Therefore, a proposed study is planned to understand the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) mediated signaling interaction mechanism of the plant, pest, and natural enemy. For VOCs collection during different deployment stages of Cabbage POI, Green Ball, Pusa Cabbage, Cabbage Local, Snowball 16, Kanchan Plus, Pusa Meghna, Farm Sona Hybrid F1, and Samridhi F1 Hybrid, the Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was employed. Characterization of VOCs was conducted by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The impact of collected VOCs was assessed through Y-Tube Bioassays. The results indicate that the Cabbage variety Green Ball shows maximum repellency for P. xylostella (-100%). The cues present in this variety may be exploited for efficient management of P. xylostella in the cole crop ecosystem.

Keywords: Plutella xylostella, cole crops, volatile organic compounds, GC-MS, Green Ball

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56 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCS) Destruction by Catalytic Oxidation for Environmental Applications

Authors: Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Edward Gobina


Pt/γ-Al2O3 membrane catalysts were prepared via an evaporative-crystallization deposition method. The obtained Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst activity was tested after characterization (SEM-EDAX observation, BET measurement, permeability assessment) in the catalytic oxidation of selected volatile organic compound (VOC) i.e. propane, fed in mixture of oxygen. The VOC conversion (nearly 90%) obtained by varying the operating temperature showed that flow-through membrane reactor might do better in the abatement of VOCs.

Keywords: VOC combustion, flow-through membrane reactor, platinum supported alumina catalysts

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55 Establishing a Surrogate Approach to Assess the Exposure Concentrations during Coating Process

Authors: Shan-Hong Ying, Ying-Fang Wang


A surrogate approach was deployed for assessing exposures of multiple chemicals at the selected working area of coating processes and applied to assess the exposure concentration of similar exposed groups using the same chemicals but different formula ratios. For the selected area, 6 to 12 portable photoionization detector (PID) were placed uniformly in its workplace to measure its total VOCs concentrations (CT-VOCs) for 6 randomly selected workshifts. Simultaneously, one sampling strain was placed beside one of these portable PIDs, and the collected air sample was analyzed for individual concentration (CVOCi) of 5 VOCs (xylene, butanone, toluene, butyl acetate, and dimethylformamide). Predictive models were established by relating the CT-VOCs to CVOCi of each individual compound via simple regression analysis. The established predictive models were employed to predict each CVOCi based on the measured CT-VOC for each the similar working area using the same portable PID. Results show that predictive models obtained from simple linear regression analyses were found with an R2 = 0.83~0.99 indicating that CT-VOCs were adequate for predicting CVOCi. In order to verify the validity of the exposure prediction model, the sampling analysis of the above chemical substances was further carried out and the correlation between the measured value (Cm) and the predicted value (Cp) was analyzed. It was found that there is a good correction between the predicted value and measured value of each measured chemical substance (R2=0.83~0.98). Therefore, the surrogate approach could be assessed the exposure concentration of similar exposed groups using the same chemicals but different formula ratios. However, it is recommended to establish the prediction model between the chemical substances belonging to each coater and the direct-reading PID, which is more representative of reality exposure situation and more accurately to estimate the long-term exposure concentration of operators.

Keywords: exposure assessment, exposure prediction model, surrogate approach, TVOC

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54 Toxicological Validation during the Development of New Catalytic Systems Using Air/Liquid Interface Cell Exposure

Authors: M. Al Zallouha, Y. Landkocz, J. Brunet, R. Cousin, J. M. Halket, E. Genty, P. J. Martin, A. Verdin, D. Courcot, S. Siffert, P. Shirali, S. Billet


Toluene is one of the most used Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the industry. Amongst VOCs, Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX) emitted into the atmosphere have a major and direct impact on human health. It is, therefore, necessary to minimize emissions directly at source. Catalytic oxidation is an industrial technique which provides remediation efficiency in the treatment of these organic compounds. However, during operation, the catalysts can release some compounds, called byproducts, more toxic than the original VOCs. The catalytic oxidation of a gas stream containing 1000ppm of toluene on Pd/α-Al2O3 can release a few ppm of benzene, according to the operating temperature of the catalyst. The development of new catalysts must, therefore, include chemical and toxicological validation phases. In this project, A549 human lung cells were exposed in air/liquid interface (Vitrocell®) to gas mixtures derived from the oxidation of toluene with a catalyst of Pd/α-Al2O3. Both exposure concentrations (i.e. 10 and 100% of catalytic emission) resulted in increased gene expression of Xenobiotics Metabolising Enzymes (XME) (CYP2E1 CYP2S1, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, EPHX1, and NQO1). Some of these XMEs are known to be induced by polycyclic organic compounds conventionally not searched during the development of catalysts for VOCs degradation. The increase in gene expression suggests the presence of undetected compounds whose toxicity must be assessed before the adoption of new catalyst. This enhances the relevance of toxicological validation of such systems before scaling-up and marketing.

Keywords: BTEX toxicity, air/liquid interface cell exposure, Vitrocell®, catalytic oxidation

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53 Chemical Study of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCS) from Xylopia aromatica (LAM.) Mart (Annonaceae)

Authors: Vanessa G. P. Severino, JOÃO Gabriel M. Junqueira, Michelle N. G. do Nascimento, Francisco W. B. Aquino, João B. Fernandes, Ana P. Terezan


The scientific interest in analyzing VOCs represents a significant modern research field as a result of importance in most branches of the present life and industry. Therefore it is extremely important to investigate, identify and isolate volatile substances, since they can be used in different areas, such as food, medicine, cosmetics, perfumery, aromatherapy, pesticides, repellents and other household products through methods for extracting volatile constituents, such as solid phase microextraction (SPME), hydrodistillation (HD), solvent extraction (SE), Soxhlet extraction, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), stream distillation (SD) and vacuum distillation (VD). The Chemometrics is an area of chemistry that uses statistical and mathematical tools for the planning and optimization of the experimental conditions, and to extract relevant chemical information multivariate chemical data. In this context, the focus of this work was the study of the chemical VOCs by SPME of the specie X. aromatica, in search of constituents that can be used in the industrial sector as well as in food, cosmetics and perfumery, since these areas industrial has a considerable role. In addition, by chemometric analysis, we sought to maximize the answers of this research, in order to search for the largest number of compounds. The investigation of flowers from X. aromatica in vitro and in alive mode proved consistent, but certain factors supposed influence the composition of metabolites, and the chemometric analysis strengthened the analysis. Thus, the study of the chemical composition of X. aromatica contributed to the VOCs knowledge of the species and a possible application.

Keywords: chemometrics, flowers, HS-SPME, Xylopia aromatica

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52 Removal of VOCs from Gas Streams with Double Perovskite-Type Catalyst

Authors: Kuan Lun Pan, Moo Been Chang


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one of major air contaminants, and they can react with nitrogen oxides (NOx) in atmosphere to form ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) with solar irradiation, leading to environmental hazards. In addition, some VOCs are toxic at low concentration levels and cause adverse effects on human health. How to effectively reduce VOCs emission has become an important issue. Thermal catalysis is regarded as an effective way for VOCs removal because it provides oxidation route to successfully convert VOCs into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O(g)). Single perovskite-type catalysts are promising for VOC removal, and they are of good potential to replace noble metals due to good activity and high thermal stability. Single perovskites can be generally described as ABO3 or A2BO4, where A-site is often a rare earth element or an alkaline. Typically, the B-site is transition metal cation (Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, or Mn). Catalytic properties of perovskites mainly rely on nature, oxidation states and arrangement of B-site cation. Interestingly, single perovskites could be further synthesized to form double perovskite-type catalysts which can simply be represented by A2B’B”O6. Likewise, A-site stands for an alkaline metal or rare earth element, and the B′ and B′′ are transition metals. Double perovskites possess unique surface properties. In structure, three-dimensional of B-site with ordered arrangement of B’O6 and B”O6 is presented alternately, and they corner-share octahedral along three directions of the crystal lattice, while cations of A-site position between the void of octahedral. It has attracted considerable attention due to specific arrangement of alternating B-site structure. Therefore, double perovskites may have more variations than single perovskites, and this greater variation may promote catalytic performance. It is expected that activity of double perovskites is higher than that of single perovskites toward VOC removal. In this study, double perovskite-type catalyst (La2CoMnO6) is prepared and evaluated for VOC removal. Also, single perovskites including LaCoO3 and LaMnO3 are tested for the comparison purpose. Toluene (C7H8) is one of the important VOCs which are commonly applied in chemical processes. In addition to its wide application, C7H8 has high toxicity at a low concentration. Therefore, C7H8 is selected as the target compound in this study. Experimental results indicate that double perovskite (La2CoMnO6) has better activity if compared with single perovskites. Especially, C7H8 can be completely oxidized to CO2 at 300oC as La2CoMnO6 is applied. Characterization of catalysts indicates that double perovskite has unique surface properties and is of higher amounts of lattice oxygen, leading to higher activity. For durability test, La2CoMnO6 maintains high C7H8 removal efficiency of 100% at 300oC and 30,000 h-1, and it also shows good resistance to CO2 (5%) and H2O(g) (5%) of gas streams tested. For various VOCs including isopropyl alcohol (C3H8O), ethanal (C2H4O), and ethylene (C2H4) tested, as high as 100% efficiency could be achieved with double perovskite-type catalyst operated at 300℃, indicating that double perovskites are promising catalysts for VOCs removal, and possible mechanisms will be elucidated in this paper.

Keywords: volatile organic compounds, Toluene (C7H8), double perovskite-type catalyst, catalysis

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51 Chemical Analysis of Particulate Matter (PM₂.₅) and Volatile Organic Compound Contaminants

Authors: S. Ebadzadsahraei, H. Kazemian


The main objective of this research was to measure particulate matter (PM₂.₅) and Volatile Organic Compound (VOCs) as two classes of air pollutants, at Prince George (PG) neighborhood in warm and cold seasons. To fulfill this objective, analytical protocols were developed for accurate sampling and measurement of the targeted air pollutants. PM₂.₅ samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (i.e., toxic trace elements) in order to assess their potential source of emission. The City of Prince George, widely known as the capital of northern British Columbia (BC), Canada, has been dealing with air pollution challenges for a long time. The city has several local industries including pulp mills, a refinery, and a couple of asphalt plants that are the primary contributors of industrial VOCs. In this research project, which is the first study of this kind in this region it measures physical and chemical properties of particulate air pollutants (PM₂.₅) at the city neighborhood. Furthermore, this study quantifies the percentage of VOCs at the city air samples. One of the outcomes of this project is updated data about PM₂.₅ and VOCs inventory in the selected neighborhoods. For examining PM₂.₅ chemical composition, an elemental analysis methodology was developed to measure major trace elements including but not limited to mercury and lead. The toxicity of inhaled particulates depends on both their physical and chemical properties; thus, an understanding of aerosol properties is essential for the evaluation of such hazards, and the treatment of such respiratory and other related diseases. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filters were selected for this research as a suitable filter for PM₂.₅ air sampling. Chemical analyses were conducted using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for elemental analysis. VOCs measurement of the air samples was performed using a Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) allowing for quantitative measurement of VOC molecules in sub-ppb levels. In this study, sorbent tube (Anasorb CSC, Coconut Charcoal), 6 x 70-mm size, 2 sections, 50/100 mg sorbent, 20/40 mesh was used for VOCs air sampling followed by using solvent extraction and solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) techniques to prepare samples for measuring by a GC-MS/FID instrument. Air sampling for both PM₂.₅ and VOC were conducted in summer and winter seasons for comparison. Average concentrations of PM₂.₅ are very different between wildfire and daily samples. At wildfire time average of concentration is 83.0 μg/m³ and daily samples are 23.7 μg/m³. Also, higher concentrations of iron, nickel and manganese found at all samples and mercury element is found in some samples. It is able to stay too high doses negative effects.

Keywords: air pollutants, chemical analysis, particulate matter (PM₂.₅), volatile organic compound, VOCs

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50 Batch and Fixed-Bed Studies of Ammonia Treated Coconut Shell Activated Carbon for Adsorption of Benzene and Toluene

Authors: Jibril Mohammed, Usman Dadum Hamza, Muhammad Idris Misau, Baba Yahya Danjuma, Yusuf Bode Raji, Abdulsalam Surajudeen


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been reported to be responsible for many acute and chronic health effects and environmental degradations such as global warming. In this study, a renewable and low-cost coconut shell activated carbon (PHAC) was synthesized and treated with ammonia (PHAC-AM) to improve its hydrophobicity and affinity towards VOCs. Removal efficiencies and adsorption capacities of the ammonia treated activated carbon (PHAC-AM) for benzene and toluene were carried out through batch and fixed-bed studies respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption isotherms were tested for the adsorption process and the experimental data were best fitted by Langmuir model and least fitted by Tempkin model; the favourability and suitability of fitness were validated by equilibrium parameter (RL) and the root square mean deviation (RSMD). Judging by the deviation of the predicted values from the experimental values, pseudo-second-order kinetic model best described the adsorption kinetics than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model for the two VOCs on PHAC and PHAC-AM. In the fixed-bed study, the effect of initial VOC concentration, bed height and flow rate on benzene and toluene adsorption were studied. The highest bed capacities of 77.30 and 69.40 mg/g were recorded for benzene and toluene respectively; at 250 mg/l initial VOC concentration, 2.5 cm bed height and 4.5 ml/min flow rate. The results of this study revealed that ammonia treated activate carbon (PHAC-AM) is a sustainable adsorbent for treatment of VOCs in polluted waters.

Keywords: volatile organic compounds, equilibrium and kinetics studies, batch and fixed bed study, bio-based activated carbon

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49 Approach to Honey Volatiles' Profiling by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Igor Jerkovic


Biodiversity of flora provides many different nectar sources for the bees. Unifloral honeys possess distinctive flavours, mainly derived from their nectar sources (characteristic volatile organic components (VOCs)). Specific or nonspecific VOCs (chemical markers) could be used for unifloral honey characterisation as addition to the melissopalynologycal analysis. The main honey volatiles belong, in general, to three principal categories: terpenes, norisoprenoids, and benzene derivatives. Some of these substances have been described as characteristics of the floral source, and other compounds, like several alcohols, branched aldehydes, and furan derivatives, may be related to the microbial purity of honey processing and storage conditions. Selection of the extraction method for the honey volatiles profiling should consider that heating of the honey produce different artefacts and therefore conventional methods of VOCs isolation (such as hydrodistillation) cannot be applied for the honey. Two-way approach for the isolation of the honey VOCs was applied using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). HS-SPME (with the fibers of different polarity such as polydimethylsiloxane/ divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) or divinylbenzene/carboxene/ polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS)) enabled isolation of high volatile headspace VOCs of the honey samples. Among them, some characteristic or specific compounds can be found such as 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan (in Centaurea cyanus L. honey) or 1H-indole, methyl anthranilate, and cis-jasmone (in Citrus unshiu Marc. honey). USE with different solvents (mainly dichloromethane or the mixture pentane : diethyl ether 1 : 2 v/v) enabled isolation of less volatile and semi-volatile VOCs of the honey samples. Characteristic compounds from C. unshiu honey extracts were caffeine, 1H-indole, 1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one, methyl anthranilate, and phenylacetonitrile. Sometimes, the selection of solvent sequence was useful for more complete profiling such as sequence I: pentane → diethyl ether or sequence II: pentane → pentane/diethyl ether (1:2, v/v) → dichloromethane). The extracts with diethyl ether contained hydroquinone and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as the major compounds, while (E)-4-(r-1’,t-2’,c-4’-trihydroxy-2’,6’,6’-trimethylcyclo-hexyl)but-3-en-2-one predominated in dichloromethane extracts of Allium ursinum L. honey. With this two-way approach, it was possible to obtain a more detailed insight into the honey volatile and semi-volatile compounds and to minimize the risks of compound discrimination due to their partial extraction that is of significant importance for the complete honey profiling and identification of the chemical biomarkers that can complement the pollen analysis.

Keywords: honey chemical biomarkers, honey volatile compounds profiling, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE)

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48 Alumina Supported Copper-Manganese Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases: Effect of Preparation Method

Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Elitsa Kolentsova, Dimitar Dimitrov


The development of active and stable catalysts without noble metals for low temperature oxidation of exhaust gases remains a significant challenge. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of the preparation method on the catalytic activity of the supported copper-manganese mixed oxides in terms of VOCs oxidation. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of γ-Al2O3 with copper and manganese nitrates and acetates and the possibilities for CO, CH3OH and dimethyl ether (DME) oxidation were evaluated using continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Effect of the support, Cu/Mn mole ratio, heat treatment of the precursor and active component loading were investigated. Highly active alumina supported Cu-Mn catalysts for CO and VOCs oxidation were synthesized. The effect of preparation conditions on the activity behavior of the catalysts was discussed. The synergetic interaction between copper and manganese species increases the activity for complete oxidation over mixed catalysts. Type of support, calcination temperature and active component loading along with catalyst composition are important factors, determining catalytic activity. Cu/Mn molar ratio of 1:5, heat treatment at 450oC and 20 % active component loading are the best compromise for production of active catalyst for simultaneous combustion of CO, CH3OH and DME.

Keywords: copper-manganese catalysts, CO, VOCs oxidation, exhaust gases

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47 Wireworms under the Sword of Damocles: Attraction to Maize Root Volatiles

Authors: Diana La Forgia, Jean Baptiste Thibord, François Verheggen


Volatiles Organic Compound (VOCs) are one of the many features of defense used by plants in their eternal fight against pests. Their main role is to attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. But on another hand, they can be used by the same herbivores to locate plants while foraging. In an attempt to fill a gap of knowledge in a complex web of interactions, we focused on wireworms (Coleoptera:Elateridae). Wireworms whose larvae feed on roots are one of the most spread pests of valuable crops such as maize and potatoes, causing important economical damage. Little is known about the root compounds that are playing a role in the attraction of the larvae. In order to know more about these compounds, we compared four different maize varieties (Zea mays mays) that are known to have different levels of attraction, from weak to strong, for wireworms in fields. We tested the attraction of larvae in laboratory conditions in dual-choice olfactometer assays where they were offered all possible combinations of the four maize varieties. Contemporary, we collected the VOCs of each variety during 24h using a push-and-pull system. The collected samples were then analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to identify their molecular profiles. The choice of the larvae was dependent on the offered combination and some varieties were preferred to others. Differences were also observed in terms of quantitative and qualitative emissions of volatile profiles between the maize varieties. Our aim is to develop traps based on VOCs from maize roots to open a new frontier in wireworms management.

Keywords: integrated pest management, maize roots, plant defense, volatile organic compounds, wireworms

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46 Indoor Air Assessment and Health Risk of Volatile Organic Compounds in Secondary School Classrooms in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Osayomwanbor E. Oghama, John O. Olomukoro


The school environment, apart from home, is probably the most important indoor environment for children. Children spend as much as 80-90% of their indoor time either at school or at home; an average of 35 - 40 hours per week in schools, hence are at the risk of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Concentrations of VOCs vary widely but are generally higher indoors than outdoors. This research was, therefore, carried out to evaluate the levels of VOCs in secondary school classrooms in Benin City, Edo State. Samples were obtained from a total of 18 classrooms in 6 secondary schools. Samples were collected 3 times from each school and from 3 different classrooms in each school using Draeger ORSA 5 tubes. Samplers were left to stay for a school-week (5 days). The VOCs detected and analyzed were benzene, ethlybenzene, isopropylbenzene, naphthalene, n-butylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, chlorobenzene, chloroform, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2,2-dichloropropane, tetrachloroethane, tetrahydrofuran, isopropyl acetate, α-pinene, and camphene. The results showed that chloroform, o-xylene, and styrene were the most abundant while α-pinene and camphene were the least abundant. The health risk assessment was done in terms of carcinogenic (CRI) and non-carcinogenic risks (THR). The CRI values of the schools ranged from 1.03 × 10-5 to 1.36 × 10-5 μg/m³ (a mean of 1.16 × 10-5 μg/m³) with School 6 and School 3 having the highest and lowest values respectively. The THR values of the study schools ranged from 0.071-0.086 μg/m³ (a mean of 0.078 μg/m³) with School 3 and School 2 having the highest and lowest values respectively. The results show that all the schools pose a potential carcinogenic risks having CRI values greater than the recommended limit of 1 × 10-6 µg/m³ and no non-carcinogenic risk having THR values less than the USEPA hazard quotient of 1 µg/m³. It is recommended that school authorities should ensure adequate ventilation in their schools, supplementing natural ventilation with mechanical sources, where necessary. In addition, indoor air quality should be taken into consideration in the design and construction of classrooms.

Keywords: carcinogenic risk indicator, health risk, indoor air, non-carcinogenic risk indicator, secondary schools, volatile organic compounds

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45 Volatile Organic Compounds from Decomposition of Local Food Waste and Potential Health Risk

Authors: Siti Rohana Mohd Yatim, Ku Halim Ku Hamid, Kamariah Noor Ismail, Zulkifli Abdul Rashid


The aim of this study is to investigate odour emission profiles from storage of food waste and to assess the potential health risk caused by exposure to volatile compounds. Food waste decomposition process was conducted for 14 days and kept at 20°C and 30°C in self-made bioreactor. VOCs emissions from both samples were collected at different stages of decomposition starting at day 0, day 1, day 3, day 5, day 7, day 10, day 12 and day 14. It was analyzed using TD-GC/MS. Findings showed that various VOCs were released during decomposition of food waste. Compounds produced were influenced by time, temperature and the physico-chemical characteristics of the compounds. The most abundant compound released was dimethyl disulfide. Potential health risk of exposure to this compound is represented by hazard ratio, HR, calculated at 1.6 x 1011. Since HR equal to or less than 1.0 is considered negligible risk, this indicates that the compound posed a potential risk to human health.

Keywords: volatile organic compounds, decomposition process, food waste, health risk

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44 Optimization and Validation for Determination of VOCs from Lime Fruit Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) with and without California Red Scale Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) Infested by Using HS-SPME-GC-FID/MS

Authors: K. Mohammed, M. Agarwal, J. Mewman, Y. Ren


An optimum technic has been developed for extracting volatile organic compounds which contribute to the aroma of lime fruit (Citrus aurantifolia). The volatile organic compounds of healthy and infested lime fruit with California red scale Aonidiella aurantii were characterized using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography (GC) coupled flame ionization detection (FID) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a very simple, efficient and nondestructive extraction method. A three-phase 50/30 μm PDV/DVB/CAR fibre was used for the extraction process. The optimal sealing and fibre exposure time for volatiles reaching equilibrium from whole lime fruit in the headspace of the chamber was 16 and 4 hours respectively. 5 min was selected as desorption time of the three-phase fibre. Herbivorous activity induces indirect plant defenses, as the emission of herbivorous-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), which could be used by natural enemies for host location. GC-MS analysis showed qualitative differences among volatiles emitted by infested and healthy lime fruit. The GC-MS analysis allowed the initial identification of 18 compounds, with similarities higher than 85%, in accordance with the NIST mass spectral library. One of these were increased by A. aurantii infestation, D-limonene, and three were decreased, Undecane, α-Farnesene and 7-epi-α-selinene. From an applied point of view, the application of the above-mentioned VOCs may help boost the efficiency of biocontrol programs and natural enemies’ production techniques.

Keywords: lime fruit, Citrus aurantifolia, California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii, VOCs, HS-SPME/GC-FID-MS

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43 Effect of the Nature of the Precursor on the Performance of Cu-Mn Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Elitsa Kolentsova, Dimitar Dimitrov, Krasimir Ivanov


The catalytic oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde is an important industrial process in which the waste gas in addition to CO contains methanol and dimethyl ether (DME). Evaluation of the possibility of removing the harmful components from the exhaust gasses needs a more complex investigation. Our previous work indicates that supported Cu-Mn oxide catalysts are promising for effective deep oxidation of these compounds. This work relates to the catalyst, comprising copper-manganese spinel, coated on carrier γ-Al₂O₃. The effect of preparation conditions on the active component composition and activity behavior of the catalysts is discussed. Different organometallic compounds on the base of four natural amino acids (Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine) as precursors were used for the preparation of catalysts with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5. X-Ray and TEM analysis were performed on the catalyst’s bulk, and surface composition and the specific surface area was determined by BET method. The results obtained show that the activity of the catalysts increase up to 40% although there are some specific features, depending on the nature of the amino acid and the oxidized compound.

Keywords: Cu-Mn/γ-Al₂O₃, CO and VOCs oxidation, heterogeneous catalysis, amino acids

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42 Ordered Mesoporous WO₃-TiO₂ Nanocomposites for Enhanced Xylene Gas Detection

Authors: Vijay K. Tomer, Ritu Malik, Satya P. Nehra, Anshu Sharma


Highly ordered mesoporous WO₃-TiO₂ nanohybrids with large intrinsic surface area and highly ordered pore channels were synthesized using mesoporous silica, KIT-6 as hard template using a nanocasting strategy. The nanohybrid samples were characterized by a variety of physico-chemical techniques including X-ray diffraction, Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, and high resolution transmission electron microscope. The nanohybrids were tested for detection of important indoor Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) including acetone, ethanol, n-butanol, toluene, and xylene. The sensing result illustrates that the nanocomposite sensor was highly responsive towards xylene gas at relatively lower operating temperature. A rapid response and recovery time, highly linear response and excellent stability in the concentration ranges from 1 to 100 ppm was observed for xylene gas. It is believed that the promising results of this study can be utilized in the synthesis of ordered mesoporous nanostructures which can extend its configuration for the development of new age e-nose type sensors with enhanced gas-sensing performance.

Keywords: nanohybrids, response, sensor, VOCs, xylene

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41 TiO₂ Nanotube Array Based Selective Vapor Sensors for Breath Analysis

Authors: Arnab Hazra


Breath analysis is a quick, noninvasive and inexpensive technique for disease diagnosis can be used on people of all ages without any risk. Only a limited number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be associated with the occurrence of specific diseases. These VOCs can be considered as disease markers or breath markers. Selective detection with specific concentration of breath marker in exhaled human breath is required to detect a particular disease. For example, acetone (C₃H₆O), ethanol (C₂H₅OH), ethane (C₂H₆) etc. are the breath markers and abnormal concentrations of these VOCs in exhaled human breath indicates the diseases like diabetes mellitus, renal failure, breast cancer respectively. Nanomaterial-based vapor sensors are inexpensive, small and potential candidate for the detection of breath markers. In practical measurement, selectivity is the most crucial issue where trace detection of breath marker is needed to identify accurately in the presence of several interfering vapors and gases. Current article concerns a novel technique for selective and lower ppb level detection of breath markers at very low temperature based on TiO₂ nanotube array based vapor sensor devices. Highly ordered and oriented TiO₂ nanotube array was synthesized by electrochemical anodization of high purity tatinium (Ti) foil. 0.5 wt% NH₄F, ethylene glycol and 10 vol% H₂O was used as the electrolyte and anodization was carried out for 90 min with 40 V DC potential. Au/TiO₂ Nanotube/Ti, sandwich type sensor device was fabricated for the selective detection of VOCs in low concentration range. Initially, sensor was characterized where resistive and capacitive change of the sensor was recorded within the valid concentration range for individual breath markers (or organic vapors). Sensor resistance was decreased and sensor capacitance was increased with the increase of vapor concentration. Now, the ratio of resistive slope (mR) and capacitive slope (mC) provided a concentration independent constant term (M) for a particular vapor. For the detection of unknown vapor, ratio of resistive change and capacitive change at any concentration was same to the previously calculated constant term (M). After successful identification of the target vapor, concentration was calculated from the straight line behavior of resistance as a function of concentration. Current technique is suitable for the detection of particular vapor from a mixture of other interfering vapors.

Keywords: breath marker, vapor sensors, selective detection, TiO₂ nanotube array

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40 Flexible Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer Nanofibers Decorated with Ag Nanoparticles as Effective 3D Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates

Authors: Yi Li, Rui Lu, Lianjun Wang


With the rapid development of chemical industry, the consumption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has increased extensively. In the process of VOCs production and application, plenty of them have been transferred to environment. As a result, it has led to pollution problems not only in soil and ground water but also to human beings. Thus, it is important to develop a sensitive and cost-effective analytical method for trace VOCs detection in environment. Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS), as one of the most sensitive optical analytical technique with rapid response, pinpoint accuracy and noninvasive detection, has been widely used for ultratrace analysis. Based on the plasmon resonance on the nanoscale metallic surface, SERS technology can even detect single molecule due to abundant nanogaps (i.e. 'hot spots') on the nanosubstrate. In this work, a self-supported flexible silver nitrate (AgNO3)/ethylene-propylene copolymer (EPM) hybrid nanofibers was fabricated by electrospinning. After an in-situ chemical reduction using ice-cold sodium borohydride as reduction agent, numerous silver nanoparticles were formed on the nanofiber surface. By adjusting the reduction time and AgNO3 content, the morphology and dimension of silver nanoparticles could be controlled. According to the principles of solid-phase extraction, the hydrophobic substance is more likely to partition into the hydrophobic EPM membrane in an aqueous environment while water and other polar components are excluded from the analytes. By the enrichment of EPM fibers, the number of hydrophobic molecules located on the 'hot spots' generated from criss-crossed nanofibers is greatly increased, which further enhances SERS signal intensity. The as-prepared Ag/EPM hybrid nanofibers were first employed to detect common SERS probe molecule (p-aminothiophenol) with the detection limit down to 10-12 M, which demonstrated an excellent SERS performance. To further study the application of the fabricated substrate for monitoring hydrophobic substance in water, several typical VOCs, such as benzene, toluene and p-xylene, were selected as model compounds. The results showed that the characteristic peaks of these target analytes in the mixed aqueous solution could be distinguished even at a concentration of 10-6 M after multi-peaks gaussian fitting process, including C-H bending (850 cm-1), C-C ring stretching (1581 cm-1, 1600 cm-1) of benzene, C-H bending (844 cm-1 ,1151 cm-1), C-C ring stretching (1001 cm-1), CH3 bending vibration (1377 cm-1) of toluene, C-H bending (829 cm-1), C-C stretching (1614 cm-1) of p-xylene. The SERS substrate has remarkable advantages which combine the enrichment capacity from EPM and the Raman enhancement of Ag nanoparticles. Meanwhile, the huge specific surface area resulted from electrospinning is benificial to increase the number of adsoption sites and promotes 'hot spots' formation. In summary, this work provides powerful potential in rapid, on-site and accurate detection of trace VOCs using a portable Raman.

Keywords: electrospinning, ethylene-propylene copolymer, silver nanoparticles, SERS, VOCs

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39 Alumina Supported Cu-Mn-La Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Petya Cv. Petrova, Georgi V. Avdeev, Diana D. Nihtianova, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Tatyana T. Tabakova


Recently, copper and manganese-containing systems are recognized as active and selective catalysts in many oxidation reactions. The main idea of this study is to obtain more information about γ-Al2O3 supported Cu-La catalysts and to evaluate their activity to simultaneous oxidation of CO, CH3OH and dimethyl ether (DME). The catalysts were synthesized by impregnation of support with a mixed aqueous solution of nitrates of copper, manganese and lanthanum under different conditions. XRD, HRTEM/EDS, TPR and thermal analysis were performed to investigate catalysts’ bulk and surface properties. The texture characteristics were determined by Quantachrome Instruments NOVA 1200e specific surface area and pore analyzer. The catalytic measurements of single compounds oxidation were carried out on continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor in a wide temperature range. On the basis of XRD analysis and HRTEM/EDS, it was concluded that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-La/γ–alumina catalysts strongly depends on the Cu/Mn molar ratio and consisted of at least four compounds – CuO, La2O3, MnO2 and Cu1.5Mn1.5O4. A homogeneous distribution of the active component on the carrier surface was found. The chemical composition strongly influenced catalytic properties. This influence was quite variable with regards to the different processes.

Keywords: Cu-Mn-La oxide catalysts, carbon oxide, VOCs, deep oxidation

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38 Impact of Ozone Produced by Vehicular Emission on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Authors: Mohd Kamil Vakil


Air Pollution is caused by the introduction of chemicals in the biosphere. Primary pollutants on reaction with the components of the earth produce Secondary Pollutants like Smog. Ozone is the main ingredient of Smog. The ground level ozone is created by the chemical reactions between Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the presence of Sunlight. This ozone can enter inside and call as indoor ozone. The automobile emissions in both moving and idling conditions contribute to the indoor ozone formation. During engine ignition and shutdown, motor vehicles emit the ozone forming pollutants like NOx and VOCs, and the phenomena are called Cold Start and Hot-Soak respectively. Subjects like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma associated with chronic respiratory diseases are susceptible to the harmful effects of Indoor Ozone. The most common cause of COPD other than smoking is the long-term contract with harmful pollutants like ground-level ozone. It is estimated by WHO that COPD will become the third leading cause of all deaths worldwide by 2030. In this paper, the cold-start and hot-soak vehicle emissions are studied in the context of accumulation of oxides of nitrogen at the outer walls of the building which may cause COPD. The titanium oxide coated building material is further discussed as an absorber of NOx when applied to the walls and roof.

Keywords: indoor air quality, cold start emission, hot-soak, ozone

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37 Potassium Acetate - Coconut Shell Activated Carbon for Adsorption of Benzene and Toluene: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies

Authors: Jibril Mohammed, Usman Dadum Hamza, Abdulsalam Surajudeen, Baba Yahya Danjuma


Considerable concerns have been raised over the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water. In this study, coconut shell based activated carbon was produced through chemical activation with potassium acetate (PAAC) for adsorption of benzene and toluene. The porous carbons were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), proximate analysis, and ultimate analysis and nitrogen adsorption tests. Adsorption of benzene and toluene on the porous carbons were conducted at varying concentrations (50-250 mg/l). The high BET surface area of 622 m2/g and highly heteroporous adsorbent prepared gave good removal efficiencies of 79 and 82% for benzene and toluene respectively, with 32% yield. Equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms with all the models having R2 > 0.94. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm, with maximum adsorption capacity of 192 mg/g and 227 mg/g for benzene and toluene respectively. The Webber and Chakkravorti equilibrium parameter (RL) values are between 0 and 1 confirming the favourability of the Langmuir model. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The PAAC produced can be used effectively to salvage environmental pollution problems posed by VOCs through a sustainable process.

Keywords: adsorption, equilibrium and kinetics studies, potassium acetate, water treatment

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36 Alumina Supported Copper-manganese Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases: Catalysts Characterization

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Georgi V. Avdeev, Tatyana T. Tabakova


In recent research copper and manganese systems were found to be the most active in CO and organic compounds oxidation among the base catalysts. The mixed copper manganese oxide has been widely studied in oxidation reactions because of their higher activity at low temperatures in comparison with single oxide catalysts. The results showed that the formation of spinel CuxMn3−xO4 in the oxidized catalyst is responsible for the activity even at room temperature. That is why most of the investigations are focused on the hopcalite catalyst (CuMn2O4) as the best copper-manganese catalyst. Now it’s known that this is true only for CO oxidation, but not for mixture of CO and VOCs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the alumina supported copper-manganese catalysts with different Cu/Mn molar ratio in terms of oxidation of CO, methanol and dimethyl ether. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of γ-Al2O3 with copper and manganese nitrates and the catalytic activity measurements were carried out in continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Gas mixtures on the input and output of the reactor were analyzed with a gas chromatograph, equipped with FID and TCD detectors. The texture characteristics were determined by low-temperature (- 196 oС) nitrogen adsorption in a Quantachrome Instruments NOVA 1200e (USA) specific surface area&pore analyzer. Thermal, XRD and TPR analyses were performed. It was established that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn/γ–alumina catalysts strongly depends on the Cu/Mn molar ratio. Highly active alumina supported Cu-Mn catalysts for CO, methanol and DME oxidation were synthesized. While the hopcalite is the best catalyst for CO oxidation, the best compromise for simultaneous oxidation of all components is the catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5.

Keywords: supported copper-manganese catalysts, CO, VOCs oxidation, combustion of exhaust gases

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35 Structure-Activity Relationship of Gold Catalysts on Alumina Supported Cu-Ce Oxides for CO and Volatile Organic Compound Oxidation

Authors: Tatyana T. Tabakova, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Yordanka G. Karakirova, Petya Cv. Petrova, Georgi V. Avdeev


The catalytic oxidation of CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is considered as one of the most efficient ways to reduce harmful emissions from various chemical industries. The effectiveness of gold-based catalysts for many reactions of environmental significance was proven during the past three decades. The aim of this work was to combine the favorable features of Au and Cu-Ce mixed oxides in the design of new catalytic materials of improved efficiency and economic viability for removal of air pollutants in waste gases from formaldehyde production. Supported oxides of copper and cerium with Cu: Ce molar ratio 2:1 and 1:5 were prepared by wet impregnation of g-alumina. Gold (2 wt.%) catalysts were synthesized by a deposition-precipitation method. Catalysts characterization was carried out by texture measurements, powder X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The catalytic activity in the oxidation of CO, CH3OH and (CH3)2O was measured using continuous flow equipment with fixed bed reactor. Both Cu-Ce/alumina samples demonstrated similar catalytic behavior. The addition of gold caused significant enhancement of CO and methanol oxidation activity (100 % degree of CO and CH3OH conversion at about 60 and 140 oC, respectively). The composition of Cu-Ce mixed oxides affected the performance of gold-based samples considerably. Gold catalyst on Cu-Ce/γ-Al2O3 1:5 exhibited higher activity for CO and CH3OH oxidation in comparison with Au on Cu-Ce/γ-Al2O3 2:1. The better performance of Au/Cu-Ce 1:5 was related to the availability of highly dispersed gold particles and copper oxide clusters in close contact with ceria.

Keywords: CO and VOCs oxidation, copper oxide, Ceria, gold catalysts

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34 Mordenite as Catalyst Support for Complete Volatile Organic Compounds Oxidation

Authors: Yuri A. Kalvachev, Totka D. Todorova


Zeolite mordenite has been investigated as a transition metal support for the preparation of efficient catalysts in the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The highly crystalline mordenite samples were treated with hydrofluoric acid and ammonium fluoride to get hierarchical material with secondary porosity. The obtained supports by this method have a high active surface area, good diffusion properties and prevent the extraction of metal components during catalytic reactions. The active metal phases platinum and copper were loaded by impregnation on both mordenite materials (parent and acid treated counterparts). Monometalic Pt and Cu, and bimetallic Pt/Cu catalysts were obtained. The metal phases were fine dispersed as nanoparticles on the functional porous materials. The catalysts synthesized in this way were investigated in the reaction of complete oxidation of propane and benzene. Platinum, copper and platinum/copper were loaded and there catalytic activity was investigated and compared. All samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron measurements (XPS) and temperature programed reduction (TPR). The catalytic activity of the samples obtained is investigated in the reaction of complete oxidation of propane and benzene by using of Gas Chromatography (GC). The oxidation of three organic molecules was investigated—methane, propane and benzene. The activity of metal loaded mordenite catalysts for methane oxidation is almost the same for parent and treated mordenite as a support. For bigger molecules as propane and benzene, the activity of catalysts based on treated mordenite is higher than those based on parent zeolite.

Keywords: metal loaded catalysts, mordenite, VOCs oxidation, zeolites

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33 The Impact of HKUST-1 Metal-Organic Framework Pretreatment on Dynamic Acetaldehyde Adsorption

Authors: M. François, L. Sigot, C. Vallières


Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are a real health issue, particularly in domestic indoor environments. Among these VOCs, acetaldehyde is frequently monitored in dwellings ‘air, especially due to smoking and spontaneous emissions from the new wall and soil coverings. It is responsible for respiratory complaints and is classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. Adsorption processes are commonly used to remove VOCs from the air. Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are a promising type of material for high adsorption performance. These hybrid porous materials composed of metal inorganic clusters and organic ligands are interesting thanks to their high porosity and surface area. The HKUST-1 (also referred to as MOF-199) is a copper-based MOF with the formula [Cu₃(BTC)₂(H₂O)₃]n (BTC = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) and exhibits unsaturated metal sites that can be attractive sites for adsorption. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of HKUST-1 pretreatment on acetaldehyde adsorption. Thus, dynamic adsorption experiments were conducted in 1 cm diameter glass column packed with 2 cm MOF bed height. MOF were sieved to 630 µm - 1 mm. The feed gas (Co = 460 ppmv ± 5 ppmv) was obtained by diluting a 1000 ppmv acetaldehyde gas cylinder in air. The gas flow rate was set to 0.7 L/min (to guarantee a suitable linear velocity). Acetaldehyde concentration was monitored online by gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Breakthrough curves must allow to understand the interactions between the MOF and the pollutant as well as the impact of the HKUST-1 humidity in the adsorption process. Consequently, different MOF water content conditions were tested, from a dry material with 7 % water content (dark blue color) to water saturated state with approximately 35 % water content (turquoise color). The rough material – without any pretreatment – containing 30 % water serves as a reference. First, conclusions can be drawn from the comparison of the evolution of the ratio of the column outlet concentration (C) on the inlet concentration (Co) as a function of time for different HKUST-1 pretreatments. The shape of the breakthrough curves is significantly different. The saturation of the rough material is slower (20 h to reach saturation) than that of the dried material (2 h). However, the breakthrough time defined for C/Co = 10 % appears earlier in the case of the rough material (0.75 h) compared to the dried HKUST-1 (1.4 h). Another notable difference is the shape of the curve before the breakthrough at 10 %. An abrupt increase of the outlet concentration is observed for the material with the lower humidity in comparison to a smooth increase for the rough material. Thus, the water content plays a significant role on the breakthrough kinetics. This study aims to understand what can explain the shape of the breakthrough curves associated to the pretreatments of HKUST-1 and which mechanisms take place in the adsorption process between the MOF, the pollutant, and the water.

Keywords: acetaldehyde, dynamic adsorption, HKUST-1, pretreatment influence

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32 Combining Transcriptomics, Bioinformatics, Biosynthesis Networks and Chromatographic Analyses for Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. Defense Volatiles Study

Authors: Ronald Villamar-Torres, Michael Staudt, Christopher Viot


Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. is one of the most important industrial crops, producing the world leading natural textile fiber, but is very prone to arthropod attacks that reduce crop yield and quality. Cotton cultivation, therefore, makes an outstanding use of chemical pesticides. In reaction to herbivorous arthropods, cotton plants nevertheless show natural defense reactions, in particular through volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. These natural defense mechanisms are nowadays underutilized but have a very high potential for cotton cultivation, and elucidating their genetic bases will help to improve their use. Simulating herbivory attacks by mechanical wounding of cotton plants in greenhouse, we studied by qPCR the changes in gene expression for genes of the terpenoids biosynthesis pathway. Differentially expressed genes corresponded to higher levels of the terpenoids biosynthesis pathway and not to enzymes synthesizing particular terpenoids. The genes were mapped on the G. hirsutum L. reference genome; their global relationships inside the general metabolic pathways and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were visualized with iPath2. The chromatographic profiles of VOCs emissions indicated first monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes emissions, dominantly four molecules known to be involved in plant reactions to arthropod attacks. As a result, the study permitted to identify potential key genes for the emission of volatile terpenoids by cotton plants in reaction to an arthropod attack, opening possibilities for molecular-assisted cotton breeding in benefit of smallholder cotton growers.

Keywords: biosynthesis pathways, cotton, mechanisms of plant defense, terpenoids, volatile organic compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 173